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William Shakespeare

The Chandos portrait, artist and authenticity unconfirmed (National Portrait Gallery, London).
Born: c.April 1564
Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England
Died: April 23, 1616
Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England
Occupation(s): Playwright, poet, actor

William Shakespeare (baptised April 26, 1564 – died April 23, 1616)[1] was an English poet and playwright widely regarded as the greatest writer of the English language, and the world's preeminent dramatist.[2] He wrote approximately 38 plays and 154 sonnets, as well as a variety of other poems.[3] Already a popular writer in his own lifetime, Shakespeare became increasingly celebrated after his death and his work adulated by numerous prominent cultural figures through the centuries.[4] He is often considered to be England's national poet[5] and is sometimes referred to as the "Bard of Avon" (or simply "The Bard")[6] or the "Swan of Avon".[7] Image File history File links Padlock. ... Image File history File links Shakespeare. ... The Chandos portrait, popularly believed to depict William Shakespeare (in a 20th century reproduction) The Chandos portrait is one of the most famous of the portraits that may depict William Shakespeare (1564–1616). ... The National Portrait Gallery is an art gallery in central London which was opened in 1856. ... Stratford-upon-Avon Stratford-upon-Avon is a town in Warwickshire, England. ... A detailed map Stratford-upon-Avon Kenilworth Castle Warwickshire (pronounced //, //, or //) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... == {| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1613 1614 1615 - 1616 - 1617 1618 1619 |- | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1580s 1590s 1600s - 1610s - 1620s 1630s 1640s |- tall> 16th century - 17th century - 18th century |} randomised 1616 was a leap year starting on Friday... Stratford-upon-Avon Stratford-upon-Avon is a town in Warwickshire, England. ... A detailed map Stratford-upon-Avon Kenilworth Castle Warwickshire (pronounced //, //, or //) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... Template:Unsourced A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is someone who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... A poet is someone who writes poetry. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Shakespeare could mean: William Shakespeare, the playwright The Shakespeare programming language (aka SPL) 2985 Shakespeare, an asteroid Shakespeare Company, a major manufacturer of antennas and fishing tackle This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... April 26 is the 116th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (117th in leap years). ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... == {| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1613 1614 1615 - 1616 - 1617 1618 1619 |- | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1580s 1590s 1600s - 1610s - 1620s 1630s 1640s |- tall> 16th century - 17th century - 18th century |} randomised 1616 was a leap year starting on Friday... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... A poet is someone who writes poetry. ... Template:Unsourced A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is someone who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... The term writer can apply to anyone who creates a written work, but the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Francesco Petrarca or Petrarch, one of the best-known of the early Italian sonnet writers For the Saab automobile, see Saab Sonett, for the Japanese communications company see So-net. ... Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Many nations have adopted a poet who is perceived to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of their culture. ... A bard is a poet or singer, in religious or feudal contexts. ... Stratford-upon-Avon Stratford-upon-Avon is a town in Warwickshire, England. ...


Orthodox scholars believe Shakespeare produced most of his work between 1586 and 1612, although the exact dates and chronology of the plays attributed to him are under considerable debate, as is the authorship of the works attributed to him. He is counted among the very few playwrights who have excelled in both tragedy and comedy, and his plays combine popular appeal with complex characterisation, poetic grandeur and philosophical depth. The precise chronology of Shakespeares plays as they were first written and performed is difficult to determine, as there is no authoritative record and many of the plays were performed many years before they were published. ... The frontispiece of the First Folio (1623), the first collected edition of Shakespeares plays From 1593 to 1637, a number of plays and poems were published under the name William Shakespeare or, in many cases, hyphenated as Shake-Speare. The company that performed most of these plays, the Lord... In general usage a tragedy is a drama, movie or sometimes a real world event with a sad outcome. ... Comedy has a classical meaning (comical theatre) and a popular one (the use of humour with an intent to provoke laughter in general). ... Characterization is the process of creating characters in fiction, often those who are different from and have different beliefs than the author. ...


Shakespeare's works have been translated into every major living language, and his plays are continually performed all around the world. In addition, Shakespeare is the most quoted writer in the literature and history of the English-speaking world[8], and many of his quotations and neologisms have passed into everyday usage in English and other languages. Over the years, many people have speculated about Shakespeare's life, raising questions about his sexuality and religious affiliation. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A neologism (from Greek νεολογισμός νέος [neos] = new; λόγος [logos] = word) is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... // The sixteenth century saw the establishment of English as a respectable language alongside French and Latin. ... William Shakespeare (National Portrait Gallery), in the famous Chandos portrait, artist and authenticity unconfirmed. ...

Contents

Life

Main article: Shakespeare's life

William Shakespeare (National Portrait Gallery), in the famous Chandos portrait, artist and authenticity unconfirmed. ...

Early life

William Shakespeare (also spelled Shakspere, Shakspear, Shakespere, Shakspere, Shaksper, Shaxper, and Shake-speare, since in Elizabethan times spelling was not fixed and absolute[9]) was born in Stratford-upon-Avon in April 1564, the son of John Shakespeare, a successful glover and alderman from Snitterfield, and of Mary Arden, a daughter of the gentry and was the third of eight children. His birth is assumed to have occurred at the family house on Henley Street. Shakespeare's christening record dates to April 26 of that year. Because christenings were performed within a few days of birth, tradition has settled on April 23 as his birthday. This date provides a convenient symmetry because Shakespeare died on the same day, April 23 (May 3 on the Gregorian calendar), in 1616. Elizabeth ushers in Peace and Plenty. ... Stratford-upon-Avon Stratford-upon-Avon is a town in Warwickshire, England. ... ΑJohn Shakespeare (1529 – c. ... Snitterfield is a village and civil parish in the Stratford district of Warwickshire, England, just off the A46 road, between Coventry and Stratford upon Avon. ... Mary Arden c. ... Landed gentry is a term traditionally applied in Britain to members of the upper class with country estates often (but not always) farmed on their behalf by others, and who might be without a peerage or other hereditary title. ... April 26 is the 116th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (117th in leap years). ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ...


Shakespeare is believed to have attended King Edward VI Grammar School in central Stratford;[10] as the son of a prominent town official, he would have been entitled to do so for free.[11] However, no documentary evidence to confirm this exists.[10] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


By 1596, Shakespeare had moved to the parish of St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, and by 1598 he appeared at the top of a list of actors in Every Man in His Humour written by Ben Jonson. Also by 1598, his name began to appear on the title pages of his plays, presumably as a selling point. Looking north from a pedestrian bridge across Bishopsgate Bishopsgate, in the heart of Londons financial district. ... Every Man in His Humour was a 1598 play by British playwright Ben Jonson. ... Benjamin Jonson (circa June 11, 1572 – August 6, 1637) was an English Renaissance dramatist, poet and actor. ...


There is a tradition that Shakespeare, in addition to writing many of the plays his company enacted, and being concerned as part-owner of the company with business and financial details, continued to act in various parts, such as the ghost of Hamlet's father, Adam in As You Like It, and the Chorus in Henry V.[citation needed] Scene from As you like it, Francis Hayman, c. ... Henry V may refer to: Henry V of England Henry V of France Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor Henry V, one of the Shakespearean histories, based on Henry V of Englands life Henry V, a 1944 film adaptation of the play Henry V, a 1989 film adaptation of the...


He appears to have moved across the Thames River to Southwark sometime around 1599. By 1604, he had moved again, north of the river, where he lodged just north of St Paul's Cathedral with a Huguenot family named Mountjoy. His residence there is worth noting because he helped arrange a marriage between the Mountjoys' daughter and their apprentice Stephen Bellott. Bellott later sued his father-in-law for defaulting on part of the promised dowry, and Shakespeare was called as a witness. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ...


Various documents recording legal affairs and commercial transactions show that Shakespeare grew rich enough during his stay in London to buy a property in Blackfriars, London and own the second-largest house in Stratford, New Place. Categories: City of London | Districts of London | London geography stubs ... New Place is the name given to William Shakespeares final place of residence in Stratford-upon-Avon during his retirement. ...


Later years

Shakespeare's House in Stratford-Upon-Avon. Now home of the Shakespeare's Birthplace Trust

Shakespeare appears to have retired to Stratford in 1613. He died on April 23, 1616 at the age of 52. Curiously, his death occurred on the same date as the preeminent Spanish novelist, playwright and poet Miguel de Cervantes, who is considered Shakespeare's equivalent in Spanish literature. Nevertheless, Shakespeare actually died ten days after Cervantes, since England was still functioning under the Julian calendar while Spain used the Gregorian calendar. To add to coincidence, Shakespeare also died on his birthday, if the tradition that he was born on April 23 is correct. He was married to Anne Hathaway until his death and was survived by his two daughters, Susanna and Judith. His son Hamnet had died in 1596. Susanna married Dr John Hall, but there are no direct descendants of the poet and playwright alive today. Image File history File links Stratford_Holy_Trinity_Church3. ... Image File history File links Stratford_Holy_Trinity_Church3. ... Shakespeares funerary monument William Shakespeares funerary monument is located inside Holy Trinity Church, Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, UK, the same church in which he was baptised. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x1024, 127 KB) I took this picture myself in Stratford-Upon-Avon. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x1024, 127 KB) I took this picture myself in Stratford-Upon-Avon. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... == {| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1613 1614 1615 - 1616 - 1617 1618 1619 |- | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1580s 1590s 1600s - 1610s - 1620s 1630s 1640s |- tall> 16th century - 17th century - 18th century |} randomised 1616 was a leap year starting on Friday... Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (September 29, 1547 – April 23, 1616), was a Spanish novelist, poet and playwright. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ... Anne Hathaway (1556 – August 6, 1623) was the wife of William Shakespeare. ... John Hall (died 1635) was a physician and son-in-law of William Shakespeare. ...


Shakespeare is buried in the chancel of Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon. He was granted the honour of burial in the chancel not on account of his fame as a playwright but for purchasing a share of the tithe of the church for £440 (a considerable sum of money at the time). A monument placed by his family [citation needed] on the wall nearest his grave features a bust of him posed in the act of writing. Each year on his claimed birthday, a new quill pen is placed in the writing hand of the bust. He is believed to have written the epitaph on his tombstone: This article is about an architectural feature; for the astronomical term see apsis. ... Holy Trinitys east window from the exterior, depicting St Andrew Holy Trinitys window from inside Plan of Holy Trinity Church Holy Trinity Church, Stratford-upon-Avon, has achieved fame as the place of baptism and burial of William Shakespeare. ... Stratford-upon-Avon Stratford-upon-Avon is a town in Warwickshire, England. ... A tithe (from Old English teogoþa tenth) is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a (usually) voluntary contribution or as a tax or levy, usually to support a Jewish or Christian religious organization. ... William Shakespeares funeral monument is located inside Holy Trinity Church, Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, UK, the same church in which he was baptised. ... Bust of Richard Bently by Roubiliac A bust is a sculpture depicting a persons chest, shoulders, and head, usually supported by a stand. ... An epitaph ( literally: on the gravestone in ancient Greek) is text honoring the deceased, most commonly inscribed on a tombstone or plaque. ...

Good friend, for Jesus' sake forbear,
To dig the dust enclosèd here.
Blest be the man that spares these stones,
And cursed be he that moves my bones.

Works

Plays

Main article: Shakespeare's plays

A number of Shakespeare's plays are widely regarded as among the greatest in the English language and in Western literature. He wrote tragedies, histories, comedies and romances, which have been translated into every major living language,[citation needed] in addition to being continually performed around the world. William Shakespeare (National Portrait Gallery), in the famous Chandos portrait, artist and authenticity unconfirmed. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The term Western World or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... Tragedy is one of the oldest forms of drama. ... Comedy is the use of humour in the performing arts. ...


As was normal in the period, Shakespeare based many of his plays on the work of other playwrights and reworked earlier stories and historical material. For example, Hamlet (c. 1601) is probably a reworking of an older, lost play (the so-called Ur-Hamlet), and King Lear is an adaptation of an earlier play, also called King Lear. For plays on historical subjects, Shakespeare relied heavily on two principal texts. Most of the Roman and Greek plays are based on Plutarch's Parallel Lives (from the 1579 English translation by Sir Thomas North[12]), and the English history plays are indebted to Raphael Holinshed's 1587 Chronicles. The Tragicall Historie of Hamlet, Prince of Denmarke is a tragedy by William Shakespeare and is one of his best-known and most-quoted plays. ... Ur-Hamlet was the name given by nineteenth century German scholars to a pre-Shakespearean Hamlet written before 1589. ... Title page of the first quarto edition, published in 1608 King Lear is generally regarded as one of William Shakespeares greatest tragedies. ... Plutarch Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46- 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was an Hellenistic historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Sir Thomas North (1535? - 1601?), English translator of Plutarch, second son of the 1st Baron North, was born about 1535. ... Traditionally, the works of William Shakespeare have been grouped into three categories: tragedies, comedies, and histories. ... Raphael Holinshed (died c. ...


Shakespeare's plays tend to be placed into three main stylistic groups:

The earlier plays range from broad comedy to historical nostalgia, while the middle-period plays tend to be grander in terms of theme, addressing such issues as betrayal, murder, lust, power, and ambition. By contrast, his late romances feature redemptive plotlines with ambiguous endings and the use of magic and other fantastical elements. However, the borders between these genres are never clear. Title page of the first quarto (1600) A Midsummer Nights Dream is a romantic comedy by William Shakespeare written sometime in the mid-1590s. ... Henry IV, Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare, widely considered the greatest of the histories. ... Title page of the first quarto edition of Othello, published in 1622 The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice is a tragedy by William Shakespeare written around 1603. ... The Most Excellent and Lamentable Tragedie of Romeo and Juliet, commonly referred to as Romeo and Juliet, is a tragedy by William Shakespeare concerning the fate of two young star-crossed lovers. ... Scene from Macbeth, depicting the witches conjuring of an apparition in Act IV, Scene I. This painting is a false representation of the scene, because there should be a black cauldron between the witches, and the apparation should be coming out of the cauldron. ... The Tragicall Historie of Hamlet, Prince of Denmarke is a tragedy by William Shakespeare and is one of his best-known and most-quoted plays. ... Title page of the first quarto edition, published in 1608 King Lear is generally regarded as one of William Shakespeares greatest tragedies. ... The term problem plays is applied to the three plays William Shakespeare wrote between the last of his pure comedies (Twelfth Night) and the first of his pure tragedies (Othello) They are Alls Well That Ends Well, Measure for Measure, Troilus and Cressida. ... The History of Troilus and Cressida is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written around 1602, shortly after the completion of Hamlet. ... Claudio and Isabella (1850) by William Holman Hunt Measure for Measure is a play by William Shakespeare, written in 1603. ... The late romances, often simply called the romances, are a grouping of William Shakespeares later plays, including Pericles, Prince of Tyre, Cymbeline, The Winters Tale, and The Tempest. ... Autolycus (1836) by Charles Robert Leslie This article is about the play by Shakespeare. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Betrayal, as a form of deception or dismissal of prior presumptions, is the breaking or violation of a presumptive social contract (trust, or confidence) that produces moral and psychological conflict within a relationship amongst individuals, between organizations or between individuals and organizations. ... See also Lust (onomastics) for other uses Lust is any intense desire or craving, usually sexual, although it is also common to speak of a lust for life, lust for blood (bloodlust for short), or a lust for power or other goals. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... Ambition could refer to one of the following: Motivation, especially to improve a situation. ... The Sorceress by John William Waterhouse Magic and sorcery are the influencing of events, objects, people and physical phenomena by mystical or paranormal means. ...

Image of Shakespeare from the First Folio (1623), the first collected edition of his plays
Image of Shakespeare from the First Folio (1623), the first collected edition of his plays

Some of Shakespeare's plays first appeared in print as a series of quartos, but most remained unpublished until 1623 when the posthumous First Folio was published by two actors who had been in Shakespeare's company: John Heminges and Henry Condell. The traditional division of his plays into tragedies, comedies, and histories follows the logic of the First Folio. It is at this point that stage directions, punctuation and act divisions enter his plays, setting the trend for further future editorial decisions. Modern criticism has also labelled some of his plays "problem plays" or tragi-comedies, as they elude easy categorisation, or perhaps purposefully break generic conventions. The term "romances" has also been preferred for the later comedies. Image File history File links First_Folio. ... Image File history File links First_Folio. ... The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ... William Shakespeares earliest published plays are referred to as folios or quartos according to the size of the book, folios being large, tall volumes and the quartos smaller and squarer. ... The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ... John Heminges was an actor in the Kings Men, the playing company for which William Shakespeare wrote. ... Henry Condell was an actor in the Kings Men, the playing company for which William Shakespeare wrote. ... The term problem plays is applied to the three plays William Shakespeare wrote between the last of his pure comedies (Twelfth Night) and the first of his pure tragedies (Othello) They are Alls Well That Ends Well, Measure for Measure, Troilus and Cressida. ...


There are many controversies about the exact chronology of Shakespeare's plays. In addition, the fact that Shakespeare did not produce an authoritative print version of his plays during his life accounts for part of the textual problem often noted with his plays, which means that for several of the plays there are different textual versions. As a result, the problem of identifying what Shakespeare actually wrote became a major concern for most modern editions. Textual corruptions also stem from printers' errors, compositors' misreadings, or wrongly scanned lines from the source material. Additionally, in an age before standardised spelling, Shakespeare often wrote a word several times in a different spelling, contributing further to the transcribers' confusions. Modern scholars also believe Shakespeare revised his plays throughout the years, sometimes leading to perhaps two or more existing versions of one play. The precise chronology of Shakespeares plays as they were first written and performed is difficult to determine, as there is no authoritative record and many of the plays were performed many years before they were published. ... William Shakespeare (National Portrait Gallery), in the famous Chandos portrait, artist and authenticity unconfirmed. ...


Sonnets

Main article: Shakespeare's sonnets

Shakespeare's sonnets are a collection of 154 poems that deal with such themes as love, beauty, and mortality. All but two first appeared in the 1609 publication entitled Shakespeare's Sonnets; numbers 138 ("When my love swears that she is made of truth") and 144 ("Two loves have I, of comfort and despair") had previously been published in a 1599 miscellany entitled The Passionate Pilgrim. The Sonnets were written over a number of years, probably beginning in the early 1590s. Title page from 1609 edition of Shake-Speares Sonnets SHAKE-SPEARES SONNETS, or simply The Sonnets comprise a collection of 154 poems in sonnet form written by William Shakespeare that deal with such themes as love, beauty, politics, and mortality. ... Francesco Petrarca or Petrarch, one of the best-known of the early Italian sonnet writers For the Saab automobile, see Saab Sonett, for the Japanese communications company see So-net. ... Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Love Look up love in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Many see natural beauty in the rose. ... Sonnet 138 is one of the most famous of William Shakespeares sonnets. ... The Passionate Pilgrim is a collection of poems, first published in 1599, attributed on the title-page to William Shakespeare. ...


The conditions under which the sonnets were published are unclear. The 1609 text is dedicated to one "Mr. W.H.", who is described as "the only begetter" of the poems in the dedication. It is unknown if the dedication was written by Shakespeare or Thomas Thorpe, the publisher. It is also unknown who this man was, although there are many theories, including those who believe him to be the young man featured in the sonnets.[13] In addition, it is not known whether the publication of the sonnets was even authorised by Shakespeare. Title page from 1609 edition of Shake-Speares Sonnets SHAKE-SPEARES SONNETS, or simply The Sonnets comprise a collection of 154 poems in sonnet form written by William Shakespeare that deal with such themes as love, beauty, politics, and mortality. ... Title page from 1609 edition of Shake-Speares Sonnets SHAKE-SPEARES SONNETS, or simply The Sonnets comprise a collection of 154 poems in sonnet form written by William Shakespeare that deal with such themes as love, beauty, politics, and mortality. ...


Other poems

In addition to his sonnets, Shakespeare also wrote several longer poems, Venus and Adonis, The Rape of Lucrece and A Lover's Complaint. These poems appear to have been written either in an attempt to win the patronage of a rich benefactor (as was common at the time) or as the result of such patronage. For example, The Rape of Lucrece and Venus and Adonis were both dedicated to Shakespeare's patron, Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton. Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Earl of Southampton, painted in 1594, aged 21, the year that Shakespeare dedicated The Rape of Lucrece to him The narrative poem The Rape of Lucrece is the graver work promised by English dramatist-poet William Shakespeare in his dedication to his patron, Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton... A Lovers Complaint is a narrative poem usually attributed to William Shakespeare, although the poems authorship is a matter of critical debate. ... Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton, 1603, in the Tower, atrributed to John de Critz. ...


In addition, Shakespeare wrote the short poem The Phoenix and the Turtle. The anthology The Passionate Pilgrim was attributed to him upon its first publication in 1599, but in fact only five of its poems are by Shakespeare and the attribution was withdrawn in the second edition. The Phoenix and the Turtle is a poem by William Shakespeare. ...


Style

Detail from statue of Shakespeare in Leicester Square, London.
Detail from statue of Shakespeare in Leicester Square, London.

Shakespeare's works have been a major influence on subsequent theatre. Not only did Shakespeare create some of the most admired plays in Western literature, he also transformed English theatre by expanding expectations about what could be accomplished through characterisation, plot, action, language, and genre.[14] His poetic artistry helped raise the status of popular theatre, permitting it to be admired by intellectuals as well as by those seeking pure entertainment. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (630x640, 220 KB) Summary Photo Taken by Lonpicman Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (630x640, 220 KB) Summary Photo Taken by Lonpicman Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Leicester Square at night in 2005: a view towards the northeast corner. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For the mathematical concept, see characterization (mathematics). ... Look up plot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up genre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Theatre was changing when Shakespeare first arrived in London in the late 1580s or early 1590s. Previously, the most common forms of popular English theatre were the Tudor morality plays. These plays, which blend piety with farce and slapstick, were allegories in which the characters are personified moral attributes who validate the virtues of Godly life by prompting the protagonist to choose such a life over evil. The characters and plot situations are symbolic rather than realistic. As a child, Shakespeare would likely have been exposed to this type of play (along with mystery plays and miracle plays).[15] Meanwhile, at the universities, academic plays were being staged based on Roman closet dramas. These plays, often performed in Latin, used a more exact and academically respectable poetic style than the morality plays, but they were also more static, valuing lengthy speeches over physical action. Allegory of the Tudor dynasty (detail), attributed to Lucas de Heere, ca 1572: left to right, Philip II of Spain, Mary, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Elizabeth The Tudor period usually refers to the historical period between 1485 and 1558, especially in relation to the history of England. ... Morality plays are a type of theatrical allegory in which the protagonist is met by personifications of various moral attributes who try to prompt him to choose a Godly life over one of evil. ... Piety is a desire and willingness to perform spiritual, often ascetic rituals. ... A farce is a comedy written for the stage, or a film, which aims to entertain the audience by means of unlikely and extravagant - yet often possible - situations, disguise and mistaken identity, verbal humour of varying degrees of sophistication, which may include puns and sexual innuendo, and a fast-paced... Slapstick is a type of comedy involving exaggerated physical violence. ... An allegory (from Greek αλλος, allos, other, and αγορευειν, agoreuein, to speak in public) is a figurative mode of representation conveying a meaning other than (and in addition to) the literal. ... Phillipp Veitts Germania (1877) a personification of Germany. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The protagonist or main character is the central figure of a story. ... Mystery plays are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe. ... Mystery plays or miracle plays are one of the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... A closet drama is a play that is not intended to be performed onstage. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


By the late 16th century, the popularity of morality and academic plays waned as the English Renaissance took hold, and playwrights like Thomas Kyd and Christopher Marlowe began to revolutionise theatre. Their plays blended the old morality drama with academic theatre to produce a new secular form. The new drama had the poetic grandeur and philosophical depth of the academic play and the bawdy populism of the moralities. However, it was more ambiguous and complex in its meanings, and less concerned with simple moral allegories. Inspired by this new style, Shakespeare took these changes to a new level, creating plays that not only resonated on an emotional level with audiences but also explored and debated the basic elements of what it means to be human. This article is about the cultural movement known as the English Renaissance. ... Thomas Kyd (1558 - 1594) was an English dramatist, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, and one of the most important figures in the development of Elizabethan drama. ... An anonymous portrait in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, often believed to show Christopher Marlowe. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ...


Reputation

Shakespeare's reputation has grown considerably since his own time. During his lifetime and shortly after his death, Shakespeare was well-regarded but not considered the supreme poet of his age. He was included in some contemporary lists of leading poets, but he lacked the stature of Edmund Spenser or Philip Sidney. After the Interregnum stage ban of 1642–1660, the new Restoration theatre companies had the previous generation of playwrights as the mainstay of their repertory, most of all the phenomenally popular Beaumont and Fletcher team, but also Ben Jonson and Shakespeare. As with other older playwrights, Shakespeare's plays were mercilessly adapted by later dramatists for the Restoration stage with little of the reverence that would later develop. William Shakespeare, the man who of all Modern, and perhaps Ancient Poets, had the largest and most comprehensive soul (John Dryden, 1668), our myriad-minded Shakespeare (S. T. Coleridge, 1817), up for grabs (Terry Hawkes, 1992). ... Edmund Spenser Edmund Spenser (c. ... Philip Sidney Sir Philip Sidney (November 30, 1554 – October 17, 1586) became one of the Elizabethan Ages most prominent figures. ... The English Interregnum was the period of republican rule after the English Civil War between the regicide of Charles I in 1649 and the restoration of Charles II in 1660. ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... Beaumont and Fletcher were the English dramatists Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher, who collaborated in their writing during the reign of James I. It is still uncertain how many plays were their joint work. ... Benjamin Jonson (circa June 11, 1572 – August 6, 1637) was an English Renaissance dramatist, poet and actor. ... Refinement meets burlesque in Restoration comedy. ...


Beginning in the late 17th century, Shakespeare began to be considered the supreme English-language playwright (and, to a lesser extent, poet). Initially this reputation focused on Shakespeare as a dramatic poet, to be studied on the printed page rather than in the theatre. By the early 19th century, though, Shakespeare began hitting peaks of fame and popularity. During this time, theatrical productions of Shakespeare provided spectacle and melodrama for the masses and were extremely popular. Romantic critics such as Samuel Taylor Coleridge then raised admiration for Shakespeare to adulation or bardolatry (from bard + idolatry), in line with the Romantic reverence for the poet as prophet and genius. In the middle to late 19th century, Shakespeare also became an emblem of English pride and a "rallying-sign", as Thomas Carlyle wrote in 1841, for the whole British Empire. Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge, English poet, 1795 Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... William Shakespeare, the man who of all Modern, and perhaps Ancient Poets, had the largest and most comprehensive soul ( John Dryden, 1668), our myriad-minded Shakespeare ( S. T. Coleridge, 1817), up for grabs (Terry Hawkes, 1992). ... The most familiar view of Carlyle is as the bearded sage with a penetrating gaze. ... // The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


This reverence has provoked an unforeseen negative reaction in the youth. In the 21st century most people in the English-speaking world encounter Shakespeare at school at a young age, and there is an association by some students of his work with boredom beyond comprehension and of "high art" not easily appreciated by popular culture; an ironic fate considering the social mix of Shakespeare's audience. Nonetheless, Shakespeare's plays remain more frequently staged than the works of any other playwright and are frequently adapted into film—including Hollywood movies specifically marketed to broad teenage audiences, though many simply take credit for his plots rather than his narrative. Famously, Shakespeare's plays are often transferred to a different environment even when retaining his dialogue. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Laurence Oliviers Richard III. This is a list of movies and television programmes based on the works of William Shakespeare. ... ...


On another level, many modern English words and phrases that are taken for granted were introduced by Shakespeare. // The sixteenth century saw the establishment of English as a respectable language alongside French and Latin. ...

See also: Timeline of Shakespeare criticism

This page consists of a chronological collection of critical quotations about William Shakespeare, which illustrate the article Shakespeares reputation. ...

Speculations about Shakespeare

Authorship

Around one hundred and fifty years after Shakespeare's death in 1616, doubts began to be expressed by some researchers about the authorship of the plays and poetry attributed to him. The terms Shakespearean authorship, and the Shakespeare Authorship Question normally refer to the debates inspired by these researchers, who consider the works to have been written by another playwright using either William Shakespeare, or the hyphenated "Shake-speare", as a pen-name. The frontispiece of the First Folio (1623), the first collected edition of Shakespeares plays From 1593 to 1637, a number of plays and poems were published under the name William Shakespeare or, in many cases, hyphenated as Shake-Speare. The company that performed most of these plays, the Lord... Shakespeare redirects here. ... == {| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1613 1614 1615 - 1616 - 1617 1618 1619 |- | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1580s 1590s 1600s - 1610s - 1620s 1630s 1640s |- tall> 16th century - 17th century - 18th century |} randomised 1616 was a leap year starting on Friday... The frontispiece of the First Folio (1623), the first collected edition of Shakespeares plays From 1593 to 1637, a number of plays and poems were published under the name William Shakespeare or, in many cases, hyphenated as Shake-Speare. The company that performed most of these plays, the Lord... The frontispiece of the First Folio (1623), the first collected edition of Shakespeares plays From 1593 to 1637, a number of plays and poems were published under the name William Shakespeare or, in many cases, hyphenated as Shake-Speare. The company that performed most of these plays, the Lord...


Admirers of Shakespeare's works are often disappointed by the lack of available information about the author. In "Who Wrote Shakespeare" (1996), John Mitchell notes "The known facts about Shakespeare's life ... can be written down on one side of a sheet of notepaper." He cites Mark Twain's satirical expression of the same point in the section "Facts" in "Is Shakespeare Dead" (1909). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ...


Edward de Vere, the 17th Earl of Oxford, an English nobleman and intimate of Queen Elizabeth, remains the most prominent alternative candidate for authorship of the Shakespeare canon, having been identified in the 1920s and further researched in the 1980's. Oxford partisans note his literary reputation, education and travels, as well as striking similarities between the Earl's life, and events depicted in the plays and sonnets. The principal hurdle for the Oxfordian theory is the conventional theory that many of the Shakespeare plays were written after Oxford's death (1604), but well within the lifespan of William Shakespeare. Oxfordians counter this argument by citing research that suggests "Shakespeare" actually stopped writing in 1604, the same year that regular publication of Shakespeare's plays stopped. Christopher Marlowe is considered by some to be the most highly qualified to have written the works of Shakespeare. It has been speculated that Marlowe's recorded death in 1593 was faked for various reasons and that Marlowe went into hiding, subsequently writing under the name of William Shakespeare; this is called the Marlovian theory. Sir Francis Bacon is another proposed author for the Shakespeare works. Besides having travelled to some of the countries in which the plays are set, he could also have read the Shakespeare sources in their original Greek, Italian, Hebrew, or French. He described himself as a "Concealed Poet" and was alive at the time of the publication of the First Folio in 1623. Arguments against Bacon include the suggestion that he had no time to write so many plays, and that his style is different from Shakespeare's. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Earl of Oxford - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This image, known as the Ashbourne Portrait, was once believed to depict William Shakespeare. ... An anonymous portrait in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, often believed to show Christopher Marlowe. ... The Marlovian theory of Shakespearean authorship holds that the plays conventionally ascribed to William Shakespeare were in fact written by the playwright Christopher Marlowe. ... Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, KC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman and essayist but is best known for leading the scientific revolution with his new observation and experimentation theory which is the way science has been conducted ever since. ... The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ...


A question in mainstream academia addresses whether Shakespeare himself wrote every word of his commonly accepted plays, given that collaboration between dramatists routinely occurred in the Elizabethan theatre. Serious academic work continues to attempt to ascertain the authorship of plays and poems of the time, both those attributed to Shakespeare and others.


Religion

In 1559, five years before Shakespeare's birth, the Elizabethan Religious Settlement finally severed the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church after decades of uncertainty. In the ensuing years, extreme pressure was placed on England's Catholics to convert to the Protestant Church of England, and recusancy laws made Catholicism illegal. Some historians maintain that in Shakespeare's lifetime there was a substantial and widespread quiet resistance to the newly imposed faith.[16] Some scholars, using both historical and literary evidence, have argued that Shakespeare was one of these recusants, but this cannot be proven absolutely. The Elizabethan Religious Settlement was Elizabeth I’s response to the religious divisions created over the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI and Mary I.This response was set out in two acts of parliament. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus of Nazareth, with its traditions first established by the Twelve Apostles and... Protestantism is one of three main groups within Christianity, whose beliefs are centered on Jesus. ... In the history of England, recusancy was a term used to describe the statutory offence of not complying with the establishment of the Church of England. ...


There is evidence that members of Shakespeare's family were recusant Catholics. The strongest evidence is a tract professing secret Catholicism signed by John Shakespeare, father of the poet. The tract was found in the rafters of Shakespeare's birthplace in the 18th century, and was seen and described by the reputable scholar Edmond Malone. However, the tract has since been lost, and its authenticity cannot therefore be proven. John Shakespeare was also listed as one who did not attend church services, but this was "for feare of processe for Debtte", according to the commissioners, not because he was a recusant.[17] Then again, avoiding creditors may have merely been a convenient pretext for a recusant's avoidance of the established church's services. ΑJohn Shakespeare (1529 – c. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Edmond Malone (October 4, 1741 - April 25, 1812), was an Irish Shakespearean scholar and editor of the works of William Shakespeare. ...


Shakespeare's mother, Mary Arden, was a member of a conspicuous and determinedly Catholic family in Warwickshire.[18] In 1606, William's daughter Susanna was listed as one of the residents of Stratford refusing to take Holy Communion, which may suggest Catholic sympathies.[19] Archdeacon Richard Davies, an 18th century Anglican cleric, allegedly wrote of Shakespeare: "He dyed a Papyst".[20] Four of the six schoolmasters at the grammar school during Shakespeare's youth were Catholic sympathisers,[21] and Simon Hunt, likely one of Shakespeare’s teachers, later became a Jesuit.[22] Mary Arden c. ... A detailed map Stratford-upon-Avon Kenilworth Castle Warwickshire (pronounced //, //, or //) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ...


While none of this evidence proves Shakespeare's own Catholic sympathies, one historian, Clare Asquith, has claimed that those sympathies are detectable in his writing. Asquith claims that Shakespeare uses terms such as "high" when referring to Catholic characters and "low" when referring to Protestants (the terms refer to their altars) and "light" or "fair" to refer to Catholic and "dark" to refer to Protestant, a reference to certain clerical garbs. Asquith also detects in Shakespeare's work the use of a simple code used by the Jesuit underground in England which took the form of a mercantile terminology wherein priests were 'merchants' and souls were 'jewels', the people pursuing them were 'creditors', and the Tyburn gallows where the members of the underground died was called 'the place of much trading'.[23] The Jesuit underground used this code so their correspondences looked like innocuous commercial letters, and Asquith claims that Shakespeare also used this code.[24] Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tyburn was a former village in the county of Middlesex which now forms part of Londons City of Westminster. ...


Needless to say, Shakespeare’s Catholicism is by no means universally accepted. The Catholic Encyclopedia questions not only his Catholicism, but whether "Shakespeare was not infected with the atheism, which... was rampant in the more cultured society of the Elizabethan age."[25] Stephen Greenblatt, of Harvard, suspects Catholic sympathies of some kind or another in Shakespeare and his family but considers the writer to be a less than pious person with essentially worldly motives.[citation needed] An increasing number of scholars do look to matters biographical and evidence from Shakespeare’s work such as the placement of young Hamlet as a student at Wittenberg while old Hamlet’s ghost is in purgatory, the sympathetic view of religious life ("thrice blessed"), scholastic theology in The Phoenix and the Turtle, and sympathetic allusions to martyred English Jesuit St. Edmund Campion in Twelfth Night[26] and many other matters as suggestive of a Catholic worldview. However, these may have been continuations of old literary conventions rather than determined Catholicism just as the Robin Hood ballads continued to have friars in them after the Reformation. The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press. ... The 18th-century French author Baron dHolbach was one of the first self-described atheists. ... Stephen Jay Greenblatt (born 1943) is a noted Shakespeare scholar and a literary critic/theorist often seen as the leader of the school known as New Historicism or as Greenblatt likes to put it, cultural poetics. He believes that all works of literature are a products of their times and... Statue of Martin Luther in the main square Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59 E, 51° 51 N, on the Elbe river. ... Purgatory commonly refers to a doctrine in the Roman Catholic Church, which posits that those who die in a state of grace undergo a purification in order to achieve the holiness necessary to enter heaven. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... The Phoenix and the Turtle is a poem by William Shakespeare. ... Portrait of Edmund Campion St. ... Twelfth Night, or What You Will is a comedy by William Shakespeare, named after the Twelfth Night holiday of the Christmas season. ... Robin Hood memorial statue in Nottingham. ...


On the other hand, the Porter's speech in Macbeth has been read by some as a criticism of the equivocation of Father Henry Garnet after it became topical in 1606 due to his execution.[27] Scene from Macbeth, depicting the witches conjuring of an apparition in Act IV, Scene I. This painting is a false representation of the scene, because there should be a black cauldron between the witches, and the apparation should be coming out of the cauldron. ... Equivocation is a logical fallacy. ... Henry Garnet or Garnett (1555 - May 3, 1606), English Jesuit, son of Brian Garnett, a schoolmaster at Nottingham, was educated at Winchester and afterwards studied law in London. ...


Sexuality

Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton:
Shakespeare's patron at 21 years of age, one candidate for the "Fair Lord" of the sonnets.

. While 26 of the Sonnets are love poems addressed to a married woman (the "Dark Lady"), 126 are addressed to a young man (known as the "Fair Lord"). The amorous tone of the latter group, which focuses on the young man's beauty and the writer's devotion, has all along been interpreted as suggestive evidence for Shakespeare's being bisexual. For example, in 1954, C.S. Lewis wrote that the sonnets are "too lover-like for ordinary male friendship" (although he added that they are not the poetry of "full-blown pederasty") and that he "found no real parallel to such language between friends in the sixteenth-century literature."[28] Nonetheless, others interpret them as referring to intense friendship rather than sexual love. William Shakespeare (National Portrait Gallery), in the famous Chandos portrait, artist and authenticity unconfirmed. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (481x746, 77 KB) Summary Miniature of Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton, 1594. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (481x746, 77 KB) Summary Miniature of Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton, 1594. ... The Fair Lord is the unnamed young man to whom Shakespeares sonnets 1–126 are addressed. ... Title page from 1609 edition of Shake-Speares Sonnets SHAKE-SPEARES SONNETS, or simply The Sonnets comprise a collection of 154 poems in sonnet form written by William Shakespeare that deal with such themes as love, beauty, politics, and mortality. ... The Fair Lord is the unnamed young man to whom Shakespeares sonnets 1–126 are addressed. ... Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ... The term pederasty or paederasty embraces a wide range of erotic practices between adult males and adolescent boys. ... For other uses, see Friends (disambiguation), Friendship (disambiguation), and Best Friend (disambiguation) Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behaviour between two or more social entities. ...

See also

The frontispiece of the First Folio (1623), the first collected edition of Shakespeares plays From 1593 to 1637, a number of plays and poems were published under the name William Shakespeare or, in many cases, hyphenated as Shake-Speare. The company that performed most of these plays, the Lord... William Shakespeare (National Portrait Gallery), in the famous Chandos portrait, artist and authenticity unconfirmed. ... William Shakespeare, the man who of all Modern, and perhaps Ancient Poets, had the largest and most comprehensive soul (John Dryden, 1668), our myriad-minded Shakespeare (S. T. Coleridge, 1817), up for grabs (Terry Hawkes, 1992). ... William Shakespeare (National Portrait Gallery), in the famous Chandos portrait, artist and authenticity unconfirmed. ... Title page from 1609 edition of Shake-Speares Sonnets SHAKE-SPEARES SONNETS, or simply The Sonnets comprise a collection of 154 poems in sonnet form written by William Shakespeare that deal with such themes as love, beauty, politics, and mortality. ... Complete Works of Shakespeare is the standard name given to any volume containing all the plays and poems of William Shakespeare. ... The late romances, often simply called the romances, are a grouping of William Shakespeares later plays, including Pericles, Prince of Tyre, Cymbeline, The Winters Tale, and The Tempest. ... The precise chronology of Shakespeares plays as they were first written and performed is difficult to determine, as there is no authoritative record and many of the plays were performed many years before they were published. ... The precise chronology of Shakespeares plays as they were first written is impossible to determine, as there is no authoritative record and many of the plays were performed many years before they were published. ... Anne Hathaway (1556 – August 6, 1623) was the wife of William Shakespeare. ... Elizabeth ushers in Peace and Plenty. ... †English Renaissance theatre is English drama written between the Reformation and the closure of the theatres in 1642. ... This article is about the Globe Theatre of Shakespeare, both the original and its modern reconstruction. ... Laurence Oliviers Richard III. This is a list of movies and television programmes based on the works of William Shakespeare. ... This is an index of characters appearing in the plays of William Shakespeare. ... // The sixteenth century saw the establishment of English as a respectable language alongside French and Latin. ... Early Modern English refers to the stage of the English language used from about the end of the Middle English period (the later half of the 1400s) to 1650. ...

Bibliography

Shakespeare's plays are traditionally organised into three groups: Tragedies, Comedies, and Histories. The following list separates the plays according to their classification in the First Folio, the first published edition of Shakespeare's plays. Today, some of the comedies are usually considered as a separate subgenre, the 'romances' or tragicomedies; these plays are highlighted with an asterisk (*). The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ... The late romances, often simply called the romances, are a grouping of William Shakespeares later plays, including Pericles, Prince of Tyre, Cymbeline, The Winters Tale, and The Tempest. ...

Comedies

Main article: Shakespearean comedy

Histories

Tragedies

Main article: Shakespearean tragedy

Poems

Lost plays

Apocrypha

Main article: Shakespeare Apocrypha

Shakespeare on screen

Main article: Shakespeare on screen

Notes

  1. ^ Dates use the Julian Calendar. Under the Gregorian calendar, Shakespeare died on May 3.
  2. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica article on Shakespeare, MSN Encarta Encyclopedia article on Shakespeare, Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia article on Shakespeare. Accessed Feb. 26, 2006.
  3. ^ The exact figures are unknowable. See Shakespearean authorship, Shakespeare's collaborations and Shakespeare Apocrypha for further details.
  4. ^ Wikiquote information on Shakespeare. Accessed Feb. 26, 2006.
  5. ^ The Making of the National Poet: Shakespeare, Adaptation and Authorship, 1660-1769 by Michael Dobson, Oxford University Press, 1995. Accessed Feb 26, 2006.
  6. ^ Webster's Dictionary entry on "The Bard". Accessed Feb. 26, 2006.
  7. ^ "To The Memory Of My Beloved, The Author, Mr William Shakespeare, And What He Hath Left Us", a poem by Ben Jonson. Accessed Feb. 26, 2006.
  8. ^ The Literary Encyclopedia entry on William Shakespeare by Lois Potter, University of Delaware, accessed June 22, 2006, and The Columbia Dictionary of Shakespeare Quotations, edited by Mary Foakes and Reginald Foakes, June 1998.
  9. ^ The Spelling and Pronunciation of Shakespeare's Name by David Kathman. Accessed 10/22/05.
  10. ^ a b David Kaufmann, "Critically Examining Oxfordian Claims Part 11: Stratford Grammar School"
  11. ^ Introduction to Tom Reedy and David Kathman's "How we know Shakespeare wrote shakepeare"
  12. ^ Plutarch's Parallel Lives. Accessed 10/23/05.
  13. ^ Hallet Smith, "Sonnets," The Riverside Shakespeare, pp 1745-8. Houghton Mifflin 1974
  14. ^ Shakespeare's Reading by Robert S. Miola, Oxford University Press, 2000.
  15. ^ Shakespeare's Reading by Robert S. Miola, Oxford University Press, 2000.
  16. ^ The Shakespeares and ‘the Old Faith’ (1946) by John Henry de Groot; Die Verborgene Existenz Des William Shakespeare: Dichter Und Rebell Im Katholischen Untergrund (2001) by Hildegard Hammerschmidt-Hummel; Shadowplay: The Hidden Beliefs and Coded Politics of William Shakespeare (2005) by Clare Asquith.
  17. ^ Mutschmann, H. and Wentersdorf, K., Shakespeare and Catholicism, Sheed and Ward: New York, 1952, p. 401.
  18. ^ Peter Ackroyd, Shakespeare: The Biography. Doubleday, 2005. p. 29
  19. ^ Peter Ackroyd, Shakespeare: The Biography. Doubleday, 2005. p. 451
  20. ^ The Religion of Shakespeare Catholic Encyclopedia on CD-ROM. (Accessed Dec. 23, 2005.)
  21. ^ Peter Ackroyd, Shakespeare: The Biography. Doubleday, 2005. pp. 63–64
  22. ^ Hammmerschmidt-Hummel, H., "The most important subject that can possibly be": A Reply to E. A. J. Honigmann, Connotations, 2002-3
  23. ^ Shadowplay: The Hidden Beliefs and Coded Politics of William Shakespeare (2005) by Clare Asquith.
  24. ^ Shadowplay: The Hidden Beliefs and Coded Politics of William Shakespeare (2005) by Clare Asquith.
  25. ^ The Religion of Shakespeare Catholic Encyclopedia on CD-ROM. (Accessed Dec. 23, 2005.)
  26. ^ "Allusions to Edmund Campion in Twelfth Night" by C. Richard Desper, Elizabethan Review, Spring/Summer 1995.
  27. ^ http://www.eastdonsc.vic.edu.au/home/pgardner/teaching/Macbeth_notes.html Elloway, D.R., An Introduction to Macbeth
  28. ^ Was Shakespeare gay? Sonnet 20 and the politics of pedagogy.

Further reading

  • Anthony Burgess, Nothing Like The Sun (1964). Fictionalised biography
  • Anthony Burgess, Shakespeare (1970). Biography
  • Stephen Greenblatt, Will in the World (2004). Biography
  • Bertram Fields, Players: The Mysterious Identity of William Shakespeare (2005)
  • John Pemble, Shakespeare Goes to Paris: How the Bard Conquered France (2005)
  • Shakespeare on Film Bibliography (via UC Berkeley)
  • Harold Bloom, Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human (1999). Literary Criticism
  • Michael Wood, In Search of Shakespeare (2003) Historical background, BBC Books, ISBN 0-563-52141-4 (paperback). This work is a companion to the television series of the same title.
  • Peter Ackroyd, Shakespeare: The Biography *(2005). Biography
  • A. L. Rowse, Shakespeare the Man (St. Martin’s Press, revised ed. 1988). Biography
  • S. Schoenbaum, William Shakespeare, A Compact Documentary Life (Oxford U. Press, 1977). Biography
  • Cleanth Brooks, The Well-Wrought Urn (Harvest, 1947). This collection of criticism contains a classic essay on Macbeth.
  • J. Dover Wilson, What Happens in Hamlet (Cambridge U. Press, 1970). Literary Criticism
  • P. Crittwell, The Shakespearean Moment and Its Place in the Poetry of the 17th Century (Vintage, 1960).

External links

Shakespeare Portal
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Shakespeare
The complete works of William Shakespeare
Tragedies: Romeo and Juliet | Macbeth | King Lear | Hamlet | Othello | Titus Andronicus | Julius Caesar | Antony and Cleopatra | Coriolanus | Troilus and Cressida | Timon of Athens
Comedies: A Midsummer Night's Dream | All's Well That Ends Well | As You Like It | Cymbeline | Love's Labour's Lost | Measure for Measure | The Merchant of Venice | The Merry Wives of Windsor | Much Ado About Nothing | Pericles, Prince of Tyre | Taming of the Shrew | The Comedy of Errors | The Tempest | Twelfth Night, or What You Will | The Two Gentlemen of Verona | The Two Noble Kinsmen | The Winter's Tale
Histories: King John | Richard II | Henry IV, Part 1 | Henry IV, Part 2 | Henry V | Henry VI, part 1 | Henry VI, part 2 | Henry VI, part 3 | Richard III | Henry VIII
Poems and Sonnets: Sonnets | Venus and Adonis | The Rape of Lucrece | The Passionate Pilgrim | The Phoenix and the Turtle | A Lover's Complaint
Apocrypha and Lost Plays Edward III | Sir Thomas More | Cardenio (lost) | Love's Labour's Won (lost) | The Birth of Merlin | Locrine | The London Prodigal | The Puritan | The Second Maiden's Tragedy | Richard II, Part I: Thomas of Woodstock | Sir John Oldcastle | Thomas Lord Cromwell | A Yorkshire Tragedy | Fair Em | Mucedorus | The Merry Devil of Edmonton | Arden of Faversham | Edmund Ironside
See also: Shakespeare on screen | Titles based on Shakespeare | Characters | Problem Plays | Ghost characters | Reputation | New Words | Influence on English Language | Authorship Question

Traditionally, the plays of William Shakespeare have been grouped into three categories: tragedies, comedies, and histories. ... Miranda and Ferdinand, Angelica Kauffmann, 1782 The Tempest is a comedy written by William Shakespeare. ... The Two Gentlemen of Verona is a comedy by William Shakespeare from early in his career. ... Title page of the 1602 quarto The Merry Wives of Windsor is a comedy by William Shakespeare featuring the fat knight Sir John Falstaff. ... Claudio and Isabella (1850) by William Holman Hunt Measure for Measure is a play by William Shakespeare, written in 1603. ... The Comedy of Errors is an early play by William Shakespeare, written between 1592 and 1594. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) Much Ado About Nothing is a comedy by William Shakespeare. ... Title page of the first quarto (1598) Loves Labours Lost is one of William Shakespeares early comedies; it is believed to have been written around 1595-1596 and is probably contemporaneous with Romeo and Juliet and A Midsummer Nights Dream. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) A Midsummer Nights Dream is a romantic comedy by William Shakespeare written sometime in the mid-1590s. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) The Merchant of Venice is one of William Shakespeares best-known plays, written sometime between 1594 and 1597. ... Scene from As you like it, Francis Hayman, c. ... The Taming of the Shrew is a comedy by William Shakespeare. ... Alls Well That Ends Well is a comedy by William Shakespeare, and is often considered one of his problem plays, so-called because they cannot be easily classified as tragedy or comedy. ... Twelfth Night, or What You Will is a comedy by William Shakespeare, named after the Twelfth Night holiday of the Christmas season. ... Autolycus (1836) by Charles Robert Leslie This article is about the play by Shakespeare. ... Title page of the 1611 quarto edition of the play Pericles, Prince of Tyre is a play written (at least in part) by William Shakespeare and included in modern editions of his collected plays despite some questions over its authorship. ... The Two Noble Kinsmen is a play written in 1613 by John Fletcher and William Shakespeare in collaboration. ... Cymbeline is a play by William Shakespeare. ... Traditionally, the works of William Shakespeare have been grouped into three categories: tragedies, comedies, and histories. ... The Life and Death of King John is one of the Shakespearean histories, plays written by William Shakespeare and based on the history of England. ... Title page of Richard II, from the fifth quarto, published in 1615. ... Henry IV, Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare, widely considered the greatest of the histories. ... Henry IV part 2 is a history play by William Shakespeare, first published as part of Shakespeares First Folio. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) Henry V is a play by William Shakespeare based on the life of King Henry V of England. ... King Henry VI Part 1 is one of the history plays of William Shakespeare. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Henry VI Part III is the third of William Shakespeares plays set during the lifetime of King Henry VI of England, and prepares the ground for one of his best-known and most controversial plays: the tragedy of King Richard III (Richard III of England). ... Frontispage of the First Quarto Richard The Third. ... Dame Ellen Terry as Catherine of Aragon The Famous History of the Life of King Henry the Eighth was one of the last plays written by the English playwright William Shakespeare, based on the life of Henry VIII of England. ... Traditionally, the plays of William Shakespeare have been grouped into three categories: tragedies, comedies, and histories. ... For other meanings see Romeo (disambiguation) and Juliet (disambiguation). ... Coriolanus is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, based on the life of the legendary Roman leader. ... Title page of the first quarto edition (1594) The Tragedy of Titus Andronicus may be Shakespeares earliest tragedy. ... Timon of Athens is a play by William Shakespeare written around 1607. ... The Tragedy of Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare probably written in 1599. ... Scene from Macbeth, depicting the witches conjuring of an apparition in Act IV, Scene I. This painting is a false representation of the scene, because there should be a black cauldron between the witches, and the apparation should be coming out of the cauldron. ... The Tragicall Historie of Hamlet, Prince of Denmarke is a tragedy by William Shakespeare and is one of his best-known and most-quoted plays. ... The History of Troilus and Cressida is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written around 1602, shortly after the completion of Hamlet. ... Title page of the first quarto edition, published in 1608 King Lear is generally regarded as one of William Shakespeares greatest tragedies. ... Title page of the first quarto edition of Othello, published in 1622 The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice is a tragedy by William Shakespeare written around 1603. ... Antony and Cleopatra is a historical tragedy by William Shakespeare, originally printed in the First Folio of 1623. ... Title page from 1609 edition of Shake-Speares Sonnets SHAKE-SPEARES SONNETS, or simply The Sonnets comprise a collection of 154 poems in sonnet form written by William Shakespeare that deal with such themes as love, beauty, politics, and mortality. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Earl of Southampton, painted in 1594, aged 21, the year that Shakespeare dedicated The Rape of Lucrece to him The narrative poem The Rape of Lucrece is the graver work promised by English dramatist-poet William Shakespeare in his dedication to his patron, Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton... The Passionate Pilgrim is a collection of poems, first published in 1599, attributed on the title-page to William Shakespeare. ... The Phoenix and the Turtle is a poem by William Shakespeare. ... A Lovers Complaint is a narrative poem usually attributed to William Shakespeare, although the poems authorship is a matter of critical debate. ... Loves Labours Won is the name of a play written by William Shakespeare before 1598. ... Publicity poster for the 2002 Los Angeles production of The Second Maidens Tragedy as Cardenio is a lost play, known to have been performed by the Kings Men, a London theatre company, in 1613. ... The Shakespeare Apocrypha is the name given to a group of plays that have sometimes been attributed to Shakespeare, but whose attribution is questionable for various reasons. ... Edmund Ironside is an anonymous Elizabethan play that depicts the life of Edmund II of England; however, at least two critics have suggested it is an early work by Shakespeare. ... The Reign of King Edward III is a play attributed to William Shakespeare. ... Sir Thomas More is an Elizabethan play that depicts the life of Thomas More. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Laurence Oliviers Richard III. This is a list of movies and television programmes based on the works of William Shakespeare. ... The BBC Television Shakespeare was a set of television adaptations of the plays of Shakespeare, produced by the BBC between 1978 and 1985. ... Shakespeare in Love is a 1998 motion picture. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... The frontispiece of the First Folio (1623), the first collected edition of Shakespeares plays From 1593 to 1637, a number of plays and poems were published under the name William Shakespeare or, in many cases, hyphenated as Shake-Speare. The company that performed most of these plays, the Lord... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Shakespeare Apocrypha is the name given to a group of plays that have sometimes been attributed to Shakespeare, but whose attribution is questionable for various reasons. ... Benjamin Jonson (circa June 11, 1572 – August 6, 1637) was an English Renaissance dramatist, poet and actor. ... Burgess on the cover of the French edition of his 1960 novel The Doctor is Sick (Cherche-Midi, 2001) Anthony Burgess (February 25, 1917 – November 22, 1993) was an English novelist and critic. ... Burgess on the cover of the French edition of his 1960 novel The Doctor is Sick (Cherche-Midi, 2001) Anthony Burgess (February 25, 1917 – November 22, 1993) was an English novelist and critic. ... Shakespeare, a biographical study of William Shakespeare by Anthony Burgess, was published in 1970. ... Stephen Jay Greenblatt (born 1943) is a noted Shakespeare scholar and a literary critic/theorist often seen as the leader of the school known as New Historicism or as Greenblatt likes to put it, cultural poetics. He believes that all works of literature are a products of their times and... Bertram Fields Bertram Fields is a Harvard-trained lawyer famous for his work in the field of entertainment law; he has represented many of the leading studios, as well as individual celebrities including The Beatles, Warren Beatty, James Cameron, Tom Cruise, Dustin Hoffman, and John Travolta. ... Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930, New York) is an American professor and prominent literary and cultural critic. ... Michael Wood reading from an edition of the Domesday Book in a BBC Four documentary about Gilbert White Michael Wood (born Michael David Wood, July 23, 1948 in Manchester) is a popular English historian and broadcaster, presenter of numerous television documentary series. ... Peter Ackroyd (born October 5, 1949, London) is an English author. ... Alfred Leslie Rowse, CH (December 4, 1903 – October 3, 1997), known professionally as A. L. Rowse and to his friends and family as Leslie, was a prolific British historian. ... Cleanth Brooks (October 16, 1906 - 1994) was an influential American literary critic and professor. ... John Dover Wilson (July 13, 1881-January 15, 1969) was a professor and scholar of Renaissance drama, focusing particularly on the work of William Shakespeare. ... Image File history File links Shakespeare. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... Image File history File links Shakespeare2. ... Complete Works of Shakespeare is the standard name given to any volume containing all the plays and poems of William Shakespeare. ... Traditionally, the plays of William Shakespeare have been grouped into three categories: tragedies, comedies, and histories. ... For other meanings see Romeo (disambiguation) and Juliet (disambiguation). ... Scene from Macbeth, depicting the witches conjuring of an apparition in Act IV, Scene I. This painting is a false representation of the scene, because there should be a black cauldron between the witches, and the apparation should be coming out of the cauldron. ... Title page of the first quarto edition, published in 1608 King Lear is generally regarded as one of William Shakespeares greatest tragedies. ... The Tragicall Historie of Hamlet, Prince of Denmarke is a tragedy by William Shakespeare and is one of his best-known and most-quoted plays. ... Title page of the first quarto edition of Othello, published in 1622 The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice is a tragedy by William Shakespeare written around 1603. ... Title page of the first quarto edition (1594) The Tragedy of Titus Andronicus may be Shakespeares earliest tragedy. ... The Tragedy of Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare probably written in 1599. ... Antony and Cleopatra is a historical tragedy by William Shakespeare, originally printed in the First Folio of 1623. ... Coriolanus is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, based on the life of the legendary Roman leader. ... The History of Troilus and Cressida is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written around 1602, shortly after the completion of Hamlet. ... Timon of Athens is a play by William Shakespeare written around 1607. ... Traditionally, the plays of William Shakespeare have been grouped into three categories: tragedies, comedies, and histories. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) A Midsummer Nights Dream is a romantic comedy by William Shakespeare written sometime in the mid-1590s. ... Alls Well That Ends Well is a comedy by William Shakespeare, and is often considered one of his problem plays, so-called because they cannot be easily classified as tragedy or comedy. ... Scene from As you like it, Francis Hayman, c. ... Cymbeline is a play by William Shakespeare. ... Title page of the first quarto (1598) Loves Labours Lost is one of William Shakespeares early comedies; it is believed to have been written around 1595-1596 and is probably contemporaneous with Romeo and Juliet and A Midsummer Nights Dream. ... Claudio and Isabella (1850) by William Holman Hunt Measure for Measure is a play by William Shakespeare, written in 1603. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) The Merchant of Venice is one of William Shakespeares best-known plays, written sometime between 1594 and 1597. ... Title page of the 1602 quarto The Merry Wives of Windsor is a comedy by William Shakespeare featuring the fat knight Sir John Falstaff. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) Much Ado About Nothing is a comedy by William Shakespeare. ... Title page of the 1611 quarto edition of the play Pericles, Prince of Tyre is a play written (at least in part) by William Shakespeare and included in modern editions of his collected plays despite some questions over its authorship. ... The Taming of the Shrew is a comedy by William Shakespeare. ... The Comedy of Errors is an early play by William Shakespeare, written between 1592 and 1594. ... Miranda and Ferdinand, Angelica Kauffmann, 1782 The Tempest is a comedy written by William Shakespeare. ... Twelfth Night, or What You Will is a comedy by William Shakespeare, named after the Twelfth Night holiday of the Christmas season. ... The Two Gentlemen of Verona is a comedy by William Shakespeare from early in his career. ... The Two Noble Kinsmen is a play written in 1613 by John Fletcher and William Shakespeare in collaboration. ... Autolycus (1836) by Charles Robert Leslie This article is about the play by Shakespeare. ... Traditionally, the plays of William Shakespeare have been grouped into three categories: tragedies, comedies, and histories. ... The Life and Death of King John is one of the Shakespearean histories, plays written by William Shakespeare and based on the history of England. ... Title page of Richard II, from the fifth quarto, published in 1615. ... Henry IV, Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare, widely considered the greatest of the histories. ... Henry IV part 2 is a history play by William Shakespeare, first published as part of Shakespeares First Folio. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) Henry V is a play by William Shakespeare based on the life of King Henry V of England. ... King Henry VI Part 1 is one of the history plays of William Shakespeare. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Henry VI Part III is the third of William Shakespeares plays set during the lifetime of King Henry VI of England, and prepares the ground for one of his best-known and most controversial plays: the tragedy of King Richard III (Richard III of England). ... Frontispage of the First Quarto Richard The Third. ... Dame Ellen Terry as Catherine of Aragon The Famous History of the Life of King Henry the Eighth was one of the last plays written by the English playwright William Shakespeare, based on the life of Henry VIII of England. ... Francesco Petrarca or Petrarch, one of the best-known of the early Italian sonnet writers For the Saab automobile, see Saab Sonett, for the Japanese communications company see So-net. ... Title page from 1609 edition of Shake-Speares Sonnets SHAKE-SPEARES SONNETS, or simply The Sonnets comprise a collection of 154 poems in sonnet form written by William Shakespeare that deal with such themes as love, beauty, politics, and mortality. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Earl of Southampton, painted in 1594, aged 21, the year that Shakespeare dedicated The Rape of Lucrece to him The narrative poem The Rape of Lucrece is the graver work promised by English dramatist-poet William Shakespeare in his dedication to his patron, Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton... The Passionate Pilgrim is a collection of poems, first published in 1599, attributed on the title-page to William Shakespeare. ... The Phoenix and the Turtle is a poem by William Shakespeare. ... A Lovers Complaint is a narrative poem usually attributed to William Shakespeare, although the poems authorship is a matter of critical debate. ... The Shakespeare Apocrypha is the name given to a group of plays that have sometimes been attributed to Shakespeare, but whose attribution is questionable for various reasons. ... The Reign of King Edward III is a play attributed to William Shakespeare. ... Sir Thomas More is an Elizabethan play that depicts the life of Thomas More. ... Publicity poster for the 2002 Los Angeles production of The Second Maidens Tragedy as Cardenio is a lost play, known to have been performed by the Kings Men, a London theatre company, in 1613. ... Loves Labours Won is the name of a play written by William Shakespeare before 1598. ... The Birth of Merlin, or, The Child Hath Found his Father is a Jacobean play, written in 1622. ... Locrine is an Elizabethan play depicting the legendary Trojan founders of the nation of England and of Troynovant (London). ... The London Prodigal is a city comedy set in London in which a prodigal son learns the error of his ways. ... Title page of the 1607 quarto The Puritan is a Jacobean comedy, published in 1607, generally considered to be written by Thomas Middleton. ... The Second Maidens Tragedy is a Jacobean play that survives only in manuscript. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sir John Oldcastle is an Elizabethan play about John Oldcastle, a controversial 14th-15th century rebel and Lollard who was seen by some of Shakespeares contemporaries as a proto-Protestant martyr. ... Thomas Lord Cromwell is an Elizabethan play, published in 1602. ... A Yorkshire Tragedy was an English play printed in 1608. ... Fair Em, the Millers Daughter of Manchester, is an Elizabethan comedy written ca. ... Mucedorus is a play at one time claimed to be one of Shakespeares. ... The Merry Devil of Edmonton is an Elizabethan comedy about a magician, Peter Fabel, nicknamed the Merry Devil. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Edmund Ironside is an anonymous Elizabethan play that depicts the life of Edmund II of England; however, at least two critics have suggested it is an early work by Shakespeare. ... Laurence Oliviers Richard III. This is a list of movies and television programmes based on the works of William Shakespeare. ... The following is a partially complete list of titles of works based on Shakespearean phrases. ... In Shakespeare studies, the term problem plays normally refers to three comedies that William Shakespeare wrote between the late 1590s and the first years of the seventeenth century: Alls Well That Ends Well, Measure for Measure and The Merchant of Venice, although some critics would extend the term to... In playwriting, a ghost character is a character that is mentioned as appearing on stage but neither says nor does anything but enter, and possibly exit. ... William Shakespeare, the man who of all Modern, and perhaps Ancient Poets, had the largest and most comprehensive soul (John Dryden, 1668), our myriad-minded Shakespeare (S. T. Coleridge, 1817), up for grabs (Terry Hawkes, 1992). ... // The sixteenth century saw the establishment of English as a respectable language alongside French and Latin. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... The frontispiece of the First Folio (1623), the first collected edition of Shakespeares plays From 1593 to 1637, a number of plays and poems were published under the name William Shakespeare or, in many cases, hyphenated as Shake-Speare. The company that performed most of these plays, the Lord... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... A poet is someone who writes poetry. ... Template:Unsourced A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is someone who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Stratford-upon-Avon Stratford-upon-Avon is a town in Warwickshire, England. ... A detailed map Stratford-upon-Avon Kenilworth Castle Warwickshire (pronounced //, //, or //) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... == {| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1613 1614 1615 - 1616 - 1617 1618 1619 |- | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1580s 1590s 1600s - 1610s - 1620s 1630s 1640s |- tall> 16th century - 17th century - 18th century |} randomised 1616 was a leap year starting on Friday... Stratford-upon-Avon Stratford-upon-Avon is a town in Warwickshire, England. ... A detailed map Stratford-upon-Avon Kenilworth Castle Warwickshire (pronounced //, //, or //) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in central England. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
William Shakespeare - Biography and Works (2654 words)
The infant William was baptised on 26 April 1564 in the parish church Holy Trinity of Stratford upon Avon.
William Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616, according to his monument, and lies buried in the chancel of the Holy Trinity Church in Stratford upon Avon.
Shakespeare's series of historical dramas, based on the English Kings from John to Henry VIII were a tremendous undertaking to dramatise the lives and rule of kings and the changing political events of his time.
William Shakespeare - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4240 words)
Shakespeare is believed to have produced most of his work between 1586 and 1616, although the exact dates and chronology of the plays attributed to him are often uncertain.
Shakespeare is buried in the chancel of Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon.
Shakespeare's sonnets are a collection of 154 poems that deal with such themes as love, beauty, and mortality.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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