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Encyclopedia > Willowbrook State School

Willowbrook State School was a state-supported institution for mentally retarded children located in central Staten Island in New York City. The school gained notoriety in the 1960s for an unethical medical study conducted there, and in the 1970s further abuses uncovered at the school were the stimulus for new civil rights legislation. The school was closed in 1987, and the former grounds were redeveloped extensively to serve as the campus of the College of Staten Island. Mental retardation (abbreviated as MR), is a term for a pattern of persistently slow learning of basic motor and language skills (milestones) during childhood, and a significantly below-normal intellectual capacity as an adult. ... Staten Island lies to the southwest of the rest of New York City. ... New York City, officially named the City of New York, is the most populous city in the United States, the most densely populated major city in North America, and is at the center of international finance, politics, entertainment, and culture. ... The 1960s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969, but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past twenty years. ... The 1970s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1970 and 1979. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The College of Staten Island is one of the hybrid colleges of the City University of New York. ...


The institution has sometimes been misidentified as a state hospital for criminally insane adults; one example of this can be found in the 1999 novel Pins by Jim Provenzano. 1999 (MCMXCIX) is a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... DeFoes Robinson Crusoe, Newspaper edition published in 1719 A novel (from French nouvelle, new) is an extended fictional narrative in prose. ...


History

In 1938, plans were formulated to build a facility for mentally retarded children on a 375 acres (1.5 km²) site in the Willowbrook section of Staten Island. Construction was completed in 1942, but instead of opening for its original purpose, it was converted into a United States Army hospital and named Halloran General Hospital, after the late Colonel Paul Stacey Halloran. After the war, proposals were introduced to turn the site over to the Veterans Administration, but in October, 1947 the New York State Department of Mental Hygiene opened its facility there as originally planned, and the institution was named Willowbrook State School. 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Willowbrook is a neighborhood on Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of the USAs largest city, New York. ... This article is about the year. ... US Army Seal HHC, US Army Distinctive Unit Insignia The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is a Cabinet department of the United States government responsible for administering programs of veterans benefits for veterans, their families, and survivors. ... October is the tenth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Throughout the first decade of its operation, outbreaks of hepatitis were common at the school, and this led to a highly controversial medical study being conducted there between 1963 and 1966, in which healthy children were intentionally injected with the virus that causes the disease, then monitored to gauge the effects of gamma globulin in combating it. A public outcry forced the study to be discontinued. Hepatitis is a gastroenterological disease, featuring inflammation of the liver. ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... A virus is a microscopic parasite that infects cells in biological organisms. ... Gamma globulins are a class of proteins in the blood, identified by their position after serum protein electrophoresis. ...


Further problems dogged the institution: In early 1972, Geraldo Rivera, then a reporter for television station WABC in New York, conducted a series of investigations at Willowbrook, uncovering a host of deplorable conditions, including overcrowding, inadequate sanitary facilities, and physical abuse of residents by members of the school's staff. This resulted in a class-action lawsuit being filed against the State of New York in federal court on March 17, 1972. A settlement in the case was reached on May 5, 1975, mandating reforms at the site, but several years would elapse before all of the violations were corrected. The publicity generated by the case was a major contributing factor to the passage of a federal law, called the Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act of 1980. 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... Geraldo Rivera on the Fox News Channel in 2004. ... WABC is the callsign of the American Broadcasting Companys three flagship broadcast stations in New York: WABC AM, 770 kHz WABC-TV, channel 7 (DTV 45) WABC-FM 95. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in Leap years). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ...


In 1983, the State of New York announced plans to close Willowbrook, which had been renamed the Staten Island Developmental Center in 1974. By the end of March, 1986, the number of residents housed there had dwindled to 250 (down from 5,000 at the height of the scandal exposed by Rivera), and the last children left the grounds on September 17, 1987. 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the developmental center closed, the site became the focus of intense local debate about what should be done with the property. In 1989 a portion of the land was acquired by the City of New York, with the intent of using it to establish a new campus for the College of Staten Island, and the new campus opened at Willowbrook in 1993 (at the same time, one of CSI's two other existing campuses, located in the island's Sunnyside neighborhood, was closed and that site became the home of a new high school, Michael Petrides). At 0.8 km² (204 acres), this campus is the largest maintained by the City University of New York. 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... i dont like this page. ... Sunnyside is the name of a neighborhood in the Mid-Island region of Staten Island. ... The Japanese word for a high school is kōtōgakkō (高等学校; literally high school), or kōkō (高校) in short. ... The City University of New York (CUNY; acronym usually pronounced kyoo-nee or coo-nee), located in New York City, is the largest urban university in the United States, with more than 198,000 enrolled in degree programs, about 20,000 enrolled in non-degree programs and more than 200...


The remaining 0.7 km² (171 acres) of the state school's original property, at the south end, is still under the administration of the New York State Department of Mental Hygiene, which maintains a facility there called the Institute For Basic Research.


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Willowbrook State School - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (520 words)
Willowbrook State School was a state-supported institution for mentally retarded children located in central Staten Island in New York City.
The school gained notoriety in the 1960s for an unethical medical study conducted there, and in the 1970s further abuses uncovered at the school were the stimulus for new civil rights legislation.
The school was closed in 1987, and the former grounds were redeveloped extensively to serve as the campus of the College of Staten Island.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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