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Encyclopedia > William Walker (soldier)
William Walker

William Walker (May 8, 1824September 12, 1860) was a U.S. physician, lawyer, journalist, adventurer, and soldier of fortune who attempted to conquer several Latin American countries in the mid-19th century. He held the presidency of the Republic of Nicaragua from 1856 to 1857 and was executed by the government of Honduras in 1860. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 422 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2111 × 3000 pixel, file size: 699 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): William Walker (soldier) ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 422 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2111 × 3000 pixel, file size: 699 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): William Walker (soldier) ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (129th in leap years). ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The Doctor by Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... English barrister 16th century painting of a civil law notary, by Flemish painter Quentin Massys. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A mercenary, is a person who takes part in an armed conflict and is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a Party to the conflict, material compensation substantially in excess of that... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ...

Contents

Biography

Of Scottish descent, Walker was born in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1824. His mother was Mary Norvell, the daughter of Lt. Lipscomb Norvell, a Revolutionary War officer who could trace his lineage back to the founding of Williamsburg. Lipscomb was also the father of U.S. Senator John Norvell, one of the first senators of Michigan and founder of The Philadelphia Inquirer. Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic)1 Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime... Nickname: Location in Davidson County and the state of Tennessee Coordinates: Country United States State Tennessee Counties Davidson County Founded: 1779 Incorporated: 1806 Government  - Mayor Bill Purcell (D) Area  - City  526. ... John Norvell (December 21, 1789–April 24 (sometimes given as April 11), 1850) was a newspaper editor and one of the first U.S. Senators from Michigan. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... The Philadelphia Inquirer is one of a two Knight Ridder newspaper duopoly daily for the Philadelphia area. ...


William Walker graduated summa cum laude from the University of Nashville at the early age of fourteen. He then traveled throughout Europe, studying medicine at the universities of Edinburgh and Heidelberg. At the age of 19 he received a medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania and practiced briefly in Philadelphia before moving to New Orleans to study law. Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of academic distinction with which an academic degree was earned. ... In an effort to create a southern teachers college, the grounds and buildings of the University of Nashville were donated to the George Peabody College for Teachers in 1909. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... The Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg (German Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; also known as simply University of Heidelberg) was established in the town of Heidelberg in the Rhineland in 1386. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ...


After a short stint as a lawyer, Walker became co-owner and editor of the New Orleans Crescent, a local newspaper. In 1849 he moved to San Francisco, California, where he worked as a journalist and fought three duels, in two of which he was wounded. Around that time Walker conceived the project of privately conquering vast regions of Latin America, where he would create states ruled by white English speakers. Such campaigns were then known as filibustering. Nickname: Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California City-County San Francisco Government  - Mayor Gavin Newsom Area  - City  47 sq mi (122 km²)  - Land  46. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... A filibuster is a private individual who engages in unauthorized warfare against a foreign country, often with the intent of overthrowing the existing government. ...


Expedition to Baja California and Sonora

On October 15, 1853 with 45 men, Walker set out on his first filibustering expedition: the conquest of the Mexican territories of Baja California and Sonora. He succeeded in capturing La Paz, the capital of the sparsely populated Baja California, which he declared the capital of a new Republic of Lower California, with himself as president. Although he never gained control of Sonora, less than three months later he pronounced Baja California part of the larger Republic of Sonora. Lack of supplies and an unexpectedly strong resistance by the Mexican government quickly forced Walker to retreat. Back in California, he was put on trial for conducting an illegal war. In the era of Manifest Destiny, his filibustering project was popular in the southern and western United States and the jury took eight minutes to acquit him. October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Baja California (highlighted) Alternative use: Baja California (state) Baja California or Lower California is a peninsula in the west of Mexico. ... Sonora is a state in northwestern Mexico, bordering the states of Chihuahua to the east, Sinaloa to the south, and Baja California to the northwest. ... The Bay of La Paz, as seen from the International Space Station La Paz, the capital of Baja California Sur, Mexico, is a small city on the shores of the Gulf of California. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... In legal parlance, a trial is an event in which parties to a dispute present information (in the form of evidence) in a formal setting, usually a court, before a judge, jury, or other designated finder of fact, in order to achieve a resolution to their dispute. ... This painting (circa 1872) by John Gast called American Progress is an allegorical representation of Manifest Destiny. ...


Self-proclaimed ruler of Nicaragua

A civil war was then raging in the Central American republic of Nicaragua, and the rebel faction hired Walker as a mercenary. Evading the federal U.S. authorities charged with preventing his departure, Walker sailed from San Francisco on May 4, 1855 with 57 men, to be reinforced by 170 locals and about 100 Americans upon landing. On September 1, he defeated the Nicaraguan national army at La Virgen and, a month later, conquered the capital of Granada and took control of the country. Initially, as commander of the army, Walker controlled Nicaragua through puppet president Patricio Rivas. Despite the obvious illegality of his expedition, U.S. President Franklin Pierce recognized Walker's regime as the legitimate government of Nicaragua on May 20, 1856. Walker's agents recruited American and European men to sail to the region and fight for the conquest of the other four Central American nations: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Costa Rica. He was able to recruit over a thousand American mercenaries, transported free by the Accessory Transit Company controlled by Wall Street tycoon Cornelius Vanderbilt. A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... A mercenary, is a person who takes part in an armed conflict and is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a Party to the conflict, material compensation substantially in excess of that... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 1855 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Granada, with an estimated population of about 116,000 (2005) is the oldest city in Central America and the oldest on the mainland of the Americas. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Patricio Rivas was President of Nicaragua in 1839. ... Birthplace of Franklin Pierce Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the 14th President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (141st in leap years). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Accessory Transit Company was a company set up by Cornelius Vanderbilt and others during the California Gold Rush in the 1850s, to transport would-be prospectors from the east coast of the United States to the west coast. ... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... Cornelius Vanderbilt Cornelius Vanderbilt I (May 27, 1794 – January 4, 1877), also known by the sobriquets The Commodore [1] [2] or Commodore Vanderbilt [3], was an American entrepreneur who built his wealth in shipping and railroads and was the patriarch of the Vanderbilt family. ...


At the time, the major trade route between New York City and San Francisco ran through southern Nicaragua. Ships from New York would enter the San Juan River from the Atlantic and sail across Lake Nicaragua. People and goods would then be transported by stagecoach over a narrow strip of land near the city of Rivas, before reaching the Pacific and being shipped to San Francisco. The commercial exploitation of this route had been granted by a previous Nicaraguan administration to Vanderbilt's Accessory Transit Company, who supported Walker in the hopes that he would stabilize Nicaragua and facilitate the construction of an east-west railroad linking the Atlantic and Pacific oceans (presumably to be built and run by Vanderbilt). But as ruler of Nicaragua, Walker revoked the Transit Company's charter, claiming that the company had violated the agreement. He then granted use of the route to Vanderbilt's rivals in the Accessory Transit Company, Cornelius K. Garrison and Charles Morgan, who had offered Walker a large sum of money and support for his military campaign in exchange for control of the inter-oceanic corridor. New York, NY redirects here. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... NY redirects here. ... The San Juan River is a 180 kilometer river located in Nicaragua which connects the Caribbean with Lake Nicaragua. ... “Atlantic” redirects here. ... Lake Nicaragua (Spanish: Lago de Nicaragua) or Lake Cocibolca (Lago Cocibolca) is a freshwater lake in Nicaragua and it is of tectonic origin. ... Stagecoach in Switzerland A stagecoach is a type of four-wheeled enclosed passenger and/or mail coach, strongly sprung and drawn by four horses, widely used before the introduction of railway transport. ... Rivas, Nicaragua Rivas, Nicaragua Rivas is a city, municipality, and department (subnational entity) in southwestern Nicaragua on the Isthmus of the same name. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Cornelius Kingsland Garrison (March 1, 1809 - May 1, 1885) was a shipbuilder, capitalist, and Mayor of San Francisco (1853-1854). ... Charles Morgan (1795 - 1878) was a U.S. railroad and shipping magnate. ...


Outraged, Vanderbilt successfully pressured the U.S. government to withdraw its recognition of Walker's regime. Walker had also scared his neighbors with talk of further military conquests in Central America. Vanderbilt helped to finance and train a military coalition of these states, led by Costa Rica, and worked to prevent men and supplies from reaching Walker. He also provided defectors from Walker's army with free passage back to the U.S.


In July 1856, Walker set himself up as president of Nicaragua, after conducting an uncontested election. Realizing that his position was becoming precarious, he sought support from the Southerners in the U.S. by recasting his campaign as a fight to spread the institution of slavery, which many American Southern businessmen saw as the basis of their large and prosperous tobacco, sugar, and cotton exporting businesses. With this in mind, Walker revoked Nicaragua's emancipation edict of 1824, which had made slavery illegal. This move did increase Walker's popularity in the South and attracted the attention of Pierre Soulé, an influential New Orleans politician, who campaigned to raise support for Walker's war. Nevertheless, Walker's army, thinned by an epidemic of cholera and massive defections, was no match for the Central American coalition and Vanderbilt's agents. On May 1, 1857 Walker surrendered to Commander Charles H. Davis of the United States Navy and was repatriated. Upon disembarking in New Orleans he was greeted as a hero, but he alienated public opinion when he blamed his defeat on the U.S. Navy. After being defeated by the Costa Rican army twice, he went into hiding. Within six months he had set off on another expedition, but he was arrested by the U.S. Navy Home Squadron under the command of Commodore Hiram Paulding and once again returned to the U.S. amid considerable public controversy over the legality of the Navy's actions. President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... Historic Southern United States. ... Slave redirects here. ... Pierre Soulé (August 31, 1801–March 26, 1870) was a U.S. politician and diplomat during the mid-19th century. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Charles Harold Davis (1856 or 1857 – 1933) was an American landscape painter. ... The United States Navy, also known as the USN or the U.S. Navy, is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ... The Home Squadron was part of the United States Navy in the mid 1800s. ... Hiram Paulding (1797-1878) was a Rear Admiral in the United States Navy, who served from the War of 1812 until after the Civil War. ...


William Walker and his army were defeated by Costa Rica's improvised Army on 11 April 1856. Juan Santamaría played a key role in that by burning the Filibustero headquarters. April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Juan Santamaría (August 29, 1831 - April 11, 1856), is officially recognized as the national hero of the Republic of Costa Rica. ...


Death in Honduras

After writing an account of his Central American campaign (published in 1860 as War in Nicaragua), Walker returned to the region yet again. He disembarked in the port city of Trujillo, in the Republic of Honduras, and soon fell into the custody of Captain Salmon of the Royal Navy. The British government controlled the neighboring regions of British Honduras (now Belize) and the Mosquito Coast (now part of Nicaragua) and had considerable strategic and economic interest in the construction of an inter-oceanic canal through Central America. It therefore regarded Walker as a menace to its own affairs in the region. Flag of Trujillo Trujillo is a city in northeastern Honduras along the Caribbean coast. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The article is about the Central American area. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ...


Rather than return him to the U.S., Capt. Salmon delivered Walker to the Honduran authorities, who executed him near the site of the present-day hospital by firing squad on September 12, 1860. Walker was 36 years old. He is buried in the Cementerio Viejo in the coastal town of Trujillo. His grave is marked by a simple stone engraved "WILLIAM WALKER" with a metal plaque reading "WILLIAM WALKER -FUSILADO- 12 SEPTIEMBRE 1860." (Fusilado = Shot to Death) The Executions of the Third of May by Francisco Goya Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, particularly common in times of war. ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ...


(Below is a 2003 picture of the tombstone.)

Influence and reputation

William Walker convinced many Southerners of the desirability of creating a slave-holding empire in tropical Latin America. In 1861, when U.S. Senator John J. Crittenden proposed that the 36°30' parallel north be declared as a line of demarcation between free and slave territories, Abraham Lincoln, of the anti-slavery Republican Party, denounced such an arrangement, saying that it "would amount to a perpetual covenant of war against every people, tribe, and State owning a foot of land between here and Tierra del Fuego." Scholars debate about what exactly constitutes an empire (from the Latin imperium, denoting military command within the ancient Roman government). ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... John Jordan Crittenden (September 10, 1786–July 26, 1863) was an American statesman. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Tierra del Fuego (Spanish for Land of Fire) (English pronunciation ; Spanish ) is an archipelago, 28,476 sq mi (73,753 km²), separated from the southernmost tip of the South American mainland by the Strait of Magellan. ...


Before the end of the American Civil War, Walker enjoyed great popularity in the southern and western United States, where he was known as "General Walker" and as the "grey-eyed man of destiny." Northerners, on the other hand, generally regarded him as a pirate. Despite his intelligence and personal charm, Walker consistently proved to be a more limited military and political leader, as well as a man given to impractical, grandiose scheming. This article is becoming very long. ... The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack Piracy is robbery committed at sea, or sometimes on the shore, by an agent without a commission from a sovereign nation. ...


In Central American countries, the successful military campaign of 1856-1857 against William Walker became a source of national pride and identity, and it was later promoted by local historians and politicians as substitute for the war of independence that Central America had not experienced. April 11 is a Costa Rican national holiday in memory of Walker's defeat at Rivas. Juan Santamaría, who played a key role in that battle, is honored as the Costa Rican national hero. April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... Rivas, Nicaragua Rivas, Nicaragua Rivas is a city, municipality, and department (subnational entity) in southwestern Nicaragua on the Isthmus of the same name. ... Juan Santamaría (August 29, 1831 - April 11, 1856), is officially recognized as the national hero of the Republic of Costa Rica. ... Heroine (female hero) redirects here. ...


Although Walker is far better known today in Central America than he is the United States, he does have a number of interesting ties to Nashville, Tennessee, the city of his birth. He was a close friend of Dr. John Berrien Lindsley, who had been his classmate at both the University of Nashville and at the University of Pennsylvania Medical School. Both Walker and Lindsley were Southern Presbyterians who believed in the superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race and in its civilizing mission in the world. Lindsley succeeded his father, Phillip Lindsley, as head of the University of Nashville in 1855, and later founded Montgomery Bell Academy, a secondary school tied to the university. The University of Nashville failed to recover from the U.S. Civil War and closed its doors after Lindsley resigned as its chancellor in 1870. In 1873 it was succeeded by Vanderbilt University, an institution funded by a gift from Walker's nemesis, Cornelius Vanderbilt. Locally, Walker is remembered as the only native Nashvillian ever to become a head of state, and a historical marker commemorates his birthplace, downtown not far from Second Avenue. John Berrien Lindsley - born on October 24, 1822, Princeton, New Jersey. ... In an effort to create a southern teachers college, the grounds and buildings of the University of Nashville were donated to the George Peabody College for Teachers in 1909. ... The University of Pennsylvania (commonly referred to as Penn or UPenn, although the former is the preferred and recognized nickname of the University) is a private, nonsectarian, research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Presbyterianism is a form of church government which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to King Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ... Name Montgomery Bell Academy Address 4001 Harding Road, Nashville, Tennessee 37205 Founded 1867; traces origins to 1789 Community Urban Students Boys Grades 7 to 12 Mascot Byron- an Irish Setter Colors Cardinal and silver Motto Fortitudo Per Scientiam. ... Vanderbilt University is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in Nashville, Tennessee. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ...


Cultural references

Walker's campaign has inspired two films, both of which take considerable liberties with his story: Burn! (1969) starring Marlon Brando, and Walker (1987) starring Ed Harris. Walker's name is used for the main character in Burn!, though the character is not meant to represent the historical William Walker. Burn! (also titled Queimada) is a 1969 film starring Marlon Brando and directed by Gillo Pontecorvo Plot A British agent, William Walker, is sent to the island of Queimada (an imaginary Portuguese colony in the Caribbean) in order to organize an uprising of black slaves to overthrow the Portuguese regime. ... Marlon Brando, Jr. ... Walker is a 1987 motion picture by British director Alex Cox based on the life story of William Walker, the American filibuster who invaded Mexico in the 1850s and made himself President of Nicaragua shortly thereafter. ... Edward Allen Ed Harris (born November 28, 1950) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor, best known for his performances in The Right Stuff, Apollo 13 and Pollock, among many others. ...


By coincidence, the U.S. Ambassador to El Salvador from 1988 to 1992 was named William G. Walker, a fact that led to derision among some Central Americans. 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... William G. Walker was the U.S. Ambassador to El Salvador from 1988 to 1992. ...


After the resurgence in interest in United States immigration policy in the spring of 2006, William Walker again came to the attention of popular culture through printed T-shirts and posters emblazoned with his likeness, name, and the phrase "We Tried" (Boston, Chicago, St. Louis). For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


In his sci fi/time travel trilogy that begins with Island in the Sea of Time, writer S. M. Stirling gave the name William Walker to the main antagonist of the series, a U. S. Coast Guard Lieutenant who goes renegade and uses the technological advantages of coming from the future to carve his own empire out of Bronze Age Europe and the Middle East. Stephen Michael Stirling is a Canadian-American science fiction and fantasy author. ...


Works

  • Walker, William. "The War in Nicaragua". New York: S.H. Goetzel, 1860.

See also

The Knights of the Golden Circle (KGC) was a secret society originally founded to promote Southern interests and prepare the way for annexation of a golden circle of territories in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean which would be included into the United States as southern or slave states. ... The Golden Circle was a pan-Caribbean political alliance proposed by in the 1850s that would have included many countries into a United States-like federal union. ... A filibuster is a private individual who engages in unauthorized warfare against a foreign country, often with the intent of overthrowing the existing government. ... Aerial view of the proposed canal, 1899 The Inter-Oceanic Nicaragua Canal is a proposed waterway that would connect the Caribbean Sea, and therefore, the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean through Nicaragua, in Central America. ...

References

  • Real Soldiers of Fortune, by Richard Harding Davis from Project Gutenberg, 1906
  • James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, 1988
  • May, Robert E. Manifest Destiny's Underworld: Filibustering in Antebellum America, 2002
  • May, Robert E. "The Southern Dream of a Caribbean Empire". Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002.
  • J. Preston Moore, “Pierre Soule: Southern Expansionist and Promoter,” Journal of Southern History 21:2 (May, 1955), 208 & 214.
  • Albert Z. Carr, The World and William Walker, 1963
  • "1855: American Conquistador," American Heritage, October 2005
  • Scroggs, William O. "Filibusters and Financiers". New York: The Macmillan Company, 1916.

Richard Harding Davis (18th April 1864 - 11th April 1916) was a writer and journalist best known for his involvement in the William Randolph Hearsts unproven plot to start the Spanish-American War in order to boost newspaper sales. ... For the Civil War General of a similar name see James B. McPherson James M. McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis 86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University. ...

Primary sources

  • Doubleday, C.W. “Reminiscences of the Filibuster War in Nicaragua”. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1886.
  • Jamison, James Carson. “With Walker in Nicaragua: Reminiscences of an Officer of the American Phalanx”. Columbia, MO: E.W. Stephens, 1909.
  • Wight, Samuel F. Adventures in California and Nicaragua: a Truthful Epic. Boston: Alfred Mudge & Son, 1860.
  • Fayssoux Collection. Tulane University. Latin American Library.
  • United States Magazine. Sept., 1856. Vol III No. 3. pp. 266–72
  • “Filibustering”, Putnam’s Monthly Magazine (New York), April 1857, 425–35.
  • “Walker’s Reverses in Nicaragua,” Anti-Slavery Bugle, November 17, 1856.
  • “The Lesson” National Era, June 4, 1857, 90.
  • “The Administration and Commodore Paulding,” National Era, January 7, 1858.
  • “Wanted — A Few Filibusters,” Harper’s Weekly, January 10, 1857.
  • “Reception of Gen. Walker,” New Orleans Picayune, May 28, 1857.
  • “Arrival of Walker,” New Orleans Picayune, May 28, 1857.
  • “Our Influence in the Isthmus,” New Orleans Picayune, February 17, 1856.
  • New Orleans Sunday Delta, June 27, 1856.
  • “Nicaragua and President Walker,” Louisville Times, December 13, 1856.
  • “Le Nicaragua et les Filibustiers,” Opelousas Courier, May 10, 1856.
  • “What is to Become of Nicaragua?,” Harper’s Weekly, June 6, 1857.
  • “The Late General Walker,” Harper’s Weekly, October 13, 1860.
  • “What General Walker is Like,” Harper’s Weekly, September, 1856.
  • “Message of the President to the Senate in Reference to the Late Arrest of Gen. Walker,” Louisville Courier, January 12, 1858.
  • “The Central American Question — What Walker May Do,” New York Times, January 1, 1856.
  • “A Serious Farce,” New York Times, December 14, 1853.

Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811 – November 29, 1872) was an American editor of a leading newspaper, a founder of the Republican party, reformer and politician. ...

External links

Preceded by
Patricio Rivas
President of Nicaragua
1856-1857
Succeeded by
Patricio Rivas

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