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Encyclopedia > Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt

In office
October 21, 1969 – May 7, 1974
President Gustav Heinemann
Preceded by Kurt Georg Kiesinger
Succeeded by Helmut Schmidt

9th President of the Bundesrat
In office
1957 – 1958
President Theodor Heuss
Preceded by Kurt Sieveking
Succeeded by Wilhelm Kaisen

In office
December 1, 1966 – October 21, 1969
Preceded by Hans-Christoph Seebohm
Succeeded by Walter Scheel

In office
December 1, 1966 – October 20, 1969
Preceded by Gerhard Schröder
Succeeded by Walter Scheel

In office
1957 – 1966
Preceded by Otto Suhr
Succeeded by Heinrich Albertz

Born December 18, 1913(1913-12-18)
Died October 8, 1992 (aged 78)
Political party SPD
Occupation Worker, Journalist, Lecturer, Activist
Religion Protestant

Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992), was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 490 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1080 × 1320 pixel, file size: 140 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Date 1961 Mar. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Gustav Walter Heinemann (July 23, 1899 - July 7, 1976) was a German politician. ... Kurt Georg Kiesinger (April 6, 1904–March 9, 1988) was a conservative German politician and Chancellor of West Germany from 1 December 1966 until 21 October 1969. ... For the parapsychologist, see Helmut Schmidt (parapsychologist). ... Theodor Heuss (January 31, 1884 - December 12, 1963) was a German politician. ... The Vice-Chancellor of Germany (Vizekanzler) in Germany is the second highest position in the cabinet. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Hans-Christoph Seebohm (b. ... Walter Scheel (born July 8, 1919) is a German politician (FDP). ... This page lists State Secretaries for Foreign Affairs under the German Empire (1873-1918), and Ministers of Foreign Affairs under succeeding governments thereafter. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Gerhard Schröder (September 11, 1910 - December 31, 1989) was a West German politician and member of the Christian Democratic Union (Germany) party. ... Walter Scheel (born July 8, 1919) is a German politician (FDP). ... The following List of Mayors of Berlin shows all the mayors of Berlin, Germany since 1809: 1809-1948 Leopold von Gerlach Johann Büsching Friedrich von Bärensprung Heinrich Wilhelm Krausnick Franz Christian Naunyn Karl Theodor Seydel Arthur Hobrecht Max von Forckenbeck Robert Zelle Martin Kirschner Adolph Wermuth Gustav B... Heinrich Albertz (1915 - 1993) was a German clergyman and political figure. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... SPD redirects here. ... Manual labour (or manual labor) is physical work done with the hands, especially in an unskilled job such as fruit and vegetable picking, road building, or any other field where the work may be considered physically arduous, and which has as a profitable objective, usually the production of goods. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... A lecture on linear algebra at the Helsinki University of Technology A lecture is an oral presentation intended to present information or teach people about a particular subject, for example by a university or college teacher. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action or inaction to bring about social or political change. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... SPD redirects here. ...


His most important legacy is the Ostpolitik, a policy aimed at improving relations with East Germany, Poland, and the Soviet Union. This policy caused considerable controversy in West Germany, but won Brandt the Nobel Peace Prize in 1971. Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...


Brandt was forced to resign as Chancellor in 1974 after it became known that one of his closest aides had been working for the Stasi (the East German secret police). This became one of the biggest political scandals in postwar West German history. Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ...

Contents

Early life, the war

Willy Brandt was born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm in Lübeck, Germany to Martha Frahm, an unwed mother who worked as a cashier for a department store. His father was an accountant from Hamburg by the name of John Möller, whom Brandt never met. As his mother was working six days a week he was mainly brought up by his mother's stepfather Ludwig Frahm and his second wife Dora. The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ...


After passing his Abitur in 1932 at Johanneum zu Lübeck he became an apprentice at the shipbroker and ship's agent F.H. Bertling. He joined the "Socialist Youth" in 1929 and the Social Democratic Party (SPD) in 1930. He left the SPD to join the more left wing Socialist Workers Party (SAP), which was allied to the POUM in Spain and the ILP in Britain. In 1933, using his connections with the port and its ships from the time he had been apprentice, he left Germany for Norway on a ship to escape Nazi persecution. It was at this time that he adopted the pseudonym Willy Brandt to avoid detection by Nazi agents. In 1934, he took part in the founding of the International Bureau of Revolutionary Youth Organizations, and was elected to its Secretariat. Abitur (from Latin abire = go away, go off) is the word commonly used in Finland and Germany for the final exams young adults (aged 18, 19 or 20) take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling. ... SPD redirects here. ... The Socialist Workers Party of Germany, in German Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, SAP / SAPD, has been the name of two political parties in Germany. ... A POUM poster urges Workers: to victory! A POUM poster appeals to peasants: Peasants: the land is yours The Workers Party of Marxist Unification (POUM, Spanish: Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista; Catalan: Partit Obrer dUnificació Marxista) was a Spanish communist political party formed during the Second Republic, and... The Independent Labour Party (ILP) was a former political party in the United Kingdom. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... For other uses, see Alias. ... International Bureau of Revolutionary Youth Organizations (in German: Internationales Büro Revolutionärer Jugendorganisationen, in French: Bureau International des Organisations Révolutionnaires des Jeunes) was an international organization of socialist youth, formed in 1934. ...


Brandt visited Germany from September to December 1936, disguised as a Norwegian student named Gunnar Gaasland. Gaasland was married to Gertrud Meyer from Lübeck in a fictitious marriage to protect Brandt's partner from deportation. Gertrud Meyer had joined Brandt to Norway in July 1933. In 1937, during the Civil War, Brandt worked in Spain as a journalist. In 1938, the German government revoked his citizenship, so he applied for Norwegian citizenship. In 1940, he was arrested in Norway by occupying German forces, but he was not identified because he wore a Norwegian uniform. On his release, he escaped to neutral Sweden. In August 1940, he became a Norwegian citizen, receiving his passport from the Norwegian embassy in Stockholm, where he lived until the end of the war. Willy Brandt returned to Sweden to lecture on 1 December, 1940 at Bommersvik college about the problems experienced by the social democrats in Nazi Germany and the occupied countries at the start of World War II. Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Bommersvik Logo Bommersvik is a Union college (Swedish: Förbundskola from Förbund meaning union or association and skola meaning school or college) built by the Swedish Social Democratic Youth League (SSU) and is situated outside the municipality of Södertälje in Sweden. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Mayor of West Berlin, Foreign Minister of West Germany

Brandt with President John F. Kennedy, March 1961.
Brandt with President John F. Kennedy, March 1961.

In 1945 Brandt returned to Germany as a journalist for a Scandinavian newspaper reporting on the Nuremberg Trials. In late 1946, Brandt returned to Berlin, working for the Norwegian government. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3648x2353, 456 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Willy Brandt John F. Kennedy ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3648x2353, 456 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Willy Brandt John F. Kennedy ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...


In 1948, he joined the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) in Berlin. He became a German citizen again and formally adopted his pseudonym as his legal name. SPD redirects here. ...


Outspoken against the Soviet repression of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and against Khrushchev's 1958 proposal that Berlin receive the status of a "free city", he was considered to belong to the right wing of his party, an assessment that would later change. Combatants Soviet Union ÁVH Hungarian government, various nationalist militias Commanders Yuri Andropov Pál Maléter, Béla Király, Gergely Pongrátz, József Dudás Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks 100,000+ demonstrators (some later armed), unknown number of soldiers Casualties 720 killed according to official... Khrushchev redirects here. ...


Brandt was supported by the powerful publisher Axel Springer. From October 3, 1957 to 1966, he was Mayor of West Berlin, a particularly stressful time for the city with both the Berlin Ultimatum (1958) and the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961. Brandt gained increasing popularity well beyond Berlin. Axel Springer (d. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... The Berlin Ultimatum was a conflict in which the Soviets had demanded that the Allied military presence be removed from Berlin within six months. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ...


During his first year as Governing Mayor he served as President of the Bundesrat. In Germany, the President of the Bundesrat (German: Bundesratspräsident) is the bodys chairperson or speaker. ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Federal States (Länder) of Germany at the federal level. ...


Brandt became chairman of the SPD in 1964, a post he retained until 1987, longer than any other chairman in the history of his party after founder August Bebel. August Ferdinand Bebel (February 22, 1840 – March 18, 1913) was a German social democrat and one of the founders of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. ...


Brandt was the SPD candidate for Chancellor in 1961, but lost to Konrad Adenauer's conservative CDU. In 1965, he ran again, and lost to the popular Ludwig Erhard. But Erhard's government was short-lived, and, in 1966, a grand coalition between the SPD and CDU was formed; Brandt became foreign minister and vice-chancellor. For other uses, see Konrad Adenauer (disambiguation). ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... Ludwig Erhard (February 4, 1897–May 5, 1977) was a German politician (CDU) and Chancellor of West Germany from 1963 until 1966. ...


Chancellor of West Germany

After the elections of 1969, again with Brandt as lead candidate, the SPD became stronger and after three weeks of negotiation formed a coalition government with the smaller liberal Free Democratic Party of Germany (FDP). Brandt was elected Chancellor. He proposed more democracy and more democracies to solve certain problems. Social-liberal coalition (sozialliberale Koalition) in Germany refers to a government coalition formed by the Social Democratic Party and the Free Democratic Party. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | German political parties | Liberal parties ...


Foreign policy

Brandt was named TIME magazine's Person of the Year for 1970.
Brandt was named TIME magazine's Person of the Year for 1970.

As chancellor, Brandt gained more scope to develop his Ostpolitik. He was active in creating a degree of rapprochement with East Germany and in improving relations with the Soviet Union, Poland and other Eastern Bloc countries. Image File history File links Willy_Brandt_Time. ... Image File history File links Willy_Brandt_Time. ... This article is about the concept of time. ... Person of the Year is an annual issue of United States (U.S.) newsmagazine Time that features a profile on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that [1] // The tradition of selecting a Man of the Year began in 1927, when Time editors contemplated what they could... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ...


A seminal moment came in December 1970 with the famous Warschauer Kniefall in which Brandt, apparently spontaneously, knelt down at the monument to victims of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. The uprising occurred during the military occupation of Poland and the monument is to those killed by German troops who suppressed the uprising and deported remaining ghetto residents to concentration camps. Warschauer Kniefall is a German term meaning Warsaw Genuflection (kneeling), referring to an event on December 7th, 1970 where the social democratic Chancellor of Germany Willy Brandt, very surprisingly and to all appearences spontaneously, knelt at a monument to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in what was then the communist Peoples... Belligerents Germany (Waffen-SS, SD, OrPo, Gestapo, Wehrmacht) Collaborators (Arajs Kommando, Blue Police, Jewish Police, Lithuanian Police) Jewish resistance (ŻOB, ŻZW) Polish resistance (AK, GL) Commanders Franz Bürkl Ludwig Hahn Odilo Globocnik Friedrich Krüger Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg Jürgen Stroop Mordechaj Anielewicz† Dawid Apfelbaum† Icchak Cukierman Marek...


Time (magazine) named Brandt Man of the Year for 1970 stating, "Willy Brandt is in effect seeking to end World War II by bringing about a fresh relationship between East and West. He is trying to accept the real situation in Europe, which has lasted for 25 years, but he is also trying to bring about a new reality in his bold approach to the Soviet Union and the East bloc."[1] TIME redirects here. ... Person of the Year is an annual issue of United States (U.S.) newsmagazine Time that features a profile on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that [1] // The tradition of selecting a Man of the Year began in 1927, when Time editors contemplated what they could...

In 1971, Brandt received the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in improving relations with East Germany, Poland and the Soviet Union. Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...


In West Germany, Brandt's Ostpolitik was extremely controversial, dividing the populace into two camps: one side, most notably the victims of Stalinist ethnic cleansing from Historical Eastern Germany and Eastern Europe, loudly voiced their opposition, calling the policy "illegal" and "high treason", while others applauded Brandt's move as aiming at "Wandel durch Annäherung" ("change through rapprochement", i.e., encouraging change through a policy of engagement rather than isolation). Supporters of Brandt claim his Ostpolitik did help to break down the Eastern Bloc's siege mentality and increase the awareness of the contradictions in their brand of Socialism, which – together with other events – eventually led to its downfall. The Ostpolitik was strongly opposed by the conservative parties and many social democrats as well. For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... Historical Eastern Germany or Former German Eastern Territories are terms which can be used to describe collectively those provinces or regions east of the Oder–Neisse line which were parts of Germany after its unification in 1871 and were internationally recognised as such at the time. ... The French for bring together. Used in English to describe the theory (that) says that children are best able to explore when they have the knowledge of a secure base to return to in times of need. See Attachment theory This article is a stub. ... A siege mentality is a shared feeling of helplessness, victimization and defensiveness. ...

Willy Brandt, Richard Nixon
Willy Brandt, Richard Nixon

Image File history File links Willy-brandt-und-richard-nixon_1-588x398. ... Image File history File links Willy-brandt-und-richard-nixon_1-588x398. ... Nixon redirects here. ...

Domestic policies

Political and social changes of the 1960s

West Germany in the late 1960s was shaken by student disturbances and a general 'change of the times' that not all Germans were willing to accept or approve. What had seemed a stable, peaceful nation, happy with its outcome of the "Wirtschaftswunder" ("economic miracle") faced the first economic turbulences. As well the German baby boomer generation wanted to come to terms with the deeply conservative, bourgeois, and demanding parent generation. The baby boomer students were the most outspoken, they accused their 'parental generation' of its Nazi past and even worse of being outdated and old-fashioned. Compared to their forebears, the 'skeptical generation', the 1968 generation was much more capricious, willing to embrace more extreme socialist ideology (Mao bibles), and public heroes (Ho Chi Minh, Che Guevara) while new and more promiscuous lifestyles came about. Students and young apprenticees could afford to stay away from home, left-wing was considered chic, as was taking part in US-style political demonstrations against US forces in Vietnam. Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung is also the title of a play by Edward Albee. ... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... Ernesto Guevara de la Serna Lynch (May 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, el Che, or simply Che, was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, political figure, author, military theorist, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ...


Brandt gaining popularity in the 1960s

Brandt's predecessor, Kurt Georg Kiesinger, had been a member of the Nazi party and was an old fashioned German bourgeois and conservative intellectual. Brandt having fought the Nazis and faced Eastern German communists during different crises in Berlin made him a controversial but credible figure in different camps. As secretary of foreign affairs in Kiesingers Grand coalition cabinet, Brandt helped to gain further international approval for Western Germany and laid the cornerstones for the future Ostpolitik. There was a wide public opinion gap between Kiesinger and Brandt. Kurt Georg Kiesinger (April 6, 1904–March 9, 1988) was a conservative German politician and Chancellor of West Germany from 1 December 1966 until 21 October 1969. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... A grand coalition is a coalition government in a parliamentary system where political parties representing a vast majority of the parliament unite in a coalition. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ...


Bothe had come to terms with the new baby boomer lifestyles. Kiesinger registered "a shameful crowd of long-haired drop-outs who needed a bath and someone to discipline them", Brandt needed a while to get a contact and credibility among the APO. The students questioned the West German society in general seeking social, legal and political reforms, the unrest led as well to a renaissance of rightwing parties in some state's parliaments. Brandt however stood for a climate change and pursued a course of social, legal and political reforms. In 1969 he gained a narrow majority together with the FDP. In his first parliament speech as chancellor, Brandt claimed his political course of reforms ending the speech with his famous words, "Wir wollen mehr Demokratie wagen" (lit.: "Let's dare more democracy"). This made him, as well as the SPD, popular among most students and other young West German Baby boomers who dreamt of a country more open and more colorful than the frugal and still somewhat authoritarian state built after the war. Brandts Ostpolitik however lost a big part of the refugee vote which had been siginificantly pro SPD in the postwar years.


Crisis in 1972

The Nobel prize winning Ostpolitik of Brandt let to a domestic meltdown of the narrow majority Brandt's coalition enjoyed. In October 1972, FDP deputies Erich Mende, Heinz Starke and Siegfried Zoglmann had crossed the floor to CDU. On February 23, 1972, SPD deputy Herbert Hupka and leader of the Federation of Expellees, joined CDU in disagreement with Brandts reconciliatory efforts towards the east. On April 23, 1972 Wilhelm Helms (FDP) left his fraction and the FDP politicians Knud von Kühlmann-Stumm and Gerhard Kienbaum had declared that they would vote against Brandt and Brandt basically had lost his majority. On April 24, 1972 a vote of no confidence was proposed and it was voted three days later. Had this motion passed, Rainer Barzel would have replaced Brandt as Chancellor. To everyone's surprise, the motion failed: Rainer Barzel got only 247 votes of 260 ballots, for an absolute majority, 249 promised votes would have been necessary. There were also 10 votes against the motion and 3 invalid ballots. It was not revealed until much later that one or two members (possibly Julius Steiner, Ingeborg Geisendörfer or Leo Wagner) of the CDU/CSU had been paid off by the Stasi of East Germany to vote for Brandt. Dr. phil. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Rainer Candidus Barzel (born June 20, 1924 in Braunsberg, East Prussia)) is a German CDU Politician. ... Rainer Candidus Barzel (born June 20, 1924 in Braunsberg, East Prussia)) is a German CDU Politician. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ...


Preliminaries of the second term

Though Brandt had remained Chancellor, he had lost his majority. Subsequent iniatives in parliament, most notably on the budget, failed. Because of this stalemate, the Bundestag was dissolved and new elections were called. During the 1972 campaign, many popular West German artists, intellectuals, writers, actors and professors supported Brandt and the SPD. Among them were Günter Grass, Walter Jens, and even the football (soccer) player Paul Breitner. Public endorsements of the SPD via advertisements and, more recently, internet pages have become a widespread phenomenon since then. Brandt's Ostpolitik as well as his reformist domestic policies were popular with parts of the young generation and led his SPD party to its best-ever federal election result in late 1972. The "Willy-Wahl", Brandts landslide win was the beginning of the end; and Brandts role in government started to decline. Günter Wilhelm Grass (born October 16, 1927) is a Nobel Prize-winning German author and playwright. ... Walter Jens (born May 8, 1923) is a German philologist, literature historian, critic, university professor, and writer. ... Soccer redirects here. ... Paul Breitner (born September 5, 1951 in Kolbermoor, West Germany) was a German football player. ...


Many of Brandt's reforms met with resistance from state governments (dominated by CDU/CSU). The spirit of reformist optimism was cut short by the 1973 oil crisis and the major public services strike 1974, which gave Germany's trade unions', lead by Heinz Kluncker, a big wage increase but reduced Brandts financial leeway for further reforms. Brandt was said to be more a dreamer than a manager and was personally haunted by depressions. To counter any notions about being sympathetic to Communism or soft on left-wing extremists, Brandt implemented tough legislation that barred "radicals" from public service ("Radikalenerlass"). The 1973 oil crisis began in earnest on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship petroleum... Heinz Kluncker (born 20 February 1925) was president of the German trade union ÖTV (Öffentliche Dienste, Transport und Verkehr Public service, transport and traffic) from 1964 to 1982. ...


The Guillaume affair and Brandt's resignation

Main article: Guillaume Affair

Around 1973, West German security organizations received information that one of Brandt's personal assistants, Günter Guillaume, was a spy for the East German state. Brandt was asked to continue work as usual, and he agreed, even taking a private vacation with Guillaume. Guillaume was arrested on April 24, 1974, and the West German government blamed Brandt for having a spy in his party. At the same time, some revelations about Brandt's private life (he had had some short-lived affairs) appeared in newspapers. Brandt contemplated suicide and even drafted a suicide note. He chose instead to accept responsibility for Guillaume, and resigned on May 7, 1974. Günter Guillaume (February 1, 1927 – April 10, 1995), a citizen of the German Democratic Republic, was an intelligence agent of that countrys secret service, the Stasi. ... SPY may refer to: SPY (spiders), ticker symbol for Standard & Poors Depository Receipts SPY (magazine), a satirical monthly, trademarked all-caps SPY (Ivory Coast), airport code for San Pédro, Côte dIvoire SPY (Ship Planning Yard), a U.S. Navy acronym SPY, short for MOWAG SPY, a... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


Guillaume had been a spy for East Germany, supervised by Markus Wolf, head of the Main Intelligence Administration of the East German Ministry for State Security. Wolf stated after the reunification that the resignation of Brandt had never been intended, and that the affair had been one of the biggest mistakes of the East German secret service. This was led 1957-1989 by Erich Mielke, an old follower of Stalin and Beria. This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... Markus Wolf. ... Erich Fritz Emil Mielke (December 28, 1907 - May 21, 2000 in Berlin), was a German Communist. ... Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია, Lavrenti Pavles dze Beria; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия; 29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953) was a Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus. ...


Brandt was succeeded as Chancellor by his fellow Social Democrat Helmut Schmidt. For the rest of his life, Brandt remained suspicious that the other fellow social democrat and longtime rival Herbert Wehner belonging to the first Troika had been scheming for his downfall, but evidence for this seems scant. For the parapsychologist, see Helmut Schmidt (parapsychologist). ... Herbert Richard Wehner (July 11, 1906 - January 19, 1990) was a German politician. ... A general meaning of the Russian word troika (Cyrillic alphabet: тройка) is threesome, a collection of three of any kind. ...


Later life

Statue of Willy Brandt in Willy Brandts Park, Stockholm 2007.
Statue of Willy Brandt in Willy Brandts Park, Stockholm 2007.

After his term as Chancellor, Brandt remained head of his party, the SPD, until 1987 and retained his seat in the Bundestag. Brandt was head of the Socialist International from 1976 to 1992, which he called a worldparty of peace, working to enlarge that organization beyond the borders of Europe. In 1977, he was appointed chair of the Independent Commission for International Developmental Issues, which produced a report, in 1980, calling for drastic changes in the world's attitude to development in the Third World. This became known as the Brandt Report. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 410 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1017 × 1487 pixel, file size: 339 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 410 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1017 × 1487 pixel, file size: 339 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Statue of Willy Brandt in the park, 2007. ... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226) Social Democratic Party of Germany (222) Free Democratic Party (61) The Left. ... The official symbol of Socialist International. ...


In October 1979 he met the dissident Rudolf Bahro, who had written The Alternative. Bahro and his supporters were attacked by the state security (Stasi)/Erich Mielke for this writing, as well as the theoretical foundation of a left opposition to the ruling parties, and promoting new and changed parties; all of which is now discussed as "change from within". Brandt had asked for Bahros release and welcomed his theories, the debate as interesting and fruitful for the own movement, party. Rudolf Bahro (18 November 1935 – 5 December 1997) was born in 1935 in Bad Flinsberg (now in Poland). ... Erich Fritz Emil Mielke (December 28, 1907 - May 21, 2000 in Berlin), was a German Communist. ...


In late 1989, Brandt became one of the first leftist leaders in West Germany to publicly favour reunification over some sort of two-state federation. His public statement "Now grows together what belongs together" was much quoted in those days. This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ...


One of Brandt's last public appearances was flying to Baghdad, to free Western hostages held by Saddam Hussein, after the invasion of Kuwait in 1990. On November 9 1990 he landed with 174 freed hostages in New York.[2] He died of colon cancer at his home in Unkel, a town on the Rhine, and was given a state funeral. He was buried at the cemetery at Zehlendorf in Berlin. Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... The Rhine near Unkel Unkel is a town and a municipality in the district of Neuwied, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Brandt was a member of the European Parliament from 1979 to 1983, and Honorary Chairman of the SPD from 1987 until his death in 1992. When the SPD moved its headquarters from Bonn back to Berlin in the mid-1990s, the new headquarters was named the "Willy Brandt Haus". Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...


As a somewhat remarkable memorial, the private German language secondary school in Warsaw is named after Willy Brandt. For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ...


Family

From 1941 until 1948 Brandt was married to Anna Carlotta Thorkildsen (daughter of a Norwegian father and a German-American mother). They had a daughter, Nina (born 1940). After Brandt and Thorkildsen were divorced in 1946, he married the Norwegian Rut Hansen in 1948. Hansen and Brandt had three sons: Peter (born 1948), Lars (born 1951) and Matthias (born 1961). Today Peter is a historian, Lars is a painter and Matthias is an actor. After 32 years of marriage, Brandt was divorced from Rut in 1980 and from the day they were divorced they never met again. On December 9, 1983, Brandt married Brigitte Seebacher (born 1946). Rut Brandt died in Berlin on July 28, 2006. Rut Brandt (10 January 1920 - 28 July 2006) was a German writer of Norwegian origin and the second wife of the German Chancellor Willy Brandt. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Matthias as Günter Guillaume

In 2003, Matthias Brandt took the part of Guillaume in the film Im Schatten der Macht (lit.: In the Shadow of Power) by German filmmaker Oliver Storz. The film deals with the Guillaume-affair and Brandt's resignation. Matthias Brandt caused a minor controversy in Germany when it was publicized that he would take the part of the man who betrayed his father and made him resign in 1974. Earlier that year - when the Brandts and the Guillaumes took a vacation to Norway together - it was Matthias, then twelve years old, who was the first to discover that Guillaume and his wife 'were typing mysterious things on typewriters the whole night through'.


Lars writing about his father

In early 2006, Lars Brandt published a biography about his father called "Andenken" ("Remembrance"). The book has been the subject of some controversy. Some see it as a loving memory of a father-son-relationship. Others label the biography a ruthless statement of a son who still thinks he had never had a father who really loved him.


Brandt's first cabinet

  • Willy Brandt (SPD) - Chancellor
  • Walter Scheel (FDP) - Vice Chancellor and Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • Helmut Schmidt (SPD) - Minister of Defense
  • Hans-Dietrich Genscher (FDP) - Minister of the Interior
  • Alex Möller (SPD) - Minister of Finance
  • Gerhard Jahn (SPD) - Minister of Justice
  • Karl Schiller (SPD) - Minister of Economics
  • Walter Arendt (SPD) - Minister of Labour and Social Affairs
  • Josef Ertl (FDP) - Minister of Food, Agriculture, and Forestry
  • Georg Leber (SPD) - Minister of Transport, Posts, and Communications
  • Lauritz Lauritzen (SPD) - Minister of Construction
  • Käte Strobel (SPD) - Minister of Youth, Family, and Health
  • Hans Leussink - Minister of Education and Science
  • Erhard Eppler (SPD) - Minister of Economic Cooperation
  • Horst Ehmke (SPD) - Minister of Special Tasks
  • Egon Franke (SPD) - Minister of Intra-German Relations

Changes SPD redirects here. ... Walter Scheel (born July 8, 1919) is a German politician (FDP). ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | German political parties | Liberal parties ... For the parapsychologist, see Helmut Schmidt (parapsychologist). ... George H. W. Bush and Hans-Dietrich Genscher, November 21st, 1989. ... Alexander Johann Heinrich Friedrich Möller, known as Alex Möller (April 26, 1903 in Dortmund - October 2, 1985 in Karlsruhe) was a German politician (SPD). ... Karl August Fritz Schiller (April 24, 1911 in Breslau - December 26, 1994 in Hamburg) was a German scientist and politician (SPD). ... Georg Leber (born October 7, 1920 in Obertiefenbach, near Limburg an der Lahn) is a German politician in the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). ... Hans Leussink (born 2 February 1912 in Schüttorf) is a German teacher and politician. ... Erhard Eppler, January 2000, in Ellwangen Erhard Eppler (b. ... Prof. ... Egon Franke (April 11, 1913 - April 26, 1995) was a German politician and a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. ...

  • 13 May 1971 - Karl Schiller (SPD) succeeds Möller as Minister of Finance, remaining also Minister of Economics
  • 15 March 1972 - Klaus von Dohnanyi (SPD) succeeds Leussink as Minister of Education and Science.
  • 7 July 1972 - Helmut Schmidt (SPD) succeeds Schiller as Minister of Finance and Economics. Georg Leber (SPD) succeeds Schmidt as Minister of Defense. Lauritz Lauritzen (SPD) succeeds Leber as Minister of Transport, Posts, and Communications, remaining also Minister of Construction.

is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Karl August Fritz Schiller (April 24, 1911 in Breslau - December 26, 1994 in Hamburg) was a German scientist and politician (SPD). ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr Klaus von Dohnanyi, born 23. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the parapsychologist, see Helmut Schmidt (parapsychologist). ... Georg Leber (born October 7, 1920 in Obertiefenbach, near Limburg an der Lahn) is a German politician in the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). ...

Selected works

  • 1960 Mein Weg nach Berlin (My Path to Berlin), autobiography
  • 1966 Draußen. Schriften während der Emigration. (Outside: Writings during the Emigration) ISBN 3-8012-1094-4
  • 1968 Friedenspolitik in Europa (The Politics of Peace in Europe)
  • 1976 Begegnungen und Einsichten 1960-1975 (Encounters and Insights 1960-1975) ISBN 3-455-08979-8
  • 1982 Links und frei. Mein Weg 1930-1950 (Left and Free: My Path 1930-1950)
  • 1986 Der organisierte Wahnsinn (Organized Lunacy)
  • 1989 Erinnerungen (Memories) ISBN 3-549-07353-4

2002f, Berliner Ausgabe, Werkauswahl, ed. for Bundeskanzler Willy Brandt Stiftung by Helga Grebing, Gregor Schöllgen and Heinrich August Winkler, 10 volumes, Dietz Verlag, Bonn 2002f, Collected Writings, ISBN 3-8012-0305-0


Biographies

  • (German) Lars Brandt, Andenken (ISBN 3-446-20710-4)
  • (German) Peter Merseburger, Willy Brandt (ISBN 3-421-05328-6)
  • Barbara Marshall, Willy Brandt, A Political Biography (ISBN 0-312-16438-6)
  • (Italian) Nestore di Meola, Willy Brandt raccontato da Klaus Lindenberg (ISBN 88-7284-712-5)

References

  1. ^ "Willy Brandt", Time Magazine, 4 Jan. 1971, online archive accessed 11 July 2007
  2. ^ "Mideast Tensions", The New York Times, 9 Nov. 1990, [1] accessed 03 January 2008

External links

Preceded by
Otto Suhr
Mayor of Berlin
1957-1966
Succeeded by
Heinrich Albertz
Preceded by
Erich Ollenhauer
Chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany
1964-1987
Succeeded by
Hans-Jochen Vogel
Preceded by
Gerhard Schröder
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1966-1969
Succeeded by
Walter Scheel
Preceded by
Kurt Georg Kiesinger
Chancellor of Germany
1969-1974
Succeeded by
Helmut Schmidt
Preceded by
Bruno Pittermann
President of the Socialist International
1976-1992
Succeeded by
Pierre Mauroy
Preceded by
Hans-Christoph Seebohm
Vice Chancellor of Germany
1966-1969
Succeeded by
Walter Scheel
Persondata
NAME Brandt, Willy
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm
SHORT DESCRIPTION German politician, Chancellor of West Germany
DATE OF BIRTH December 18, 1913
PLACE OF BIRTH Lübeck, Germany
DATE OF DEATH October 8, 1992
PLACE OF DEATH Unkel, Germany

The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Rhine near Unkel Unkel is a town and a municipality in the district of Neuwied, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Willy Brandt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2579 words)
Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992) was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 1987.
Brandt was the SPD candidate for Chancellor in 1961 and lost to Konrad Adenauer's conservative CDU.
Brandt was a member of the European Parliament from 1979 to 1983, and Honorary Chairman of the SPD from 1987 until his death in 1992.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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