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Encyclopedia > William S. Burroughs
William S. Burroughs

William S. Burroughs at his 70th birthday in 1983.
Pseudonym: William Lee
Born 5 February 1914
St. Louis, Missouri
Died 2 August 1997 (aged 83)
Lawrence, Kansas
Occupation novelist, essayist
Genres Beat, science fiction, satire
Literary movement Beat
Postmodern
Influences Céline, Rimbaud, Black, Genet, Sartre, Beckett, Miller, Korzybski, Spengler, Gysin, Hammett
Influenced Kerouac, Ginsberg, Acker, Ballard, Di Filippo, Pynchon, Leyner, Cooper, Self, Van Sant, Gibson, Moore, Welsh, Cronenberg, Lunch, Smith, Wyatt, Bowie, Eno, Genesis P-Orridge, Zorn, Cobain
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William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914(1914-02-05)August 2, 1997; pronounced /ˈbʌroʊz/), more commonly known as William S. Burroughs, was an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter and spoken word performer. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 423 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (863 × 1,222 pixels, file size: 683 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Alias. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Lawrence is a river city in and the seat of Douglas County, Kansas, United States, 41 miles (66 km) west of Kansas City, along the banks of both the Kansas (Kaw) and Wakarusa Rivers. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about work. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... Beats redirects here. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... ... Beats redirects here. ... The term Postmodern literature is used to describe certain tendencies in post-World War II literature. ... Seline redirects here. ... Rimbaud redirects here. ... Jack Black was a late 19th century hobo, living out the dying age of the Wild West. ... Jean Genet (French IPA: ) (December 19, 1910) – April 15, 1986), was a prominent, controversial French writer and later political activist. ... Jean Paul Sartre Jean-Paul Sartre (June 21, 1905–April 15, 1980) was a French existentialist philosopher, dramatist, novelist and critic. ... Samuel Barclay Beckett (13 April 1906 – 22 December 1989) was an Irish dramatist, novelist and poet. ... Henry Miller photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1940 Henry Valentine Miller (December 26, 1891 – June 7, 1980) was an American writer and, to a lesser extent, painter. ... Alfred Habdank Skarbek Korzybski is a philosopher and scientist born on July 3, 1879 in Warsaw, Congress Poland, Russian Empire and died on March 1, 1950, in Lakeville, Connecticut, USA. He is probably best-remembered for developing the theory of general semantics. ... Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (Blankenburg am Harz May 29, 1880 – May 8, 1936, Munich) was a German historian and philosopher, although his studies ranged throughout mathematics, science, philosophy, history, and art. ... Brion Gysin (January 19, 1916 - July 13, 1986) was a painter, writer, sound poet, and performance artist born outside of London, Taplow, Buckinghamshire. ... Samuel Dashiell Hammett (May 27, 1894 – January 10, 1961) was an American author of hardboiled detective novels and short stories. ... Jack Kerouac (pronounced ) (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, and artist. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... Kathy Acker (18 April 1947 in Manhattan—30 November 1997 in Tijuana, Mexico) was an experimental novelist, prose stylist, playwright, essayist, poète maudit and sex-positive feminist writer. ... James Graham Ballard (born 15 November 1930 in Shanghai) is a British writer. ... Paul Di Filippo is a science fiction writer born October 29, 1954 in Providence, Rhode Island. ... Thomas Ruggles Pynchon, Jr. ... Mark Leyner (born 1956) is an American postmodernist author. ... Dennis Cooper (born 1953) is a poet, writer and performance artist, most noted for transforming the visual/verbal aesthetic of punk into its written counterpart. ... Will Self William Self (born September 26, 1961) is an English novelist, reviewer and columnist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other persons named William Gibson, see William Gibson (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Alan Moore, see Alan Moore (disambiguation). ... Irvine Welsh (born Leith, Edinburgh, September 27, 1958) is an acclaimed contemporary Scottish novelist, most famous for his novel Trainspotting. ... David Paul Cronenberg OC, FRSC (born March 15, 1943[2]) is a Canadian film director and occasional actor. ... Lydia Lunch (born Lydia Koch on June 2, 1959 in Rochester, New York) is an American singer, poet, writer, and actress. ... Patricia Lee (Patti) Smith (born December 30, 1946) is an American musician, singer, and poet. ... Robert Wyatt (born Robert Wyatt-Ellidge, 28 January 1945, in Bristol) is an English musician, and a former member of the influential Canterbury scene band Soft Machine. ... David Bowie (IPA: []) (born David Robert Jones on 1947 January 8) is an English singer, songwriter, actor, multi-instrumentalist, producer, arranger and audio engineer. ... Brian Eno (pronounced IPA: ) born on 15 May 1948 in Woodbridge, Suffolk, England) is an English electronic musician, music theorist and record producer. ... Genesis P-Orridge (born Neil Andrew Megson February 22, 1950) is an English performer, musician, writer and artist. ... John Zorn (born September 2, 1953 in Queens, USA) is an American avant-garde composer, arranger, record producer, saxophonist and multi-instrumentalist. ... Kurt Donald Cobain (February 20, 1967 – c. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... An essayist is an author who writes compositions which can be about any particular subject. ... A cultural critic is a critic of a given culture, usually as a whole and typically on a radical basis; a social critic of a given society, but the overlap is large. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... Spoken word is a form of music or artistic performance in which lyrics, poetry, or stories are spoken rather than sung. ...


Much of Burroughs' work is semi-autobiographical, drawn from his experiences as an opiate addict, a condition that marked the last fifty years of his life. A primary member of the Beat Generation, he was an avant-garde author who affected popular culture as well as literature. In 1984, he was elected to the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters. For other uses see Opiate (disambiguation), or for the class of drugs see Opioid. ... Beats redirects here. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... The American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters was formed in 1976 from the merger of the National Institute of Arts and Letters, which was founded in 1898, and the American Academy of Arts and Letters, which was founded in 1904. ...

Contents

Early life and education

Burroughs was born in 1914, the younger of two sons of a prominent family in St. Louis, Missouri. His grandfather, William Seward Burroughs I, founded the Burroughs Adding Machine company, which evolved into the Burroughs Corporation. Burroughs' mother, Laura Hammon Lee (1888-1970), was the daughter of a minister whose family claimed to be related to Robert E. Lee. His father, Mortimer Perry Burroughs, ran an antique and gift shop, Cobblestone Gardens; first in St. Louis, then in Palm Beach, Florida. Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... Patent no. ... William Seward Burroughs (1857-1898), US inventor William S. Burroughs (1914-1997), author and grandson of William Seward Burroughs Edgar Rice Burroughs (1875-1950), American author of Tarzan fame The Burroughs Corporation began in 1886 as the American Arithmometer Company in St. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... Being largely seasonal, downtown Palm Beachs streets are virtually vacant in the summer. ...


Burroughs attended John Burroughs School in St. Louis where his first published essay, "Personal Magnetism," was published in the John Burroughs Review in 1929.[1] He then attended The Los Alamos Ranch School in New Mexico, which was stressful for him. The school was a boarding school for the wealthy, "where the spindly sons of the rich could be transformed into manly specimens." [2]. Burroughs kept journals documenting an erotic attachment to another boy. These remained undiscovered, and in fact he kept his sexual orientation concealed well into adulthood. He was soon expelled from Los Alamos after taking chloral hydrate in Santa Fe with a fellow student. Founded in 1923, John Burroughs School (JBS) is a private, non-sectarian preparatory school with nearly 600 students in grades 7-12. ... The Los Alamos Ranch School was a private boarding school for boys in Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA. It closed during the Great Depression and its campus was later used by scientists for part of the Manhattan Project. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... A boarding school is a usually fee-charging school where some or all pupils not only study, but also live during term time, with their fellow students and possibly teachers. ... This article is about the journal as a written medium. ... Chloral hydrate, also known as trichloroacetaldehyde monohydrate, 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-ethanediol, and under the tradenames Aquachloral, Novo-Chlorhydrate, Somnos, Noctec, and Somnote, is a sedative and hypnotic drug as well as a chemical reagent and precursor. ... Nickname: Location in Santa Fe County, New Mexico Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Fe Founded ca. ...


Harvard University

He finished high school at Taylor School in St. Louis and, in 1932, left home to pursue an arts degree at Harvard University. During the summers, he worked as a cub reporter for the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, even covering the police docket. He disliked the work, and refused to cover some events like the death of a drowned child. He lost his virginity in an East St. Louis whore house that summer with a female prostitute he regularly patronized.[3] While at Harvard Burroughs made trips to New York City and was introduced to the gay subculture there. He visited lesbian dives, piano bars, and the Harlem and Greenwich Village homosexual underground with a wealthy friend from Kansas City, Richard Stern. They would drive from Boston to New York in a reckless fashion. Once, Stern scared Burroughs so much, he asked that he be let out of the vehicle.[4] Harvard redirects here. ... The St. ... East St. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about same-sex desire and sexuality among women. ... For other uses, see Harlem (disambiguation). ... The Washington Square Arch Greenwich Village (IPA pronunciation: ), also called simply the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City named after Greenwich, London. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ...


Burroughs graduated from Harvard University in 1936. According to Ted Morgan's Literary Outlaw, Harvard redirects here. ...

His parents, upon his graduation, had decided to give him a monthly allowance of $200 out of their earnings from Cobblestone Gardens, a tidy sum in those days. It was enough to keep him going, and indeed it guaranteed his survival for the next twenty-five years, arriving with welcome regularity. The allowance was a ticket to freedom; it allowed him to live where he wanted to and to forego employment. -Ted Morgan, Literary Outlaw. p.65. New York:Avon Books, 1988.[5]

However, Burroughs's parents never had a great fortune; they had sold the rights to his grandfather's invention and had no share in the Burroughs Corporation. Shortly before the 1929 stock market crash Burroughs's parents sold their stock in the Burroughs Corporation for $200,000.[6] William Seward Burroughs (1857-1898), US inventor William S. Burroughs (1914-1997), author and grandson of William Seward Burroughs Edgar Rice Burroughs (1875-1950), American author of Tarzan fame The Burroughs Corporation began in 1886 as the American Arithmometer Company in St. ...


Europe

After leaving Harvard, Burroughs' formal education ended, except for brief flirtations as a graduate student of anthropology at Harvard and as a medical student in Vienna, Austria. He traveled to Europe, which proved a window into Austrian and Hungarian Weimar-Era homosexuality; he picked up boys in steam baths in Vienna, and moved in a circle of exiles, homosexuals, and runaways. There, he met Ilse Klapper, a Jewish woman fleeing the country's Nazi government. The two were never romantically involved, but Burroughs married her, in Croatia, against the wishes of his parents, in order to allow her to gain a visa to the United States. She made her way to New York City, and eventually divorced Burroughs, although they remained friends for many years.[7] After returning to the U.S., he held a string of uninteresting jobs. In 1939, his emotional health became a concern for his parents, especially after he deliberately severed the last joint of his left little finger to impress a man with whom he was infatuated.[8] This event made its way into his early fiction as the short story "The Finger". Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Weimar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Beginning of The Beats

Burroughs enlisted in the U.S. Army early in 1942, shortly after the bombing of Pearl Harbor brought the U.S. into World War II. But when he was classified as a 1-A Infantry, not an officer, he became dejected. His mother recognized her son's depression and got Burroughs a civilian disability discharge — a release from duty based on the premise he should have not been allowed to enlist due to previous mental instability. After being evaluated by a family friend, who was also a neurologist at a psychiatric treatment center, Burroughs waited five months in limbo at Jefferson Barracks outside St. Louis before being discharged. During that time he met a Chicago soldier also awaiting release, and once Burroughs was free, he moved to Chicago and held a variety of jobs, including one as an exterminator. When two of his friends from St. Louis, Lucien Carr, a University of Chicago student, and David Kammerer, Carr's homosexual admirer, left for New York City, Burroughs followed. The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Exterminator could refer to A practitioner in pest control. ... Lucien Carr (March 1, 1925 – January 28, 2005) was a key figure in the Beat generation, and later an editor for UPI. Carr was a roommate of Allen Ginsberg at Columbia University in the 1940s and met Jack Kerouac through Jacks then-girlfriend Edie Parker. ... For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ...


Joan Vollmer

Joan Vollmer Adams Burroughs in New York City.

In 1944, Burroughs began living with Joan Vollmer Adams in an apartment they shared with Jack Kerouac and Edie Parker, Kerouac's first wife. Vollmer Adams was married to a GI with whom she had a young daughter, Julie Adams. Burroughs and Kerouac got into trouble with the law for failing to report a murder. The murder involved Lucien Carr, who had killed David Kammerer in a confrontation over Kammerer's incessant and unwanted advances. During this time, Burroughs began using morphine and quickly became addicted. He eventually sold heroin in Greenwich Village to support his habit. This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 50 years. ... This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 50 years. ... Joan Vollmer Adams Burroughs in New York City. ... Jack Kerouac (pronounced ) (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, and artist. ... Edie Parker was an author from the Beatnik generation and the first wife of Jack Kerouac. ... GI or G.I. is a term describing a US soldier or an item of their equipment. ... This article is about the drug. ... Drug addiction, or dependency is the compulsive use of drugs, to the point where the user has no effective choice but to continue use. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... The Washington Square Arch Greenwich Village (IPA pronunciation: ), also called simply the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City named after Greenwich, London. ...


Vollmer also became an addict, but her drug of choice was an amphetamine, Benzedrine, which was sold over the counter as a decongestant inhalant at that time. Because of her addiction and social circle, her husband immediately divorced her after returning from the war. Vollmer would become Burroughs’ common law wife. Burroughs was soon arrested for forging a narcotics prescription and was sentenced to return to his parents' care in St. Louis. Vollmer's addiction led to a temporary psychosis, which resulted in her admission to a hospital, and the custody of her child was endangered. Yet after Burroughs completed his "house arrest" in St. Louis, he returned to New York, released Vollmer from the psychiatric ward of Bellevue Hospital, and moved with her and her daughter to Texas. Vollmer soon became pregnant with Burroughs' child. Their son, William S. Burroughs, Jr., was born in 1947. The family moved briefly to New Orleans in 1948. Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Common-law marriage (or common law marriage), sometimes called informal marriage or marriage by habit and repute is, historically, a form of interpersonal status in which a man and a woman are not legally married. ... Bellevue Hospital is a famous hospital located in New York City, New York, United States. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Cover of Ohles book showing father and son. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ...


Burroughs was arrested after police searched his home and found letters between him and Allen Ginsberg referring to a possible delivery of marijuana. Burroughs fled to Mexico to escape possible detention in Louisiana's Angola state prison. Vollmer and their children followed him. Burroughs planned to stay in Mexico for at least five years, the length of his charge's statute of limitations. Burroughs also attended classes at Mexico City College in 1950 in Spanish, "Mexican picture writing" and codices, and the Mayan language. Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... Angola is the Louisiana State Penitentiary and is estimated to be the largest prison in the U.S. with 5,000 inmates and over 1,000 staff. ... A statute of limitations is a statute in a common law legal system that sets forth the maximum period of time, after certain events, that legal proceedings based on those events may be initiated. ...


In 1951, Burroughs shot and killed Vollmer in a drunken game of "William Tell" at a party above the American-owned Bounty Bar in Mexico City. He spent 13 days in jail before his brother came to Mexico City and distributed funds to Mexican lawyers and officials, which allowed Burroughs to be released on bail while he awaited trial for the killing, which was ruled culpable homicide.[9] Vollmer’s daughter, Julie Adams, went to live with her grandmother, and William S. Burroughs, Jr. went to St. Louis to live with his grandparents. Burroughs reported every Monday morning to the jail in Mexico City while his prominent Mexican attorney worked to resolve the case. According to James Grauerholz two witnesses had agreed to testify that the gun had gone off accidentally while he was checking to see if it was loaded, and the ballistics experts were bribed to support this story. Nevertheless, the trial was continuously delayed and Burroughs began to write what would eventually become the short novel Queer while awaiting his trial. However, when his attorney fled Mexico after his own legal problems involving a car accident and altercation with the son of a government official, Burroughs decided, according to Ted Morgan, to "skip" and return to the United States. He was convicted in absentia of homicide and sentenced to two years, which was suspended.[10] For other uses, see William Tell (disambiguation). ... Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México, D.F. or simply México) is the capital city of Mexico. ... This article is about homicide, the killing of a human being. ... James Grauerholz is a writer and editor. ... 1987 Penguin Books paperback edition. ... Ted Morgan is a French-American writer, biographer, journalist, and historian. ...


Birth of a writer

Original Ace Double edition of Junkie (a.k.a. Junky) from 1953, credited to "William Lee". This was Burroughs's first novel publication.
Original Ace Double edition of Junkie (a.k.a. Junky) from 1953, credited to "William Lee". This was Burroughs's first novel publication.

Burroughs later said that shooting Vollmer was a pivotal event in his life, and one which instigated his writing: Image File history File links Junkieace. ... Image File history File links Junkieace. ... Ace Doubles See also Ace Books. ...

I am forced to the appalling conclusion that I would have never become a writer but for Joan's death... I live with the constant threat of possession, for control. So the death of Joan brought me in contact with the invador [sic], the Ugly Spirit, and maneuvered me into a life long struggle, in which I have had no choice except to write my way out[11].

Yet he had begun to write in 1945. Burroughs and Kerouac collaborated on And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks, a mystery novel loosely based on the Carr/Kammerer situation that was left unpublished. Years later, in the documentary What Happened to Kerouac?, Burroughs described it as "not a very distinguished work." An excerpt of this work, in which Burroughs and Kerouac wrote alternating chapters, was finally published in "Word Virus", a compendium of William Burroughs' writing that was published after his death in 1997. And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks is an unpublished manuscript written in 1945 by Jack Kerouac and William S. Burroughs, several years before the two Beat Generation founders achieved notoriety with On the Road and Junkie, respectively. ...


Before Vollmer died, Burroughs had largely completed his first two novels in Mexico, although Queer would not be published until 1985. His first novel was adapted from letters he originally wrote to Ginsberg who encouraged him to think of writing a novel. Junkie was written at the urging of Allen Ginsberg, who was instrumental in getting the work published, even as a cheap mass market paperback. Ace Books published the novel in 1953 as part of an Ace Double under the pen name William Lee, retitling it Junkie: Confessions of an Unredeemed Drug Addict. (it was later republished as Junkie or Junky). After Vollmer's death, Burroughs drifted through South America for several months, looking for a drug called Yage, which promised the user an ability for telepathy. A book resulted from this time, The Yage Letters, published in 1963 by San Francisco's City Lights Books which comprised the letters between Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg. 50th anniversary edition, with Burroughs intended title spelling. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... Ace Books is the oldest continuing publisher of science fiction & fantasy novels, founded in 1953 by magazine publisher A. A. Wyn. ... Ace Doubles See also Ace Books. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Ayahuasca is an entheogenic drink prepared from segments of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi. ... Telepathy, from the Greek τῆλε, tele, remote; and πάθεια, patheia, to be effected by, describes the hypothetical transfer of information on thoughts or feelings between individuals by means other than the five classical senses. ... Mid-1990s City Lights Books edition. ... The City Lights Bookstore, in the North Beach section of San Francisco, is an independent bookstore specializing in poetry. ...


Naked Lunch

During 1953, Burroughs was at loose ends. Due to legal problems, he was unable to live in the cities towards which he was most inclined. He spent time with his parents in Palm Beach, Florida, and New York City with Allen Ginsberg. When Ginsberg refused his romantic advance, Burroughs went to Rome to meet Alan Ansen on a vacation financed by his parents' continuing support. When he found Rome and Ansen’s company dreary, inspired by Paul Bowles' fiction, he decided to head for Tangier, Morocco.[12] In a home owned by a known procurer of homosexual prostitutes for visitors, he rented a room and began to write a large body of text that he personally referred to as Interzone.[13] Burroughs lived in Tangier for several months, before returning to the United States where he suffered several personal indignities- Ginsberg was in California and refused to see him, A. A. Wyn, the publisher of Junkie, was not forthcoming with his royalties and his parents were threatening to cut off his allowance. All signs pointed him back to Tangier, a place where his parents would have to continue the support and one where drugs were freely available. He left in November 1954 and spent the next four years there working on the fiction that would later become Naked Lunch, as well as attempting to write commercial articles about Tangier. He sent these writings to Ginsberg, his literary agent for Junkie, but none were published until 1989 when Interzone, a collection of short stories, was published. Under the strong influence of a marijuana confection known as majoun and a German-made opioid called Eukodol (oxycodone), Burroughs settled in to write. Eventually, Ginsberg and Kerouac, who had traveled to Tangier in 1957, helped Burroughs edit these episodes into Naked Lunch.[14] Being largely seasonal, downtown Palm Beachs streets are virtually vacant in the summer. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Alan Ansen (1923 – 2006) was an American poet and playwright and associate of Beat Generation writers. ... Paul Frederic Bowles (December 30, 1910 - November 18, 1999), was an American composer, author, and traveler. ... For other uses, see Tangier (disambiguation). ... Aaron A. Wyn (May 22, 1898 - November 3, 1967) (born Aaron Weinstein) was an American publisher. ... Naked Lunch is a novel by William S. Burroughs. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... Not to be confused with oxytocin. ...


Whereas Junkie and Queer were conventional in style, Naked Lunch was his first venture into a non-linear style: having been newly exposed to Brion Gysin's cut-up technique at the Beat Hotel in Paris in September 1959, he began slicing up phrases and words to create new sentences. [15] At the Beat Hotel Burroughs discovered "a port of entry" into Gysin's canvases saying, "I don't think I had ever seen painting until I saw the painting of Brion Gysin."[16] The two would cultivate a long-term friendship that revolved around a mutual interest in artworks and cut-up techniques. Scenes were slid together with little care for narrative. Perhaps thinking of his crazed physician, Dr Benway, he described Naked Lunch as a book that could be cut into at any point. Although not science fiction, the book does seem to forecast — with eerie prescience — such later phenomena as AIDS, liposuction, autoerotic fatalities and the crack pandemic.[17] In the arts, the word nonlinear is used to describe events portrayed in a non-chronological manner. ... Brion Gysin (January 19, 1916 - July 13, 1986) was a painter, writer, sound poet, and performance artist born outside of London, Taplow, Buckinghamshire. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Liposuction, also known as lipoplasty (fat modeling), liposculpture or suction lipectomy (suction-assisted fat removal) is a cosmetic surgery operation that removes fat from many different sites on the human body. ... Autoerotic fatalities are deaths caused by unusual and risky solitary sexual practices such as self_bondage and autoerotic asphyxia. ... A pile of crack cocaine ‘rocks’. Crack cocaine is a highly addictive form of cocaine that is popular for its intense high. ...


Burroughs's "Interzone" could be seen as a metaphorical stateless city, but the term probably was derived from the "International Zone" in Tangier, a city occupied after World War II by French, English, Spanish, and American expatriate communities, each with its own courts and administration. During this time in its history, Tangier was an international refuge for criminals, artists, drug smugglers and tax-evading tycoons. It was not an exaggeration to say everything could be had for a price. When in Tangier, Burroughs's son Billy, now a teenager, came to live with him at the insistence of his parents. It was Burroughs' lover, Ian Sommerville, who recognized that the boy was homesick and urged Burroughs to send him back to the U.S. and the surroundings he had grown up in. After several months with his father, Billy returned to Palm Beach to live with his grandparents again. An international zone is a type of extraterritoriality governed by international law, or similar treaty between two or more nations. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Cover of Ohles book showing father and son. ...


Excerpts from Naked Lunch were first published in the United States in 1958. The novel was rejected initially by City Lights Books, the publisher of Ginsberg's Howl, and Olympia Press publisher Maurice Girodias, who had published English language novels in France that were controversial for their subjective views of sex and anti-social characters. But Allen Ginsberg worked to get excerpts published in Black Mountain Review and Chicago Review in 1958. Irving Rosenthal, student editor of Chicago Review, a quarterly journal partially subsidized by the university, promised to publish more excerpts from Naked Lunch, when he was fired from his position in 1958 after Chicago Daily News columnist Jack Mabley called the first excerpt obscene. Rosenthal went on to publish more in his newly created literary journal Big Table No. 1; however, these copies elicited such contempt, the editors were accused of sending obscene material through the United States Mail by the United States Postmaster General, who ruled that copies could not be mailed to subscribers. This controversy made Naked Lunch interesting to Maurice Girodias again, and he published the novel in 1959. After the novel was published, it slowly became notorious across Europe and the United States, garnering interest from not just members of the counterculture of the 1960s, but literary critics like Mary McCarthy. Once published in the United States, Naked Lunch was prosecuted as obscene by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, followed by other states. In 1966 the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court declared the work "not obscene" on the basis of criteria developed largely to defend the book. The case against Burroughs's novel still stands as the last obscenity trial against a work of literature — a work consisting solely of words — prosecuted in the United States. The City Lights Bookstore, in the North Beach section of San Francisco, is an independent bookstore specializing in poetry. ... Olympia Press was a Paris based publisher, best known for the first print of Nabokov s Lolita; this led to copyright issues, since Nabokov was not satisfied with the publisher and the reputation it had, since besides some serious literature, it published mostly erotic novels. ... Maurice Girodias was the founder of the The Olympia Press. ... The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... // The counterculture of the 1960s was a social revolution between the period of 1960 and 1973[1] that began in the United States as a reaction against the conservative social norms of the 1950s, the political conservatism (and perceived social repression) of the Cold War period, and the US government... Mary Therese McCarthy (June 21, 1912 – October 25, 1989) was an American author and critic. ... Obscenity in Latin obscenus, meaning foul, repulsive, detestable, (possibly derived from ob caenum, literally from filth). The term is most often used in a legal context to describe expressions (words, images, actions) that offend the prevalent sexual morality of the time. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court (SJC) is the highest court in the United States Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ...


The manuscripts that produced Naked Lunch also produced the later works The Soft Machine (1961), The Ticket That Exploded (1962), and Nova Express (1963). These novels feature extensive use of the cut-up technique, which influenced all of Burroughs subsequent fiction to a degree. During his friendship and artistic collaborations with Brion Gysin and Ian Sommerville the technique was combined with images, Gysin's paintings, and sound, via Somerville's tape recorders. Burroughs was so dedicated to the cut-up method that he often defended his use of the technique to editors and publishers, most notably Dick Seaver[18] - at Grove Press in the 1960s and Holt, Rinehart & Winston in 1980s. For the rock band named after this book, see Soft Machine The Soft Machine is the title of a novel by William S. Burroughs, first published in 1961 and was Burroughs first novel after the groundbreaking publication of Naked Lunch. ... The Ticket That Exploded is a novel by William S. Burroughs first published in 1962 by Olympia Press and later published in the United States by Grove Press in 1967. ... Nova Express is a 1964 novel by William Burroughs, whose plot cannot easily be described. ... Grove Press is an American publishing imprint that was founded in 1951. ... Holt, Rinehart and Winston, sometimes abbreviated as HRW or referred to as Holt, is an Austin, Texas based publishing company, that specializes in textbooks for use in secondary schools. ...


Paris and the ‘Beat Hotel’

Burroughs moved to a run down hotel in Paris' Latin Quarter neighborhood in 1959 when Naked Lunch was still looking for a publisher. Tangier with its easy access to drugs, small cliques of homosexuals, growing political unrest and odd collection of criminals grew heavy on Burroughs.[19] He went to Paris to meet Ginsberg and talk with Olympia Press. In so doing, he left a brewing legal problem, which eventually transferred itself to Paris. Paul Lund, a former British career criminal and cigarette smuggler Burroughs met in Tangier, was arrested on suspicion of importing narcotics into France. Lund gave up Burroughs and some evidence implicated Burroughs in the possible importation into France of narcotics. Once again, the man faced criminal charges, this time in Paris for conspiracy to import opiates, when the Moroccan authorities forwarded their investigation to French officials. Yet it was under this impending threat of criminal sanction that Maurice Girodias published Naked Lunch, and it was helpful in getting Burroughs a suspended sentence, as a literary career, according to Ted Morgan, is a respected profession in France. Olympia Press was a Paris based publisher, best known for the first print of Nabokov s Lolita; this led to copyright issues, since Nabokov was not satisfied with the publisher and the reputation it had, since besides some serious literature, it published mostly erotic novels. ... Ted Morgan is a French-American writer, biographer, journalist, and historian. ...


The ‘Beat Hotel’ was a typical European style rooming house hotel, with common toilets on every floor, and a small place for personal cooking in the room. Life there was documented by the photographer Harold Chapman, who lived in the attic room. This shabby, inexpensive hotel was populated by Gregory Corso, Ginsberg and Peter Orlovsky for several months after Naked Lunch first appeared. The actual process of publication was partly a function of its 'cut-up' presentation to the printer. Girodias had given Burroughs only ten days to prepare the manuscript for print galleys, and Burroughs sent over the manuscript in pieces, preparing the parts in no particular order. When it was published in this authentically ‘random’ manner, Burroughs liked it better than the initial plan. International rights to the work were sold soon after, and Burroughs used the $3,000 advance from Grove Press to buy drugs.[20] Naked Lunch was featured in a 1959 Life magazine cover story, partly as an article that highlighted the growing Beat literary movement. The Beat Hotel was a small, run-down hotel at 9 Rue Git-le-Coeur in the Latin Quarter of Paris. ... A boarding house can also be called a rooming house (mainly in the United States) or a lodging house. It is a house (often a family home) in which people on vacation or lodgers rent one or more rooms for one or more nights, and sometimes for extended periods of... Of his origins and early years, the photographer Harold Stephen Chapman reveals only that he was “born in Deal on a Saturday morning at 9. ... Gregory Corso (illustration) Gregory Nunzio Corso (March 26, 1930 – January 17, 2001) was an American poet, the fourth member of the canon of Beat Generation writers (with Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, and William Burroughs). ... Peter Orlovsky (born July 8, 1933) is an American poet best known for being the lover of Beat Generation poet Allen Ginsberg. ... Grove Press is an American publishing imprint that was founded in 1951. ... This article is about life in general. ...


The London years

Burroughs left Paris for London in 1966 to take the cure again with Dr. Dent, a well known English medical doctor who spearheaded a painless heroin withdrawal treatment which utilized an electronic box affixed to the patient's temple. Keith Richards and Anita Pallenberg would take this same cure over a decade later from Dr. Dent's nurse, Smitty.[21]. Though he ultimately relapsed, Burroughs ended up working out of London for six years, traveling back to the United States on several notable occasions, including one time escorting his son to Lexington Narcotics Farm and Prison after the younger Burroughs had been convicted of prescription fraud in Florida. In the "Afterward" to the compilation of his son's two previously published novels Speed and Kentucky Ham, Burroughs writes that he thought he had a "small habit" and left London quickly without any narcotics because he suspected the U.S. customs would search him well upon arrival. He claims he went through the most excrutiating two months of opiate withdrawal while seeing his son through his trial and sentencing, actually traveling with Billy to Lexington, Kentucky from Miami to ensure his son entered the hospital he once spent time in as a volunteer admission. This confession, published in 1981, might strike many readers as proof of Burroughs poor parenting and example, but read in full light of the difficult circumstances he found himself in, it seems like some stubborn proof that Burroughs did care enough about his son to return and see him through the criminal process, even though it caused him much personal pain.[22] Earlier Burroughs revisited St. Louis, Missouri taking a large advance from Playboy to write an article about his trip back to St. Louis that eventually was published in the Paris Review, after Burroughs refused to alter the style for Playboy publishers. In 1968 Burroughs joined Jean Genet, John Sack, and Terry Southern in covering the 1968 Democratic National Convention for Esquire magazine. Southern and Burroughs, who first became acquainted with one another in London, would remain lifelong friends and collaborators. In 1972, Burroughs and Southern unsuccessfully attempted to adapt Naked Lunch for the screen in conjunction with American game show producer Chuck Barris[23] Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Keith Richards (born 18 December 1943) is an English guitarist, songwriter, singer and a founding member of The Rolling Stones in 1962. ... Anita Pallenberg (born January 25, 1944 in Rome, Italy) is a model, actress and fashion designer. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Nickname: Location in the Commonwealth of Kentucky Coordinates: , Country United States State Kentucky Counties Fayette Government  - Mayor Jim Newberry (D) Area  - City  285. ... This article is about the city in Florida. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... Playboy is an adult entertainment magazine, or pornography magazine, founded in 1953 by Hugh Hefner, which has grown into Playboy Enterprises, Inc. ... Jean Genet (French IPA: ) (December 19, 1910) – April 15, 1986), was a prominent, controversial French writer and later political activist. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Terry Southern (May 1, 1924 – October 29, 1995) was a highly influential American short story writer, novelist, essayist, screenwriter and university lecturer. ... The 1968 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held at International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois, from August 26 to August 29, 1968, for the purposes of choosing the Democratic nominee for the 1968 U.S. presidential election. ... Chuck Barris (born Charles Hirsch Barris on June 3, 1929) is an American game show producer of the 1960s and 1970s and author. ...


Burroughs supported himself and his addiction by publishing pieces in small literary presses. His avant garde reputation grew internationally as the hippie counterculture discovered his earlier works. He developed a close friendship with Anthony Balch and lived with a young hustler named John Brady who continuously brought home young women despite Burroughs protestations. In the midst of this personal turmoil, he managed to complete two works: a novel written in screen play format, The Last Words of Dutch Schulz (1969); and the traditional prose-format novel The Wild Boys (1971). A screenplay or script is a blueprint for producing a motion picture. ...


In the 1960s Burroughs also joined and left the Church of Scientology. In talking about the experience, he claimed that the tecniques and philosophy of Scientology helped him and that he felt that further study into Scientology would produce great results. However he was sceptical of the organization itself, and felt that it fostered an environment that didn't accept critical discussion.[24] In subsequent critical writings about the church and his review of a book entitled Inside Scientology by Robert Kaufman led to a battle of letters between Burroughs and Scientology supporters in the pages of Rolling Stone. Scientology cross Symbol The Church of Scientology is the largest religious organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of the Scientology belief system. ... Inside Scientology: How I Joined Scientology and Became Superhuman is a non-fiction book that takes a critical look at the Church of Scientology. ... This article is about the magazine. ...


Exile returns

In 1974, concerned about his friend's well-being, Allen Ginsberg got Burroughs a contract to teach creative writing at the City College of New York. Burroughs successfully withdrew from heroin and moved to New York. He eventually found an apartment, affectionately dubbed 'The Bunker', on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. The dwelling was partially a converted YMCA gym, complete with lockers and communal showers. The building fell within New York City rent control policies that made it extremely cheap; in fact, it was only about four hundred dollars a month until 1981 when the rent control rules changed doubling the rent overnight.[25]. Burroughs chalked up 'teacher' to another one of the jobs he did not like, as he lasted only a semester teaching; he found the students uninteresting and without much creative talent. Although he needed income desperately, he even turned down a teaching position at the University at Buffalo for $15,000 a semester. "The teaching gig was a lesson in never again. You were giving out all this energy and nothing was coming back."[26]. His saviour was the newly arrived, twenty-one year old book seller and beat generation devotee James Grauerholz, who worked for Burroughs part-time as a secretary as well as in a book store. It was Grauerholz who floated the idea of reading tours, something similar to rock and roll touring, or stand-up comedian dates in clubs across the country. Grauerholz had managed several rock bands in Kansas and took the lead in booking Burroughs reading tours that would help support him throughout the next two decades. It raised his public profile which eventually aided in new publishing contracts. Thus Burroughs capitalized on the emerging American celebrity culture, deciding to relocate back to the United States permanently in 1976. He then began to associate with New York cultural players Andy Warhol, John Giorno, Lou Reed, Patti Smith, and Susan Sontag, frequently entertaining them at the Bunker. Throughout early 1977, Burroughs collaborated with Southern and Dennis Hopper on a screen adaptation of Junky. Financed by a reclusive acquaintance of Burroughs, the project lost traction after financial problems and creative disagreements between Hopper and Burroughs. “City College” redirects here. ... Categories: Manhattan neighborhoods | Stub ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with YWCA. This article is about the association. ... Rent control refers to laws or ordinances that set price controls on the renting of residential housing. ... It has been suggested that The Poetry Collection be merged into this article or section. ... James Grauerholz is a writer and editor. ... Categories: Bookstores | Stub ... For other uses, see Celebrity (disambiguation). ... Andrew Warhola (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987), better known as Andy Warhol, was an American artist who was a central figure in the movement known as Pop art. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Lou Reed, born Lewis Allen Reed[1] March 2, 1942, is an American rock singer-songwriter and guitarist. ... Patricia Lee (Patti) Smith (born December 30, 1946) is an American musician, singer, and poet. ... Image needed Susan Sontag (January 16, 1933 – December 28, 2004) was an American essayist, novelist, filmmaker, and activist. ... Dennis Lee Hopper (born May 17, 1936) is an Academy Award-nominated American actor and film-maker. ...


Organized by Columbia professor Sylvere Lotringer, Giorno, and Grauerholz, the Nova Convention was a multimedia retrospective of Burroughs' work held from November 30th-December 2nd 1978 at various locations throughout New York. The event included readings from Southern, Ginsberg, Smith, and Frank Zappa (who filled in at the last minute for Keith Richards, then entangled in a legal problem) in addition to panel discussions with Timothy Leary & Robert Anton Wilson and concerts featuring The B-52s, Suicide, Philip Glass, and Deborah Harry & Chris Stein. Frank Vincent Zappa[1] (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American composer, musician, and film director. ... Keith Richards (born 18 December 1943) is an English guitarist, songwriter, singer and a founding member of The Rolling Stones in 1962. ... For the American baseball player, see Tim Leary (baseball player). ... Robert Anton Wilson Robert Anton Wilson or RAW (January 18, 1932 – January 11, 2007) was a prolific American novelist, essayist, philosopher, psychologist, futurologist, anarchist, and conspiracy theory researcher. ... The B-52s are a rock band from Athens, Georgia, the first of many from the college town that has become one of the most important centers in alternative rock. ... Suicide is an American rock music group intermittently active since 1971 and composed of Alan Vega (vocals) and Martin Rev (synthesizers and drum machines). ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ... Debbie Harry on the cover of her collection Most of All: Best Of Deborah Harry (born July 1, 1945) is a Miami-born American rock and roll musician who originally gained fame as the frontwoman for New Wave band Blondie, which originated in the late 1970s and achieved commercial success... Chris Stein (born January 5, 1950 in Brooklyn, New York) is co-founder and guitar player in the popular group Blondie [1]. He was diagnosed with a rare and usually fatal genetic disease called Pemphigus in 1983. ...


In 1976, Billy Burroughs was eating dinner with his father and Allen Ginsberg in Boulder, Colorado at Ginsberg’s Buddhist poetry school (Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics) at Chogyam Trungpa's Naropa University when he began to vomit blood. William had not seen his son for over a year and was alarmed at his appearance when Billy arrived at Ginsberg’s apartment. Although Billy had successfully published two short novels in the 1970s, and was deemed by literary critics like Ann Charters as a bona fide “second generation beat writer”[27], his brief marriage to a teenage waitress had fallen apart. Under his constant drinking, there were long periods where Billy was out of contact with any family or friends. The diagnosis was liver cirrhosis so complete the only treatment was a rarely performed liver transplant operation. Fortunately, the University of Colorado Medical Center was one of two places in the nation that performed transplants under the pioneering work of Dr. Thomas Starzl. Billy underwent the procedure and beat the thirty percent survival odds. His father spent many months in 1976 and 1977 in Colorado, helping Billy through many additional surgeries and complications. Ted Morgan’s biography asserts that their relationship was not spontaneous and lacked real warmth or intimacy. Allen Ginsberg was supportive to both Burroughs and his son throughout the long period of recovery.[28] Cover of Ohles book showing father and son. ... The City of Boulder ( , Mountain Time Zone) is a home rule municipality located in Boulder County, Colorado, United States. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... The Jack Kerouac School was founded at Naropa in 1974 by Beat Generation poets Allen Ginsberg and Anne Waldman. ... Chögyam Trungpa (1939 - April 4, 1987) was a Buddhist meditation master, scholar, teacher and artist. ... Naropa University is a private, liberal arts university in Boulder, Colorado, which was founded in 1974 by Chögyam Trungpa. ... Ann Charters was a close friend of Jack Kerouac. ... Cirrhosis is a chronic disease of the liver in which liver tissue is replaced by connective tissue, resulting in the loss of liver function. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center. ... Thomas Starzl was a pioneer in transplant surgery and has often been referred to as the modern-day father of transplantation. ...


In London, he had begun to write what would become the first novel of a three book trilogy. Between 1981 and 1987 he published Cities of the Red Night (1981), The Place of Dead Roads (1983) and The Western Lands (1987). Grauerholz helped edit Cities when it was first rejected by Burroughs’ long-time editor Dick Seaver at Holt Rinehart, after it was deemed too disjointed. Interestingly, the novel was written as a straight narrative and then chopped up into a more random pattern leaving the reader to sort through the hip-hop of characters and events. This technique was definitely different than earlier cut-up methods which were organically accidental from the start. Nevertheless, the novel was reassembled and published, still without a straight linear form, but with fewer breaks in the story. The back and forth sway of the read replicated the theme of the trilogy, time travel adventures where Burroughs’ narrators re-write episodes in history and thus reform mankind.[29]. Although reviews were not generally favorable for Cities - Anthony Burgess panned the work in Saturday Review saying Burroughs was boring readers with repetitive episodes of pederast fantasy and sexual strangulation that lacked any comprehensible world view or theology - the novel proved Burroughs was still a creative force worth noting. Emerging writers, like J. G. Ballard, argued Burroughs was shaping a new literary “mythography”..[30]. Cities of the Red Night is a novel by beat author William S. Burroughs. ... The Place of Dead Roads by William S. Burroughs is the second book of the trilogy that begins with Cities of the Red Night and concludes with The Western Lands. ... The Western Lands by William S. Burroughs is the final novel of the trilogy that begins with Cities of the Red Night and The Place of Dead Roads. ... Anthony Burgess (February 25, 1917 – November 22, 1993) was a British novelist, critic and composer. ... Pederastic courtship scene Athenian black-figure amphora, 5th c. ... A world view (or worldview) is a term calqued from the German word Weltanschauung (pronounced ) Welt is the German word for world, and Anschauung is the German word for view or outlook. It implies a concept fundamental to German philosophy and epistemology and refers to a wide world perception. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... James Graham Ballard (born 15 November 1930 in Shanghai) is a British writer. ...


In 1981, Billy Burroughs died in Florida. He had cut off contact with his father several years before, even publishing an article in Esquire claiming the author had poisoned his life and revealing that he had been molested by one of his father's friends as a fourteen year old while visiting his dad in Tangiers, something that he had previously kept to himself. The liver transplant had not cured his urge to drink and Billy suffered from serious health complications years after the operation. He had stopped taking his transplant rejection drugs, and was found near the side of a Florida highway by a stranger. He died shortly afterwards. Burroughs was in New York when he heard from Allen Ginsberg of the tragedy. Burroughs himself, by 1979, was once again addicted to heroin. The cheap heroin that was easily purchased outside his door in the Lower East Side "made its way" into his veins, coupled with "gifts" from the overzealous if well-intentioned admirers who frequently visited the Bunker. Although Burroughs would have episodes of being free from heroin, from this point until his death, he was regularly addicted to the drug; he died in 1997 on a methadone maintenance program and James Grauerholz mentioned in an introduction to Last Words: The Final Journals of William S. Burroughs that it was part of his job, while managing Burroughs reading tours in the 80s and 90s, to deal with the “underworld” in each city to secure the author’s needed drugs.[31] Esquire is a magazine for men owned by the Hearst Corporation. ... Transplant rejection occurs when the immune system of the recipient of a transplant attacks the transplanted organ or tissue. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... Methadone is a synthetic opioid, used medically as an analgesic and anti-addictive. ...


Later years in Kansas

Burroughs moved to Lawrence, Kansas, in 1981 and lived the remainder of his life there. In 1984 he signed a seven book deal with Viking Press after he signed with literary agent Andrew Wylie. This deal included the publication rights to the 1953 unpublished novel Queer. With this money he purchased a small bungalow for $29,000.[32] He was finally inducted into the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters in 1983 after several attempts by Allen Ginsberg to get him accepted. He attended the induction ceremony in May 1983. Lawrence Ferlinghetti remarked the induction of Burroughs into the Academy proved Herbert Marcuse's point that capitalistic society had a great ability to incorporate its one-time outsiders.[33] Lawrence is a river city in and the seat of Douglas County, Kansas, United States, 41 miles (66 km) west of Kansas City, along the banks of both the Kansas (Kaw) and Wakarusa Rivers. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Viking Press was founded on March 1, 1925, in New York City, by Harold K. Guinzburg and George S. Oppenheim. ... 1987 Penguin Books paperback edition. ... The American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters was formed in 1976 from the merger of the National Institute of Arts and Letters, which was founded in 1898, and the American Academy of Arts and Letters, which was founded in 1904. ... Lawrence Ferlinghetti Lawrence Ferlinghetti (born Lawrence Ferling[1] on March 24, 1919) is an American poet who is known as the co-owner of the City Lights Bookstore and publishing house, which published early literary works of the Beats, including Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg. ... Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-born philosopher, sociologist and a member of the Frankfurt School. ...


By late 1980s, Burroughs had become a counterculture figure and collaborated with performers ranging from Bill Laswell's Material and Laurie Anderson to Throbbing Gristle, Disposable Heroes of Hiphoprisy and Ministry, and in Gus Van Sant's 1989 film Drugstore Cowboy, playing a character based on a short story he published in Exterminator!, "the "Priest" they called him". In 1990, he released the spoken word album Dead City Radio, with musical back-up from producers Hal Willner and Nelson Lyon, and alternative rock band Sonic Youth. A collaboration with Nick Cave and Tom Waits resulted in a collection of short prose, "Smack my Crack", later released as a spoken word album in 1987. He also collaborated with director Robert Wilson and musician Tom Waits to create The Black Rider, a play which opened at the Thalia Theatre in Hamburg in 1990, to critical acclaim, and was later performed all over Europe and the U.S. In 1991, with Burroughs's sanction, director David Cronenberg took on the seemingly impossible task of adapting Naked Lunch into a full-length feature film. The film opened to critical acclaim. He became a member of a chaos magic organization, the Illuminates of Thanateros in 1993,[34] a group whose very existence would not have been possible without Burroughs' works. Bill Laswell (born February 12, 1955 in Salem, Illinois and raised in Albion, Michigan) is an American bassist, producer and record label owner. ... Laurie Anderson (born Laura Phillips Anderson, on June 5, 1947, in Glen Ellyn, Illinois) is an American experimental performance artist and musician. ... Throbbing Gristle (formed on September 3, 1975, in London) are a British Avant-Garde group that evolved from the performance art group COUM Transmissions. ... The Disposable Heroes of Hiphoprisy was a Rap/Hip-Hop/Metal band active during the early 1990s. ... Ministry is an influential, Grammy-nominated American industrial metal band founded by frontman Al Jourgensen in 1981. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Drugstore Cowboy is a 1989 film written and directed by Gus Van Sant. ... Exterminator! is a short story collection written by William S. Burroughs and first published in 1973 (some editions such as the 1974 paperback illustrated at right label the book a novel). ... the Priest they called him (1992) is a collaboration between William S. Burroughs and Kurt Cobain (Nirvana). ... Dead City Radio is a musical album by Beat Generation author William S. Burroughs, which was released by Island Records in 1990. ... Hal Willner (born 1957, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is a music producer working in recording, Films, TV and live events. ... Alternative music redirects here. ... Sonic Youth is an American alternative rock band formed in New York City in 1981. ... Nicholas Edward Cave (born 22 September 1957) is an Australian musician, songwriter, author, screenwriter, and occasional actor. ... Thomas Alan Waits (born December 7, 1949) is an American singer-songwriter, composer, and actor. ... Robert Wilson (born 4 October 1941) is an internationally acclaimed American avant-garde stage director and playwright who has been called [America]s — or even the worlds — foremost vanguard theater artist [1]. Over the course of his wide-ranging career, he has also worked as a choreographer, performer, painter... Thomas Alan Waits (born December 7, 1949) is an American singer-songwriter, composer, and actor. ... This article is about the stage musical. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... David Paul Cronenberg OC, FRSC (born March 15, 1943[2]) is a Canadian film director and occasional actor. ... Naked Lunch is a novel by William S. Burroughs. ... The Illuminates of Thanateros are an occult society, founded in 1978, that pursues chaos magic. ...


During his later years in Kansas, Burroughs also developed a painting technique whereby he created abstract compositions by placing spray paint cans in front of, and some distance from, blank canvasses, and then shooting at the paint cans with a shot gun. These splattered canvasses were shown in at least one New York City gallery in the early 1990's.


Burroughs died at the age of 83 in Lawrence, at 6:50 p.m. on August 2, 1997 from complications of the previous day's heart attack. He is interred in the family plot in Bellefontaine Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri at these coordinates: 38.690310° N 90.231720° W. As of November 18, 2007, the grave has a marker bearing his full name and the epitaph "American Writer." The grave lies to the right of the white granite obelisk of William Seward Burroughs I (1857-1898). A few months after his death, a collection of writings spanning his entire career, Word Virus, was published. A collection of journal entries written during the final months of Burrough's life were published as the book Last Words and a memoir by Burroughs entitled Evil River, after initially being announced for a 2005 release, is now scheduled for release by Viking Press in 2007.[1] is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Heart attack redirects here. ... Bellefontaine Cemetery (established in 1849) and the Roman Catholic Calvary Cemetery (established in 1857) in St. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... Patent no. ... Viking Press was founded on March 1, 1925, in New York City, by Harold K. Guinzburg and George S. Oppenheim. ...


Literary style and periods

Burroughs's major works can be divided into four different periods. The dates refer to the time of writing, not publication, which in some cases was not until decades later:

  • Early Work (early 1950s): Junkie, Queer and The Yage Letters are relatively straightforward linear narratives, written in and about Burrough's time in Mexico City and South America.
  • The Cut-Up Period (mid 1950s to mid 1960s): Naked Lunch is a fragmentary collection of "routines" from The Word Hoard - manuscripts written in Tangier, Paris, and London, blending over into the cut-up and fold-in fiction also heavily drawn from The Word Hoard: The Soft Machine, Nova Express, The Ticket That Exploded, also referred to as "The Nova Trilogy" or "the Nova Epic", self-described by Burroughs as an attempt to create "a mythology for the space age". Interzone also derives from this period.
  • Experiment & Subversion (mid 1960s to mid 1970s): This period saw Burroughs continue experimental writing with increased political content and branching into multimedia such as film and sound recording. The only major novel written in this period was The Wild Boys, but he also wrote dozens of published articles, short stories, scrap books and other works, several in collaboration with Brion Gyson. The major anthologies representing work from this period are The Burroughs File, The Adding Machine and Exterminator!.
  • The Red Night Trilogy (mid 1970s to mid 1980s): The books Cities of the Red Night, The Place of Dead Roads and The Western Lands came from Burroughs in a final, mature stage, creating a complete mythology.

Burroughs has also produced numerous essays and a large body of autobiographical material, including a book with a detailed account of his own dreams (My Education: A Book of Dreams). 50th anniversary edition, with Burroughs intended title spelling. ... 1987 Penguin Books paperback edition. ... Mid-1990s City Lights Books edition. ... Naked Lunch is a novel by William S. Burroughs. ... The Word Hoard also known as the trunk manuscripts was a large body of text (circa 1000 typewriter pages) produced by author William S. Burroughs between roughly 1953 and 1958. ... The cut-up technique, also known as fishbowling, is an aleatory literary technique or genre in which a text is cut up at random and rearranged to create a new text. ... For the rock band named after this book, see Soft Machine The Soft Machine is the title of a novel by William S. Burroughs, first published in 1961 and was Burroughs first novel after the groundbreaking publication of Naked Lunch. ... Nova Express is a 1964 novel by William Burroughs, whose plot cannot easily be described. ... The Ticket That Exploded is a novel by William S. Burroughs first published in 1962 by Olympia Press and later published in the United States by Grove Press in 1967. ... The Nova Trilogy, The Nova Epic or The Cut-up Trilogy is a name commonly given by critics to a series of three experimental prose novels by William S. Burroughs. ... 1990 paperback edition by Penguin Books. ... The Wild Boys (full title The Wild Boys: A Book of the Dead) is a novel written by Beat Generation author William S. Burroughs. ... City Lights Books edition. ... Exterminator! is a short story collection written by William S. Burroughs and first published in 1973 (some editions such as the 1974 paperback illustrated at right label the book a novel). ... Cities of the Red Night is a novel by beat author William S. Burroughs. ... The Place of Dead Roads by William S. Burroughs is the second book of the trilogy that begins with Cities of the Red Night and concludes with The Western Lands. ... The Western Lands by William S. Burroughs is the final novel of the trilogy that begins with Cities of the Red Night and The Place of Dead Roads. ...


Reaction to critics and view on criticism

Several literary critics treated Burroughs's work harshly. For example Anatole Broyard and Philip Toynbee wrote devastating reviews of some of his most important books. In a short essay entitled A Review of the Reviewers, Burroughs answers his critics in this way: Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Anatole Broyard (July 16, 1920–October 11, 1990) was an American literary critic for The New York Times. ... Theodore Philip Toynbee (June 25, 1916 - June 15, 1981) was a British writer and journalist. ...

Critics constantly complain that writers are lacking in standards, yet they themselves seem to have no standards other than personal prejudice for literary criticism. (...) such standards do exist. Matthew Arnold set up three criteria for criticism: 1. What is the writer trying to do? 2. How well does he succeed in doing it? (...) 3. Does the work exhibit "high seriousness"? That is, does it touch on basic issues of good and evil, life and death and the human condition. I would also apply a fourth criterion (...) Write about what you know. More writers fail because they try to write about things they don't know than for any other reason. Matthew Arnold Caricature from Punch, 1881: Admit that Homer sometimes nods, That poets do write trash, Our Bard has written Balder Dead, And also Balder-dash Family tree Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic, who worked as an inspector of schools. ...

William S. Burroughs, 'A Review of the Reviewers [35]

Burroughs clearly indicates that he prefers to be evaluated against such criteria over being reviewed based on the reviewer's personal reactions to a certain book. He specifically criticized Anatole Broyard for reading authorial intentionality into his works where there is none. Thus he distanced himself from the movement around New Criticism, by referring to the old school (as exemplified by Matthew Arnold). Anatole Broyard (July 16, 1920–October 11, 1990) was an American literary critic for The New York Times. ... In literary theory and aesthetics, authorial intentionality is a concept referring to an utterances authors intent as it is encoded in the medium of communication (speech, writing, performance). ... New Criticism was the dominant trend in English and American literary criticism of the early twentieth century, from the 1920s to the early 1960s. ...


Legacy

Burroughs is often called one of the greatest and most influential writers of the twentieth century, most notably by Norman Mailer whose quote on Burroughs, "The only American novelist living today who may conceivably be possessed by genius", appears on many Burroughs publications. Others, however, consider him overrated. Others still consider his concepts and attitude more influential than his prose. Prominent admirers of Burroughs's work have included British critic and biographer Peter Ackroyd, the rock critic Lester Bangs and the authors J.G. Ballard, Angela Carter, Jean Genet, William Gibson, Charles Bukowski, Alan Moore and Ken Kesey. Norman Kingsley Mailer (January 31, 1923 – November 10, 2007) was an American novelist, journalist, playwright, screenwriter, and film director. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... Peter Ackroyd (born October 5, 1949, London) is an English author. ... Music journalism is a specialized branch of entertainment journalism--especially criticism and reportage about music, usually rock, but also hip hop, classical, and electronica, among other forms. ... Lester Bangs during an interview Leslie Conway Bangs (December 14, 1948 – April 30, 1982) was an American music journalist, author and musician. ... James Graham Ballard (born November 18, 1930 in Shanghai) is a British novelist. ... Angela Carter (May 7, 1940 – February 16, 1992) was an English novelist and journalist, known for her post-feminist magical realist and science fiction works. ... Jean Genet (French IPA: ) (December 19, 1910) – April 15, 1986), was a prominent, controversial French writer and later political activist. ... For other persons named William Gibson, see William Gibson (disambiguation). ... Bukowski redirects here. ... For other persons named Alan Moore, see Alan Moore (disambiguation). ... Kenneth Elton Kesey (September 17, 1935 – November 10, 2001) was an American author, best known for his novel, One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest, and as a counter-cultural figure who, some consider, was a link between the beat generation of the 1950s and the hippies of the 1960s. ...


Burroughs continues to be named as an influence by contemporary writers of fiction. Both the New Wave and, especially, the cyberpunk schools of science fiction are indebted to him, admirers from the late 1970s, early 1980s milieu of this sub-genre including William Gibson and John Shirley, to name only two. First published in 1982, the British slipstream fiction magazine (which later evolved into a more traditional science fiction magazine) Interzone paid tribute to him with its choice of name. He is also cited as a major influence by musicians Patti Smith, Genesis P-Orridge, Ian Curtis, Laurie Anderson, and Kurt Cobain. New Wave science fiction was characterised by a high degree of experimentation, both in form and in content, and a highbrow and self-consciously literary or artistic sensibility previously comparatively alien to the science fiction aesthetic. ... Berlins Sony Center reflects the global reach of a Japanese corporation. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... For other persons named William Gibson, see William Gibson (disambiguation). ... John Patrick Shirley (born February 10, 1953) is an American science fiction and horror writer of novels, short stories, and television & film scripts. ... Slipstream is a kind of fantastic or non-realistic fiction that crosses conventional genre boundaries and doesnt sit comfortably within the confines of either science fiction/fantasy or mainstream literary fiction. ... Oct. ... Interzone is a British science fiction and fantasy magazine, published since 1982. ... Patricia Lee (Patti) Smith (born December 30, 1946) is an American musician, singer, and poet. ... Genesis P-Orridge (born Neil Andrew Megson February 22, 1950) is an English performer, musician, writer and artist. ... Ian Kevin Curtis (July 15, 1956 – May 18, 1980) was the vocalist and lyricist of the band Joy Division, which he helped form in 1977 in Manchester, England. ... Laurie Anderson (born Laura Phillips Anderson, on June 5, 1947, in Glen Ellyn, Illinois) is an American experimental performance artist and musician. ... Kurt Donald Cobain (February 20, 1967 – c. ...


The themes of drugs, homosexuality and death, common to Burroughs's routines, are taken up by Dennis Cooper, of whom Burroughs said, "Dennis Cooper, God help him, is a born writer." Cooper, in return, wrote, in his essay 'King Junk', "along with Jean Genet, John Rechy, and Ginsberg, [Burroughs] helped make homosexuality seem cool and highbrow, providing gay liberation with a delicious edge." Splatterpunk writer Poppy Z. Brite has also continuously referenced this aspect of Burroughs' work. Burroughs's works continue to be referenced years after his death; for example, a November 2004 episode of the TV series CSI: Crime Scene Investigation included an evil character named Dr. Benway (named for an amoral physician who appears in a number of Burroughs's works). This is an echo of the hospital scene in the movie Repo Man, made during Burroughs's lifetime, in which both Dr. Benway and Mr. Lee (a Burroughs pen name) are paged. Dennis Cooper (born 1953) is a poet, writer and performance artist, most noted for transforming the visual/verbal aesthetic of punk into its written counterpart. ... Jean Genet (French IPA: ) (December 19, 1910) – April 15, 1986), was a prominent, controversial French writer and later political activist. ... John Rechy, (born March 10, 1934 in El Paso, Texas), is an American author. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... Splatterpunk is a neologism coined to describe a subgenre of horror fiction distinguished by its graphic depiction of violence. ... Photo of Poppy Z. Brite by J.K. Potter. ... CSI: Crime Scene Investigation is a popular Alliance Atlantis/CBS police procedural television series, running since October 2000, about a team of forensic scientists. ... For other uses, see Repo Man (disambiguation). ...


Burroughs was cited by Robert Anton Wilson as being the first person to notice the 23 numerological phenomena, or "23 enigma," as it sometimes called:[36] Robert Anton Wilson Robert Anton Wilson or RAW (January 18, 1932 – January 11, 2007) was a prolific American novelist, essayist, philosopher, psychologist, futurologist, anarchist, and conspiracy theory researcher. ... The number 23 appears in the practice of numerology. ... Numerology is any of many systems, traditions or beliefs in a mystical or esoteric relationship between numbers and physical objects or living things. ...

I first heard of the 23 enigma from William S Burroughs, author of Naked Lunch, Nova Express, etc. According to Burroughs, he had known a certain Captain Clark, around 1960 in Tangier, who once bragged that he had been sailing 23 years without an accident. That very day, Clark’s ship had an accident that killed him and everybody else aboard. Furthermore, while Burroughs was thinking about this crude example of the irony of the gods that evening, a bulletin on the radio announced the crash of an airliner in Florida, USA. The pilot was another captain Clark and the flight was Flight 23.[37]


—Robert Anton Wilson, Fortean Times Fortean Times is a British monthly magazine devoted to the anomalous phenomena popularised by Charles Fort. ...

The best known pictures of Burroughs were taken by photographer John Minihan, who photographed him between 1963 and 1991 and developed such a good relationship with the writer that he became, in effect, his official photographer. Burroughs was inducted into the St. Louis Walk of Fame in St. Louis, Missouri. John Minihan was born in Dublin in 1946 and raised in Athy, County Kildare. ... The St. ...


Appearances in media

In music

Burroughs participated on numerous album releases by Giorno Poetry Systems, including The Nova Convention (also featuring Frank Zappa, John Cage and Philip Glass) and You're the Guy I Want to Share My Money With (with John Giorno and Laurie Anderson). He featured doing a spoken word piece entitled "Sharkey's Night," on the Laurie Anderson album Mister Heartbreak. In addition, Burroughs provided vocal samples for the soundtrack of Anderson's 1986 concert film, Home of the Brave and cameoed in it. Furthermore, in 1992 he recorded "Quick Fix" with the band Ministry, which appeared on their single for "Just One Fix." The single featured cover art by Burroughs and a remix of the song dubbed the "W.S.B. mix." Burroughs also made an appearance in the video for "Just One Fix." Burroughs and Kurt Cobain collaborated on a track called "The Priest They Called Him," in which Burroughs performs a spoken word of a short story and Cobain creates layers of guitar feedback and distortions. Nirvana bassist Krist Novaselic is featured on the cover as "the Priest." In March 2006 the title track from the Material album Seven Souls, which features Burroughs, was played during the opening montage of the first episode of the sixth season of The Sopranos. Founded in 1965, Giorno Poetry Systems was an American artist collective, record label, and non-profit organisation founded by poet and performance artist John Giorno with the direct aim to connect poetry and related art forms to a larger audience using innovative ideas, such as communication technology, audiovisual materials and... Frank Vincent Zappa[1] (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American composer, musician, and film director. ... For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Laurie Anderson (born Laura Phillips Anderson, on June 5, 1947, in Glen Ellyn, Illinois) is an American experimental performance artist and musician. ... Laurie Anderson (born Laura Phillips Anderson, on June 5, 1947, in Glen Ellyn, Illinois) is an American experimental performance artist and musician. ... i went a free film from you to wacth ... Home of the Brave is a phrase used in the refrain of The Star Spangled Banner, the national anthem of the United States. ... Ministry is an influential, Grammy-nominated American industrial metal band founded by frontman Al Jourgensen in 1981. ... Material is a musical group formed in 1979 and led by bass guitarist Bill Laswell. ... This article is about the television series. ...


Burroughs also featured in the 1997 music video Last Night on Earth by U2. He appears at the end of the video pushing a shopping cart with a large spotlight positioned inside it. The video ends with a close up of Burroughs's eyes. His scenes were filmed only a few weeks before his death. Pop is an album released by the Irish rock band U2 in March of 1997 (see 1997 in music). ... This article is about the Irish rock band. ...


In film and television

Burroughs appeared in a number of cameos in films and videos, such as David Blair's Wax: or the Discovery of Television among the Bees, 1991,in which he plays a beekeeper, in an elliptic story about the first Gulf War, and Decoder (1984) by Klaus Maeck. Rundown at Internet Movie Database. He played an aging junkie priest in Drugstore Cowboy by Gus Van Sant. He appears briefly at the beginning of "Even Cowgirls Get the Blues" (1993- based on the Tom Robbins novel, directed by Gus Van Sant) crossing the street; as the noise of the city rises around him he pauses in the middle of the intersection and speaks the single word "ominous". He also made a number of short films in the 1960s based upon his works, directed by Antony Balch. Near the end of his life, recordings of Burroughs reading his short stories "A Junky's Christmas" and "Ah Pook is Here" were used to great effect on the soundtracks of two highly acclaimed animated film adaptations of the pieces. He also gave a reading on Saturday Night Live on 7 November 1981 (host: Lauren Hutton; musical guest: Rick James). The reading received mixed responses. A documentary titled "Burroughs", directed by Howard Brookner, was released in 1984. It included footage of Burroughs and many of his friends and colleagues. A cameo role or cameo appearance (often shortened to just cameo) is a brief appearance of a known person in a work of the performing arts, such as plays, films, video games and television. ... David Blair is a name shared by a number of notable individuals: David Blair (encyclopedist), an Irish Australian journailst and encyclopedist David Blair (director), a British television director David Blair (physicist), an Australian physicist David Blair (ballet), British ballet dancer This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated... Wax: Or the Discovery of Television Among the Bees is the first independent feature film to have been edited on a digital non-linear system. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Drugstore Cowboy is a 1989 film written and directed by Gus Van Sant. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the American television series. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


In 1968, an abbreviated version of the film Häxan (77 minutes as opposed to the original's 104 minutes) was released subtitled Witchcraft Through The Ages. This version featured an eclectic jazz score by Jean-Luc Ponty and dramatic narration by William S. Burroughs, produced by Anthony Balch. Burroughs narrated part of the 1980 documentary Shamans of the Blind Country by anthropologist and filmmaker Michael Oppitz.[38] The short film "Thanksgiving prayer" by Gus Van Sant is a reading of the poem "Thanksgiving Day, Nov. 28, 1986" from Tornado Alley. It features a collage of black and white patriotic images intercut with Burroughs reading of the poem. The video was played on MTV Europe, mostly during the nighttime. Häxan is a 1922 Swedish/Danish black-and-white silent film directed by Benjamin Christensen. ... Grappelli (left) and Jean-Luc Ponty (right). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 1989 paperback edition by Cherry Valley Editions. ...


As a fictional character

In the 2004 novel Move Under Ground, Burroughs, Neal Cassidy, and Jack Kerouac team up to defeat Cthulhu. Move Under Ground is a horror novel by Nick Mamatas which combines the Beat style of Jack Kerouac with the cosmic horror of H. P. Lovecrafts Cthulhu Mythos. ... For other uses, see Cthulhu (disambiguation). ...


Burroughs appears in the first part of The Illuminatus! Trilogy by Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson during the 1968 Democratic Convention riots and is described as a person devoid of anger, passion, indignation or hope or any other humanly recognizable emotion. He is presented as a polar opposite of Allen Ginsberg, as Ginsberg believed in everything and Burroughs believed in nothing. Robert Anton Wilson would recount in his Cosmic Trigger Vol II his having interviewed both Burroughs and Ginsberg for Playboy the day the riots began as well as his experiences with Robert Shea during the riots, providing some detail on the creation of the fictional sequence. “Illuminatus” redirects here. ... Robert Joseph Shea (1933 - March 10, 1994) was the co-author (with Robert Anton Wilson) of The Illuminatus! Trilogy. ... Robert Anton Wilson Robert Anton Wilson or RAW (January 18, 1932 – January 11, 2007) was a prolific American novelist, essayist, philosopher, psychologist, futurologist, anarchist, and conspiracy theory researcher. ... The 1968 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held at International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois, from August 26 to August 29, 1968, for the purposes of choosing the Democratic nominee for the 1968 U.S. presidential election. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... For other uses, see Playboy (disambiguation). ...


Band names

Burroughs' works have inspired the naming of several musical groups over the years. The most notable of these was Steely Dan, named after a dildo in Naked Lunch[39]. Also from the novel Naked Lunch came the band name The Mugwumps. The band Soft Machine took its name from Burroughs' novel of the same name, while the alt-country group Clem Snide takes its name from a recurring character in Burroughs' works. The band The Soft Boys took its name from two of Burroughs' novels The Soft Machine and Wild Boys. The Canadian band Only Dead Fingers Talk in Braille took their name from a line in Naked Lunch. Steely Dan is a Grammy-Award winning American jazz rock band centered on core members Walter Becker and Donald Fagen. ... A 7-inch silicone dildo A dildo (or dildoe, a rare alternate spelling) is a sex toy, often explicitly phallic in appearance, intended for bodily interaction during masturbation or sexual intercourse. ... The Mugwumps were a 1960s rock band. ... For the book by William S. Burroughs, see The Soft Machine. ... Alternative country can refer to several ideas. ... Clem Snide photographed on the cover of their 1999 album Your Favorite Music. ... The Soft Boys were an influential neo-psychedelic rock and roll band from Cambridge, England, formed in 1976 as Dennis and the Experts. ...


Bibliography

Novels and other long fiction


50th anniversary edition, with Burroughs intended title spelling. ... 1987 Penguin Books paperback edition. ... Naked Lunch is a novel by William S. Burroughs. ... For the rock band named after this book, see Soft Machine The Soft Machine is the title of a novel by William S. Burroughs, first published in 1961 and was Burroughs first novel after the groundbreaking publication of Naked Lunch. ... The Ticket That Exploded is a novel by William S. Burroughs first published in 1962 by Olympia Press and later published in the United States by Grove Press in 1967. ... 1963 British hardcover edition. ... Nova Express is a 1964 novel by William Burroughs, whose plot cannot easily be described. ... The Last Words of Dutch Schultz was a novel by Beat Generation author William S. Burroughs, first published in 1969. ... The Wild Boys (full title The Wild Boys: A Book of the Dead) is a novel written by Beat Generation author William S. Burroughs. ... 1983 paperback edition by John Calder. ... Cities of the Red Night is a novel by beat author William S. Burroughs. ... The Place of Dead Roads by William S. Burroughs is the second book of the trilogy that begins with Cities of the Red Night and concludes with The Western Lands. ... The Western Lands by William S. Burroughs is the final novel of the trilogy that begins with Cities of the Red Night and The Place of Dead Roads. ...

Non-fiction

  • The Job (1969) (ISBN 0-14-011882-9) (with Daniel Odier)
  • Jack Kerouac (1970) (with Claude Pelieu)
  • The Electronic Revolution (1971)
  • The Retreat Diaries (1976) - later included in The Burroughs File
  • Letters to Allen Ginsberg 1953-1957 (1976)
  • Last Words: The Final Journals of William S. Burroughs (2000; ISBN 0-8021-3778-4)
  • Evil River (December 30, 2007; ISBN 0-670-81351-6)

Stories and novellas

  • Valentine's Day Reading (1965)
  • Time (1965)
  • APO-33 (1966)
  • So Who Owns Death TV? (1967)
  • The Dead Star (1969)
  • Ali's Smile (1971)
  • Mayfair Academy Series More or Less (1973)
  • White Subway (1973) - later included in The Burroughs File
  • Exterminator! (1973) (ISBN 0-14-005003-5) (a different book than the 1960 volume)
  • The Book of Breething (aka "Ah Pook Is Here") (1974)
  • Snack... (ISBN 0-85652-014-4) (1975)
  • Cobble Stone Gardens (1976) - later included in The Burroughs File
  • Blade Runner (a movie) (1979) (ISBN 0-912652-46-2)
  • Dr. Benway (1979)
  • Die Alten Filme (The Old Movies) (1979) - later included in The Burroughs File
  • Streets of Chance (1981)
  • Early Routines (1981)
  • Sinki's Sauna (1982)
  • Ruski (1984)
  • The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1984)
  • The Cat Inside (1986)
  • The Whole Tamale (c.1987-88)
  • Interzone (1987) (ISBN 0-14-009451-2)
  • Tornado Alley (1989)
  • Ghost of Chance (1991) (ISBN 1-85242-457-5)
  • Seven Deadly Sins (1992)
  • Paper Cloud; Thick Pages (1992)

Collections

  • Roosevelt After Inauguration and Other Atrocities (1965)
  • Ali's Smile/Naked Scientology (1978)
  • Ah Pook is Here, Nova Express, Cities of the Red Night (1981) (ISBN 0-312-27846-2)
  • The Burroughs File (1984)
  • The Adding Machine: Collected Essays (1985) (ISBN 1-55970-210-9)
  • Uncommon Quotes Vol. 1 (1989)
  • Selected Letters (1993)
  • Burroughs Live : The Collected Interviews of William S. Burroughs, 1960-1997 (2000) (ISBN 1-58435-010-5)
  • The Letters of William S. Burroughs 1945-1959
  • Word Virus : The William Burroughs Reader (1998) (ISBN 0-00-655214-5)

Collaborations

  • And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks (1945 - unpublished) (with Jack Kerouac)
  • Minutes To Go (1960) (with Sinclair Beilles, Gregory Corso and Brion Gysin)
  • The Exterminator (1960) (with Brion Gysin)
  • The Yage Letters (1963) (with Allen Ginsberg)
  • Brion Gysin Let the Mice In (1973) (with Brion Gysin)
  • Sidetripping (1975) (with Charles Gatewood)
  • Colloque de Tangier (1976) (with Brion Gysin)
  • The Third Mind (1977) (with Brion Gysin)
  • Colloque de Tangier Vol. 2 (1979) (with Brion Gysin and Gérard-Georges Lemaire)
  • Apocalypse (1988) (with Keith Haring)

From the diary of a six year old boy at the American School in Tangier Morocco: I get up 8:30. ... In the Electronic Revolution I advance the theory that a virus is a very small unit of word and image [...] My basis theory is that the written word was literally a virus [...] The word has not been recognized as a virus because it has achieved a state of stable symbiosis... City Lights Books edition. ... City Lights Books edition. ... Exterminator! is a short story collection written by William S. Burroughs and first published in 1973 (some editions such as the 1974 paperback illustrated at right label the book a novel). ... City Lights Books edition. ... Blade Runner (a movie) is a science fiction novella by Beat Generation author William S. Burroughs, first published in 1979. ... City Lights Books edition. ... The Cat Inside is the title of an autobiographical novella written by William S. Burroughs and illustrated by Brion Gysin. ... 1990 paperback edition by Penguin Books. ... 1989 paperback edition by Cherry Valley Editions. ... Ghost of Chance is an adventure novella written by Beat Generation author William S. Burroughs. ... The book by William S. Burroughs entitled Alis Smile/Naked Scientology was published i 1978 by Expanded Media Editions, Herwarthstr. ... Ah Pook is Here began as a collaboration between author William Burroughs and artist Malcolm Mc Neill in 1970. ... Nova Express is a 1964 novel by William Burroughs, whose plot cannot easily be described. ... Cities of the Red Night is a novel by beat author William S. Burroughs. ... City Lights Books edition. ... And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their Tanks is an unpublished manuscript written in 1945 by Jack Kerouac and William S. Burroughs, several years before the two Beat Generation founders achieved notoriety with On the Road and Junkie, respectively. ... Mid-1990s City Lights Books edition. ... The Third Mind is a book by Beat Generation novelist William S. Burroughs and artist/poet/novelist Brion Gysin. ... Harings Radiant Baby Keith Haring (May 4, 1958 - February 16, 1990) was a pre-eminent artist and social activist whose work responded to the New York street culture of the 1980s. ...

Film collaborations

  • The Final Academy Documents – (with various experimental film collaborations of Brion Gyson, Antony Balch, John Giorno and others)

The Final Academy - a 1982 tour in Britain, organized by David Dawson, Roger Ely and Genesis P-Orridge. The project was based on, featuring works of and was inspired by William S Burroughs. A DVD, 'The Final Academy Documents" is a DVD of edited highlights from the tour, including Burroughs' public appearance in 1982 and reading from his work at Manchester's infamous The Haçienda, a performance by John Giorno and includes the experimental film collaborations with Anthony Balch, Brion Gysin, and others - ‘Towers Open Fire' and ‘Ghosts at No. 9'. Further related information on these films mentioned above and other works of Burroughs' can be found here and here and also here on 3 various UbuWeb external links. Antony Balch (1937-1980) was a British film director and distributor, best known for his screen collaborations with Beat Generation author William S. Burroughs in the 1960s and the 1970s horror film, Horror Hospital. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... David Thomas Dawson (20 October 1957 - 11 August 2006) was a convicted murderer. ... Genesis P-Orridge (born Neil Andrew Megson February 22, 1950) is an English performer, musician, writer and artist. ... Fac 51 Haçienda (better known as simply The Haçienda) was a nightclub and music venue in Manchester, England. ... UbuWeb is an internet museum that showcases all strains of the avant-garde including poetry, music, film, sound art, ethnopoetics, and outsider arts. ...


This Cherry Red Records DVD is from 2002 here is a link to this DVDs info page Cherry Red Records is an independent record label established by Iain McNay in 1978. ...


Many of Burroughs' works were later republished with revisions made by the author, and/or censored material restored. Both Junkie/Junky and Naked Lunch were published in "restored" editions following Burroughs's death. An expanded edition of Yage Letters entitled Yage Letters Redux was published in April 2006.


Burroughs also played a cameo part in the motion picture Drugstore Cowboy.


Recordings (partial list)

  • Call Me Burroughs (1965) - The English Bookshop, Paris (reissued in 1995 by Rhino Word Beat)
  • The Nova Convention (1979) by Burroughs and others - LP GPS 14-15
  • Nothing Here Now But The Recordings (1981) - LP Industrial Records IR0016
  • You're the Guy I Want To Share My Money With (1981) with John Giorno and Laurie Anderson - LP GPS 20-21 et al
  • Poetry in Motion (1982) a film directed by Ron Mann - Burroughs is a featured writer.
  • Mister Heartbreak (1984) by Laurie Anderson - Burroughs speaks the lyrics to the song "Sharkey's Night"
  • Home of the Brave (1986) by Laurie Anderson - a sample of Burroughs intoning "Listen to my heart beat" is incorporated into the song "Late Show"
  • Smack my Crack(1987) with Tom Waits and various artists
  • Like A Girl I Want To Keep Coming (1989) by John Giorno - LP Giorno Poetry System
  • Seven Souls (1989) by Material - Burroughs collaborates with Bill Laswell, later remixed in 1998 as The Road to the Western Lands
  • Dead City Radio (1990) - Island Records
  • the "Priest" they called him (1992) - Burroughs narrates and Kurt Cobain plays guitar
  • Break Through In Grey Room (1992) - A collection of readings and cutups - Sub Rosa Records
  • Just One Fix (1992) by Ministry - Burroughs speaks the lyrics to the song "Quick Fix" and created the cover art
  • The Black Rider (1992) - Musical co-authored with Tom Waits and Robert Wilson, sings on "T'ain't No Sin"
  • Spare Ass Annie and Other Tales (1993) - Island Records (features the Disposable Heroes of Hiphoprisy)
  • The Elvis of Letters (1995) with Gus van Sant
  • 10%: file under Burroughs (1996) - 2 CD set; Disc one: "Beats" (dance music using Burroughs's voice and Brion Gysin); Disc two: "Beat" (acoustic sounds and voices)
  • Songs in the Key of X (1996) and In Time: The Best of R.E.M. 1988-2003 bonus disc (2003) - Burroughs records his vocal over an instrumental version of R.E.M.'s "Star Me Kitten"
  • Stoned Immaculate: The Music of the Doors (2000) - Burroughs reads poetry by Jim Morrison over music provided by The Doors on the track "Is Everybody In?"
  • UnCommon Quotes (1986) - Recorded live at the CARAVAN of DREAMS, September 11, 1986 ([2]) (ISBN 0 929856 00 7)

Rhino Entertainment is a specialty record label originally known for releasing retrospectives of famous comedy performers, including Stan Freberg, Tom Lehrer, and Spike Jones. ... Founded in 1965, Giorno Poetry Systems was an American artist collective, record label, and non-profit organisation founded by poet and performance artist John Giorno with the direct aim to connect poetry and related art forms to a larger audience using innovative ideas, such as communication technology, audiovisual materials and... Industrial Records was a record label established in 1976 by art/music group Throbbing Gristle. ... Youre the Guy I Want To Share My Money With is a double album released in 1981. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Laurie Anderson (born Laura Phillips Anderson, on June 5, 1947, in Glen Ellyn, Illinois) is an American experimental performance artist and musician. ... Poetry in Motion is a 1982 documentary directed by Ron Mann featuring contemporary North American poetry and music. ... Ron Mann (1959-) is a Canadian documentary film director focusing primarily on aspects of American popular culture. ... Mister Heartbreak is the second album by avant-garde artist Laurie Anderson, released in 1984. ... Home of the Brave was the fourth album release by Laurie Anderson, issued in 1986. ... Material is a musical group formed in 1979 and led by bass guitarist Bill Laswell. ... Bill Laswell (born February 12, 1955 in Salem, Illinois and raised in Albion, Michigan) is an American bassist, producer and record label owner. ... Dead City Radio is a musical album by Beat Generation author William S. Burroughs, which was released by Island Records in 1990. ... Island Records is a record label that was founded by British record producers in Jamaica. ... the Priest they called him (1992) is a collaboration between William S. Burroughs and Kurt Cobain (Nirvana). ... Kurt Donald Cobain (February 20, 1967 – c. ... Just One Fix is third single from Industrial Metal band Ministrys 1992 album, Psalm 69: The Way to Succeed and the Way to Suck Eggs. ... This article is about the stage musical. ... Island Records is a record label that was founded by British record producers in Jamaica. ... The Disposable Heroes of Hiphoprisy was a Rap/Hip-Hop/Metal band active during the early 1990s. ... Songs in the Key of X: Music From and Inspired by the X-Files was the first album released in association with the popular television series The X-Files. ... R.E.M. is an American rock band formed in Athens, Georgia in 1980 by Bill Berry (drums), Peter Buck (guitar), Mike Mills (bass guitar), and Michael Stipe (vocals). ... For other persons named James or Jim Morrison, see James Morrison. ... The Doors were an American rock band formed in 1965 in Los Angeles by vocalist Jim Morrison, keyboardist Ray Manzarek, drummer John Densmore, and guitarist Robby Krieger. ...

References

  • Charters, Ann (ed.). The Portable Beat Reader. Penguin Books. New York. 1992. ISBN 0-670-83885-3 (hc); ISBN 0-14-015102-8 (pbk)
  • James Grauerholz. Word Virus, New York: Grove, 1998
  • Miles, Barry. William Burroughs: El Hombre Invisible, A Portrait, New York: Hyperion, 1992.
  • Morgan, Ted. Literary Outlaw. New York: Avon, 1988.
  • Gilmore, John. Laid Bare: A Memoir of Wrecked Lives and the Hollywod Death Trip. Searching for Rimbaud. Amok Books, 1997.
  • Joe Ambrose, Terry Wilson, Frank Rynne. Man From Nowhere; Storming the Citadels of Enlightenment with William Burroughs and Brion Gysin. 1992

James Grauerholz is a writer and editor. ...

Notes

  1. ^ William S Burroughs. Popsubculture.com's Biography.
  2. ^ Morgan, Ted. Literary Outlaw. p.44. New York:Avon Books, 1988.
  3. ^ Morgan, Ted. Literary Outlaw. p.62. New York:Avon Books, 1988.
  4. ^ Morgan, Literary Outlaw p.611
  5. ^ Morgan, Literary Outlaw p.65
  6. ^ Severo, Richard. "William S. Burroughs Dies at 83; Member of the Beat Generation Wrote 'Naked Lunch'", New York Times, August 3, 1997. Retrieved on 2007-10-22. 
  7. ^ Literary Outlaw pp 65-8
  8. ^ Grauerholz, James. Introduction p. xv, in William Burroughs. Interzone. New York: Viking Press, 1987.
  9. ^ Grauerholz, James. The Death of Joan Vollmer Burroughs: What Really Happened?. American Studies Department, University of Kansas. Online.
  10. ^ Morgan, Ted. Literary Outlaw. p. 214 New York: Avon, 1988.
  11. ^ Queer, Penguin, 1985 p.xxiii
  12. ^ Morgan, Ted. Literary Outlaw. p.232-34. New York: Avon Books, 1988.
  13. ^ James Grauerholz writes in Interzone (1989) that the body of text that Burroughs was working on was called Interzone, see Burroughs, William S. Interzone. "Introduction", p.ix-xiii. New York: Viking Press, 1987.
  14. ^ Morgan, Ted. Literary Outlaw. p.238-42. New York:Avon Books, 1988.
  15. ^ Miles, Barry, 'The Inventive Mind of Brion Gysin' in Brion Gysin: Tuning in to the Multimedia Age, p.124-125. Edited by José Férez Kuri. London: Thames and Hudson, 2003.
  16. ^ Burroughs, William S., 'Ports of Entry - Here is Space-Time Painting', p.32.
  17. ^ Morgan, Ted. Literary Outlaw. p.355. New York:Avon Books, 1988.
  18. ^ Literary Outlaw p. 425
  19. ^ Grauerholz, James. Introduction p. xviii, in William Burroughs. Interzone. New York: Viking Press, 1987
  20. ^ Morgan, Ted. Literary Outlaw. p.316-326. New York:Avon Books, 1988.
  21. ^ Stratton, Richard. "Keith Richards Interview 1978". High Times Reader. Thunder's Mouth, Nation Books: New York, 2004
  22. ^ Burroughs, William, S. "Afterward". Speed/Kentucky Ham: Two Novels. Overlook Press: New York, 1984.
  23. ^ A Grand Guy: The Art and Life of Terry Southern by Lee Hill
  24. ^ Burroughs on Scientology, Los Angeles Free Press, 06 Mar 1970
  25. ^ Bockris, Victor. With William Burroughs: A Report From the Bunker. St. Martin's Griffin, New York: 1996
  26. ^ Morgan, Ted. Literary Outlaw. p.477. New York:Avon Books, 1988.
  27. ^ . Charters, Ann. "Introduction". Speed/Kentucky Ham: Two Novels. Overlook Press: New York, 1984.
  28. ^ Morgan, Ted. Literary Outlaw. p.495-536. New York:Avon Books, 1988.
  29. ^ Morgan, Ted. Literary Outlaw. p.565 New York:Avon Books, 1988.
  30. ^ Morgan, Ted. Literary Outlaw. p.565 New York:Avon Books, 1988.
  31. ^ Burroughs, William. “Introduction”. Last Words: The Final Journals of William S. Burroughs. New York: Grove Press: 2000.
  32. ^ Morgan, Ted. Literary Outlaw. p.596 New York:Avon Books, 1988.
  33. ^ Morgan, Ted. Literary Outlaw. p.577 New York:Avon Books, 1988.
  34. ^ The Illuminates of Thanateros. 1993, available online at: Magick and Photography, Douglas Grant, Ashé Journal 2(3)
  35. ^ Burroughs, William S. The Adding Machine: Selected Essays. Arcade Publishing, 1993
  36. ^ boingboing.net article on Wilson and Burroughs
  37. ^ Robert Anton Wilson on the "23 Phenomena"
  38. ^ http://www.musethno.unizh.ch/de/publikationen/michael_oppitz.html
  39. ^ http://www.steelydan.com/faq.html

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Grauerholz is a writer and editor. ... 1990 paperback edition by Penguin Books. ...

External links

Don Swaim is an American journalist, writer, and broadcaster. ... Wired for Books <http://wiredforbooks. ... MusicBrainz (MusicBrainz. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ...

Video

Persondata
NAME Burroughs, William S.
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Burroughs, William Seward II; Lee, William (pseudonym)
SHORT DESCRIPTION American novelist, essayist
DATE OF BIRTH February 5, 1914
PLACE OF BIRTH St. Louis, Missouri
DATE OF DEATH August 2, 1997
PLACE OF DEATH Lawrence, Kansas

 
 

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