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Encyclopedia > William Stewart Halsted
The Four Doctors by John Singer Sargent, 1905.From left to right: Welch, Halsted, Osler, Kelly. It is said that Halsted's difficult personality prompted Sargent to paint him in colors that would fade in time. Of note:Sargent's careful depiction of Halsted's short, stubby thumb.
The Four Doctors by John Singer Sargent, 1905.
From left to right: Welch, Halsted, Osler, Kelly.
It is said that Halsted's difficult personality prompted Sargent to paint him in colors that would fade in time. Of note:Sargent's careful depiction of Halsted's short, stubby thumb.

William Stewart Halsted (b. September 23, 1852 in New York City; d. September 7, 1922 in Baltimore, Maryland) is known as the father of American surgery. Founder of the American residency training system of progressive responsibility, he is also well known for his many other medical and surgical achievements. As one of the first proponents of hemostasis and investigators of wound healing, Halsted pioneered the modern surgical fundamental principles of absolute control of bleeding, accurate anatomical dissection, complete sterility, exact approximation of tissue in wound closures without excessive tightness, and gentle handling of tissues. The first radical mastectomy for breast cancer was performed by Halsted. Other achievements include advances in thyroid, biliary tree, hernia, intestinal, and arterial aneurysm surgeries. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Self Portrait, oil painting, 1907 John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) was a painter known for his portraits. ... The thumbs up gesture is a sign of approval in many cultures. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the United States, and is at the center of international finance, politics, entertainment, and culture. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the city in the US state of Maryland. ... State nickname: Old Line State; Free State Other U.S. States Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Governor Robert L. Ehrlich (R) Official languages English Area 32,160 km² (42nd)  - Land 25,338 km²  - Water 6,968 km² (21%) Population (2000)  - Population 5,296,486 (19th)  - Density 165 /km² (5th) Admission... A typical modern surgery operation For other meanings of the word, see Surgery (disambiguation) Surgery (from the Greek cheirourgia - lit. ... Hemostasisis the physiologic process which results in the cessation of bleeding in most animals with a closed circulatory system. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile. ... A hernia is the protrusion of an organ or tissue out of the body cavity in which it normally lies. ... An aneurysm (or aneurism) (from Greek ανευρυσμα, a dilatation) is a localized dilation or ballooning of a blood vessel. ...

Contents


Timeline

Achievements, Personal events, Historical background.


1846

1852 Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl groups. ... In modern medical practice, general anaesthesia is a complex procedure involving: preanaesthetic assessment administration of general anaesthetic drugs cardirespiratory monitoring analgesia airway management fluid management Contents // Categories: Anesthesia | Medicine stubs ... William Thomas Green Morton (August 9, 1819 - July 15, 1868) was responsible for the first successful public demonstration of ether as an inhalation anesthetic. ...

1867 September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the United States, and is at the center of international finance, politics, entertainment, and culture. ...

1870 March 16 is the 75th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (76th in Leap years). ... Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister (April 5, 1827-February 10, 1912) was a famous British surgeon who promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Infirmary. ... The Lancet is a British medical journal, published weekly by the Lancet Publishing Group. ... An antiseptic is a substance that kills or prevents the growth and reproduction of various microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses on the external surfaces of the body. ... Phenol or carbolic acid is a white crystalline solid, with a chemical formula of C6H5OH, a melting point of 43 C, and a boiling point of 182 C at the pressure of 1 atmosphere (or 101080 Pa). ... Phenol, also known under the old name carbolic acid, is a colorless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Gangrene is necrosis and subsequent decay of body tissues caused by infection, thrombosis or lack of blood flow. ...

1874 Phillips Academy (also known as Andover and Phillips Andover) is a coed liberal arts high school, located in Andover, Massachusetts, near Boston. ... An Australian rules football match at the Richmond Paddock, Melbourne, in 1866. ... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (that is, an independent, fee-charging secondary school) for boys. ... Rowing refers to several forms of physical activity: For rowing boats in general, see Watercraft rowing. ... Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, and kinesthetic awareness, such as handsprings and handstands. ... Baseball is a team sport, in which a fist-sized ball is thrown by a defensive player called a pitcher and hit by an offensive player called a batter with a round, smooth stick called a bat. ... The position of the shortstop A shortstop moves to his left, toward the center of the field, to play a ground ball Shortstop, abbreviated SS, is the baseball fielding position between second and third base. ...

  • Graduates Yale University
    • A multi-sport athlete, Halsted is a mediocre student.
    • Does show any interest in medicine until senior year, when his interest is piqued by Gray's Anatomy and a physiology textbook by John C. Dalton.
  • Enrolls in College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York
    • Halsted is assigned to assist John C. Dalton himself and anatomist and surgery professor Henry B. Sands as a mentor.

1876 For other uses, see Yale (disambiguation). ... An athlete is a person possessing above average physical skills (strength, agility, and endurance) and thus seen suitable for physical activities, in particular, contests. ... Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ... Columbia University Medical Center is name of the medical complex associated with Columbia University located in Washington Heights area of Manhattan. ...

  • October - Begins internship at Bellevue Hospital despite having completed only two years of medical school.

1878 Bellevue Hospital is a famous hospital located in New York City, New York, United States. ...

  • July to October - Serves as house physician at New York Hospital
  • November - Begins training in Vienna under Theodor Billroth

1879 Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Hungarian: Bécs) is the capital of Austria, and also one of Austrias nine federal states (Bundesland Wien). ... Theodor Billroth, founding father of modern abdominal surgery Christian Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894), a German-born Austrian surgeon, is generally regarded as the founding father of modern abdominal surgery. ...

1880

  • Returns to New York

1880-1886

  • Appointments at several hospitals, including Bellevue and Roosevelt Hospital.

1881

  • First emergency blood transfusion, performed on sister
    • Upon discovering his sister nearly dead from a postpartum hemorrhage, Halsted boldly draws his own blood and injects it into his sister, saving her life.
    • Halsted implies knowledge of blood rejection possibility.
  • Performs one of first operations for gallstones in U.S., performed on mother
    • Visiting his mother in Albany, he finds her exhibiting Charcot's triad (fever, right upper quadrant pain, jaundice).

1882 Blood transfusion is the taking of blood or blood-based products from one individual and inserting them into the circulatory system of another. ... In medicine, gallstones are crystalline bodies formed within the body by accretion or concretion of normal or abnormal bile components. ... The name Albany is an ancient and literary name for Scotland, north of the Firth of Forth (east) and Firth of Clyde (west). ... Categories: People stubs | French physicians | 1825 births | 1893 deaths | History of medicine ...

  • Development of Halsted radical mastectomy as treament for breast cancer

1883-1886 Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ...

  • Papers describe blood transfusions, autotransfusions, saline infusions
    • Among the first to suggest the replacement of blood during surgery as well as autotransfusion and intravenous saline for use in shock, although these ideas forgotten for dozens of years before becoming the standard of care.

1884 In medicine, shock (hypoperfusion) is a life-threatening medical emergency characterized by inability of the body to supply enough oxygen to meet tissue requirements. ...

1885 Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Local anesthesia is any technique to render part of the body insensitive to pain without affecting consciousness. ... Local anesthesia is any technique to render part of the body insensitive to pain without affecting consciousness. ... Cocaine is a crystalline alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ...

    • He only publishes one paper on the topic, in the New York Medical Journal
      • Halstead's writing is indubitably stained by the evidence of intoxication.

1886

1888 Detox, short for detoxification, in general is the removal of toxic substances. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Harvey Williams Cushing (April 8, 1869 - October 7, 1939) an outstanding American neurosurgeon and a pioneer of brain surgery. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Johns Hopkins Johns Hopkins (May 19, 1795 – December 24, 1873) was a Baltimore businessman, a Quaker, an abolitionist, and a philanthropist. ... The terms Introvert and Extrovert (originally spelled Extravert by Carl Jung, who invented the terms) are referred to as attitudes and show how a person orients and receives their energy. ... This article deals with the psychological term Introversion. ... Morphine (INN), the principal active agent in opium, is a powerful opioid analgesic drug. ... Sir William Osler (July 12, 1849 - December 29, 1919) was a Canadian physician. ...

1889 This article is about the city in the US state of Maryland. ...

  • Johns Hopkins Hospital opens
  • Invention of surgical gloves
    • Head operating room nurse and wife-to-be Caroline Hampton develops dermatitis from chemicals used to disinfect hands for surgery.
    • This prompts Halsted to hire the Goodyear Rubber Company to manufacture thin gloves that will not interfere with necessary sensitivity.
    • Halsted only later realizes the impact of gloves on antisepsis.
  • Publishes inguinal hernia repair method at the same time as Edoardo Bassini.
    • Inguinal hernias had been previously associated with high mortality rates.
    • Although infrequently performed, the Halsted II remains the gold standard today, with post-operative complication rates only slightly improved from Halsted's 7%.

1890 The Johns Hopkins Hospital is a teaching hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. ... Sir William Osler (July 12, 1849 - December 29, 1919) was a Canadian physician. ... John Jacob Abel (1857 - 1938) was a significant U.S. biochemist and pharmacologist. ... Dermatitis is a term literally meaning inflammation of the skin. It is usually used to refer to eczema, which is also known as Dermatitis eczema. ... The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company (NYSE: GT) was founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling. ... An antiseptic is a substance that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria on the external surfaces of the body. ... 1922 U.S. gold certificate The gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of gold. ...

  • Is appointed first Chief of Surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital
  • June 4 - Marries Caroline Hampton, niece of General Wade Hampton of South Carolina.
    • The married couple are described as opposites in appearance.
      • A dandy garbed in European tailored suits and Parisian cobbled boots, Halsted is known to dress impeccably, even sending his dress shirts yearly to Paris to be laundered.
      • Mrs. Halsted's style is described as austere.
    • Halsted and wife never have children, but they do have Dachshunds, named Nip and Tuck, Sisley and Fritz.
    • They live separately in a three-story brick home in Baltimore: Halsted on the second floor, Caroline and canines on the third.
    • Each summer they spend one month at High Hampton, Caroline's 2000-acre North Carolina family estate.

1892 A typical modern surgery operation For other meanings of the word, see Surgery (disambiguation) Surgery (from the Greek cheirourgia - lit. ... The Johns Hopkins Hospital is a teaching hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. ... There were three men in American history -- grandfather, father, and son -- called Wade Hampton: Wade Hampton (1754—1835), captain in the War of Independence and brigadier-general in the War of 1812; Wade Hampton (1791—1858), one of the wealthiest planters in the South; and Wade Hampton (1818—1902), Confederate... State nickname: Palmetto State Other U.S. States Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Governor Mark Sanford (R) Official languages English Area 82,965 km² (40th)  - Land 78,051 km²  - Water 4,915 km² (6%) Population (2000)  - Population {{{2000Pop}}} (26th)  - Density 51. ... Country of origin Germany Classification Breed standards (external links) The Dachshund is a short-legged, elongated dog breed of the hound family. ... State nickname: Tar Heel State Other U.S. States Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Governor Michael Easley (D) Official languages English Area 139,509 km² (28th)  - Land 126,256 km²  - Water 13,227 km² (9. ...

  • Performs first successful suclavian artery ligation

1893

  • *First Johns Hopkins medical students, 15 men and 3 women, begin training
    • This is due to the efforts of four young Baltimorals--all women--who raised the money needed to open the school only on the condition that women be granted equal opportunity admission .
    • These women were university trustees' daughters: M. Carey Thomas, Mary Elizabeth Garrett, Mary Gwinn, and Elizabeth King.
    • Garrett contributed an additional amount with additional strings: these established pre-requisites for medical school admission.
      • It may be possible to blame her for the establishment of the MCAT.

1896 Johns Hopkins Johns Hopkins (May 19, 1795 – December 24, 1873) was a Baltimore businessman, a Quaker, an abolitionist, and a philanthropist. ... Equal opportunity is a descriptive term for an approach intended to give equal access to an environment or benefits, such as education, employment, health care, or social welfare to all, often with emphasis on members of various social groups which might have at some time suffered from discrimination. ... M(artha) Carey Thomas (January 2, 1857-December 2, 1935) was the president of Bryn Mawr College and an ardent suffragist. ... The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is a standardized test administered by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) to prospective medical students as a means to standardise comparison between them for purposes of admission to medical school. ...

1898 Harvey Williams Cushing (April 8, 1869 - October 7, 1939) an outstanding American neurosurgeon and a pioneer of brain surgery. ... William Harvey William Harvey (April 1, 1578 - June 3, 1657) was a medical doctor who first correctly described in exact detail the circulatory system of blood being pumped around the body by the heart. ...

1901 In medicine, mastectomy is the medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely. ... A hernia is the protrusion of an organ or tissue out of the body cavity in which it normally lies. ... 1922 U.S. gold certificate The gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of gold. ...

1909 A blood type is a description an individuals characteristics of red blood cells due to substances (carbohydrates and proteins) on the cell membrane. ... Karl Landsteiner (June 14, 1868 - June 26, 1943), was an Austrian biologist. ...

1918 Emil Theodor Kocher (August 25, 1841 - July 27, 1917), Nobel Prize winner in 1909 for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland Born in Bern. ... Sir Edward Appletons medal Photographs of Nobel Prize Medals. ...

  • Halsted elected president of the Maryland Medical Chirugical Society.

1919

  • Halsted's gall-bladder is removed by former student Richard Follis

1920

  • Publishes The Operative Story of Goiter

1922

Choledocholithiasis is the presence of a gallstone in the common bile duct. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Gastrointestinal hemorrhage can be roughly divided into two clinical syndromes: upper gastrointestinal bleed, characterized by hematemesis and lower gastrointestinal bleed, characterized by melena or hematochezia. ... Pneumonia (the ancient Greek word for lungs) is defined as an inflammation, usually caused by infection, involving the alveoli of the lungs. ...

Eponyms

  • Halsted's law - Transplanted tissue will grow only if there is a lack of that tissue in the host.
  • Halsted's operation I - Operation for inguinal hernia.
  • Halsted's operation II - Radical mastectomy for cancer of the breast.
  • Halsted's sign - A sign for carcinoma of the breast.
  • Halsted's suture - A matress suture for wounds that produced less scarring.

Trivia

  • Halsted published 180 papers in his lifetime.
  • Halsted is also known for inventing mosquito clamps.
  • Halsted was responsible for the inclusion of temperature charts in medical records.
  • Halsted never joined the American College of Surgeons.
  • Halsted's Maryland address was 1201 Eutaw Place.
  • Halsted's students called him "The Professor."
  • Halsted's first resident was Frederick J. Brockway.
  • Halsted's secretary's name was Miss Stokes.
  • Halsted's gardener's name was Bradley.
  • While at Andover, Halsted played the role of Hans in The Office Seekers.
  • Halsted attended his 40 year Yale college reunion.
  • Halsted proposed Florence Sabin to the National Academy of Science.
  • Halsted's hobbies included dahlia raising, astronomy, and collecting antique furniture and rugs.
  • Halsted enjoyed bowling at the University Club in New York City.
  • Halsted bought eyeglasses, pens, and cigarette holders in huge quantities.
  • Halsted smoked Pall Mall cigarettes.
  • Halsted shopped for fruit at the Lexington Market.
  • Halsted's Yale roommate was Sam Bushnell.
  • Halsted's favorite breakfast was coddled guinea hen eggs.

Medical records refer to records, either in paper or electronic form, of the results of medical tests, diagnoses and treatments for individuals. ... The American College of Surgeons, located in Chicago, Illinois is a scientific and educational association of surgeons that was founded in 1913 to improve the quality of care for the surgical patient by setting high standards for surgical education and practice. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... Species 30 species, 20,000 cultivars Dahlia is a genus of bushy, summer- and autumn-flowering, tuberous perennials that are originally from Mexico, where they are the national flower. ... In ancient Greece and other early civilizations, astronomy consisted largely of astrometry, measuring positions of stars and planets in the sky. ... Very early humans were nomads, moving from location to location, and survived from only what nature provided. ... Bowling ball and two pins Bowling can refer to two distinctly different types of game. ... Pall mall illustrated in Old English Sports, Pastimes and Customs, published 1891 Pall mall (pronounced pal-mal or pell-mell) or palle maille was a game played in the 16th and 17th centuries, and a precursor to croquet. ... Breakfast is a meal preceding lunch or dinner and usually eaten in the morning. ... Genera  Agelastes  Numida  Guttera  Acryllium The guineafowl are a family of birds in the same order as the pheasants, turkeys and other game birds. ...

References

  • Nuland, Sherwin B. (1988). Doctors: the Biography of Medicine. New York: Knopf. ISBN 0679188157.
  • "Who named it?". William Stewart Halsted. URL accessed on August 3, 2005.
  • "A Tribute to William Stewart Halsted, MD". William Stewart Halsted. URL accessed on August 18, 2005.
  • Bryan, Charles S. (1999). "Caring Carefully: Sir William Osler on the issue of competence vs. compassion in medicine". Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings 12 (4): 277–284.
  • Cameron, John. (1997). "Williams Stewart Halsted: Our Surgical Heritage". Annals of Surgery 225 (5): 445-458.
  • Halsted, William S. (1885). "Practical comments on the use and abuse of cocaine". The New York Medical Journal 42:294-195.
  • Halsted, William S. (1887). "Practical Circular suture of the intestines; an experimental study". The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 94:436-461.
  • Halsted, William S. (1889). "Practical The radical cure of hernia". The Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin 1:12-13, 112.
  • Halsted, William S. (1890-1891). "The treatment of wounds with especial reference to the value of the blood clot in the management of dead spaces". The Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports 2:255-314. First mention of rubber gloves in the operating room.
  • Halsted, William S. (1892). "Ligation of the first portion of the left subclavian artery and excision of a subclavio-axillary aneurism". The Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin 3:93-94.
  • Halsted, William S. (1894-1895). "The results of operations for the cure of cancer of the breast performed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital from June, 1899, to January, 1894". The Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports 4:297.
  • Halsted, William S. (1899). "The Contribution to the surgery of the bile passages, especially of the common bile-duct". The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 141:645-654.
  • Halsted, William S. (1925). "Auto- and isotransplantation, in dogs, of the parathyroid glandules". The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Baltimore 63:395-438.
  • Halsted, William S. (1909). "Partial progressive and complete occlusion of the aorta and other large arteries in the dog by means of the metal band". The Journal of Experimental Medicine, New York 11:373-391.
  • Halsted, William S. (1915). "A diagnostic sign of gelatinous carcinoma of the breast". Journal of the American Medical Association, Chicago, 64:1653.
  • Burjet, W.C., Ed. (1924). Surgical Papers by William Stewart Halsted. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. {{{ID.}}}

  Results from FactBites:
 
William Stewart Halsted - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1525 words)
Halsted is assigned to assist John C. Dalton himself and anatomist and surgery professor Henry B. Sands as a mentor.
Halsted, William S. The treatment of wounds with especial reference to the value of the blood clot in the management of dead spaces, The Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports, 2: 255-314.
Halsted, William S. The results of operations for the cure of cancer of the breast performed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital from June, 1899, to January, 1894, The Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports, 4: 297.
AllRefer.com - William Stewart Halsted (Medicine, Biography) - Encyclopedia (233 words)
William Stewart Halsted[hOl´stid] Pronunciation Key, 1852–1922, American surgeon, b.
He practiced in New York and in 1886 became the first professor of surgery at Johns Hopkins, where he was associated with Sir William Osler, W. Welch, and H. Kelly in developing the great medical school and hospital.
His surgical contributions include an operative technique based on minimum injury of tissues, anesthesia by the injection of cocaine into the nerves, a method of operating for cancer of the breast and for hernia, experimental work on the thyroid, and the introduction of the use of rubber gloves.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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