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Encyclopedia > William of Ockham
Western Philosophers
Medieval Philosophy
William of Ockham
Name: William of Ockham
Birth: c. 1288
Death: c. 1348
School/tradition: Scholasticism
Main interests: Metaphysics, Epistemology, Theology, Logic, Ontology, Politics
Notable ideas: Ockham's Razor, Nominalism
Influences: Aristotle, Aquinas, Scotus
Influenced: Science

William of Ockham (also Occam or any of several other spellings, IPA: [ˈɒkəm]) (c. 1288 - c. 1348) was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher, from Ockham, a small village in Surrey, near East Horsley. He is considered, along with Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus, one of the major figures of medieval thought and found himself at the center of the major intellectual and political controversies of the fourteenth century. Although commonly known for Ockham's Razor, the methodological procedure that bears his name, William of Ockham also produced significant works on logic, physics, and theology. Philosophy seated between the seven liberal arts – Picture from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad von Landsberg (12th century) Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Europe and the Middle East in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Roman... Events February 22 - Nicholas IV becomes Pope. ... April 7 - Charles University is founded in Prague. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... It has been suggested that Meta-epistemology be merged into this article or section. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... In philosophy, ontology (from the Greek , genitive : of being (part. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Occams Razor (also Ockhams Razor or any of several other spellings), is a principle attributed to the 14th century English logician and Franciscan friar, William of Ockham that forms the basis of methodological reductionism, also called the principle of parsimony or law of economy. ... In philosophy, nominalism is the theory that abstract terms, general terms, or universals do not represent objective real existents, but are merely names, words, or vocal utterances (flatus vocis). ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Blessed John Duns Scotus (c. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Events February 22 - Nicholas IV becomes Pope. ... April 7 - Charles University is founded in Prague. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... A friar is a member of a religious mendicant order of men. ... Scholastic is the official student publication of the University of Notre Dame. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Ockham is a tiny English village near East Horsley, in Surrey, south-west of London. ... Not to be confused with Surry. ... East Horsley is a village in Surrey, just off the A246 between Leatherhead and Guildford. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Blessed John Duns Scotus (c. ... Occams Razor (also Ockhams Razor or any of several other spellings), is a principle attributed to the 14th century English logician and Franciscan friar, William of Ockham that forms the basis of methodological reductionism, also called the principle of parsimony or law of economy. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...

Contents

Life

William of Ockham - Sketch labelled "frater Occham iste", from a manuscript of Ockham's Summa Logicae, 1341
William of Ockham - Sketch labelled "frater Occham iste", from a manuscript of Ockham's Summa Logicae, 1341

William of Ockham joined the Franciscan order at a young age. He is believed to have studied theology at the University of Oxford from 1309 to 1321, but never completed his master's degree.[1] Because of this, he earned the moniker Venerabilis Inceptor, or "Venerable Beginner." Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (868x1022, 266 KB) Sketch labelled frater Occham iste, from a manuscipt of Ockhams Summa Logicae, 1341 File links The following pages link to this file: William of Ockham Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (868x1022, 266 KB) Sketch labelled frater Occham iste, from a manuscipt of Ockhams Summa Logicae, 1341 File links The following pages link to this file: William of Ockham Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ... Events August 15 - The city of Rhodes surrenders to the forces of the Knights of St. ... Events Births September 29 - John of Artois, Count of Eu, French soldier (d. ... A moniker (or monicker) is a pseudonym, or cognomen, which one gives to oneself. ...


His work in this period became the subject of controversy, and many scholars have thought that Ockham was summoned before the Papal court of Avignon in 1324 under charges of heresy, though an alternative theory recently proposed by G. Knysh suggests that he was initially appointed there as professor of philosophy in the Franciscan school, and that his disciplinary difficulties did not begin until 1327. It is generally believed that these charges were levied by Oxford chancellor John Lutterell.[2] A theological commission was asked to review his Commentary on the Sentences, during which, Ockham found himself entangled in a different debate. The Franciscan Minister General Michael of Cesena, summoned to Avignon in 1327 to answer charges of heresy, asked Ockham to review arguments surrounding Apostolic poverty. The Franciscan order believed that Jesus and his apostles owned no personal property, and survived by begging and accepting the gifts of others.[3] This clashed directly with the beliefs of Pope John XXII. City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... Events Publication of Defensor pacis by Marsilius of Padua Mansa Kankan Musa I, ruler of the Mali Empire arrives in Cairo on his hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca. ... Heresy, as a blanket term, describes a practice or belief that is labeled as unorthodox. ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ... This is a list of the ministers general of the Order of Friars Minor; // Francis of Assisi (1210-1226) Johannes Parenti (1227-1232) 1st Minister general Elias of Cortona (1232-1239) 2nd Minister general Albert of Pisa (1239-1240) 3rd Minister general Haymo of Faversham (1240-1243) 4th Minister general... Michael of Cesena (Michele di Cesena) (1270-November 29, 1342) was a Franciscan, general of that Order, and theologian, born at Cesena, a small town in Italy. ... Events January 25 - Edward III becomes King of England. ... Apostolic poverty is a doctrine professed by various religious orders, primarily those sprung from the mendicant orders of the Middle Ages in direct response to the call for reforms in the Roman Catholic Church. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the... Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze or dEuse (1249 – December 4, 1334), was the son of a shoemaker in Cahors. ...


After studying the works of John XXII and previous papal statements, Ockham concurred with the Minister General. He believed that John XXII was himself guilty of heresy for refusing to accept the Franciscan claim.[1] Fearing imprisonment and possible execution, Ockham and Cesena, and other Franciscan sympathizers fled Avignon. In 1328 They took refuge in the court of the Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV of Bavaria, who was also engaged in dispute with the papacy. Ockham was excommunicated for leaving Avignon, but his philosophy was never officially condemned. Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Louis IV of Bavaria of the House of Wittelsbach (born 1282) was duke of Bavaria from 1294, duke of the Palatinate from 1329 and, after 1314, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ...


He spent much of the remainder of his life writing about political issues, including the relative authority and rights of the spiritual and temporal powers. After Michael of Cesena's death in 1342, he became the leader of the small band of Franciscan dissidents living in exile with Louis IV. Ockham died (possibly of the plague, or Black Death) on April 9, 1348 in the Franciscan convent in Munich, Bavaria. In the Church of England, his day of commemoration is April 10.[4] Michael of Cesena (Michele di Cesena) (1270-November 29, 1342) was a Franciscan, general of that Order, and theologian, born at Cesena, a small town in Italy. ... Events May - Pope Clement VI elected John III Comnenus becomes emperor of Trebizond Louis becomes king of Sicily and duke of Athens Constantine IV becomes king of Armenia Patriarch of Antioch transferred to Damascus under Ignatius II Kitzbühel becomes part of Tyrol Louis I becomes king of Hungary Births... It has been suggested that Plague doctor be merged into this article or section. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 - Charles University is founded in Prague. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Philosophical thought

In Scholasticism, Ockham advocated a reform both in method and in content, the aim of which was simplification. Ockham incorporated much of the work of some previous theologians, especially John Duns Scotus. From Scotus, Ockham derived his view of divine omnipotence, his view of grace and justification, much of his epistemology and ethical convictions. However, he also reacted to and against Scotus in the areas of predestination, penance, his understanding of universals, his distinction ex parte rei (that is, 'as applied to created things'), and his view of parsimony. Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... John Duns Scotus (c. ...


Nominalism

A pioneer of nominalism, some consider him the father of modern epistemology, because of his strongly argued position that only individuals exist, rather than supra-individual universals, essences, or forms, and that universals are the products of abstraction from individuals by the human mind and have no extra-mental existence. He denied the real existence of metaphysical universals and advocated for the reduction of ontology. Ockham is sometimes considered an advocate of conceptualism rather than nominalism, for whereas nominalists held that universals were merely names, i.e. words rather than existing realities, conceptualists held that they were mental concepts, i.e. the names were names of concepts, which do exist, although only in the mind. Therefore, the universal concept has for its object, not a reality existing in the world outside us, but an internal representation which is a product of the understanding itself and which "supposes" in the mind, for the things to which the mind attributes it, that is it holds, for the time being, the place of the things which it represents. It is the term of the reflective act of the mind. Hence the universal is not a mere word, as Roscelin taught, nor a sermo, as Abélard held, namely the word as used in the sentence, but the mental substitute for real things, and the term of the reflective process. For this reason Ockham has been called a "Terminist," to distinguish him from a Nominalist or a Conceptualist. In philosophy, nominalism is the theory that abstract terms, general terms, or universals do not represent objective real existents, but are merely names, words, or vocal utterances (flatus vocis). ... It has been suggested that Meta-epistemology be merged into this article or section. ... Universals (used as a noun) are either properties, relations, or types, but not classes. ... In philosophy, ontology (from the Greek , genitive : of being (part. ... Conceptualism is a doctrine in philosophy intermediate between nominalism and realism, that universals exist only within the mind and have no external or substantial reality. ... Abaelardus and Heloïse surprised by Master Fulbert, by Romanticist painter Jean Vignaud (1819) Pierre Abélard (in English, Peter Abelard) or Abailard (1079 – April 21, 1142) was a French scholastic philosopher. ... Nominalism is the position in metaphysics that there exist no universals outside of the mind. ... A Conceptualist is one who quickly conceives an idea or work. ...


Over the course of his life, Ockham changed his view of what universal concepts are. To begin with, he believed that universals have no “real” existence at all in the Aristotelian categories, but instead are purely “intentional objects” more or less in the sense of modern phenomenology; they have only a kind of “thought”-reality. Such “fictive” objects were metaphysically universal; they just weren't real. Eventually, however, Ockham came to think this intentional realm of “fictive” entities was not needed, and by the time of his Summa logicae and the Quodlibets he adopted instead a so called intellectio-theory, according to which a universal concept is just the act of thinking about several objects at once; metaphysically it is quite singular, and is “universal” only in the sense of being predicable of many. This article is about the philosophical movement. ... The Summa Logicae, or Sum of Logic, is a textbook on logic by William of Ockham. ...


Ontological parsimony

One important contribution that he made to modern science and modern intellectual culture was through the principle of parsimony in explanation and theory building that came to be known as Ockham's Razor. This maxim, as interpreted by Bertrand Russell,[5] states that if one can explain a phenomenon without assuming this or that hypothetical entity, there is no ground for assuming it, i.e. that one should always opt for an explanation in terms of the fewest possible number of causes, factors, or variables. He turned this into a concern for ontological parsimony; the principle says that one should not multiply entities beyond necessity - Entia non sunt multiplicanda sine necessitate - although this well-known formulation of the principle is not to be found in any of Ockham's extant writings.[6] He formulates it as: “For nothing ought to be posited without a reason given, unless it is self-evident (literally, known through itself) or known by experience or proved by the authority of Sacred Scripture.” For Ockham, the only truly necessary entity is God; everything else is contingent. He thus accepts the Principle of Sufficient Reason, rejects the distinction between essence and existence, and advocates against the Thomistic doctrine of active and passive intellect. His skepticism to which his ontological parsimony request leads appears in his doctrine that human reason can prove neither the immortality of the soul nor the existence, unity, and infinity of God. These truths, he teaches, are known to us by Revelation alone. Occams Razor (also Ockhams Razor or any of several other spellings), is a principle attributed to the 14th century English logician and Franciscan friar, William of Ockham that forms the basis of methodological reductionism, also called the principle of parsimony or law of economy. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... The principle of sufficient reason states that anything that happens does so for a definite reason. ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ...


Natural philosophy

Ockham wrote a great deal on natural philosophy, including a long commentary on Aristotle's physics. According to the principle of ontological parsimony, he holds that we do not need to allow entities in all ten of Aristotle's categories; we thus do not need the category of quantity, as the mathematical entities are not "real". Mathematics must be applied to other categories, such as the categories of substance or qualities, thus anticipating modern scientific renaissance while violating Aristotelian prohibition of metabasis. Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... Aristotles Physics, frontispice of an 1837 edition Physics (or Physica, or Physicae Auscultationes meaning lessons) is a key text in the philosophy of Aristotle. ...


Ockham was arguably important in physics for his view, apparently an application of his razor, that motion is essentially self-conserving in itself without need of any causal force. This was contrary to the contemporary impetus theory of Jean Buridan that its perpetuation requires an internal force of impetus, and indeed also to Aquinas' novel theory that all bodies have an inherent resistance to motion in proportion to their mass, subsequently dubbed 'inertia' by Kepler, and also contrary to the much later view of Newton, partly derived from Parisian scholastic impetus theory, that the continuation of uniform straight motion in the absence of any resistance would be caused by an internal inherent force of inertia (vis inertiae). But it was apparently in agreement with Aristotle's view in Physics 4.8 215a19-22 that in the absence of any resistance locomotion would be interminable, apparently without need of any internal (nor external) force whatever, and arguably also with Descartes' principle of the conservation of motion without need of any causal force, so vehemently rejected by Newton as relativism in his De Gravitatione. In the late 19th century, the view that the continuation of unresisted uniform straight motion would not require any force whatever became popular amongst positivist philosophers and physicists such as Mach and Whitehead, who sought to abolish Newton's inherent force of inertia (vis inertiae) as an independent force of bodies/matter. (Mach sought to reduce it to the combined gravitational attractions of all the fixed stars, but even if so, uniform straight motion would still be caused by force in Newtonian dynamics.) But in 1878 in his book The Art of Scientific Discovery, the President of the Birmingham Scientific Society, George Gore, had (correctly) held that Newton explained planetary orbits as the resultant of the action of two forces, namely a centripetal impressed force and a transverse force of inertia inherent in each planet. Arguably Ockham's view only came to be accepted in Einstein's anti-Newtonian Cartesian relativistic geometrico-kinematical science of motion that eliminates all forces and reduces dynamics to Minkowskian geometrico-kinematics. Inertia is the property of an object to remain at constant velocity unless acted upon by an outside force. ... Jean Buridan, in Latin Joannes Buridanus (1300 - 1358) was a French priest who sowed the seeds of religious scepticism in Europe. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and a key figure in the 17th century astronomical revolution. ... Sir Isaac Newton (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... René Descartes (French IPA: ) (March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Renatus Cartesius (latinized form), was a highly influential French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Logical positivism grew from the discussions of Moritz Schlicks Vienna Circle and Hans Reichenbachs Berlin Circle in the 1920s and 1930s. ... Ernst Mach Ernst Mach (February 18, 1838 – February 19, 1916) was an Austrian-Czech physicist and philosopher and is the namesake for the Mach number and the optical illusion known as Mach bands. ... Alfred North Whitehead, OM (February 15, 1861 Ramsgate, Kent, England – December 30, 1947 Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA) was an English-born mathematician who became a philosopher. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Hermann Minkowski. ...


Theory of knowledge

In the theory of knowledge, Ockham rejected the scholastic theory of species, as unnecessary and not supported by experience, in favor of a theory of abstraction. This was an important development in late medieval epistemology. He also distinguished between intuitive and abstract cognition; intuitive cognition depends on the existence or non existence of the object, whereas abstractive cognition "abstracts" the object from the existence predicate. It is not yet decided among interpreters as to the role of this two types of cognitive activities. It has been suggested that Meta-epistemology be merged into this article or section. ...


Political theory

Ockham is also increasingly being recognized as an important contributor to the development of Western constitutional ideas, especially those of limited responsible government. He was one of the first medieval authors to advocate a form of church/state separation, and was important for the early development of the notion of property rights. His political ideas are regarded as "natural" or "secular", holding for a secular absolutism. The views on monarchial accountability espoused in his Dialogus (written between 1332 and 1348) greatly influenced the Conciliar movement and assisted in the emergence of liberal democratic ideologies. In the history of Christianity, the Conciliar movement or Conciliarism was a reform movement in the 14th and 15th century Roman Catholic Church which held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with the Roman Church as corporation of Christians, embodied by a general church council, not with the pope. ...


Logic

In logic, Ockham worked towards what would later be called De Morgan's Laws and considered ternary logic, that is, a logical system with three truth values, a concept that would be taken up again in the mathematical logic of the 19th and 20th centuries. Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... note that demorgans laws are also a big part in circut design. ... A ternary, three-valued or trivalent logic is a term to describe any of several multi-valued logic systems in which there are three truth values indicating true, false and some third value. ... In logic, a truth value, or truth-value, is a value indicating to what extent a statement is true. ... Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics that is concerned with formal systems in relation to the way that they encode intuitive concepts of mathematical objects such as sets and numbers, proofs, and computation. ...


Works

The standard edition is William of Ockham, 1967-88. Opera philosophica et theologica. Gedeon Gál, et al., ed. 17 vols. St. Bonaventure, N. Y.: The Franciscan Institute.


Philosophical writings

  • Summa logicae (before 1327), Paris 1448, Bologna 1498, Venice 1508, Oxford 1675.
  • Quaestiones in octo libros physicorum, (before 1327), Rome 1637.
  • Summulae in octo libros physicorum, (before 1327), Venice 1506.
  • Quodlibeta septem (before 1327), Paris 1487.
  • Expositio aurea super artem veterem Aristotelis, 1323.
  • Major summa logices, Venice 1521
  • Quaestiones in quattuor libros sententiarum, Lyons, 1495.
  • Centilogium theologicum, Lyons 1495.

The Summa Logicae, or Sum of Logic, is a textbook on logic by William of Ockham. ...

Theological writings

  • Questiones earumque decisiones, Lyons 1483.
  • Quodlibeta septem, Paris 1487, Strassburg 1491.
  • Centilogium, Lyons 1494.
  • De sacraento altaris and De corpore christi, Strassburg 1491, Venice 1516.
  • Tractatus de sacramento allans.

Political writings

  • Opus nonaginta dierum (1332), Leuven 1481, Lyons 1495.
  • Dialogus*, (begun in 1332) Paris 1476. Lyons 1495.
  • Super potestate summi pontificis octo quaestionum decisiones (1344).
  • Tractatus de dogmatibus Johannis XXII papae (1333–34).
  • Epistola ad fratres minores, (1334).
  • De jurisdictione imperatoris in causis matrimonialibus, Heidelberg 1598.
  • Breviloquium de potestate tyrannica (1346)
  • De imperatorum et pontifcum potestate [also known as 'Defensorium'] (1348)

References in modern culture

  • In The Name of the Rose, the monastic detective William of Baskerville, who uses logic in a similar manner and, also like William of Ockham, has faced charges of heresy. William expressly sources his manner of thinking to William of Ockham. Initially William of Baskerville refers to William of Ockham as "my friend from Occam" and "my friend William, currently in Avignon" before conflating these two descriptions and expressly referring to William of Occam.
  • In the academic novel Straight Man, the frustrated English professor Hank Devereaux Jr, who uses logic as a guide through the many confusing situations he faces in the novel, names his dog "Occam".
  • In a certain episode of The X-Files, Fox Mulder derides Ockham's Razor by renaming it Ockham's Principle of Unimaginative Thinking.
  • William of Occam is also cited in Howard Nemerov's poem, "The Blue Swallows."
  • The 1997 movie Contact, starring Jodie Foster, makes reference to Ockham's Razor, with respect to alien life.

The Name of the Rose, a novel by Umberto Eco, is a murder mystery set in an Italian monastery in the year 1327. ... Picture of the book in the binding provided by the Folio Society The Name of the Rose, a 1980 novel by Umberto Eco, is a murder mystery set in an Italian monastery in the year 1327 during the papacy of Pope John XXII. The book was also made into a... A straight man is a role in a comedy double act where a performer works with a comedian by setting up the situations or feeding the lines that allow their partner to make a joke. ... The X-Files is a Peabody- and Emmy Award-winning science fiction television series created by Chris Carter, which first aired on September 10, 1993, and ended on May 19, 2002. ... Occams Razor (also Ockhams Razor or any of several other spellings), is a principle attributed to the 14th century English logician and Franciscan friar, William of Ockham that forms the basis of methodological reductionism, also called the principle of parsimony or law of economy. ... Howard Nemerov (February 29, 1920 – July 5, 1991) was United States Poet Laureate on two separate occasions: from 1963 to 1964, and from 1988 to 1990. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long. ... Jodie Foster (born November 19, 1962) is a two-time Academy Award-winning American actress, director, and producer. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Spade, Paul Vincent. William of Ockham. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. Retrieved on 2006-10-22.
  2. ^ Hundersmarck, Lawerence (1992). Great Thinkers of the Western World. Harper Collins, 123-128. ISBN 0-06-270026-X. 
  3. ^ McGrade, Arthur (1974). The Political Thought of William of Ockham: Personal and Institutional Principles. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20284-1. 
  4. ^ Holy Days. Liturgical Calendar. Church of England. Retrieved on 2006-10-22.
  5. ^ Russell, Bertrand (2000). History of Western Philosophy. Allen & Unwin, 462-463. ISBN 0-415-22854-9. 
  6. ^ W. M. Thorburn. The Myth of Occam's Razor. Mind. Oxford University. Retrieved on 2006-10-25.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Collins was a Scottish printing company founded by a schoolmaster, William Collins, in Glasgow in 1819. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Allen & Unwin, formerly a major British publishing house, is now an independent, Australia-based book publisher and distributor. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ... The history of science in the Middle Ages refers to the discoveries in the field of natural philosophy throughout the Middle Ages - the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history. ... Occam is a parallel programming language that builds on Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP) and shares many of their features. ... The Oxford Franciscan school was the name given to a group of scholastic philosophers that, in the context of the Renaissance of the 12th century, gave special contribution to the development of science and scientific methodology during the High Middle Ages. ...

External links

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This article is part of the Medieval Philosophers series
Augustine of Hippo | Boëthius | Johannes Scotus Eriugena | Rhazes | Roscelin | Avicenna | Algazel | Anselm of Canterbury | Bernard of Chartres | Peter Abélard | Gilbert de la Porrée | Hugh of St. Victor | Richard of St. Victor | Maimonides | Alexander of Hales | Averroës | Alain de Lille | Robert Grosseteste | Albertus Magnus | Roger Bacon | Bonaventure | Thomas Aquinas | Ramon Llull | Godfrey of Fontaines | Henry of Ghent | Giles of Rome | John Duns Scotus | William of Ockham | Jean Buridan | Nicole Oresme | George Gemistos Plethon | Johannes Bessarion | Francisco de Vitoria

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William of Ockham - definition of William of Ockham in Encyclopedia (505 words)
William was devoted to a life of extreme poverty and minimalism.
During this period, at the request of Brother Michael of Cesena, head of the Franciscan order, Ockham investigated the controversy between the Franciscans and the Papacy on the doctrine of apostolic poverty, which was central to Franciscan doctrine but anathema to the Pope.
Ockham concluded that Pope John XXII was a heretic, a position that he later put forth in writing.
William of Ockham [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] (3433 words)
William of Ockham, the Franciscan school man, nominalist, and "doctor invincibilis," was born at Ockham in 1280 and died in Munich on April 10, 1349.
Ockham became one of the emperor's principal advisers and literary defenders.
Ockham undoubtedly believed in the logical validity of his critical statements; but a complete overturning of the ecclesiastical organism was as far from his temperament as the creation of a new system of Scriptural theology.
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