FACTOID # 5: Minnesota and Connecticut are both in the top 5 in saving money and total tax burden per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > William Tecumseh Sherman
William Tecumseh Sherman
February 8, 1820(1820-02-08)February 14, 1891 (aged 71)

Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman, USA, in May 1865. The black ribbon around his left arm is a sign of mourning over President Lincoln's death. Portrait by Mathew Brady.
Nickname Cump, Uncle Billy (by his troops)
Place of birth Lancaster, Ohio
Place of death New York City, New York
Allegiance Flag of the United States United States of America
Service/branch United States Army
Years of service 1840–53, 1861–84
Rank Major General (Civil War),
General of the Army of the United States (postbellum)
Commands Army of the Tennessee (1863),
Military Division of the Mississippi (1864),
Commanding General of the United States Army (postbellum)
Battles/wars American Civil War
-Shiloh,
- Vicksburg Campaign,
- Chattanooga,
- Atlanta Campaign,
- March to the Sea,
- Carolinas Campaign
Awards Thanks of Congress (1864 and 1865)
Other work Bank president, lawyer, university superintendent, streetcar executive

William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author. He served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War (1861–65), for which he received recognition for his outstanding command of military strategy and criticism for the harshness of the "scorched earth" policies that he implemented in conducting total war against the Confederate States. Military historian Basil Liddell Hart famously declared that Sherman was "the first modern general".[1] General Sherman can refer to: William Tecumseh Sherman, a US Civil War general General Sherman (tree), a Giant Sequoia tree General Sherman incident, an event involving the schooner General Sherman in Korean waters M4 Sherman, a tank. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1090x1407, 212 KB)Gen. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Mathew B. Brady, circa 1875 For other persons named Matthew Brady, see Matthew Brady (disambiguation). ... West Main Street in downtown Lancaster in 2006 Lancaster is a city in Fairfield County, Ohio, in the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with General of the Army (USA). ... The Army of the Tennessee was a Union army in the American Civil War, named for the Tennessee River. ... The Military Division of the Mississippi was an administrative division of the United States Army during the American Civil War that controlled all military operations in the Western Theater. ... Prior to the institution of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army in 1903, there was generally a single senior-most officer in the army. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Ulysses S. Grant, Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston â€ , P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894), Army of the Ohio (17,918)[1] Army of Mississippi (44,699)[1] Casualties and losses 13,047: 1,754 killed, 8,408... Lithograph of the Mississippi River Squadron running the Confederate blockade at Vicksburg on April 16, 1863. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Braxton Bragg Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (56,359 effectives)[1] Army of Tennessee (44,010)[1] Casualties 5,824 (753 killed, 4,722 wounded, 349 missing)[1] 6,667 (361 killed, 2,160 wounded, 4... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman, James B. McPherson, John M. Schofield, George H. Thomas Joseph E. Johnston; replaced in July by John B. Hood † Leonidas Polk Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (Army of the Cumberland, Army of the Ohio, Army of... This article is about the historical event. ... Sherman in South Carolina: The burning of McPhersonville. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about a military rank. ... A businessman (sometimes businesswoman, female; or businessperson, gender neutral) is a generic term for a wide range of people engaged in profit-oriented enterprises, generally the management of a company. ... Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, good judgement and wisdom. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... This article is about real and historical warfare. ... For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Military history is the recording (in writing or otherwise) of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. This may range from a dispute between two tribes that come to blow over a plot of land, to a world war. ... The military historian Basil Liddell Hart. ...


Sherman served under General Ulysses S. Grant in 1862 and 1863 during the campaigns that led to the fall of the Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg on the Mississippi River and culminated with the routing of the Confederate armies in the state of Tennessee. In 1864, Sherman succeeded Grant as the Union commander in the western theater of the war. He proceeded to lead his troops to the capture of the city of Atlanta, a military success that contributed decisively to the re-election of President Abraham Lincoln. Sherman's subsequent march through Georgia and the Carolinas further undermined the Confederacy's ability to continue fighting. He accepted the surrender of all the Confederate armies in the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida in April 1865. Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... The historic Mississippi River Commission Building in Vicksburg, constructed in 1894 Vicksburg is a city in Warren County, Mississippi. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Western Theater Overview (1861 – 1865) This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... The United States presidential election of 1864 saw Abraham Lincoln, the Republican running on a coalition ticket, win by a landslide over the Democratic candidate, George B. McClellan. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... This article is about the historical event. ... Sherman in South Carolina: The burning of McPhersonville. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...


After the Civil War, Sherman became Commanding General of the Army (1869–83). As such, he was responsible for the conduct of the Indian Wars in the western United States. He steadfastly refused to be drawn into politics and in 1875 published his Memoirs, one of the best-known firsthand accounts of the Civil War. Prior to the institution of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army in 1903, there was generally a single senior-most officer in the army. ... For wars involving India, see Military history of India. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ...

Contents

Early life

Sherman was born in 1820 in Lancaster, Ohio, near the shores of the Hocking River. His father Charles Robert Sherman, a successful lawyer who sat on the Ohio Supreme Court, named him after the famous Shawnee leader Tecumseh. Judge Sherman died unexpectedly in 1829. He left his widow, Mary Hoyt Sherman, with eleven children and no inheritance. Following this tragedy, the nine-year-old Sherman was raised by a Lancaster neighbor and family friend, attorney Thomas Ewing, a prominent member of the Whig Party who served as senator from Ohio and as the first Secretary of the Interior. Sherman was distantly related to the politically influential Baldwin, Hoar & Sherman family and grew to admire American founding father Roger Sherman.[2] West Main Street in downtown Lancaster in 2006 Lancaster is a city in Fairfield County, Ohio, in the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Hocking River is a river that drains part of southeast Ohio, mostly within the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau, although its headwaters are within glaciated territory. ... Charles Robert Sherman (ca. ... The Ohio Supreme Court is the highest court in the U.S. state of Ohio, with final authority over interpretations of Ohio law and the Ohio Constitution. ... The Shawnee are a people native to North America, and are therefore considered to be Native Americans. ... For other uses, see Tecumseh (disambiguation). ... Thomas Ewing Thomas Ewing (December 28, 1789–October 26, 1871) was a National Republican and Whig politician from Ohio. ... The United States Whig Party was a political party of the United States. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... The Baldwin, Evarts, Hoar & Sherman family is an exceedingly large political family of the United States spanning the countrys history. ... Shermans marble statue in the National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol. ...

A Tale of Two Names

The Union's two leading generals, Ulysses S. Grant and William Tecumseh Sherman, both had especially evocative names. During Grant's lifetime, it was widely reported that he was born Hiram Ulysses Grant, and his name evolved to Ulysses S. Grant. By contrast, it appears that it was 1932 before biographers began to assert that Sherman's name evolved from Tecumseh Sherman to William Tecumseh Sherman. He coined the phrse "War is hell"
See Brockett, Our Great Captains: Grant, Sherman, Thomas, Sheridan, and Farragut (1865), 11, 88; Lloyd Lewis, Sherman: Fighting Prophet (1932), 22, 34.

Sherman's unusual name is often a subject of comment by biographers and others. Since 1932, it has often been reported that, as an infant, Sherman was named simply Tecumseh. According to such accounts, Sherman only acquired the name William at age nine or ten, after being taken into the Ewing household. His foster mother, Maria Ewing, who was of Irish ancestry, was a devout Catholic. In the Ewing home, Sherman was given a Catholic baptism by a Dominican priest who supposedly used the name William because the event took place on a Saint William's Day, possibly June 25, the feast day of Saint William of Montevergine.[3] However, this colorful account of Sherman's name should be considered dubious. Sherman himself states in his memoirs that it was his father who gave him the name William Tecumseh, and there is corroborating evidence that Sherman was baptized by a Presbyterian minister as an infant and given the name William at that time.[4] In any event, Sherman himself was never a churchgoer[5] and he never used the name William in private life; his friends and family always called him "Cump."[6] William of Montevergine or William of Vercelli ( ) ( ) (1085 – 25 June 1142) was a Christian hermit and the founder of the Congregation of Montevergine, or “Williamites”. // Life He was born into a noble family of Vercelli in north-west Italy and brought up by a relation after the death of his... Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ...



Sherman's older brother Charles Taylor Sherman became a federal judge. One of his younger brothers, John Sherman, served as a U.S. senator and Cabinet secretary. Another younger brother, Hoyt Sherman, was a successful banker. Two of his foster brothers served as major generals in the Union Army during the Civil War: Hugh Boyle Ewing, later an ambassador and author, and Thomas Ewing, Jr., who would serve as defense attorney in the military trials against the Lincoln conspirators. The eldest of eleven children, Charles Taylor Sherman was born February 3, 1811, in Norwalk, Connecticut to Charles Robert Sherman and his wife, Mary (Hoyt) Sherman. ... John Sherman John Sherman (May 10, 1823–October 22, 1900) was a Senator from Ohio and a member of the United States Cabinet. ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... Major Hoyt Sherman (November 21, 1827 – 1904), a member of the prominent Sherman family, was an American banker. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Hugh Boyle Ewing, (October 31, 1826 – June 30, 1905), was a diplomat, author, attorney, and Union Army general during the American Civil War. ... Thomas Ewing, Jr. ... A lawyer in the United States is technically called an attorney at law or an attorney-at-law. ... Assassination of Abraham Lincoln From left to right: Major Henry Rathbone, Clara Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln, and John Wilkes Booth. ...


Military training and service

Portrait of a young William T. Sherman in military uniform
Portrait of a young William T. Sherman in military uniform

Senator Ewing secured an appointment for the 16 year old Sherman as a cadet in the United States Military Academy at West Point,[7] where he roomed and became good friends with another important future Civil War General, George H. Thomas. There Sherman excelled academically, but treated the demerit system with indifference. Fellow cadet William Rosecrans would later remember Sherman at West Point as "one of the brightest and most popular fellows," and "a bright-eyed, red-headed fellow, who was always prepared for a lark of any kind."[8] About his time at West Point, Sherman says only the following in his Memoirs: Image File history File linksMetadata Sherman_young. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Sherman_young. ... A cadet is a future officer in the military. ... USMA redirects here. ... West Point painting West Point is a federal military base (and a census-designated place) located in the Town of Highlands in Orange County, New York. ... General George Henry Thomas (July 31, 1816 - March 28, 1870), Northern general during the American Civil War, was born in Southampton County, Virginia. ... William Starke Rosecrans (September 6, 1819 – March 11, 1898) was an inventor, coal-oil company executive, diplomat, politician, and U.S. Army officer. ...

At the Academy I was not considered a good soldier, for at no time was I selected for any office, but remained a private throughout the whole four years. Then, as now, neatness in dress and form, with a strict conformity to the rules, were the qualifications required for office, and I suppose I was found not to excel in any of these. In studies I always held a respectable reputation with the professors, and generally ranked among the best, especially in drawing, chemistry, mathematics, and natural philosophy. My average demerits, per annum, were about one hundred and fifty, which reduced my final class standing from number four to six.[9]

Upon graduation in 1840, Sherman entered the Army as a second lieutenant in the 3rd U.S. Artillery and saw action in Florida in the Second Seminole War against the Seminole tribe. He was later stationed in Georgia and South Carolina. As the foster son of a prominent Whig politician, in Charleston, the popular Lt. Sherman moved within the upper circles of Old South society.[10] Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Osceola, Seminole leader. ... The Seminole are a Native American Indian people of Florida. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Geographically, Old South is a subregion of the American South, differentiated from the Deep South as being the Southern States represented in the original thirteen American colonies, as well as a way of describing the former lifestyle in the Southern United States. ...


While many of his colleagues saw action in the Mexican-American War, Sherman performed administrative duties in the captured territory of California. He and fellow officer Lieutenant Edward Ord reached the town of Yerba Buena two days before its name was changed to San Francisco. In 1848, Sherman accompanied the military governor of California, Col. Richard Barnes Mason, in the inspection that officially confirmed the claim that gold had been discovered in the region, thus inaugurating the California Gold Rush.[11] Sherman earned a brevet promotion to captain for his "meritorious service", but his lack of a combat assignment discouraged him and may have contributed to his decision to resign his commission. Sherman would become one of the relatively few high-ranking officers in the Civil War who had not fought in Mexico. Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Edward Ord Edward Otho Cresap Ord (October 18, 1818 – July 22, 1883) was the designer of Fort Sam Houston, and a U.S. Army officer who saw action in the Seminole War, the Indian Wars, and the Civil War. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... Richard Barnes Mason (1797–July 25, 1850) was a military governor of California before it became a U.S. state, from May 31, 1847 until April 13, 1849. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began shortly after January 24, 1848 (when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma). ... In the US military, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... Please see Captain (military) for other versions of this rank Captain is a rank in the United States armed forces that ranks between a First Lieutenant and Major (O-3 in the United States Army, U.S. Air Force, and United States Marines), or a rank between a Commander and...


Marriage and business career

In 1850, Sherman was promoted to the substantive rank of Captain and married Thomas Ewing's daughter, Eleanor Boyle ("Ellen") Ewing, in a Washington ceremony attended by President Zachary Taylor and other political luminaries. (Thomas Ewing was serving as the first Secretary of the Interior at the time.) [12] Like her mother, Ellen Ewing Sherman was a devout Roman Catholic, and the Sherman's eight children were reared in that faith. In 1874, with Sherman having become world famous, their eldest child, Marie Ewing ("Minnie") Sherman, also had a politically prominent wedding, attended by President Ulysses S. Grant and commemorated by a generous gift from the Khedive of Egypt. [13] Another of the Sherman daughters, Eleanor was married to Alexander Montgomery Thackara at General Sherman’s home in Washington D. C. on May 5, 1880. To Sherman's great displeasure and sorrow, one of his sons, Thomas Ewing Sherman, was ordained a Jesuit priest in 1879.[14] This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ... Khedive (from Persian for lord) was a title created in 1867 by the Ottoman Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz for the then-governor of Egypt, Ismail Pasha. ... Eleanor Mary Sherman Thackara (1859 - 1915), is most known as the daughter of Gen. ... Alexander Montgomery Thackara (1848 - 1937), addressed as “Mont” in family correspondence,[1] was born in Philadelphia in 1848. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Thomas Ewing Sherman (October 12, 1856 – April 20, 1933) was an American lawyer, educator, and Catholic priest. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ...


In 1853, Sherman resigned his Captaincy and became president of a bank in San Francisco. He returned to San Francisco at a time of great turmoil in the West. He survived two shipwrecks and floated through the Golden Gate on the overturned hull of a foundering lumber schooner.[15] Sherman eventually suffered from stress-related asthma because of the city's brutal financial climate.[16] Late in life, regarding his time in real-estate-speculation-mad San Francisco, Sherman recalled: "I can handle a hundred thousand men in battle, and take the City of the Sun, but am afraid to manage a lot in the swamp of San Francisco."[17] In 1856, he served as a major general of the California militia. The Golden Gate The Golden Gate, looking south towards San Francisco. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ...


Sherman's bank failed during the financial Panic of 1857 and he turned to the practice of law in Leavenworth, Kansas, at which he was also unsuccessful.[18] The Panic of 1857 was a sudden downturn in the economy of the United States. ... Leavenworth redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


University superintendent

In 1859, Sherman accepted a job as the first superintendent of the Louisiana State Seminary of Learning & Military Academy in Pineville, Louisiana, a position offered to him by Major D. C. Buell and General G. Mason Graham.[19] He proved an effective and popular leader of that institution, which would later become Louisiana State University (LSU). Colonel Joseph P. Taylor, the brother of the late President Zachary Taylor, declared that "if you had hunted the whole army, from one end of it to the other, you could not have found a man in it more admirably suited for the position in every respect than Sherman."[20] , Pineville is a city in Rapides Parish, Louisiana, United States. ... Don Carlos Buell Don Carlos Buell (March 23, 1818 – November 19, 1898) was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the Seminole War, the Mexican-American War, and the Civil War. ... For other uses, see LSU. Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, generally known as Louisiana State University or LSU, is a public, coeducational university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana and the main campus of the Louisiana State University System. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ...


On hearing of South Carolina's secession from the United States, Sherman observed to a close friend, Professor David F. Boyd of Virginia, an enthusiastic secessionist, almost perfectly describing the four years of war to come: Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... The Ordinance of Secession was the document drafted and ratified in 1860 and 1861 by the seceding states that officially declared their secession from the United States of America. ... David French Boyd (1834 – 1899) was a U.S. teacher and educational administrator. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

You people of the South don't know what you are doing. This country will be drenched in blood, and God only knows how it will end. It is all folly, madness, a crime against civilization! You people speak so lightly of war; you don't know what you're talking about. War is a terrible thing! You mistake, too, the people of the North. They are a peaceable people but an earnest people, and they will fight, too. They are not going to let this country be destroyed without a mighty effort to save it… Besides, where are your men and appliances of war to contend against them? The North can make a steam engine, locomotive, or railway car; hardly a yard of cloth or pair of shoes can you make. You are rushing into war with one of the most powerful, ingeniously mechanical, and determined people on Earth—right at your doors. You are bound to fail. Only in your spirit and determination are you prepared for war. In all else you are totally unprepared, with a bad cause to start with. At first you will make headway, but as your limited resources begin to fail, shut out from the markets of Europe as you will be, your cause will begin to wane. If your people will but stop and think, they must see in the end that you will surely fail.[21]

In January 1861 just before the outbreak of the Civil War, Sherman was required to accept receipt of arms surrendered to the State Militia by the U.S. Arsenal at Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Instead of complying, he resigned his position as superintendent and returned to the North, declaring to the governor of Louisiana, "On no earthly account will I do any act or think any thought hostile ... to the ... United States."[22] He promptly traveled to Washington, D.C., possibly in the hope of securing a position in the army, and met with Abraham Lincoln in the White House during inauguration week. Sherman expressed concern about the North's poor state of preparedness but found Lincoln unresponsive.[23] Thereafter, Sherman became president of the St. Louis Railroad, a streetcar company, a position he held for only a few months before being called to Washington, D.C. For the Canadian restaurant, see Baton Rouge (restaurant). ... a historic postcard showing electric trolley-powered streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his new system on the hills in 1888 A streetcar is a railway vehicle designed to carry passengers on tracks, usually laid in city streets. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Civil War service

Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman. Portrait by Mathew Brady, ca. 1864

Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 35,000 32,500 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing)[1] 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing)[1] For other uses... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Ulysses S. Grant, Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston â€ , P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894), Army of the Ohio (17,918)[1] Army of Mississippi (44,699)[1] Casualties and losses 13,047: 1,754 killed, 8,408... The Battle of Corinth I (also known as the Siege of Corinth) was a United States Civil War battle fought from April 29, 1862 – June 10, 1862 in Corinth, Mississippi. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman John C. Pemberton Strength 32,000 men 15,000 men Casualties 1,176 killed, wounded, or captured/missing 187 killed, wounded, or captured/missing The Battle of Chickasaw Bayou, also called the Battle of Chickasaw Bluffs, was... Battle of Fort Hindman / Battle of Arkansas Post Conflict American Civil War Date January 9-11, 1863 Place Arkansas County, Arkansas Result Union victory The Battle of Fort Hindman (January 9 - 11, 1863) was a battle of the American Civil War which took place near the mouth of the Arkansas... Lithograph of the Mississippi River Squadron running the Confederate blockade at Vicksburg on April 16, 1863. ... Battle of Jackson Grants Operations against Vicksburg The Battle of Jackson, fought on May 14, 1863, in Jackson, Mississippi, was part of the Vicksburg Campaign in the American Civil War. ... Lithograph of the Mississippi River Squadron running the Confederate blockade at Vicksburg on April 16, 1863. ... Collierville is a city in Shelby County, Tennessee and a suburb of the Memphis metropolitan area. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Braxton Bragg Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (56,359 effectives)[1] Army of Tennessee (44,010)[1] Casualties 5,824 (753 killed, 4,722 wounded, 349 missing)[1] 6,667 (361 killed, 2,160 wounded, 4... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Braxton Bragg Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (56,359 effectives)[1] Army of Tennessee (44,010)[1] Casualties 5,824 (753 killed, 4,722 wounded, 349 missing)[1] 6,667 (361 killed, 2,160 wounded, 4... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Braxton Bragg Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (56,359 effectives)[1] Army of Tennessee (44,010)[1] Casualties 5,824 (753 killed, 4,722 wounded, 349 missing)[1] 6,667 (361 killed, 2,160 wounded, 4... James Longstreet and Ambrose Burnside, principal commanders of the Knoxville Campaign The Knoxville Campaign[1] was a series of American Civil War battles and maneuvers in East Tennessee during the fall of 1863. ... The Battle of Meridian was fought in 1864 between Union forces led by William Tecumseh Sherman and the Confederacy. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Maj. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman Joseph E. Johnston Strength Military Division of the Mississippi Army of Tennessee Casualties 2,747 2,800 The Battle of Resaca was part of the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War. ... The Battle of New Hope Church was fought on May 25 and May 26 of 1864 between Shermans Union force and Johnstons Confederate force. ... {{Campaignbox {{{campaign}}}}} The Battle of Dallas was a battle in the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Kolbs Farm was fought on June 22, 1864, between Union and Confederate forces. ... Battle of Kennesaw Mountain Conflict American Civil War Date June 27, 1864 Place Kennesaw, Georgia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Kennesaw Mountain was fought on June 27, 1864 during the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Atlanta from southern Smyrna on a clear day; the large nearby tower is Plant Atkinson. ... Battle of Peachtree Creek Conflict American Civil War Date July 20, 1864 Place Fulton County, Georgia Result Union victory The Battle of Peachtree Creek was a battle of the American Civil War, fought in Georgia on July 20, 1864. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman Oliver Otis Howard John Bell Hood William J. Hardee Strength Army of the Tennessee Army of Tennessee Casualties 1,600 3,000 The Battle of Jonesborough (currently Jonesboro) was fought August 31 – September 1, 1864, during the... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman, James B. McPherson, John M. Schofield, George H. Thomas Joseph E. Johnston; replaced in July by John B. Hood † Leonidas Polk Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (Army of the Cumberland, Army of the Ohio, Army of... Battle of Allatoona Conflict American Civil War Date October 5, 1864 Place Bartow County, Georgia Result Union victory The Battle of Allatoona, also known as Allatoona Pass, was a battle during the American Civil War on October 5, 1864. ... The Battle of Griswoldville was the first battle of Shermans March to the Sea, fought November 22, 1864, during the American Civil War. ... Combatants Union Army Confederate Army Commanders Brig. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William B. Hazen George A. Anderson Strength 2nd Division, XV Corps, Army of the Tennessee Fort McAllister Garrison Casualties 134 71 The Second Battle of Fort McAllister took place December 13, 1864, during the final stages of Maj. ... This article is about the historical event. ... Battle of Averasborough Conflict American Civil War Date March 16, 1865 Place Harnett County and Cumberland County, North Carolina Result Inconclusive The Battle of Averasborough was a prelude to the Battle of Bentonville three days later. ... Media:Example. ... Sherman in South Carolina: The burning of McPhersonville. ... Sherman in South Carolina: The burning of McPhersonville. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (662x1024, 64 KB) Summary Picture of General Sherman. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (662x1024, 64 KB) Summary Picture of General Sherman. ...

Army commission

Sherman accepted a commission as a colonel in the 13th U.S. Infantry regiment, effective May 14, 1861. He was one of the few Union officers to distinguish himself at the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861, where he was grazed by bullets in the knee and shoulder. The disastrous Union defeat led Sherman to question his own judgment as an officer and the capacities of his volunteer troops. President Lincoln, however, promoted him to brigadier general of volunteers (effective May 17, 1861, which made him senior in rank to Ulysses S. Grant, his future commander).[24] He was assigned to serve under Robert Anderson in the Department of the Cumberland in Louisville, Kentucky, and succeeded Anderson in command of the department in the fall. For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 35,000 32,500 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing)[1] 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing)[1] For other uses... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Louisville redirects here. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ...


Breakdown and Shiloh

During his time in Louisville, Sherman became increasingly pessimistic about the outlook of the war. His frequent complaints to Washington, D.C. about shortages and his exaggerated estimates of the strength of the rebel forces caused the local press to describe him as "crazy".[25] He was replaced in his command by Don Carlos Buell and transferred to St. Louis, Missouri, where in the fall of 1861 he experienced what would probably be described today as a nervous breakdown. He was put on leave and returned to Ohio to recuperate. While he was at home, his wife, Ellen, wrote to his brother Senator John Sherman seeking advice and complaining of "that melancholy insanity to which your family is subject".[26] However, Sherman quickly recovered and returned to service under Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, commander of the Department of the Missouri. Halleck's department had just won a major victory at Fort Henry, but he harbored doubts about the commander in the field, Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, and his plans to capture Fort Donelson. Unbeknownst to Grant, Halleck offered several officers, including Sherman, command of Grant's army. Sherman refused, saying he preferred serving under Grant, even though he outranked him. Sherman wrote to Grant from Paducah, Kentucky, "Command me in any way. I feel anxious about you as I know the great facilities [the Confederates] have of concentration by means of the river and railroad, but [I] have faith in you."[27] Don Carlos Buell Don Carlos Buell (March 23, 1818 – November 19, 1898) was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the Seminole War, the Mexican-American War, and the Civil War. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Henry Wager Halleck (1815 - 1872) was an American soldier and politician. ... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Andrew H. Foote Lloyd Tilghman # Strength 15,000 plus the 7 ships of the Western Flotilla 3,000–3,400 Casualties and losses 40 129[1] The Battle of Fort Henry was fought February 6, 1862, in western Tennessee, during... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Andrew H. Foote John B. Floyd Gideon J. Pillow Simon B. Buckner # Strength 24,531 District of Cairo & Western Flotilla 16,171 Casualties 2,691 (507 killed, 1,976 wounded, 208 captured/missing) 13,846 (327 killed... Paducah is a city in McCracken County, Kentucky at the confluence of the Tennessee River and the Ohio River. ...


After Grant was promoted to major general in command of the District of West Tennessee, Sherman served briefly as his replacement in command of the District of Cairo. He got his wish of serving under Grant when he was assigned on March 1, 1862, to the Army of West Tennessee as commander of the 5th Division.[28] His first major test under Grant was at the Battle of Shiloh. The massive Confederate attack on the morning of April 6, 1862, took most of the senior Union commanders by surprise. Sherman in particular had dismissed the intelligence reports that he had received from militia officers, refusing to believe that Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston would leave his base at Corinth. He took no precautions beyond strengthening his picket lines, refusing to entrench, build abatis, or push out reconnaissance patrols. At Shiloh, he may have wished to avoid appearing overly alarmed in order to escape the kind of criticism he had received in Kentucky. He had written to his wife that, if he took more precautions, "they'd call me crazy again".[29] is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... The Army of West Tennessee was a Union army commanded by Major General Ulysses S. Grant which was to become the famous Army of the Tennessee. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Ulysses S. Grant, Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston â€ , P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894), Army of the Ohio (17,918)[1] Army of Mississippi (44,699)[1] Casualties and losses 13,047: 1,754 killed, 8,408... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Corinth is a city located in Alcorn County, Mississippi. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. ...


Despite being caught unprepared by the attack, Sherman rallied his division and conducted an orderly, fighting retreat that helped avert a disastrous Union rout. Finding Grant at the end of the day sitting under an oak tree in the darkness smoking a cigar, he experienced, in his own words "some wise and sudden instinct not to mention retreat". Instead, in what would become one of the most famous conversations of the war, Sherman said simply: "Well, Grant, we've had the devil's own day, haven't we?" After a puff of his cigar, Grant replied calmly: "Yes. Lick 'em tomorrow, though."[30] Sherman would prove instrumental to the successful Union counterattack of April 7, 1862. Sherman was wounded twice—in the hand and shoulder—and had three horses shot out from under him. His performance was praised by Grant and Halleck and after the battle, he was promoted to major general of volunteers, effective May 1, 1862.[31] Beginning in late April, a Union force of 100,000 moved slowly against Corinth, under Halleck's command with Grant relegated to a hollow role as second-in-command to Halleck; Sherman commanded the division on the extreme right of the Union's right wing (under George H. Thomas). April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... This article is about 1862 . ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... The Battle of Corinth I (also known as the Siege of Corinth) was a United States Civil War battle fought from April 29, 1862 – June 10, 1862 in Corinth, Mississippi. ...


Vicksburg and Chattanooga

Map of the Battle of Chattanooga, 1863
Map of the Battle of Chattanooga, 1863

Sherman developed close personal ties to Grant during the two years they served together. Shortly after the Union forces occupied Corinth on May 30, Sherman persuaded Grant not to resign from the Army, despite the serious difficulties he was having with his commander, General Halleck. Sherman offered Grant an example from his own life, "Before the battle of Shiloh, I was cast down by a mere newspaper assertion of 'crazy', but that single battle gave me new life, and I'm now in high feather." He told Grant that, if he remained in the army, "some happy accident might restore you to favor and your true place."[32] The careers of both officers ascended considerably after that time. Sherman later famously declared that "Grant stood by me when I was crazy and I stood by him when he was drunk and now we stand by each other always."[33] I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ...


Sherman's military record in 1862–63 was mixed. In December 1862, forces under his command suffered a severe repulse at the Battle of Chickasaw Bayou, just north of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Soon after, his XV Corps was ordered to join Maj. Gen. John A. McClernand in his successful assault on Arkansas Post, generally regarded as a politically motivated distraction from the effort to capture Vicksburg.[34] Before the Vicksburg Campaign in the spring of 1863, Sherman expressed serious reservations about the wisdom of Grant's unorthodox strategy,[35] but he went on to perform well in that campaign under Grant's supervision. After the surrender of Vicksburg to the Union forces under General Grant on July 4, 1863, Sherman was given the rank of brigadier general in the regular army in addition to his rank as a major general of volunteers. Sherman's family came from Ohio to visit his camp near Vicksburg; their visit resulted in the death of his nine-year-old son, Willie, the Little Sergeant, from typhoid fever.[36] Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman John C. Pemberton Strength 32,000 men 15,000 men Casualties 1,176 killed, wounded, or captured/missing 187 killed, wounded, or captured/missing The Battle of Chickasaw Bayou, also called the Battle of Chickasaw Bluffs, was... The historic Mississippi River Commission Building in Vicksburg, constructed in 1894 Vicksburg is a city in Warren County, Mississippi. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... XV Corps was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... John Alexander McClernand John Alexander McClernand ( May 30, 1812 – September 20, 1900) was an American soldier and lawyer. ... Battle of Fort Hindman / Battle of Arkansas Post Conflict American Civil War Date January 9-11, 1863 Place Arkansas County, Arkansas Result Union victory The Battle of Fort Hindman (January 9 - 11, 1863) was a battle of the American Civil War which took place near the mouth of the Arkansas... Lithograph of the Mississippi River Squadron running the Confederate blockade at Vicksburg on April 16, 1863. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The United States Regular Army is the permanent force of the United States Army that is maintained during peacetime, as opposed to those persons who may be part of a reserve or national guard outfit. ...


During the Battle of Chattanooga in November, Sherman, now in command of the Army of the Tennessee, quickly took his assigned target of Billy Goat Hill at the north end of Missionary Ridge, only to discover that it was not part of the ridge at all, but rather a detached spur separated from the main spine by a rock-strewn ravine. When he attempted to attack the main spine at Tunnel Hill, his troops were repeatedly repulsed by Patrick Cleburne's heavy division, the best unit in Braxton Bragg's army.[37] Sherman's effort was overshadowed by George Henry Thomas's army's successful assault on the center of the Confederate line, a movement originally intended as a diversion. Subsequently, Sherman led a column to relieve Union forces under Ambrose Burnside thought to be in peril at Knoxville and, in February 1864, led an expedition to Meridian, Mississippi, to disrupt Confederate infrastructure.[38] The third Battle of Chattanooga (popularly known as The Battle of Chattanooga) was fought November 23–25, 1863, in the American Civil War. ... The Army of the Tennessee was a Union army in the American Civil War, named for the Tennessee River. ... Patrick Cleburne Patrick Ronayne Cleburne (March 16 or 17, 1828 – November 30, 1864) was a major general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, killed at the Battle of Franklin. ... General George H. Thomas George Henry Thomas (July 31, 1816 – March 28, 1870), the Rock of Chickamauga, was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ... Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was an American railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island, serving as governor and a U.S. Senator. ... James Longstreet and Ambrose Burnside, principal commanders of the Knoxville Campaign The Knoxville Campaign[1] was a series of American Civil War battles and maneuvers in East Tennessee during the fall of 1863. ... The Battle of Meridian was fought in 1864 between Union forces led by William Tecumseh Sherman and the Confederacy. ...


Georgia

Map of Sherman's campaigns in Georgia and the Carolinas, 1864–1865

Despite this mixed record, Sherman enjoyed Grant's confidence and friendship. When Lincoln called Grant east in the spring of 1864 to take command of all the Union armies, Grant appointed Sherman (by then known to his soldiers as "Uncle Billy") to succeed him as head of the Military Division of the Mississippi, which entailed command of Union troops in the Western Theater of the war. As Grant took command of the Army of the Potomac, Sherman wrote to him outlining his strategy to bring the war to an end concluding that "if you can whip Lee and I can march to the Atlantic I think ol' Uncle Abe will give us twenty days leave to see the young folks".[39] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1566x773, 309 KB)Map of the Western Theater of the American Civil War, actions from Chattanooga to the Carolinas. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1566x773, 309 KB)Map of the Western Theater of the American Civil War, actions from Chattanooga to the Carolinas. ... The Military Division of the Mississippi was an administrative division of the United States Army during the American Civil War that controlled all military operations in the Western Theater. ... Western Theater Overview (1861 – 1865) This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ...


Sherman proceeded to invade the state of Georgia with three armies: the 60,000-strong Army of the Cumberland under George Henry Thomas, the 25,000-strong Army of the Tennessee under James B. McPherson, and the 13,000-strong Army of the Ohio under John M. Schofield.[40] He fought a lengthy campaign of maneuver through mountainous terrain against Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston's Army of Tennessee, attempting a direct assault only at the disastrous Battle of Kennesaw Mountain. In July, the cautious Johnston was replaced by the more aggressive John Bell Hood, who played to Sherman's strength by challenging him to direct battles on open ground. Meanwhile, in August, Sherman "learned that I had been commissioned a major-general in the regular army, which was unexpected, and not desired until successful in the capture of Atlanta."[41] Union army in the west during the American Civil War, commanded at various times by Generals Robert Anderson, Don Carlos Buell, William S. Rosecrans, and George Thomas. ... General George H. Thomas George Henry Thomas (July 31, 1816 – March 28, 1870), the Rock of Chickamauga, was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ... The Army of the Tennessee was a Union army in the American Civil War, named for the Tennessee River. ... James B. McPherson James Birdseye McPherson (November 14, 1828 – July 22, 1864) was a career U.S. Army officer who served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... The Army of the Ohio was the name of two Union armies in the American Civil War. ... For John Schofield, the recipient of a Victoria Cross see John Schofield (VC). ... This article is about the military tactic. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... The Army of Tennessee can refer to either of two American Civil War armies: Army of Tennessee, the Confederate army named after the state of Tennessee. ... Battle of Kennesaw Mountain Conflict American Civil War Date June 27, 1864 Place Kennesaw, Georgia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Kennesaw Mountain was fought on June 27, 1864 during the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War. ... John Bell Hood (June 1[1] or June 29,[2] 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ...


Sherman's Atlanta Campaign concluded successfully on September 2, 1864 with the capture of the city. After ordering all civilians to leave the city, he ordered that all military and government buildings be burned. This was to set a precedent for future behavior by his armies. Capturing Atlanta was an accomplishment that made Sherman a household name in the North and helped ensure Lincoln's presidential re-election in November. Lincoln's electoral defeat by Democratic Party candidate George B. McClellan, the former Union army commander, had appeared likely in the summer of that year. Such an outcome would probably have meant the victory of the Confederacy, as the Democratic Party platform called for peace negotiations based on the acknowledgment of the Confederacy's independence. Thus the capture of Atlanta, coming when it did, may have been Sherman's greatest contribution to the Union cause. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William T. Sherman, James B. McPherson, John M. Schofield, George H. Thomas Joseph E. Johnston; replaced in July by John B. Hood † Leonidas Polk Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (Army of the Cumberland, Army of the Ohio, Army of... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The United States presidential election of 1864 saw Abraham Lincoln, the Republican running on a coalition ticket, win by a landslide over the Democratic candidate, George B. McClellan. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ...

Green-Meldrim house, where Sherman stayed after taking Savannah in 1864
Green-Meldrim house, where Sherman stayed after taking Savannah in 1864

After Atlanta, Sherman began his march south, declaring that he could "make Georgia howl". Initially disregarding Hood's army moving into Tennessee, he boasted that if Hood moved north he (Sherman) would "give him rations" as "my business is down south." He quickly, however, had to send an army back to deal with Hood.[42] Sherman marched with 62,000 men to the port of Savannah, Georgia, living off the land and causing, by his own estimate, more than $100 million in property damage.[43] Sherman called this harsh tactic of material war "hard war", which is now, in modern times, known as total war.[44] At the end of this campaign, known as Sherman's March to the Sea, his troops captured Savannah on December 22, 1864. Sherman then telegraphed Lincoln, offering him the city as a Christmas present. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1667 KB) Summary Located in the Savannah Historic District, the Green-Meldrim house was built during the 1850s. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1667 KB) Summary Located in the Savannah Historic District, the Green-Meldrim house was built during the 1850s. ... Savannah redirects here. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... This article is about the historical event. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ...


Sherman's success in Georgia received ample coverage in the Northern press at a time when Grant seemed to be making little progress in his fight against Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. A bill was introduced in Congress to promote Sherman to Grant's rank of lieutenant general, probably with a view towards having him replace Grant as commander of the Union Army. Sherman wrote both to his brother, Senator John Sherman, and to General Grant vehemently repudiating any such promotion.[45] According to a war-time account,[46] it was around this time that Sherman made his memorable declaration of loyalty to Grant: For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ...

It is related that a distinguished civilian, who visited him at Savannah, desirous of ascertainng his real opinion of General Grant, began to speak of him in terms of depreciation. "It won't do; it won't do, Mr. _____," said Sherman, in his quick, nervous way; "General Grant is a great general. I know him well. He stood by me when I was crazy, and I stood by him when he was drunk; and now, sir, we stand by each other always."

While in Savannah, Sherman also suffered the blow of learning from a newspaper that his infant son Charles Celestine had died during Sherman's march to the sea; the general had never even seen the child.[47]


The Carolinas

General Sherman with Generals Howard, Logan, Hazen, Davis, Slocum, and Mower, photographed by Mathew Brady
General Sherman with Generals Howard, Logan, Hazen, Davis, Slocum, and Mower, photographed by Mathew Brady

In the spring of 1865, Grant ordered Sherman to embark his army on steamers to join him against Lee in Virginia. Instead, Sherman persuaded Grant to allow him to march north through the Carolinas, destroying everything of military value along the way, as he had done in Georgia. He was particularly interested in targeting South Carolina, the first state to secede from the Union, for the effect it would have on Southern morale. His army proceeded north through South Carolina against light resistance from the troops of Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston. Upon hearing that Sherman's men were advancing on corduroy roads through the Salkehatchie swamps at a rate of a dozen miles per day, Johnston declared that "there had been no such army in existence since the days of Julius Caesar."[48] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 588 pixel Image in higher resolution (3823 × 2811 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 588 pixel Image in higher resolution (3823 × 2811 pixel, file size: 1. ... Oliver Otis Howard (November 8, 1830 – October 26, 1909) was a career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... For other persons with similar names, see John Logan. ... William Babcock Hazen William Babcock Hazen (September 27, 1830 – January 16, 1887) was a career U.S. Army officer who served in the Indian Wars, as a Union general in the American Civil War, and as Chief Signal Officer of the U.S. Army. ... Jefferson Columbus Davis (March 2, 1828 – November 30, 1879) was an officer in the United States Army who served in the Mexican-American War, the Civil War, and the Modoc War. ... Portrait of General Henry W. Slocum by Mathew Brady, ca. ... Joseph Anthony Mower (1827-1870) was a Union general during the American Civil War. ... Sherman in South Carolina: The burning of McPhersonville. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... The Ordinance of Secession was the document drafted and ratified in 1860 and 1861 by the seceding states that officially declared their secession from the United States of America. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Salkehatchie River originates near the City of Barnwell, South Carolina and accepts drainage from Turkey Creek and Whippy Swamp before merging with the Little Salkehatchie River to form the Combahee River Basin, which empties into Saint Helena Sound and the Atlantic Ocean. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ...


Sherman captured the state capital of Columbia, South Carolina on February 17, 1865. Fires began that night and by next morning, most of the central city was destroyed. The burning of Columbia has engendered controversy ever since, with some claiming the fires were accidental, others a deliberate act of vengeance, and still others that the retreating Confederates burned bales of cotton on their way out of town. Local Native American Lumbee guides helped Sherman's army cross the Lumber River through torrential rains and into North Carolina. According to Sherman, the trek across the Lumber River, and through the swamps, pocosins, and creeks of Robeson County "was the damnedest marching I ever saw". Thereafter, his troops did little damage to the civilian infrastructure, as North Carolina, unlike its southern neighbor, which was seen as a hotbed of secession, was regarded by his men to be only a reluctant Confederate state, due to its position as the last to join the Confederacy. In late March, Sherman briefly left his forces and traveled to City Point, Virginia, to consult with Grant. Lincoln happened to be at City Point at the same time, allowing the only three-way meeting of Lincoln, Grant, and Sherman during the war.[49] For other uses, see Columbia (disambiguation). ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Lumbee are a Native American tribe recognized by the state of North Carolina. ... Lumber River (originally Drowning Creek), is a tributary of the Pee Dee River flowing through Robeson County, North Carolina. ... Pocosin is a Native American term for a type of palustrine wetland with deep, acidic, sandy, peat soils. ... Robeson County is a county located in the state of North Carolina. ...


Following Sherman's victory over Johnston's troops at the Battle of Bentonville, Lee's surrender to Grant at Appomattox, and Lincoln's assassination, Sherman met with Johnston at Bennett Place in Durham, North Carolina to negotiate a Confederate surrender. At the insistence of Johnston and Confederate President Jefferson Davis, Sherman offered generous terms that dealt with both political and military issues. Sherman thought his terms were consistent with the views Lincoln had expressed at City Point, but the general had no authority to offer such terms from General Grant, newly installed President Andrew Johnson, or the Cabinet. The government in Washington, D.C. refused to honor the terms, precipitating a long-lasting feud between Sherman and the Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton. Confusion over this issue lasted until April 26, 1865, when Johnston, ignoring instructions from President Davis, agreed to purely military terms and formally surrendered his army and all the Confederate forces in the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida.[50] Media:Example. ... Popularly known as Bennett Place, the farmhouse owned by James and Nancy Bennett (alternately and probably correctly, Bennitt) was the site of the largest surrender of troops during the American Civil War on April 26, 1865. ... Nickname: Location in North Carolina Coordinates: , Country State Counties Durham, Orange, Wake Government  - Mayor Bill Bell Area  - City  94. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... The Running Machine An 1864 cartoon featuring Stanton, William Fessenden, Abraham Lincoln, William Seward and Gideon Welles takes a swing at the Lincoln administration. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Slavery and emancipation

Portrait of William Tecumseh Sherman by Mathew Brady
Portrait of William Tecumseh Sherman by Mathew Brady

Though he came to disapprove of slavery, Sherman was not an abolitionist before the war, and like many of his time and background, he did not believe in "Negro equality".[51] His military campaigns of 1864 and 1865 freed many slaves, who greeted him "as a second Moses or Aaron"[52] and joined his marches through Georgia and the Carolinas by the tens of thousands, performing invaluable service as foragers and pioneers. Impressed with their industry and loyalty, Sherman quickly became concerned with the future of the freed slaves and the improvement of their precarious living conditions. Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 564 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: William Tecumseh Sherman Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 564 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: William Tecumseh Sherman Categories: U.S. history images ... The history of slavery in the United States (1618-1865) began soon after English colonists first settled Virginia and lasted until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Aaron (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), or Aaron the Levite (flourished about 1200 B.C.), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... Look up Pioneer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


On January 12, 1865, Sherman met in Savannah with Secretary of War Stanton and with twenty local black leaders. After Sherman's departure, Garrison Frazier, a Baptist minister, declared in response to an inquiry about the feelings of the black community that is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is...

We looked upon General Sherman, prior to his arrival, as a man, in the providence of God, specially set apart to accomplish this work, and we unanimously felt inexpressible gratitude to him, looking upon him as a man that should be honored for the faithful performance of his duty. Some of us called upon him immediately upon his arrival, and it is probable he did not meet [Secretary Stanton] with more courtesy than he met us. His conduct and deportment toward us characterized him as a friend and a gentleman.[53]

Four days later, Sherman issued his Special Field Orders, No. 15. The orders provided for the settlement of 40,000 freed slaves and black refugees on land expropriated from white landowners in South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Sherman appointed Brig. Gen. Rufus Saxton, an abolitionist from Massachusetts who had previously directed the recruitment of black soldiers, to implement that plan.[54] Those orders, which became the basis of the claim that the Union government had promised freed slaves "40 acres and a mule", were revoked later that year by President Andrew Johnson. Special Field Orders, No. ... Rufus Saxton (October 19, 1824–February 23, 1908) was an American soldier who served as a Brigadier General of volunteers in the Union Army during the American Civil War (1861–1865). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... 40 acres and a mule is a term for compensation that was to be awarded to freed African American slaves after the Civil War— 40 acres (16 ha) of land to farm, and a mule with which to drag a plow so the land could be cultivated. ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ...


Although the context is often overlooked, and the quotation usually chopped off, one of Sherman's most famous statements about his hard-war views arose in part from the racial attitudes summarized above. In his Memoirs, Sherman noted political pressures in 1864-1865 to encourage the escape of slaves, in part to avoid the possibility that "'able-bodied slaves will be called into the military service of the rebels.'"[55] Sherman thought concentration on such policies would have delayed the "successful end" of the war and the "liberat[ion of] all slaves."[56] He went on to summarize vividly his hard-war philosopy and to add, in effect, that he really did not want the help of liberated slaves in subduing the South:

My aim then was to whip the rebels, to humble their pride, to follow them to their inmost recesses, and make them fear and dread us. "Fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom." I did not want them to cast in our teeth what General Hood had once done at Atlanta, that we had to call on their slaves to help us to subdue them. But, as regards kindness to the race . . ., I assert that no army ever did more for that race than the one I commanded at Savannah.
Sherman, Memoirs, 2d ed., ch. XXII, p. 729 (Lib. of America, 1990).

Strategies

General Sherman's record as a tactician was mixed, and his military legacy rests primarily on his command of logistics and on his brilliance as a strategist. The influential 20th century British military historian and theorist Basil Liddell Hart ranked Sherman as one of the most important strategists in the annals of war, along with Scipio Africanus, Belisarius, Napoleon Bonaparte, T. E. Lawrence, and Erwin Rommel. Liddell Hart credited Sherman with mastery of maneuver warfare (also known as the "indirect approach"), as demonstrated by his series of turning movements against Johnston during the Atlanta Campaign. Liddell Hart also stated that study of Sherman's campaigns had contributed significantly to his own "theory of strategy and tactics in mechanized warfare", which had in turn influenced Heinz Guderian's doctrine of Blitzkrieg and Rommel's use of tanks during the Second World War.[57] Another WWII-era student of Liddell Hart's writings about Sherman was George S. Patton, who "'spent a long vacation studying Sherman's campaigns on the ground in Georgia and the Carolinas, with the aid of [LH's] book,'" and later "'carried out his [bold] plans, in super-Sherman style.'"[58] Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... This article is about real and historical warfare. ... The military historian Basil Liddell Hart. ... Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major (Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS¹) (235–183 BC) was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. ... // Flavius Belisarius (505(?) – 565) was one of the greatest generals of the Byzantine Empire and one of the most acclaimed generals in history. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Lawrence of Arabia redirects here. ... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was perhaps the most famous German Field Marshal of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname The Desert Fox (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he waged... Maneuver warfare, is the term used by military theorist for a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption brought about by movement. ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the World War II general Heinz Guderian. ... This article is about the military term. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... George Patton redirects here. ...


Sherman's greatest contribution to the war, the strategy of total warfare—endorsed by General Grant and President Lincoln—has been the subject of much controversy. Sherman himself downplayed his role in conducting total war, often saying that he was simply carrying out orders as best he could in order to fulfill his part of Grant's master plan for ending the war. Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ...


Total warfare

1868 engraving by Alexander Hay Ritchie depicting the March to the Sea
1868 engraving by Alexander Hay Ritchie depicting the March to the Sea

Like Grant, Sherman was convinced that the Confederacy's strategic, economic, and psychological ability to wage further war needed to be definitively crushed if the fighting were to end. Therefore, he believed that the North had to conduct its campaign as a war of conquest and employ scorched earth tactics to break the backbone of the rebellion, which he called "hard war". Image File history File links Sherman_sea_1868. ... Image File history File links Sherman_sea_1868. ... Hercules fighting the Centaurs , engraving by Sebald Beham Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ...


Sherman's advance through Georgia and South Carolina was characterized by widespread destruction of civilian supplies and infrastructure. Although looting was officially forbidden, historians disagree on how well this regulation was enforced.[59] The speed and efficiency of the destruction by Sherman's army was remarkable. The practice of bending rails around trees, leaving behind what came to be known as Sherman's neckties, made repairs difficult. Accusations that civilians were targeted and war crimes were committed on the march have made Sherman a controversial figure to this day, particularly in the South. Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lung, to rob), sacking, plundering, or pillaging is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war,[1] natural disaster,[2] or rioting. ... Creating Shermans neckties Shermans neckties were a phenomenon of the American Civil War. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ...

Map of Sherman's advance from Atlanta to Goldsboro
Map of Sherman's advance from Atlanta to Goldsboro

The damage done by Sherman was almost entirely limited to the destruction of much property. Though exact figures are not available, the loss of civilian life appears to have been very small.[60] Consuming supplies, wrecking infrastructure, and undermining morale were Sherman's stated goals, and several of his Southern contemporaries noted this and commented on it. For instance, Alabama-born Major Henry Hitchcock, who served in Sherman's staff, declared that "it is a terrible thing to consume and destroy the sustenance of thousands of people", but if the scorched earth strategy served "to paralyze their husbands and fathers who are fighting ... it is mercy in the end."[61] Image File history File links Shermans_march. ... Image File history File links Shermans_march. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... Location in North Carolina Coordinates: , Founded / Incorporated 1787 / 1847 Government  - Mayor Alfonzo Al King Area  - City 64. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


The severity of the destructive acts by Union troops was significantly greater in South Carolina than in Georgia or North Carolina. This appears to have been a consequence of the animosity among both Union soldiers and officers to the state that they regarded as the "cockpit of secession".[62] One of the most serious accusations against Sherman was that he allowed his troops to burn the city of Columbia. Historian James M. McPherson, however, claims that: For the Civil War General of a similar name see James B. McPherson James M. McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis 86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University. ...

The fullest and most dispassionate study of this controversy blames all parties in varying proportions—including the Confederate authorities for the disorder that characterized the evacuation of Columbia, leaving thousands of cotton bales on the streets (some of them burning) and huge quantities of liquor undestroyed ... Sherman did not deliberately burn Columbia; a majority of Union soldiers, including the general himself, worked through the night to put out the fires.[63]

Modern assessment

After the fall of Atlanta in 1864, Sherman ordered the city's evacuation. When the city council appealed to him to rescind that order, on the grounds that it would cause great hardship to women, children, the elderly, and others who bore no responsibility for the conduct of the war, Sherman sent a response in which he sought to articulate his conviction that a lasting peace would be possible only if the Union were restored, and that he was therefore prepared to do all he could do to quash the rebellion:

You cannot qualify war in harsher terms than I will. War is cruelty, and you cannot refine it; and those who brought war into our country deserve all the curses and maledictions a people can pour out. I know I had no hand in making this war, and I know I will make more sacrifices to-day than any of you to secure peace. But you cannot have peace and a division of our country. If the United States submits to a division now, it will not stop, but will go on until we reap the fate of Mexico, which is eternal war.[...] I want peace, and believe it can only be reached through union and war, and I will ever conduct war with a view to perfect and early success. But, my dear sirs, when peace does come, you may call on me for anything. Then will I share with you the last cracker, and watch with you to shield your homes and families against danger from every quarter.[64] Mexico is a country in North America and the largest Spanish-speaking country in the world. ...

Literary critic Edmund Wilson found in Sherman's Memoirs a fascinating and disturbing account of an "appetite for warfare" that "grows as it feeds on the South".[65] Former U.S. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara refers equivocally to the statement that "war is cruelty and you cannot refine it" in both the book Wilson's Ghost[66] and in his interview for the film The Fog of War. Some modern critics have denounced Sherman's attitude as proto-totalitarian and as a harbinger of the inhumanity of the large-scale wars of the 20th century.[67] Edmund Wilson (May 8, 1895 – June 12, 1972) was an American writer, noted chiefly for his literary criticism. ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... For the figure skater, see Robert McNamara (figure skater). ... This article is about the documentary. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ...


On the other hand, when comparing Sherman's scorched earth campaigns to the actions of the British Army during the Second Boer War (1899–1902)—another war in which civilians were targeted because of their central role in sustaining an armed resistance—South African historian Hermann Giliomee declares that it "looks as if Sherman struck a better balance than the British commanders between severity and restraint in taking actions proportional to legitimate needs".[68] The admiration of scholars such as Victor Davis Hanson, Basil Liddell Hart, Lloyd Lewis, and John F. Marszalek for General Sherman owes much to what they see as an approach to the exigencies of modern armed conflict that was both effective and principled. The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... Victor Davis Hanson giving a lecture at Kenyon College. ... The military historian Basil Liddell Hart. ... John F. Marszalek, Ph. ...


Postbellum service

Illustration from the second edition of Sherman's Memoirs, 1889
Illustration from the second edition of Sherman's Memoirs, 1889

In May 1865, after the major Confederate armies had surrendered, Sherman wrote in a personal letter: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (611x917, 73 KB) Summary Portrait and signature of General William Tecumseh Sherman, of the United States Army. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (611x917, 73 KB) Summary Portrait and signature of General William Tecumseh Sherman, of the United States Army. ...

I confess, without shame, that I am sick and tired of fighting—its glory is all moonshine; even success the most brilliant is over dead and mangled bodies, with the anguish and lamentations of distant families, appealing to me for sons, husbands, and fathers ... it is only those who have never heard a shot, never heard the shriek and groans of the wounded and lacerated ... that cry aloud for more blood, more vengeance, more desolation.[69]

In July 1865, only three months after Robert E. Lee’s surrender at Appomattox, General WT Sherman was put in charge of the Military Division of the Missouri, which included every territory west of the Mississippi. Sherman's main concern as commanding general was to protect the construction and operation of the railroads from attack by hostile Indians. In his campaigns against the Indian tribes, Sherman repeated his Civil War strategy by seeking not only to defeat the enemy's soldiers, but also to destroy the resources that allowed the enemy to sustain its warfare. The policies he implemented included the decimation of the buffalo, which were the primary source of food for the Plains Indians.[70] This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... Original range of the Plains Indians The Plains Indians are the Indians who lived on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America. ...


The attitude of the American government against the native Americans is all in Sherman’s own words, as reported by the Independent Institute[71]:

We are not going to let a few thieving, ragged Indians check and stop the progress of the railroads.... I regard the railroad as the most important element now in progress to facilitate the military interests of our Frontier

We must act with vindictive earnestness against the Sioux, even to their extermination, men, women and children. (The Sioux must) feel the superior power of the Government.


During an assault, the soldiers cannot pause to distinguish between male and female, or even discriminate as to age.

In an 1867 letter to Grant, Sherman referred to his policy against the native Americans as “the final solution to the Indian problem”.[72] But later on, despite his harsh treatment of the warring tribes, Sherman spoke out against the unfair way speculators and government agents treated the natives within the reservations.[73] This article is about Native Americans. ...


On July 25, 1866, Congress created the rank of General of the Army for Grant and then promoted Sherman to lieutenant general. When Grant became president in 1869, Sherman was appointed Commanding General of the United States Army. After the death of John A. Rawlins, Sherman also served for one month as interim Secretary of War. His tenure as commanding general was marred by political difficulties, and from 1874 to 1876, he moved his headquarters to St. Louis, Missouri in an attempt to escape from them. One of his significant contributions as head of the Army was the establishment of the Command School (now the Command and General Staff College) at Fort Leavenworth. is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about the United States Army rank General of the Army. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Prior to the institution of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army in 1903, there was generally a single senior-most officer in the army. ... Maj. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... The Command and General Staff College (C&GSC) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas is a United States Army facility that functions as a graduate school for U.S. military leaders. ... In 1827, Colonel Henry Leavenworth established a post on the bluffs overlooking the western bank of the Missouri River to protect the fur trade, safeguard commerce on the Santa Fe Trail and maintain the peace among the inhabitants. ...

Shoulder strap insignia, introduced by Sherman in 1872 for his use as General of the Army
Shoulder strap insignia, introduced by Sherman in 1872 for his use as General of the Army

In 1875 Sherman published his memoirs in two volumes. According to critic Edmund Wilson, Sherman Image File history File links Us_army_general_insignia_1872. ... Image File history File links Us_army_general_insignia_1872. ... Edmund Wilson (May 8, 1895 – June 12, 1972) was an American writer, noted chiefly for his literary criticism. ...

had a trained gift of self-expression and was, as Mark Twain says, a master of narrative. [In his Memoirs] the vigorous account of his pre-war activities and his conduct of his military operations is varied in just the right proportion and to just the right degree of vivacity with anecdotes and personal experiences. We live through his campaigns [...] in the company of Sherman himself. He tells us what he thought and what he felt, and he never strikes any attitudes or pretends to feel anything he does not feel.[74]

On June 19, 1879, Sherman delivered his famous "War Is Hell" speech to the graduating class of the Michigan Military Academy and to the gathered crowd of more than 10,000: "There is many a boy here today who looks on war as all glory, but, boys, it is all hell."[75] Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Academic Building of the Michigan Military Academy was built in 1890. ...


Sherman stepped down as commanding general on November 1, 1883, and retired from the army on February 8, 1884. He lived most of the rest of his life in New York City. He was devoted to the theater and to amateur painting and was much in demand as a colorful speaker at dinners and banquets, in which he indulged a fondness for quoting Shakespeare.[76] Sherman was proposed as a Republican candidate for the presidential election of 1884, but declined as emphatically as possible, saying, "If drafted, I will not run; if nominated, I will not accept; if elected, I will not serve."[77] Such a categorical rejection of a candidacy is now referred to as a "Shermanesque statement". is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... GOP redirects here. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sherman pledge. ...


Autobiography and Memoirs

Sheet music for "Sherman's March to the Sea"
Sheet music for "Sherman's March to the Sea"

Around 1868, Sherman wrote (or at least began) a “private” recollection for his children about his life before the Civil War — identified now as his unpublished “Autobiography, 1828-1861.” This manuscript is held by the Ohio Historical Society. Much of the material in it would eventually be incorporated in revised form in his memoirs. The Ohio Historical Society is a non-profit organization incorporated in 1885 ...to promote a knowledge of archaeology and history, especially in Ohio. ...


In 1875, ten years after the end of the Civil War, Sherman became one of the first Civil War generals to publish a memoir. [78] His Memoirs of General William T. Sherman. By Himself, published by D. Appleton & Company, took the form of two volumes, beginning in 1846 (when the Mexican War began) and ending with a chapter about the “military lessons of the [civil] war” (1875 edition: Volume I; Volume II ). The memoirs were controversial, and sparked complaints from many quarters. [79] Grant (serving as President when Sherman’s memoirs first appeared) later remarked that others had told him that Sherman treated Grant unfairly but “when I finished the book, I found I approved every word; that . . . it was a true book, an honorable book, creditable to Sherman, just to his companions — to myself particularly so — just such a book as I expected Sherman would write.” [80]


In 1886, after the appearance of Grant’s own memoirs, Sherman brought out a “second edition, revised and corrected” of his memoirs with Appleton. The new edition added a second preface, a chapter about his life up to 1846, a chapter concerning the post-war period (ending with his 1884 retirement from the army), several appendices, portraits, improved maps, and an index (1886 edition: Volume I, Volume II). For the most part, Sherman refused to revise his original text on the ground that “I disclaim the character of historian, but assume to be a witness on the stand before the great tribunal of history” and “any witness who may disagree with me should publish his own version of [the] facts in the truthful narration of which he is interested." However, Sherman did add the appendices, in which he published the views of some others. [81]


Subsequently, Sherman shifted to the publishing house of Charles L. Webster & Co., the publisher of Grant’s memoirs. The new publishing house brought out a “third edition, revised and corrected” in 1890. This difficult-to-find edition was substantively identical to the second (except for the probable omission of Sherman's short 1875 and 1886 prefaces). [82]


Upon Sherman’s death in 1891, there were dueling new editions of his memoirs. His original publisher, Appleton, reissued the original (1875) edition of the memoirs with two new chapters about Sherman’s later years added by the journalist W. Fletcher Johnson (1891 Johnson edition: Volume I, Volume II). Meanwhile, Charles L. Webster & Co. issued a “fourth edition, revised, corrected, and complete” with the text of Sherman’s second edition, a new chapter prepared under the auspices of the Sherman family bringing the general’s life from his retirement to his death and funeral, and an appreciation by politician James G. Blaine (a distant Sherman relative). Unfortunately, this edition omits Sherman’s prefaces to the 1875 and 1886 editions (1891 Blaine edition: Volume I, Volume II). James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ...


In 1904 and 1913, Sherman’s youngest son (Philemon Tecumseh Sherman) republished the memoirs, ironically with Appleton (not Charles L. Webster & Co.). This was designated as a “second edition, revised and corrected.” This edition contains Sherman’s two prefaces, his 1886 text, and the materials added in the 1891 Blaine edition. Thus, this virtually invisible edition of Sherman's memoirs is actually the most comprehensive version.


There are many modern editions of Sherman’s memoirs. The edition most useful for research purposes is the 1990 Library of America version, edited by Charles Royster. It contains the entire text of Sherman’s 1886 edition, together with annotations, a note on the text, and a detailed chronology of Sherman’s life. Missing from this edition, however, is the useful biographical material contained in the 1891 Johnson and Blaine editions.


Death and posterity

Monument in Washington, D.C.
Monument in Washington, D.C.

Sherman died in New York City. On February 19, 1891, there was a funeral service held at his home there, followed by a military procession. Sherman's body was then transported to St. Louis, where another service was conducted on February 21, 1891 at a local Catholic church. His son, Thomas Ewing Sherman, a Jesuit priest, presided over his father's funeral mass. General Joseph E. Johnston, the Confederate officer who had commanded the resistance to Sherman's troops in Georgia and the Carolinas, served as a pallbearer in New York City. It was a bitterly cold day and a friend of Johnston, fearing that the general might become ill, asked him to put on his hat. Johnston famously replied: "If I were in [Sherman's] place, and he were standing in mine, he would not put on his hat." Johnston did catch a serious cold and died one month later of pneumonia.[83] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 431 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1543 × 2146 pixel, file size: 421 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): William Tecumseh Sherman Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 431 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1543 × 2146 pixel, file size: 421 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): William Tecumseh Sherman Metadata This... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Thomas Ewing Sherman (October 12, 1856 – April 20, 1933) was an American lawyer, educator, and Catholic priest. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... A pallbearer is one of several funeral paranymphs who bears the casket of a deceased person from a religious or memorial service or viewing either directly to a cemetery or mausoleum, or to and from the hearse which does so. ...


Sherman is buried in Calvary Cemetery in St. Louis. Major memorials to Sherman include the gilded bronze equestrian statue by Augustus Saint-Gaudens at the main entrance to Central Park in New York City and the major monument by Carl Rohl-Smith near President's Park in Washington, D.C. Other posthumous tributes include the naming of the World War II M4 Sherman tank[84] and the "General Sherman" Giant Sequoia tree, the most massive documented single-trunk tree in the world. Bellefontaine Cemetery (established in 1849) and the Roman Catholic Calvary Cemetery (established in 1857) in St. ... Augustus Saint Gaudens, 1905 Augustus Saint-Gaudens (Dublin, March 1, 1848 - Cornish, New Hampshire, August 3, 1907), was the Irish-born American sculptor of the Beaux-Arts generation who most embodied the ideals of the American Renaissance. ... Central Park is a large public, urban park (843 acres, 3. ... Presidents Park, located in Washington, D.C., includes the White House, a visitor center, Lafayette Park, and the Ellipse. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The M4 Sherman was the primary tank produced by the United States for its own use and the use of its Allies during World War II. Production of the M4 Medium tank exceeded 50,000 units, and its chassis served as the basis for thousands of other armored vehicles such... General Sherman tree from Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks The General Sherman tree is a Giant Sequoia. ...


Some of the artistic treatments of Sherman's march are the Civil War era song "Marching Through Georgia" by Henry Clay Work, the poem "The March to the Sea" by Herman Melville, the film Sherman's March by Ross McElwee, and E. L. Doctorow's novel The March. At the beginning of Margaret Mitchell's novel Gone with the Wind, first published in 1936, the fictional character Rhett Butler warns a group of upper-class secessionists of the folly of war with the North in terms very reminiscent of those Sherman directed to David F. Boyd before leaving Louisiana. Sherman's invasion of Georgia later plays a central role in the plot of the novel. Marching Through Georgia (sometimes called Marching Thru Georgia) is a marching song written by Henry Clay Work in 1865, referencing U.S. Maj. ... Henry Clay Work (October 1, 1832 - June 8, 1884) was an American composer. ... Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet. ... Shermans March: A Meditation on the Possibility of Romantic Love In the South During an Era of Nuclear Weapons Proliferation is a 1986 documentary film which starts out to tell the story of the effects of General William Tecumseh Shermans march through Georgia (the March to the Sea... Ross McElwee is an American documentary filmmaker and cinematographer known for his autobiographical films about his family and personal life, usually interwoven with an episodic journey of some sort. ... E.L. Doctorow, photograph by Jill Krementz, from back cover of Doctorows 1975 novel Ragtime Edgar Lawrence Doctorow (born January 6, 1931, New York, New York) is the author of several critically acclaimed novels that blend history and social criticism. ... The March is a 2005 historical fiction novel by E. L. Doctorow. ... Margaret Munnerlyn Mitchell (November 8, 1900 – August 16, 1949), popularly known as Margaret Mitchell was an American author, who won the Pulitzer Prize in 1937 for her novel, Gone with the Wind, published in 1936. ... For the film, see Gone with the Wind (film). ... Rhett Butler is the handsome, dashing hero of Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell. ...


See also

This article is about the historical event. ... Shermans March is an American television history documentary that aired on April 22, 2007 on the History Channel. ...

Writings

  • General Sherman's Official Account of His Great March to Georgia and the Carolinas, from His Departure from Chattanooga to the Surrender of General Joseph E. Johnston and Confederate Forces under His Command (1865)
  • "Autobiography, 1828-1861" (circa 1868), Mss. 57, WTS Papers, Ohio Historical Society. Private recollections for Sherman's children.
  • Memoirs of General William T. Sherman, Written by Himself (1875), 2d ed. with additional chapters (1886)
  • Reports of Inspection Made in the Summer of 1877 by Generals P. H. Sheridan and W. T. Sherman of Country North of the Union Pacific Railroad (co-author, 1878)
  • The Sherman Letters: Correspondence between General and Senator Sherman from 1837 to 1891 (posthumous, 1894)
  • Home Letters of General Sherman (posthumous, 1909)
  • General W. T. Sherman as College President: A Collection of Letters, Documents, and Other Material, Chiefly from Private Sources, Relating to the Life and Activities of General William Tecumseh Sherman, to the Early Years of Louisiana State University, and the Stirring Conditions Existing in the South on the Eve of the Civil War (posthumous, 1912)
  • The William Tecumseh Sherman Family Letters (posthumous, 1967). Microfilm collection prepared by the Archives of the University of Notre Dame contains letters, etc. from Sherman, his wife, and others.
  • Sherman at War (posthumous, 1992)
  • Sherman's Civil War: Selected Correspondence of William T. Sherman, 1860 – 1865 (posthumous, 1999)

Notes

  1. ^ Liddell Hart, p. 430
  2. ^ See, William T. Sherman papers, Notre Dame University CSHR 19/67 Folder:Roger Sherman's Watch 1932–1942
  3. ^ Lewis, p. 34.
  4. ^ Sherman, Memoirs, p. 11; Lewis, p. 23; Schenker, "'My Father . . . Named Me William Tecumseh': Rebutting the Charge That General Sherman Lied About His Name," Ohio History (2008), vol. 115, p. 55; Sherman biographer John Marszalek considers the cited article to "present a convincing case regarding Sherman's name." Marszalek, "Preface" to 2007 edition of Sherman: A Solider's Passion for Order, pp. xiv-xv n.1.
  5. ^ See, for instance, Hirshson pp. 387–388
  6. ^ See, for instance, Walsh, p. 32.
  7. ^ Sherman, Memoirs, p. 14
  8. ^ Quoted in Hirshson, p. 13
  9. ^ Sherman, Memoirs, p. 16
  10. ^ See, for instance, Hirshson, p. 21
  11. ^ See Sherman at the Virtual Museum of San Francisco and excerpts from Sherman's Memoirs
  12. ^ Katherine Burton, Three Generations: Maria Boyle Ewing - Ellen Ewing Sherman - Minnie Sherman Fitch (Longmans, Green & Co., 1947), pp. 72-78.
  13. ^ Burton, pp. 217-21, 226-27.
  14. ^ See, for instance, Hirshson, pp. 362–368, 387
  15. ^ Sherman, Memoirs, pp. 125–129
  16. ^ Sherman, Memoirs, pp. 131–134, 166
  17. ^ Quoted in Royster, pp. 133–134
  18. ^ Sherman, Memoirs, p. 158–160
  19. ^ Sherman, Memoirs, Chap. VI
  20. ^ Quoted in Hirshson, p. 68
  21. ^ Exchange between W.T. Sherman and Prof. David F. Boyd, 24 December 1860. Quoted in Lewis, p. 138
  22. ^ Letter by W.T. Sherman to Gov. Thomas O. Moore, January 18, 1861. Quoted in Sherman, Memoirs, p. 156
  23. ^ Sherman, Memoirs, pp. 184-86.
  24. ^ See, for instance, Hirshson, pp. 90–94
  25. ^ See, for instance, Marszalek, Sherman, p. 162
  26. ^ Quoted in Lewis, p. 204
  27. ^ Smith, pp, 151–52
  28. ^ Eicher, p. 485
  29. ^ Daniel, p. 138
  30. ^ Quoted in Walsh, pp. 77–78
  31. ^ Eicher, p. 485
  32. ^ Smith, p. 212
  33. ^ Brockett, p. 175
  34. ^ Smith, p. 227
  35. ^ Smith, pp. 235–36
  36. ^ Sherman, Memoirs, pp. 370-75.
  37. ^ McPherson, p. 678
  38. ^ Sherman, Memoirs, pp. 406-34; Buck T. Foster, Sherman's Meridian Campaign (University of Alabama Press, 2006).
  39. ^ Sherman, Memoirs, p. 589
  40. ^ McPherson, p. 653
  41. ^ Sherman, Memoirs, p. 576. The nomination was not submitted to the Senate until December. Eicher, p. 702.
  42. ^ Telegram by W.T. Sherman to Gen. U.S. Grant, October 9, 1864, reproduced in Sherman's Civil War, pp. 731–732
  43. ^ Report by Maj. Gen. W.T. Sherman, January 1, 1865, quoted in Grimsley, p. 200
  44. ^ History Channel
  45. ^ See, for instance, See Liddell Hart, p. 354
  46. ^ Brockett, p. 175 (p. 162 in 1865 edition).
  47. ^ Marszalek, Sherman: A Oldier's Passion, p. 311.
  48. ^ Quoted in McPherson, p. 727
  49. ^ Sherman, Memoirs, pp. 806-17; Donald C. Pfanz, The Petersburg Campaign: Abraham Lincoln at City Point (Lynchburg, VA, 1989), 1-2, 24-29, 94-95.
  50. ^ See, for instance, Johnston's Surrender at Bennett Place on Hillsboro Road
  51. ^ See, for instance, letter by W.T. Sherman to Salmon P. Chase, January 11, 1865, reproduced in Sherman's Civil War, pp. 794–795, and letter by W.T. Sherman to John Sherman, Aug. 1865, quoted in Liddell Hart, p. 406
  52. ^ Letter to Chase, cited above
  53. ^ "Sherman meets the colored ministers in Savannah"
  54. ^ Special Field Orders, No. 15, January 16, 1865. See also McPherson, pp. 737–739
  55. ^ Sherman, Memoirs, pp. 728-29, quoting a December 30, 1864 letter from Henry W. Halleck.
  56. ^ Sherman, Memoirs, p. 729.
  57. ^ Liddell Hart, foreword to the Indiana University Press's edition of Sherman's Memoirs (1957). Quoted in Wilson, p. 179
  58. ^ Hirshson, p. 393, quoting B.H. Liddell Hart, "Notes on Two Discussions with Patton, 1944," Feb. 20, 1948, GSP Papers, box 6, USMA Library.
  59. ^ See, for instance, Grimsley, pp. 190–204; McPherson, pp. 712–714, 727–729.
  60. ^ See, for instance, Grimsley, p. 199
  61. ^ Hitchcock, p. 125
  62. ^ See, for instance, Grimsley, pp. 200–202
  63. ^ McPherson, pp. 728–729
  64. ^ Letter by Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman, USA, to the Mayor and City Council of Atlanta, September 12, 1864
  65. ^ Wilson, p. 184
  66. ^ McNamara and Blight, p. 130
  67. ^ See, for instance, "Targeting Civilians", by Thomas DiLorenzo
  68. ^ Giliomee, p. 253
  69. ^ Quoted in Liddell Hart, p. 402
  70. ^ See Isenberg, pp. 128, 156
  71. ^ The Independent Institute
  72. ^ John F. Marszalek, Sherman: A Soldier’s Passion for Order. New York: Free Press, 1993.
  73. ^ See, for instance, Lewis, pp. 597–600
  74. ^ Wilson, p. 175
  75. ^ From transcript published in the Ohio State Journal, August 12, 1880, reproduced in Lewis, p. 637
  76. ^ See, for instance, Woodward
  77. ^ Marszalek in Encyclopedia of the American Civil War, p. 1769.
  78. ^ Marszalek, p. 461.
  79. ^ Marszalek, p. 463.
  80. ^ Extract from John Russell Young, Around the World with General Grant, vol. II, 290-91, quoted in Sherman, Memoirs (Library of America ed., 1990), p. 1054.
  81. ^ 1886 Preface. In one amusing change to his text, Sherman dropped the assertion that John Sutter, of gold rush fame, had become “very ‘tight’” at a Fourth of July celebration in 1848 and stated instead that Sutter “was enthusiastic.” Sherman, Memoirs (Library of America ed., 1990), Note on the Text, p. 1123; H.W. Brands, The Age of Gold (Doubleday, 2002), p. 271.
  82. ^ Sherman, Memoirs (Library of America ed., 1990), Note on the Text, p. 1123.
  83. ^ See, for instance, Lewis, p. 652; Marszalek, pp. 495-98.
  84. ^ The U.S. M4 tank was first given the service name General Sherman by the British

is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Thomas DiLorenzo Thomas J. DiLorenzo (born 1954) is an American economics professor at Loyola College in Maryland. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

  • Brockett, L.P., Our Great Captains: Grant, Sherman, Thomas, Sheridan, and Farragut, C.B. Richardson, 1866.
  • Daniel, Larry J., Shiloh: The Battle That Changed the Civil War, Simon & Schuster, 1997, ISBN 0-684-80375-5.
  • Eicher, John H., & Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Giliomee, Hermann, The Afrikaners: Biography of a People, University Press of Virginia, 2003, ISBN 0-8139-2237-2.
  • Grimsley, Mark, The Hard Hand of War: Union Military Policy toward Southern Civilians, 1861–1865, Cambridge University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-521-59941-5.
  • Hanson, Victor D., The Soul of Battle, Anchor Books, 1999, ISBN 0-385-72059-9.
  • Hirshson, Stanley P., The White Tecumseh: A Biography of General William T. Sherman, John Wiley & Sons, 1997, ISBN 0-471-28329-0.
  • Hitchcock, Henry, Marching with Sherman: Passages from the Letters and Campaign Diaries of Henry Hitchcock, Major and Assistant Adjutant General of Volunteers, November 1864 – May 1865, ed. M.A. DeWolfe Howe, Yale University Press, 1927. Reprinted in 1995 by the University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 0-8032-7276-6.
  • Isenberg, Andrew C., The Destruction of the Bison, Cambridge University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-521-00348-2.
  • Lewis, Lloyd, Sherman: Fighting Prophet, Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1932. Reprinted in 1993 by the University of Nebraska Press, ISBN 0-8032-7945-0.
  • Liddell Hart, Basil Henry, Sherman: Soldier, Realist, American, Dodd, Mead & Co., 1929. Reprinted in 1993 by Da Capo Press, ISBN 0-306-80507-3.
  • Marszalek, John F., Sherman: A Soldier's Passion for Order, Free Press, 1992, ISBN 0-02-920135-7; reissued with new "Preface," Southern Illinois University Press, 2007.
  • Marszalek, John F., "William Tecumseh Sherman", Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History, Heidler, David S., and Heidler, Jeanne T., eds., W. W. Norton & Company, 2000, ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
  • McNamara, Robert S. and Blight, James G., Wilson's Ghost: Reducing the Risk of Conflict, Killing, and Catastrophe in the 21st Century, Public Affairs, 2001, ISBN 1-891620-89-4.
  • McPherson, James M., Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, illustrated ed., Oxford University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-19-515901-2.
  • Royster, Charles, The Destructive War: William Tecumseh Sherman, Stonewall Jackson, and the Americans, Alfred A. Knopf, 1991, ISBN 0-679-73878-9.
  • Schenker, Carl R., Jr., "'My Father . . . Named Me William Tecumseh': Rebutting the Charge That General Sherman Lied About His Name," Ohio History (2008), vol. 115, p. 55.
  • Sherman's Civil War: Selected Correspondence of William T. Sherman,1860–1865, eds. B.D. Simpson and J.V. Berlin, University of North Carolina Press, 1999, ISBN 0-8078-2440-2.
  • Sherman, William T., Memoirs of General W.T. Sherman, 2nd ed., D. Appleton & Co., 1913 (1889). Reprinted by the Library of America, 1990, ISBN 978-0-94045065-3.
  • "William Tecumseh Sherman", A Dictionary of Louisiana Biography, Vol. II (1988), p. 741.
  • Smith, Jean Edward, Grant, Simon and Schuster, 2001, ISBN 0-684-84927-5.
  • Walsh, George, Whip the Rebellion, Forge Books, 2005, ISBN 0-7653-0526-7.
  • Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders, LSU Press, 1964, ISBN 0-8071-0822-7.
  • Wilson, Edmund, Patriotic Gore: Studies in the Literature of the American Civil War, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1962. Reprinted by W. W. Norton & Co., 1994, ISBN 0-393-31256-9.
  • Woodward, C. Vann, "Civil Warriors", New York Review of Books, vol. 37, no. 17, 8 November 1990.

Victor Davis Hanson giving a lecture at Kenyon College. ... The military historian Basil Liddell Hart. ... John F. Marszalek, Ph. ... For the figure skater, see Robert McNamara (figure skater). ... For the Civil War General of a similar name see James B. McPherson James M. McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis 86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University. ... Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ... Jean Edward Smith is an accomplished educator and biographer having authored such works as Grant, John Marshall: Definer of a Nation, and Presently he is the John Marshall Professor of Political Science at Marshall University. ... Edmund Wilson (May 8, 1895 – June 12, 1972) was an American writer, noted chiefly for his literary criticism. ... Comer Vann Woodward (November 13, 1908 - December 17, 1999) was a pre-eminent American historian focusing primarily on the American South and race relations. ... The New York Review of Books (or NYRB) is a biweekly magazine on literature, culture, and current affairs published in New York which takes as its point of departure that the discussion of important books is itself an indispensable literary activity. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

External links

Military of the United States Portal
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Military offices
Preceded by
Ulysses S. Grant
Commanding General of the United States Army
1869–1883
Succeeded by
Philip H. Sheridan
Persondata
NAME Sherman, William Tecumseh
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Cump, Uncle Billy (nicknames)
SHORT DESCRIPTION American General, businessman, educator, and author.
DATE OF BIRTH February 8, 1820
PLACE OF BIRTH Lancaster, Ohio
DATE OF DEATH February 14, 1891
PLACE OF DEATH New York City, New York
Image File history File links Naval_Jack_of_the_United_States. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Find A Grave is an online database of seventeen million cemeteries and burial records. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Train No. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Prior to the institution of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army in 1903, there was generally a single senior-most officer in the army. ... Philip Sheridan Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888), a military man and one of the great generals in the American Civil War. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A businessman (sometimes businesswoman, female; or businessperson, gender neutral) is a generic term for a wide range of people engaged in profit-oriented enterprises, generally the management of a company. ... Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, good judgement and wisdom. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... West Main Street in downtown Lancaster in 2006 Lancaster is a city in Fairfield County, Ohio, in the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
William Tecumseh Sherman - LoveToKnow 1911 (1337 words)
WILLIAM TECUMSEH SHERMAN (1820-1891), American general, was born on the 8th of February 1820, at Lancaster, Ohio.
Though his brother John Sherman was a leader in the party which had elected Lincoln, William Sherman was very conservative on the slavery question, and his distress at what he thought an unnecessary rupture between the states was extreme.
Sherman defeated him and reached Raleigh, the capital of North Carolina, on the r3th of April, having marched nearly 500 m.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m