FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > William Wallace
Sir William Wallace

Born 1270
Elderslie, Scotland
Died August 23, 1305
Smithfield, London, England
Occupation Landowner, later a fighter/commander in the Scottish Wars of Independence
Children Unknown
Parents Sir Malcolm Wallace, Margaret Wallace

Sir William Wallace (c. 1270August 23, 1305) was a knight and Scottish patriot, who led a resistance against the English occupation of Scotland during the Wars of Scottish Independence. William Wallace may refer to: William Wallace (1270–1305), a Scottish patriot William Wallace (footballer) (b. ... William Wallace at the battle of Stirling Bridge, 11th September, 1297, by Mark Churms. ... The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... Elderslie (Ach-na-Feàrna in Scottish Gaelic) is a village in Renfrewshire, Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events August 5 - English troops capture William Wallace Wenceslas III becomes king of Bohemia Archbishop of Bordeaux, Bertrand de Got, was elected as Pope Clement V. Philip IV of France accused the Knights Templar of heresy. ... Smithfield meat market from the south Smithfield is an area in the north-west part of the City of London (which is itself the historic core of a much larger London). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Landowner or Landholder is a holder of the estate in land with considerable rights of ownership or, simply put, an owner of land. ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of campaigns launched after the English invasion of Scotland in 1296. ... The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events August 5 - English troops capture William Wallace Wenceslas III becomes king of Bohemia Archbishop of Bordeaux, Bertrand de Got, was elected as Pope Clement V. Philip IV of France accused the Knights Templar of heresy. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... This article is about the country. ... Look up patriot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when the control and authority over a territory belonging to a state passes to a hostile army. ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ...


Wallace was the inspiration for the poem, The Acts and Deeds of Sir William Wallace, Knight of Elderslie, by the 15th century minstrel, Blind Harry. The 1995 film Braveheart is based on the poem. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... For the 18th century American form of music and performance known as minstrelsy, see minstrel show. ... Blind Harry (ca. ... Braveheart (1995) is a historical action/drama movie produced and directed by Mel Gibson, who also starred in the title role. ...

Contents

Certain origins

Wallace's birthdate and birthplace are disputed. While some suggest Wallace was born around 1270, the 16th century work, History of William Wallace and Scottish Affairs, claims 1276 as his year of birth. Traditionally his birthplace is claimed to be Elderslie, beside the neighbouring town of Johnstone, near Paisley in Renfrewshire. In support of the Elderslie origins some proposed that William's traditional father—known as Malcolm Wallace until recently when David Wallace's seal was found — David Wallace of Low Fell, a knight and vassal to James the Steward, actually came from Riccarton, Ayrshire, near Loudoun. The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... January 21 - Pope Innocent V succeeds Pope Gregory X as the 185th pope. ... Elderslie (Ach-na-Feàrna in Scottish Gaelic) is a village in Renfrewshire, Scotland. ... For people named Johnstone, see Johnstone (surname) Johnstone (Baile Eòin in Scottish Gaelic) is a town in Renfrewshire, Scotland, three miles west of neighbouring Paisley. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Renfrewshire (Siorrachd Rinn Friù in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary authority regions in Scotland. ... David Wallace or Dave Wallace can mean: David Wallace (governor) (1799-1859), American politician Dave Wallace (baseball) (born 1947), coach and player David Wallace (physicist) (born 1945), British David Wallace (actor) (born 1957), American David Foster Wallace (born 1962), American novelist Dave Wallace (musician) (fl. ... For the Fell in the Lake District, see Low Fell (Lake District). ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... James Stewart 5th High Steward of Scotland (c. ... The place-name of Riccarton may refer to: a parish in Ayrshire, Scotland a locality to the south-west of Edinburgh, Scotland a locality on the Taieri Plains in Otago, New Zealand Riccarton a suburb of Christchurch, New Zealand A long demolished Railway Junction on The Waverley Route in Scotland... Loudoun (Lughdan in Scottish Gaelic) is an area of East Ayrshire, Scotland, east of Kilmarnock. ...

Memorial outside Barts Hospital

To the contrary, the Elderslie origins are defended with the arguments that Ellerslie is a former mining village, known only from the 19th century, whereas Elderslie is known from earlier. Wallace's first action was at Lanark, which is about 30 miles (50 km) east of Elderslie and Ellerslie. Afterward he moved into Ayrshire to join some Scottish nobles who were fighting the English at Irvine. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 3072 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 3072 pixel, file size: 2. ... The King Henry VIII Gate at Barts, which was constructed in 1702. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Irvine is a coastal new town in Ayrshire, Scotland, administered by North Ayrshire council. ...


Tradition often describes Wallace as "a common person" in contrast to his countryman, Robert the Bruce, who came from the upper nobility. In fact Wallace's family were minor nobles (parish gentry) descending from Richard Wallace the Welshman (the name Wallace may mean "Welsh", or possibly 'foreigner'[1]) a landowner under an early member of the House of Stuart, which later 1296 as "crown tenant of Ayrshire" and concludes "'Sir' William Wallace was a younger son of Alan Wallace, a crown tenant in Ayrshire". Wallace was allegedly educated in Latin by two uncles who had become priests. Blind Harry does not mention Wallace's departure from Scotland or that Wallace had combat experience prior to 1297, probably because he did not have any. The 'war' in which, Harry says, Wallace senior was killed, did not actually take place. England and Scotland were at peace for three generations before Edward I's invasion of 1296. Robert I, King of Scots, usually known as Robert the Bruce (July 11, 1274 – June 7, 1329, reigned 1306 – 1329), was, according to a modern biographer (Geoffrey Barrow), a great hero who lived in a minor country. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... March 30 - Edward I stormed Berwick-upon-Tweed, sacking the then Scottish border town with much bloodshed. ... Ayrshire (Siorrachd Inbhir Àir in Scottish Gaelic) is a region of south-west Scotland, located on the shores of the Firth of Clyde. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Events 8 January - Monaco gains independence. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... March 30 - Edward I stormed Berwick-upon-Tweed, sacking the then Scottish border town with much bloodshed. ...


At the time of Wallace's birth, King Alexander III had reigned for over twenty years. His rule had seen a period of peace and economic stability, and he had successfully fended off continuing English claims to sovereignty. In 1286, Alexander died after falling from his horse. None of his children survived him. The Scottish lords declared Alexander's four-year-old granddaughter, Margaret (called "the Maid of Norway"), Queen. Due to her young age, the Scottish lords set up an interim government to administer Scotland until Margaret came of age. King Edward I of England (popularly known as "Longshanks," among other names) took advantage of the instability by arranging the Treaty of Birgham with the lords, betrothing Margaret to his son, Edward, on the understanding that Scotland would preserve its status as a separate kingdom. Margaret, however, fell ill and died at only seven years of age (1290) on her way from her native Norway to Scotland. A number of claimants to the Scottish throne came forward almost immediately. Coronation of King Alexander on Moot Hill, Scone. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Events Margaret I of Scotland became queen of Scotland, end of Canmore dynasty. ... Margaret (1283–1290), known as the Maid of Norway, is traditionally considered to have been Queen of Scots from 1286 until her death although she never came to Scotland and was never inaugurated at Scone. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Edward I; illustration from Cassells History of England circa 1902. ... The Treaty of Birgham comprised two treaties intended to secure the independence of Scotland after Alexander III died without issue in 1286. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... In politics, a country (or in some cases, a group of countries) over which a king or queen reigns, is a kingdom, see: monarchy. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ...


With Scotland threatening to descend into a dynastic war, the "leading men" of the realm invited Edward's arbitration - as a powerful neighbour and significant jurist he could hardly be ignored. Before the process could begin, he insisted, despite his word to the contrary, that all of the contenders recognize him as Lord Paramount of Scotland. After some initial resistance, all, including John Balliol and Robert Bruce, the chief contenders, accepted this precondition. Finally, in early November 1292, at a great feudal court held in the castle at Berwick-upon-Tweed, judgment was given in favour of John Balliol having the strongest claim in law. Formal announcement of the judgment was given by Edward on 17 November. King John, his crown and sceptre symbolically broken as depicted in the 1562 Forman Armorial, produced for Mary, Queen of Scots. ... Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale (Robert de Brus) (c 1220s - 31 March 1295), 5th Lord of Annandale, was a feudal lord in Scotland and northern England during prelude stages of Wars of Scottish Independence, a regent of Scotland in mid-13th century and finally a leading contender to be... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Map sources for Berwick-upon-Tweed at grid reference NT9952 Berwick-upon-Tweed from across the river Berwick-upon-Tweed, (pronounced Berrick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost town in England, situated on the east coast on the mouth of the river Tweed. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ...


Although the outcome of the Great Cause had been both fair and legal, Edward proceeded to use the political concessions he had gained to undermine the independence of Scotland and to make King John's position difficult. Balliol broke his promise and renounced his homage in March 1296 and by the end of the month Edward stormed Berwick-upon-Tweed, sacking the then-Scottish border town. He slaughtered almost all of his opponents who resided there, even if they fled to their homes. In April, the Scots were defeated at the Battle of Dunbar (1296) in Lothian and by July Edward had forced Balliol to abdicate at Kincardine Castle. Edward then instructed his officers to receive formal homage from some 1800 Scottish nobles (many of the rest being prisoners of war at that time), having previously removed the Stone of Destiny, the Scottish coronation stone, from Scone Palace, and taken it to London. In 1290, after the death of Margaret I of Scotland, the Crown of Scotland was without an immediate heir; however, there existed many distant heirs. ... For a description of the medieval homage ceremony see commendation ceremony Homage is generally used in modern English to mean any public show of respect to someone to whom you feel indebted. ... March 30 - Edward I stormed Berwick-upon-Tweed, sacking the then Scottish border town with much bloodshed. ... Map sources for Berwick-upon-Tweed at grid reference NT9952 Berwick-upon-Tweed from across the river Berwick-upon-Tweed, (pronounced Berrick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost town in England, situated on the east coast on the mouth of the river Tweed. ... Combatants Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of England Commanders John Bailliol John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey Strength Approx. ... Lothian (Lowden in Scots, Lodainn in Gaelic) forms a traditional region of Scotland, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills. ... The Stone of Scone, (pronounced scoon) also commonly known as the Stone of Destiny or the Coronation Stone (though the former name sometimes refers to Lia Fáil) is a block of sandstone historically kept at the now-ruined abbey in Scone, near Perth, Scotland. ... Scone Palace. ...


Military career

Wallace's exploits begin

Blind Harry invented a tale that Wallace's father was killed along with his brother John in a skirmish at Loudoun Hill in 1291 by the notorious Lambies, who came from the Clan Lamont. Blind Harry (ca. ... Loudoun Hill is a volcanic plug in East Ayrshire, Scotland. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Clan Lamont Crest: Ne parcas nec spernas (Neither spare nor dispose) Clan Lamont is a Highland Scottish clan // The Lamonts descend from the Scots who crossed the sea from Ireland. ...


According to local Ayrshire legend , two English soldiers challenged Wallace in the Lanark marketplace regarding his catching of fish. The argument escalated into a brawl in which the two soldiers were killed. Blind Harry places this incident along the River Irvine[2] with five soldiers being killed. The authorities issued a warrant for his arrest shortly thereafter. According to a plaque outside St. Paul's Cathedral in the City of Dundee, however, William Wallace began his war for independence by killing the son of the English governor of Dundee after he had made a habit of bullying Wallace and his family. This story perhaps has more weight because it is speculated that Wallace may have attended what is now the High School of Dundee, and spent some of his time growing up in the nearby village of Kilspindie. This article describes the town in Scotland. ... For the Scottish town of the same name see Irvine, Ayrshire. ... For other uses, see Dundee (disambiguation). ... The High School of Dundee, informally Dundee High School (HSD or DHS), is one of Scotlands leading public, or independent schools, and the only public school in Dundee. ...


Wallace's activities before 1297 are completely undocumented, but Harry states that Wallace was under the protection of his uncle Ronald Crawford, Sheriff of Ayrshire. He used this relationship to his advantage and there are unconfirmed reports of his early career as a petty criminal. In the period from 1296-1297 Wallace was involved in several actions where the English invariably lost. Events 8 January - Monaco gains independence. ... Sir Ronald (Reginald or Ranald) Crawford (~1240 - 1297) Sir Ronald Crawford was the 4th Sheriff of Ayrshire, Chief of Clan Crawford, and Lord of Loudon Castle. ... In England, a reeve was an official appointed to supervise lands for a lord. ...


Wallace allegedly slew and dismembered William Heselrig, the English Sheriff of Lanark, in May 1297, purportedly to avenge the death of Marion Braidfute of Lamington — the young maiden Wallace courted and married in Blind Harry's tale. Soon, he achieved victory in skirmishes at Loudoun Hill (near Darvel, Ayrshire) and Ayr; he also fought alongside Sir William Douglas the Hardy at Scone, routing the English justiciar, William Ormesby. Towns such as Aberdeen, Perth, Glasgow, Scone, Dundee, and all lands north of the Firth of Forth were freed. Look up Sheriff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Events 8 January - Monaco gains independence. ... Marrion Braidfute of Lamington was, according to Blind Harry, a maiden whom William Wallace courted and married. ... For other uses, see Lamington (disambiguation). ... Loudoun Hill is a volcanic plug in East Ayrshire, Scotland. ... , Darvel (Dervel locally) is a small town in East Ayrshire, Scotland, with a population of 3361. ... -1... Seal of William le Hardi Sir William Douglas le Hardi (the bold), Lord of Douglas (born after 1243-c. ... Scone is a large village, a mile north of Perth, Scotland. ... In medieval England and Scotland, the Chief Justiciar (latterly known simply as the Justiciar) was a rough equivalent to that of the modern Prime Minister: the Monarchs chief minister. ... For other uses, see Aberdeen (disambiguation). ... Perth (Scottish Gaelic: ) is a royal burgh in central Scotland. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... For the foodstuff see Scone (bread). ... For other uses, see Dundee (disambiguation). ... The Firth of Forth from Calton Hill The Forth Bridges cross the Firth Satellite photo of the Firth and the surrounding area Map of the Firth Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotlands River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea...


Supporters of the growing revolt suffered a major blow when Scottish nobles were forced to come to terms with the English at Irvine in July. In August, Wallace left Selkirk Forest with his followers to join Andrew Moray at Stirling. Moray began another uprising, and their forces combined at Stirling, where they prepared to meet the English in battle. Irvine is a coastal new town in Ayrshire, Scotland, administered by North Ayrshire council. ... Andrew Moray (La: Andreas de Moravia), (d. ... Broad Street at the heart of Stirlings Old Town area (called Top of the Town by locals) Stirling Castle (Southwest aspect) The main courtyard inside Stirling Castle. ...


According to Harry, these hit and run tactics eventually led King Edward to address the problem by executing most of the Council of Barons in the Barns of Ayr (June 1297), with a similar event in Renfrewshire - although these events are of questionable veracity.[citation needed] Ronald Crawford was apparently first to be hanged, sending Wallace, who had arrived at the location late after running an errand for his uncle, into action and killing the entire English garrison in Ayr, locking the doors as the garrison slept and firing the structures. Wallace and his men retired to Selkirk Forest for safety. When word reached the Crawford family that Ronald had been killed, Ronald's son, William, joined Wallace in the forest. Events 8 January - Monaco gains independence. ... Renfrewshire (Siorrachd Rinn Friù in Gaelic) is one of 32 unitary authority regions in Scotland. ... Sir Ronald (Reginald or Ranald) Crawford (~1240 - 1297) Sir Ronald Crawford was the 4th Sheriff of Ayrshire, Chief of Clan Crawford, and Lord of Loudon Castle. ...


As Wallace's ranks swelled, information obtained by John Graham prompted Wallace to move his force from Selkirk Forest to the Highlands, though there is no historical evidence to suggest that Wallace ever left the Lowland areas of Scotland other than his visit to France and his trip to the scaffold in London. Sir John de Graham was a Scottish soldier, born in the lands of Dundaff, in the late 13th century. ...


The Battle of Stirling Bridge

On 11 September 1297, Wallace won the Battle of Stirling Bridge. Although vastly outnumbered, the Scottish forces led by Wallace and Andrew Moray routed the English army. The Earl of Surrey's professional army of 3,000 cavalry and 10,000 infantry met disaster as they crossed over to the north side of the river. The narrowness of the bridge prevented many soldiers from crossing together (possibly as few as three men abreast), so while the English soldiers crossed, the Scots held back until half of them had passed and then killed the English as quickly as they could cross. is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 8 January - Monaco gains independence. ... Combatants Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of England Commanders Andrew de Moray† William Wallace John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey Hugh de Cressingham† Strength 300 cavalry 10,000 infantry 1000 - 3000 cavalry 15,000 - 50,000 infantry Casualties Comparatively slight 6,000 killed, or around 30-40% dead. ... Andrew Moray (La: Andreas de Moravia), (d. ... Arms of the Warrens of Surrey The Earldom of Surrey was first created in 1088 for William de Warenne. ...

Stirling Bridge as of 2006.
Stirling Bridge as of 2006.

A pivotal charge, led by one of Wallace's captains, caused some of the English soldiers to retreat as others pushed forward, and under the overwhelming weight, the bridge collapsed and many English soldiers drowned. Harry claims that the bridge was rigged to collapse by the action of a man hidden beneath the bridge. The Scots won a significant victory which hugely boosted the confidence of their army. Hugh Cressingham, Edward's treasurer in Scotland, died in the fighting. Cressingham's skin was allegedly tanned and used to make trophy belts and sporrans by the Scots. William Crawford led 400 Scottish heavy cavalry to complete the action by running the English out of Scotland. It is widely believed that Moray died of wounds suffered on the battlefield sometime in the winter of 1297-98, but an inquisition into the affairs of his uncle, Sir William Moray of Bothwell, held at Berwick in late November 1300, records he was "slain at Stirling against the king." Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 749 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 749 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Battle of Stirling Bridge Battle of Stirling Bridge: William Wallace only engaged the English vanguard, but his annihilation of that 5,400-man force put the rest to flight. ... Semi dress black leather sporran A Sporran is a pouch made of leather or fur that is worn on a chain around the waist on the front of a kilt. ... Map sources for Berwick-upon-Tweed at grid reference NT9952 Berwick-upon-Tweed from across the river Berwick-upon-Tweed, (pronounced Berrick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost town in England, situated on the east coast on the mouth of the river Tweed. ...


Upon his return from the Battle of Stirling Bridge, Wallace was knighted along with his second-in-command John Graham and his third-in-command William Crawford, possibly by Robert the Bruce, and Wallace was named "Guardian of Scotland and Leader of its armies". William Crawford is the name of: William Crawford (soldier) (1732–1782), soldier in American Revolution, western land agent of George Washington, burnt at the stake by Native Americans William Crawford (London MP), British MP for the City of London, 1833–1841 William Crawford (Sir), Scottish knight William H. Crawford (1772...


In the six months following Stirling Bridge, Wallace led a raid into northern England. His intent was to take the battle to English soil to demonstrate to Edward that Scotland also had the power to inflict the same sort of damage south of the border. Naturally, Edward was infuriated but he refused to be intimidated.


The Battle of Falkirk

A year later, Wallace lost the Battle of Falkirk. On 1 April 1298, the English invaded Scotland at Roxburgh. They plundered Lothian and regained some castles, but had failed to bring Wallace to combat. The Scots adopted a scorched-earth policy in their own country, and English quartermasters' failure to prepare for the expedition left morale and food low, but Edward's search for Wallace would not end at Falkirk. Combatants Scotland England Commanders William Wallace Edward I of England Strength 500 cavalry, 9,500 infantry 2,000 cavalry, 12,000 infantry. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 2 - The Battle of Göllheim is fought between Albert I of Habsburg and Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg. ... Historically, the Royal Burgh of Roxburgh (Gaelic: Rosbrog), in the Scottish Borders, was an important trading burgh in the economy of Scotland. ... Lothian (Lowden in Scots, Lodainn in Gaelic) forms a traditional region of Scotland, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills. ... A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ... Falkirk (An Eaglais Bhreac, the Variagated [or Speckled] Church [presumably referring to a church building built of many-coloured stones]) in Scottish Gaelic, La Chapelle de Fayerie in French) is a town in central Scotland lying to the north west and north east of the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow...


Wallace arranged his spearmen in four "schiltrons" — circular, hedgehog formations surrounded by a defensive wall of wooden stakes. The English gained the upper hand, however, attacking first with cavalry, and breaking up the Scottish archers. The Scottish knights withdrew, and Edward's men began to attack the schiltrons. It remains unclear whether the infantry firing bolts, arrows and stones at the spearmen proved the deciding factor, although it is very likely that it was the arrows of Edward's bowmen. A schiltron or schiltrom is a group of men carrying pikes and polearms. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ...


Either way, gaps in the schiltrons soon appeared, and the English exploited these to crush the remaining resistance. The Scots lost many men. Wallace escaped, though his military reputation suffered badly. John Graham was killed and William Crawford became Wallace's second. According to one account, during his flight Wallace fought and killed Brian de Jay, master of the English Templars in a thicket at Callendar. The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici), popularly known as the Knights Templar or the Order of the Temple, were among the most famous of the Christian military orders. ...


By September 1298, Wallace had decided to resign as Guardian of Scotland in favour of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, and John Comyn of Badenoch, ex-King John Balliol's brother-in-law. Bruce became reconciled with King Edward in 1302, while Wallace spurned such moves towards peace. The Earldom of Carrick has been created several times in the Peerage of Scotland and once in the Peerage of Ireland. ... John Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, nicknamed the Red Comyn, (died 10 February 1306) was a Scottish patriot and royal Competitor. ... Badenoch, a district of south-east Inverness-shire in Scotland, bounded on the north by the Monadhliath mountains, on the east by the Cairngorms and Braemar, on the south by Atholl and the Grampians, and on the west by Lochaber. ... Events July 11 - Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch), major victory of Flanders over the French occupier. ...


According to Harry, Wallace left with William Crawford in late 1298 on a mission to the court of Philip le Bel King of France to plead the case for assistance in the Scottish struggle for independence. On their trip down the English coast, the small convoy ran into the infamous pirate Richard Longoville, also known as the Red Reiver for his red sails and ruthless raids. Hiding in the hold of the ship while Crawford and a small contingent of men sailed, Wallace surprised the pirates as they boarded the ship. Longoville was captured and taken to Paris where the Scots convinced Phillip to grant amnesty so that Longoville could prey on English ships. This last story is one of many recorded by Blind Harry for which there is no evidence. Harry also invented a major action against Edward I at Biggar, which, though often cited, never actually occurred. “Philip the Fair” redirects here. ...


Modern tradition asserts that he served with the Garde Écossaise in France - despite the fact that the Guards would not be formed for more than 100 years - in two battles with the English which history has not recorded and made a side trip to Rome to plead for Scotland, which, similarly, was never recorded. In 1303, Squire Guthrie was sent to France to ask Wallace and his men to return to Scotland, which they did that same year. They slipped in under the cover of darkness to recover on the farm of William Crawford, near Elcho Wood. Having heard rumors of Wallace's appearance in the area, the English moved in on the farm. A chase ensued and the band of men slipped away after being surrounded in Elcho Wood. Here, Wallace took the life of one of his men that he suspected of disloyalty, in order to divert the English from the trail. Life Guards of Louis XIV The Scots Guards or Garde Écossaise was an elite Scots military unit founded 1420 by the Valois Charles VII of France, to be personal Body-guards to the French Monarchy. ... Guthrie may refer to the following places: Guthrie, Oklahoma Guthrie, Kentucky Guthrie County, Iowa Guthrie, Texas and to the following people Arlo Guthrie, folk singer. ...


Wallace's capture and execution

Wallace evaded capture by the English until 5 August 1305 when John de Menteith, a Scottish knight loyal to Edward, turned Wallace over to English soldiers at Robroyston near Glasgow. Wallace was transported to London and tried for treason and the execution of civilians and prisoners at Westminster Hall where he was crowned with a garland of oak to suggest that he was the king of outlaws. He responded to the treason charge, "I could not be a traitor to Edward, for I was never his subject." With this, Wallace asserted that the absent John Balliol was officially his king. Wallace was declared guilty. is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events August 5 - English troops capture William Wallace Wenceslas III becomes king of Bohemia Archbishop of Bordeaux, Bertrand de Got, was elected as Pope Clement V. Philip IV of France accused the Knights Templar of heresy. ... 1. ... The Site of William Wallaces capture, in Robroyston The countryside surrounding Robroyston Robroyston (Bhaile na Raibert Ruadh in Gaelic) is a northeastern suburb of the city of Glasgow, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... For other senses of this word, see outlaw (disambiguation). ... John Balliol, the son of Devorguilla Balliol and John, 5th Baron de Balliol, was the king of Scotland from November 17, 1292-1296. ...


Following the trial, on 23 August 1305, Wallace was taken from the hall, stripped naked and dragged through the city at the heels of a horse to Smooth Field. He was hanged, drawn and quartered — strangled by hanging but released while still alive, emasculated, eviscerated and his bowels burnt before him, beheaded, then cut into four parts — at the Elms in Smithfield. His preserved head was placed on a pike atop London Bridge. It was later joined by the heads of his brothers, John, and Simon Fraser. His limbs were displayed, separately, in Newcastle, Berwick, Stirling, and Aberdeen. is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events August 5 - English troops capture William Wallace Wenceslas III becomes king of Bohemia Archbishop of Bordeaux, Bertrand de Got, was elected as Pope Clement V. Philip IV of France accused the Knights Templar of heresy. ... Smithfield meat market from the south Smithfield is an area in the north-west part of the City of London (which is itself the historic core of a much larger London). ... To be hanged, drawn and quartered was the penalty once ordained in England for treason. ... Emasculation is the removal of the genitalia of a male, notably the penis and/or the testicles, by surgery, violence, or accident (see castration). ... Disembowelment is evisceration, or the removing of some or all of vital organs, usually from the abdomen. ... For other uses, see London Bridge (disambiguation). ... Simon Fraser of Oliver and Neidpath, Knight Banneret fought in the Wars of Scottish Independence. ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ... Map sources for Berwick-upon-Tweed at grid reference NT9952 Berwick-upon-Tweed from across the river Berwick-upon-Tweed, (pronounced Berrick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost town in England, situated on the east coast on the mouth of the river Tweed. ... Broad Street at the heart of Stirlings Old Town area (called Top of the Town by locals) Stirling Castle (Southwest aspect) The main courtyard inside Stirling Castle. ... This article is about the Scottish city. ...

William Wallace Statue, Aberdeen.
William Wallace Statue, Aberdeen.

A plaque stands in a wall of St. Bartholomew's Hospital near the site of Wallace's execution at Smithfield. Scottish patriots and other interested people frequently visit the site and flowers often appear there. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 589 pixelsFull resolution (2539 × 1869 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 589 pixelsFull resolution (2539 × 1869 pixel, file size: 2. ... The main entrance at Barts, which was built in 1702. ...


The Wallace Sword, which supposedly belonged to Wallace, although some parts are at least 160 years later in origin, was held for many years in Loudoun Castle and is now in the Wallace National Monument near Stirling. The Wallace Sword The Wallace Sword is an ancient Claymore type of sword purported to have belonged to William Wallace (1270 - 1305), a knight and Scottish patriot who led a resistance to the English occupation of Scotland during the Wars of Scottish Independence. ... Loudoun Castle is a developing theme park set around the ruins of Loudoun Castle in Galston in the Loudoun area, South-West Scotland. ... The monument The monument seen from the University of Stirling The Wallace National Monument (generally known as the Wallace Monument) is a tower standing on the summit of Abbey Craig, a hilltop near Stirling in Scotland. ... Broad Street at the heart of Stirlings Old Town area (called Top of the Town by locals) Stirling Castle (Southwest aspect) The main courtyard inside Stirling Castle. ...


Portrayal in fiction

Mel Gibson's portrayal of William Wallace in Braveheart
Mel Gibson's portrayal of William Wallace in Braveheart

Comprehensive and historically accurate information was written about Wallace, but many stories are based on the wandering 15th century minstrel Blind Harry's epic poem, "The Acts and Deeds of Sir William Wallace, Knight of Elderslie", written around 1470. Historians either reject almost all of the parts of Blind Harry's tale, or dismiss the entire composition. Although Blind Harry wrote from oral tradition describing events 170 years earlier, giving rise to alterations of fact, Harry's is not in any sense an authoritative description of Wallace's exploits. Indeed, hardly any of Harry's work is supported by circumstantial evidence including names from land charters, the Ragman Roll, and religious and public office holders and their archives. While not all details are consistent, the general flow is consistent with contemporary histories. Several modern writers note that the Bishop of St. Andrew's did commission a friar to write a first-hand account of Wallace's exploits, but the existence, let alone the disposition of this manuscript is not known. Image File history File links Brave_mel. ... Image File history File links Brave_mel. ... Braveheart (1995) is a historical action/drama movie produced and directed by Mel Gibson, who also starred in the title role. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ... After the death of Queen Margaret in 1291, there were a number of claimants to the Scottish throne. ...


Blind Harry's poem Barns of Ay, for example, describes a mythical incident when three hundred and sixty Scottish nobles, led by Wallace’s uncle, Ronald Crawford, were summoned by the English to a conference in Spring of 1297. As each passed through a narrow entry, a rope was dropped around his neck and he was hanged. It is speculated that Blind Harry misread a line from an earlier poem about Robert the Bruce, which tells how certain Scottish nobles were hanged "in ar" (a legal term meaning "by a circuit court"). There is no evidence that Harry ever read the earlier poem; however, it would be most surprising if he had not, since The Bruce (by John Barbour) was certainly the most famous Scottish book of the time. (There is some uncertainty about how Blind Harry could read anything, if his name is apt.) The incident as described by Blind Harry does appear in the 1995 film Braveheart with even less accuracy, placing the event in the childhood of Wallace and ignoring the murder of his uncle Crawford. Nevertheless, Ronald Crawford did die at this time and his son replaced him as Sheriff of Ayrshire, giving some credence to the story. Sir Ronald (Reginald or Ranald) Crawford (~1240 - 1297) Sir Ronald Crawford was the 4th Sheriff of Ayrshire, Chief of Clan Crawford, and Lord of Loudon Castle. ... Robert I, King of Scots, usually known as Robert the Bruce (July 11, 1274 – June 7, 1329, reigned 1306 – 1329), was, according to a modern biographer (Geoffrey Barrow), a great hero who lived in a minor country. ... Braveheart (1995) is a historical action/drama movie produced and directed by Mel Gibson, who also starred in the title role. ...


In the early 19th century, Walter Scott wrote of Wallace in Exploits and Death of William Wallace, the "Hero of Scotland", and Jane Porter penned a romantic version of the Wallace legend in The Scottish Chiefs in 1810. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Raeburns portrait of Sir Walter Scott in 1822. ... Jane Porter, from The Ladies Monthly Museum Jane Porter (1776-1850), was born in the Bailey in Durham City. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


G.A. Henty wrote a novel in 1885 about this time period titled In Freedom's Cause. Henty, a producer of Boys Own fiction who wrote for that magazine, portrays the life of William Wallace, Robert the Bruce, The Black Douglas, and others, while dovetailing the novel with historical fiction. George Alfred Henty (December 8, 1832 - November 16, 1902), commonly referred to as G. A. Henty, was a prolific British novelist, war correspondent, and Imperialist born in Trumpington, England. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Boys Own Paper was a British story paper aimed at young and teenage boys, published from 1879 to 1967. ... Arms of The Good Sir James Sir James Douglas (also known as Guid Sir James and the Black Douglas), (1286 – August 25, 1330), was a Scottish soldier and knight who fought in the Scottish Wars of Independence. ... Look up historical fiction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Nigel Tranter wrote a historical novel titled The Wallace, published in 1975, which is said by academics to be more accurate than its literary predecessors. Nigel Tranter (November 23, 1909 – January 9, 2000) was a Scottish historian and author. ... Nigel Tranter is a Scottish author who wrote many novels based on actual historical events and characters. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Perhaps the best known account of the life of William Wallace is the 1995 film Braveheart, directed by and starring the actor Mel Gibson, written by Randall Wallace, and filmed in both Scotland and Ireland. This film was a commercial and critical success, winning five Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director. While the film is allegedly based on historic events, it contains numerous historical errors[3]. The most prominent factual error is the suggestion that Wallace sired Edward III, someone born seven years after his death, through a romance with Isabella of France, a ten year old child at the time of his death whom he never met. Additionally, the nickname "braveheart" originally referred to Robert the Bruce, not Wallace. Furthermore, William Wallace and, future king, Robert Bruce never actually met and were fighting effectively on different sides. Wallace was fiercely loyal to King John Balliol while Robert Bruce upheld his own claim to the Scottish throne. Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Braveheart (1995) is a historical action/drama movie produced and directed by Mel Gibson, who also starred in the title role. ... It has been suggested that Mel Gibson DUI incident be merged into this article or section. ... Randall Wallace is an American screenwriter, producer and director. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... // The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Academy Awards, awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, which are voted on by others within the industry. ... The Academy Award for Directing is one of the awards given to directors working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. ... Edward III King of England Edward III (13 November 1312–21 June 1377) was one of the most successful English Kings of medieval times. ... Isabella returns to England with her son, Edward III. Jean Fouquet, 1455x1460. ... Robert I, King of Scots, usually known as Robert the Bruce (July 11, 1274 – June 7, 1329, reigned 1306 – 1329), was, according to a modern biographer (Geoffrey Barrow), a great hero who lived in a minor country. ...


In March of 1998 Iron Maiden released the album Virtual XI which contained the 8:59 epic track "The Clansman", loosely based on the life of William Wallace. Iron Maiden bassist Steve Harris states that the song was inspired by the films Braveheart and Rob Roy, starting first as two separate songs before they were melded into one. This article is about the band. ... Virtual XI is the British heavy metal band Iron Maidens 11th studio album, released March 23, 1998. ... Steve Harris can refer to several people: Steve Harris (musician) - founding member and bassist of the band Iron Maiden. ... Braveheart (1995) is a historical action/drama movie produced and directed by Mel Gibson, who also starred in the title role. ... Rob Roy can mean different things: Rob Roy is a colloquial name for Scottish hero Robert Roy MacGregor, who has been described as the Scottish Robin Hood. ...


Trivia

  • William Wallace was supposedly very tall, even by today's standards. He was thought to have been about 6'6".
  • In 2002, Wallace was ranked 48th in the 100 Greatest Britons poll.
  • In 2003 William Wallace was voted the tenth "Most Scottish Person in the World" by the readers of The Glasgow Herald under his cinematic nickname, Braveheart.

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... // In 2002, the BBC conducted a vote to determine whom the general public considers the 100 greatest Britons of all time. ... Charles Mackintoshs Glasgow Herald building, now The Lighthouse The Herald is a national broadsheet newspaper published Monday to Saturday in Glasgow, Scotland, with an audited circulation of 71,000, making it the best-selling national Scottish broadsheet newspaper. ... Braveheart (1995) is a historical action/drama movie produced and directed by Mel Gibson, who also starred in the title role. ...

Bibliography

  1. ^ http://surnames.behindthename.com/php/search.php?terms=wallace
  2. ^ Adamson, Archibald R. (1875). Rambles Round Kilmarnock. Pub. Kilmarnock. Pps. 49 - 50.
  3. ^ http://medievalscotland.org/scotbiblio/bravehearterrors.shtml Medieval Scotland website
  • Brown, Chris. William Wallace. The True Story of Braveheart. Stroud: Tempus Publishing Ltd, 2005. ISBN 0-7524-3432-2.
  • Clater-Roszak, Christine. "Sir William Wallace ignited a flame." Military History 14 (1997): 12–15. .
  • Folklore, Myths and Legends of Britain. London: The Reader’s Digest Association, 1973, 519-20.
  • Harris, Nathaniel. Heritage of Scotland: A Cultural History of Scotland & Its People. London: Hamlyn, 2000. ISBN 0-600-59834-9..
  • MacLean, Fitzroy. Scotland: A Concise History. London: Thames & Hudson, 1997. ISBN 0-500-27706-0.
  • Morton, Graeme. William Wallace. London: Sutton, 2004. ISBN 0-7509-3523-5.
  • Reese, Peter. William Wallace: A Biography. Edinburgh: Canongate, 1998. ISBN 0-86241-607-8.
  • Scott, Sir Walter. "Exploits and death of William Wallace, the 'Hero of Scotland'."
  • Stead, Michael J., and Alan Young. In the Footsteps of William Wallace. London: Sutton, 2002.
  • Tranter, Nigel. The Wallace: The Compelling 13th Century Story of William Wallace. McArthur & Co., 1997. ISBN 0-3402-1237-3.
  • Wallace, Margaret. William Wallace: Champion of Scotland. Musselborough: Goblinshead, 1999. ISBN 1-899874-19-4.

See also

The monument The monument seen from the University of Stirling The Wallace National Monument (generally known as the Wallace Monument) is a tower standing on the summit of Abbey Craig, a hilltop near Stirling in Scotland. ... The Clan Wallace or the Wallace Family originated in the Strathclyde area of the Scottish Lowlands. ... Campbell Clan Badge - A Boars head represents the positive qualities of the boar: courage and fierceness in battle. ... The Lugar Water, or River Lugar, is created by the confluence of Bello Water and Guelt Water, both of which flow from the hills of the Southern Uplands in East Ayrshire, Scotland. ... Josep Moragues Joan Moragues i Mas was a Catalonian general on the Austrian side during War of the Spanish Succession. ... Robert I, King of Scots (Mediaeval Gaelic:Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys; 11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), usually known in modern English as Robert the Bruce, was King of Scotland from 1306 until his death in 1329. ... For the Scottish town of the same name see Irvine, Ayrshire. ... Andrew Moray (La: Andreas de Moravia), (d. ... 1. ... Jack short was the betrayer of Scottish legend Sir William Wallace ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
William Wallace
  • Location of William Wallace's home
  • Wallace & Bruce

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sir William Wallace of Ellerslie "from Outlaw to Guardian of Scotland" - Background (980 words)
Though William Wallace could read and write he was probably more interested in activities such as horsemanship, hunting and swordmanship - sparring with his elder brother Sir Malcolm Wallace Jnr.
When William Wallace was seventeen or eighteen years old he travelled to Dunipace to further his education and lodged with an uncle (a younger brother of his father), a cleric at the chapelry of Cambuskenneth Abbey.
William Wallace then attended the nearby church school in Dundee, to be doctrine in the ways of the priesthood.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m