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Encyclopedia > William Randolph Hearst
William Randolph Hearst

Born April 29, 1863(1863-04-29)
Flag of the United States San Francisco, California, U.S.
Died August 14, 1951 (aged 88)
Flag of the United States Beverly Hills, California, U.S.
Occupation Publisher
Spouse Millicent Veronica Willson
Children George Randolph Hearst (1904–1972), William Randolph Hearst Jr. (1908–1993), John Randolph Hearst (1910–1958), and twins Randolph Apperson Hearst (1915–2000) and David Whitmire Hearst (1915–1986)
Parents Phoebe Apperson
George Hearst
For other people named William Randolph Hearst, see William Randolph Hearst (disambiguation)

William Randolph Hearst I (April 29, 1863August 14, 1951) was an American newspaper magnate. He was a leading newspaper publisher. The son of a self-made millionaire, he became aware that his father had received a northern California newspaper, The San Francisco Examiner, as payment of a gambling debt. Still a student at Harvard, he asked his father to give him the newspaper to run. In 1887, he became the paper's publisher and devoted long hours and much money to making it a success. Crusading for civic improvement and exposing municipal corruption, he greatly increased the paper's circulation. Moving on to New York City, he acquired The New York Journal and engaged in a bitter circulation war with Joseph Pulitzer's New York World that led to the creation of "yellow journalism" -- sensationalized stories of dubious veracity. Acquiring more newspapers, Hearst ultimately created a chain that at its peak numbered nearly 30 papers in major American cities. Eventually, he expanded into magazines as well, building an enormous publishing empire. Although he was elected twice to the U.S. House of Representatives, he was defeated in 1906 in a race for governor of New York. Nonetheless, through his newspapers and magazines, he exercised enormous political influence, most notably in whipping up the public frenzy that pushed the U.S. into war with Spain in 1898. Many regard him as the model for the leading character in Orson Welles' classic film, Citizen Kane. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 424 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1044 × 1474 pixel, file size: 173 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Date 1906 Author J.E. Purdy Permission File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links US_flag_35_stars. ... “San Francisco” redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... “Beverly Hills” redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... Millicent Hearst Millicent Hearst, née Millicent Veronica Willson (July 16, 1882 - December 5, 1974), was the wife of William Randolph Hearst. ... George Randolph Hearst (April 23, 1904 -January 26, 1972) was the oldest son of William Randolph Hearst. ... William Randolph Hearst Jr. ... John Randolph Hearst (1910-1958) was said by some to have the most executive talent among the sons of William Randolph Hearst,and like his brothers worked for the Hearst Corporation. ... Randolph Apperson Hearst (December 2, 1915 - December 18, 2000) was the last surviving son of William Randolph Hearst. ... Phoebe Apperson Hearst (1842-1919) was born in Franklin County, Missouri, United States. ... George Hearst George Hearst (September 3, 1820–February 28, 1891) was a wealthy American businessman, United States Senator and father of famed newspaperman William Randolph Hearst. ... William Randoph Hearst is the name of at least three individuals: William Randolph Hearst I (1863–1951) William Randolph Hearst, Jr. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For a wealthy or powerful Polish or Hungarian nobleman, see Magnate. ... The San Francisco Examiner is a daily newspaper in San Francisco, California, where it has been published continuously since 1865, beginning with the name The Daily Examiner. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Joseph Pulitzer Joseph Pulitzer (April 18, 1847 – October 29, 1911) was a Hungarian-American publisher best known for posthumously establishing the Pulitzer Prizes and (along with William Randolph Hearst) for originating yellow journalism. ... The New York World was a newspaper published in New York from 1860 until 1931. ... Nasty little printers devils spew forth from the Hoe press in this Puck cartoon of Nov. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Citizen Kane is a 1941 mystery/drama film released by RKO Pictures and directed by Orson Welles, his first feature film. ...

Contents

Early life

Hearst was born in San Francisco, California to George Hearst and Phoebe Apperson. Following preparation at St. Paul's School in Concord, NH, he enrolled in the Harvard College class of 1885, where he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, the A.D. Club (a prestigious Harvard Final club), and of the Harvard Lampoon prior to his expulsion from Harvard for a crude prank[1]. Heir to a vast mining fortune, at the age of twenty-four Hearst acquired and developed a series of influential newspapers, starting with the San Francisco Examiner in 1887, forging them into a national brand. His New York City paper, the New York Morning Journal, became known for sensationalist writing and for its agitation in favor of the Spanish-American War, and the term yellow journalism (a pejorative reference to scandal-mongering, sensationalism, jingoism and similar practices) was derived from the Journal's color comic strip, The Yellow Kid. “San Francisco” redirects here. ... George Hearst George Hearst (September 3, 1820–February 28, 1891) was a wealthy American businessman, United States Senator and father of famed newspaperman William Randolph Hearst. ... Phoebe Apperson Hearst (1842-1919) was born in Franklin County, Missouri, United States. ... St. ... Harvard Yard Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, founded in 1636. ... Delta Kappa Epsilon (ΔΚΕ; also pronounced D-K-E or Deke) is the oldest secret college mens fraternity of New England origin. ... The A.D. Club was established at Harvard in 1836, the continuation of a chapter of the Alpha Delta Phi fraternity existing as an honorary chapter until 1846, and then as a regular chapter until the late 1850s. ... A final club or finals club is an all-male undergraduate social club at Harvard College. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The San Francisco Examiner is a daily newspaper in San Francisco, California, where it has been published continuously since the late 19th Century. ... The New York Journal was created by William Randolph Hearst. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties... Nasty little printers devils spew forth from the Hoe press in this Puck cartoon of Nov. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... Sensationalism is a manner of being extremely controversial, loud, attention-grabbing, or otherwise sensationalistic. ... Ten Thousand Miles From Tip to Tip, an 1898 political cartoon depicting the extension of the United States dominion Jingoism is chauvinistic patriotism, usually associated with a War Hawk political stance. ... This article is about the comic strip, the sequential art form as published in newspapers and on the Internet. ... The Yellow Kid Mickey Dugan, better known as The Yellow Kid, was the lead character in Hogans Alley, the first comic strip and the first to be printed in color in mass production. ...


Though he served two terms in the U.S. Congress, Hearst's political ambitions were mostly frustrated, as he failed in two bids to become Mayor of New York City (1905 and 1909) and one race for governor of New York (1906). He was a prominent leader of the liberal wing of the Democratic Party from 1896 to 1935, but he became more conservative later in life. Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... For a list of the Dutch Director-Generals who governed New Amsterdam (as New York City was called when it was a Dutch-run settlement) between 1624 and 1664, see: Director-General of New Netherland. ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ...


His palatial estate, Hearst Castle, near San Simeon, California, on a hill overlooking the Pacific Ocean, halfway between Los Angeles and San Francisco, was donated by the Hearst Corporation to the state of California in 1957, and is now a State Historical Monument and a National Historic Landmark, open for public tours. Hearst formally named the estate 'La Cuesta Encantada' ('The Enchanted Hill'), but he usually just called it 'the ranch'. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Hearst Castle facade is patterned after a Spanish cathedral. ... San Simeon (ZIP Code: 93452) is a settlement on the Pacific coast of San Luis Obispo County, California notable in two respects: Its position along Cabrillo Hwy is almost precisely halfway between Los Angeles and San Francisco, each of those towns being roughly 230 mi (370 km) away. ... The Hearst Corporation is a large privately-held media conglomerate based in New York City. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ...


Publishing business

An ad asking automakers to place ads in Hearst chain, noting their circulation.
An ad asking automakers to place ads in Hearst chain, noting their circulation.

Searching for an occupation, in 1887 he took over management of a newspaper which his father George Hearst had accepted as payment of a gambling debt, the San Francisco Examiner. Giving his paper a grand motto, "Monarch of the Dailies", he acquired the best equipment and the most talented writers of the time. A self-proclaimed populist, Hearst went on to publish stories of municipal and financial corruption, often attacking companies in which his own family held an interest. Within a few years, his paper dominated the San Francisco market. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1040x1500, 375 KB) Summary ad for Hearst papers 1922 Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1040x1500, 375 KB) Summary ad for Hearst papers 1922 Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... George Hearst George Hearst (September 3, 1820–February 28, 1891) was a wealthy American businessman, United States Senator and father of famed newspaperman William Randolph Hearst. ... The San Francisco Examiner is a daily newspaper in San Francisco, California, where it has been published continuously since the late 19th Century. ... Populism is a political ideology or rhetorical style that holds that the common person is oppressed by the elite in society, which exists only to serve its own interests, and therefore, the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and instead used for the...

New York Morning Journal

In 1895, with the financial support of his mother, he bought the failing New York Morning Journal, hiring writers like Stephen Crane and Julian Hawthorne and entering into a head-to-head circulation war with his former mentor, Joseph Pulitzer, owner of the New York World, from whom he 'stole' Richard F. Outcault, the inventor of color comics. His was the only major newspaper in the East to support William Jennings Bryan and Bimetallism in 1896. The New York Journal (later New York Journal-American) reduced its price to one cent and attained unprecedented levels of circulation through sensational articles on subjects like crime and pseudoscience. The New York Journal was created by William Randolph Hearst. ... For the U.S. Continental Congress delegate, see Stephen Crane (delegate). ... Julian Hawthorne (June 22, 1846-1934) followed in the footsteps of his father, the famous novelist Nathaniel Hawthorne and became a prolific American author and journalist. ... Joseph Pulitzer Joseph Pulitzer (April 18, 1847 – October 29, 1911) was a Hungarian-American publisher best known for posthumously establishing the Pulitzer Prizes and (along with William Randolph Hearst) for originating yellow journalism. ... The New York World was a newspaper published in New York from 1860 until 1931. ... Richard Felton Outcault (January 14, 1863-September 25, 1928) was an American comic strip scriptwriter, sketcher and painter. ... Comics (or, less commonly, sequential art) is a form of visual art consisting of images which are commonly combined with text, often in the form of speech balloons or image captions. ... William Jennings Bryan (March 19, 1860 – July 26, 1925) was an American lawyer, statesman, and politician. ... In economics, bimetallism is a monetary standard in which the value of the monetary unit can be expressed either with a certain amount of gold or with a certain amount of silver: the ratio between the two metals is fixed by law. ...


Support for Spanish-American War

The paper fought to liberate Cuba from Spanish rule. Both Hearst and Pulitzer published images of Spanish troops placing Cubans into concentration camps where they suffered and died from disease and hunger. The term yellow journalism, (derived from the nam of The Yellow Kid comic strip in the Journal), was used to refer to these types of sensational newspaper articles. Journalism historians point out that at the time, this style was rare outside New York City and would not have affected voters elsewhere. It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Nasty little printers devils spew forth from the Hoe press in this Puck cartoon of Nov. ... The Yellow Kid Mickey Dugan, better known as The Yellow Kid, was the lead character in Hogans Alley, the first comic strip and the first to be printed in color in mass production. ...


Hearst publicized the war in an effort to sell more papers than his rival publisher Pulitzer, both of whose circulations came to surpass a million per day. When war correspondent and illustrator Frederic Remington telegraphed from Cuba that no war was imminent, Hearst is said to have telegraphed Remington back with this message: The Hunters Supper, 1909, National Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Frederic Remington (October 4, 1861 - December 26, 1909) was an American painter, illustrator, sculptor, and writer who specialized in depictions of the American West. ...

Please remain. You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war.

This quote first appeared in a James Creelman 1901 work called "On the Great Highway." However, author Howard Langer in his book "America in Quotations" notes that some scholars now question Creelman's reliability because Remington nor Davis (a correspondent accompaning Remington in Cuba) ever confirmed it, and Hearst himself flatly denied ever saying it. [2]


His own political career suffered after the assassination of President William McKinley when a satirical poem by Ambrose Bierce he had published a few months earlier alluding to a possible McKinley assassination made the publisher look irresponsible. This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce (June 24, 1842 – 1914?) was an American editorialist, journalist, short-story writer and satirist, today best known for his Devils Dictionary. ...


Expansion

Cartoonist Rogers in 1906 sees the political uses of Oz: he depicts William Randolph Hearst as the Scarecrow stuck in his own Ooze in Harper's Weekly.
Cartoonist Rogers in 1906 sees the political uses of Oz: he depicts William Randolph Hearst as the Scarecrow stuck in his own Ooze in Harper's Weekly.

In part to aid in his political ambitions, Hearst opened newspapers in some other cities, among them Chicago, Los Angeles and Boston. The creation of his Chicago paper was requested by the Democratic National Committee and Hearst used this as an excuse for Phoebe Hearst to transfer him the necessary start-up funds. By the mid-1920s he had a nation-wide string of 28 newspapers, among them the Los Angeles Examiner, the Boston American, the Atlanta Georgian, the Chicago Examiner, the Detroit Times, the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, the Washington Times, the Washington Herald, and his flagship the San Francisco Examiner. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (720x922, 198 KB) Summary Hearst shown in 1906 magazine. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (720x922, 198 KB) Summary Hearst shown in 1906 magazine. ... Most readers in 1900 read The Wonderful Wizard of Oz as a fairy tale, but cartoonists recognized that Baum and Denslow were using images that editorial cartoonists had long used to portray American politicians. ... Former Vermont Governor Dr. Howard Dean is the current Chairman of the DNC. The Democratic National Committee (DNC) is the principal campaign and fund-raising organization affiliated with the United States Democratic Party. ... The Los Angeles Herald Examiner building, located at the southwest corner of Broadway and 11th Streets, was largely designed by San Francisco architect Julia Morgan then associated with Los Angeles architects J. Martyn Haenke and William J. Dodd whose contribution to the design is not yet determined by scholars. ... 1913 Georgian front page The Atlanta Georgian was a daily afternoon newspaper in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Detroit Times ceased publication in 1960. ... The daily Seattle Post-Intelligencer is the second leading newspaper in Seattle, Washington, United States. ... The Washington Herald was an American daily newspaper in Washington, D.C., from Oct. ... The San Francisco Examiner is a daily newspaper in San Francisco, California, where it has been published continuously since the late 19th Century. ...


Hearst also diversified his publishing interests into book publishing and magazines; several of the latter are still existent, including such well-known periodicals as Cosmopolitan, Good Housekeeping, Town and Country and Harper's Bazaar. June 1936 issue Cosmopolitan is a magazine for women, sometimes referred to as Cosmo, which has been published for more than a century. ... A cover of Good Housekeeping from 1908. ... Town and Country (or variations) has several possible meanings: It is the name of several places in the United States: Town n Country, Florida Town and Country, Missouri Town and Country, Washington Town & Country Village, Palo Alto, California It can also be: Town & Country (magazine), a lifestyle magazine published by... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Harpers & Queen. ...


In 1924 he opened the New York Daily Mirror, a racy tabloid frankly imitating the New York Daily News. Among his other holdings were the magazines Cosmopolitan, and Harper's Bazaar; two news services, Universal News and International News Service; King Features Syndicate; a film company, Cosmopolitan Productions; extensive New York City real estate; and thousands of acres of land in California and Mexico, along with timber and mining interests. The New York Daily Mirror was an American morning tabloid newspaper first published in 1924 in New York City by the William Randolph Hearst organization as a contrast to their mainstream broadsheets, the Evening Journal and New York American, later consolidated into the New York Journal American. It was created... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Cosmopolitan, or simply Cosmo, is a magazine published monthly from New York by the Hearst Corporation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Harpers & Queen. ... International News Service (INS) was a news agency founded by William Randolph Hearst in 1909. ... King Features Syndicate is a syndication company owned by The Hearst Corporation; it distributes about 150 comic strips, newspaper columns, editorial cartoons, puzzles and games to thousands of newspapers around the world. ...


Hearst promoted writers and cartoonists despite the lack of any apparent demand for them by his readers. The press critic A.J. Liebling reminds us how many Hearst stars would not be deemed employable elsewhere. One Hearst favorite, George Herriman, was the inventor of the dizzy comic strip Krazy Kat; not especially popular with either readers or editors, it is now considered by many to be a classic, a belief once held only by Hearst himself. A.J. Liebling (October 18, 1904 - December 28, 1963) was an American journalist who was closely associated with The New Yorker from 1935 until his death. ... George Herriman and some of his fans. ... Krazy Kat is a comic strip created by George Herriman that appeared in U.S. newspapers between 1913 and 1944. ...


The Hearst news empire reached a circulation and revenue peak about 1928, but the economic collapse of the Great Depression and the vast over-extension of his empire cost him control of his holdings. It is unlikely that the newspapers ever paid their own way; mining, ranching and forestry provided whatever dividends the Hearst Corporation paid out. When the collapse came, all Hearst properties were hit hard, but none more so than the papers; adding to the burden were the Chief's now-reactionary politics, increasingly at odds with those of his readers. Refused the right to sell another round of bonds to unsuspecting investors, the shaky empire tottered. Unable to service its existing debts, Hearst Corporation faced a court-mandated reorganization in 1936. From this point, Hearst was just another employee, subject to the directives of an outside manager. Newspapers and other properties were liquidated, the film company shut down; there was even a well-publicized sale of art and antiquities. While World War II restored circulation and advertising revenues, his great days were over. Hearst died of heart attack in 1951, aged eighty-eight, at Beverly Hills, California, and is buried at Cypress Lawn Memorial Park in Colma, California. For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ... “Beverly Hills” redirects here. ... Cypress Lawn Memorial Park, established by Hamden Holmes Noble in 1892, is a cemetery located in Colma, California, a place known as the City of the Silent. It is the final resting site for several members of the celebrated Hearst family plus other prominent citizens from the San Francisco area... Colma is a small town in San Mateo County, California, at the northern end of the San Francisco Peninsula next to Daly City and South San Francisco. ...


The Hearst Corporation continues to this day as a large, privately held media conglomerate based in New York City. The Hearst Corporation is a large privately-held media conglomerate based in New York City. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Involvement in politics

A Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives (1903–1907), he narrowly failed in attempts to become mayor of New York City (1905 and 1909) and governor of New York (1906). He was defeated for the governorship by Charles Evans Hughes. His defeat in the New York City mayoral election where he ran under a third party of his own creation (The Municipal Ownership League) is widely attributed to Tammany Hall. Tammany, the dominant Democratic organization in New York City at the time, (and a widely corrupt one) was said to have used every dirty trick in the book to derail Hearst's campaign. An opponent of the British Empire, Hearst opposed American involvement in the First World War and attacked the formation of the League of Nations. The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... Charles Evans Hughes (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was Governor of New York, United States Secretary of State, Associate Justice and Chief Justice of the United States. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tammany Hall was the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics from the 1790s to the 1960s. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ...


Hearst's reputation triumphed in the 1930s as his political views changed. In 1932, he was a major supporter of Franklin D. Roosevelt. His newspapers energetically supported the New Deal throughout 1933 and 1934. Hearst broke with FDR in spring 1935 when the President vetoed the Patman Bonus Bill. Hearst papers carried the old publisher's rambling, vitriolic, all-capital-letters editorials, but he no longer employed the energetic reporters, editorialists and columnists who might have made a serious attack. His newspaper audience was the same working class that Roosevelt swept by three-to-one margins in the 1936 election. In 1934 after checking with Jewish leaders to make sure the visit would prove of benefit to Jews, Hearst went to Berlin to interview Adolf Hitler. Hitler asked why he was so misunderstood by the American press. "Because Americans believe in democracy," Hearst answered bluntly, "and are averse to dictatorship." [3] FDR redirects here. ... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 Rs) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. ... The Bonus Bill of 1817 was a bill introduced by John Calhoun to provide United States highways linking The East and South to The West using the earnings Bonus from the Second Bank of the United States. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


Personal life

Millicent Hearst
Millicent Hearst

In 1903, William married Millicent Veronica Willson (1882–1974), a beautiful 21-year-old chorus girl, in New York City. Evidence in Louis Pizzitola's book Hearst Over Hollywood indicates that Millicent's mother Hannah Willson ran a Tammany connected and protected brothel quite near the headquarters of political power in New York City at the turn of the last century. Pizzitola's book also documents a strongly held belief at the time that Millicent and her sister Anita were prostitutes when they met Hearst. Ironically or perhaps deliberately, the first scene that Orson Welles filmed for his film Citizen Kane (deleted by the censors) takes place in a brothel. Nearly 20 years her senior, Hearst had been seeing her since she was 16. The couple had five sons: George Randolph Hearst (1904–1972), William Randolph Hearst Jr. (1908–1993), John Randolph Hearst (1910–1958), and twins Randolph Apperson Hearst (1915–2000) and David Whitmire Hearst (1915–1986). Conceding an end to his political hopes, Hearst became involved in an affair with popular film actress and comedienne Marion Davies (1897–1961), and from about 1919 he lived openly with her in California. The affair ruled over Davies' life, leaving her reputation chained with Hearst's. Millicent separated from her husband in the mid-1920s after tiring of his longtime affair with Davies, but the couple remained legally married until Hearst's death. Millicent built an independent life for herself in New York City as a leading philanthropist, was active in society, and created the Free Milk Fund for the poor in 1921. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1186 × 1536 pixel, file size: 205 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Date 1906 Author J.E. Purdy Permission File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1186 × 1536 pixel, file size: 205 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Date 1906 Author J.E. Purdy Permission File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Millicent Hearst Millicent Hearst, née Millicent Veronica Willson (July 16, 1882 - December 5, 1974), was the wife of William Randolph Hearst. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... George Randolph Hearst (April 23, 1904 -January 26, 1972) was the oldest son of William Randolph Hearst. ... William Randolph Hearst Jr. ... John Randolph Hearst (1910-1958) was said by some to have the most executive talent among the sons of William Randolph Hearst,and like his brothers worked for the Hearst Corporation. ... Randolph Apperson Hearst (December 2, 1915 - December 18, 2000) was the last surviving son of William Randolph Hearst. ... Marion Davies illustrated by Hamilton King, 1920 Marion Davies Marion Davies (January 3, 1897 – September 23, 1961) was an American comedic actress. ...


Beginning in 1919, Hearst began to construct (and never completed) a spectacular castle on a 240,000 acre (970 km²) ranch at San Simeon, California, which he furnished with antiques, art, and entire rooms brought from the great houses of Europe. He also bought St Donat's Castle near Llantwit Major in South Wales. As with San Simeon, he spent a fortune renovating the castle, bringing electricity not only to his residence but to the surrounding area. The locals enjoyed having Hearst in residence at the castle; he paid his employees very well, and his arrivals always created a big stir in a community not used to American excesses. Hearst spent much of his time entertaining influential people at his estates. George Bernard Shaw, upon visiting St. Donat's, was quoted as saying: "This is what God would have built if he had had the money." Hearst's mother also had the Hacienda del Pozo de Verona built in Pleasanton, CA (now destroyed). He also had a property at McCloud River, CA. The Hearst Castle facade is patterned after a Spanish cathedral. ... San Simeon (ZIP Code: 93452) is a settlement on the Pacific coast of San Luis Obispo County, California notable in two respects: Its position along Cabrillo Hwy is almost precisely halfway between Los Angeles and San Francisco, each of those towns being roughly 230 mi (370 km) away. ... St Donats Castle is a medieval castle in South Wales, overlooking the Bristol Channel in the village of St Donats near Llantwit Major, and about 25km west of Cardiff. ... View From Llantwit Major Beach Across The Bristol Channel Llantwit Major (Welsh: Llanilltud Fawr -- llan church enclosure + Illtud + mawr great) is a small coastal town and community in the Vale of Glamorgan, South Wales, lying on the Bristol Channel coast. ... George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was an Irish dramatist, literary critic, and socialist. ...


Hearst paid $120,000 for the H-shaped Beverly Hills mansion in 1947, now the 'most expensive' US home on sale at $165m (£81.4m). It has 29 bedrooms, three swimming pools, tennis courts, its own cinema and a nightclub. Lawyer and investor Leonard Ross bought it in 1976. The Beverly House, as it came to be known, has some interesting cinematic connections. According to Louis Pizzitola's book Hearst Over Hollywood, Jack and Jacqueline Kennedy stayed at the house for part of their honeymoon, watching their first film together as a married couple in the mansion's theater (a Hearst produced film from the 1920s). Later, long after Hearst's death, the house was the setting for the unforgettable horse in the bed scene in the film The Godfather. Ironically, the victim in the scene is a film producer at a film company called International, also the name of Hearst's early film company. BBC News, 'Most expensive' US home on sale.


Criticism

As Martin Lee and Norman Solomon noted in their 1990 book Unreliable Sources, Hearst "routinely invented sensational stories, faked interviews, ran phony pictures and distorted real events."


Hearst's use of "yellow journalism" techniques in his New York Journal to whip up popular support for U.S. military adventurism in Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines in 1898 was also criticized in Upton Sinclair's 1919 book, The Brass Check: A Study of American Journalism. According to Sinclair, Hearst's newspaper employees were "willing by deliberate and shameful lies, made out of whole cloth, to stir nations to enmity and drive them to murderous war." Sinclair also asserted that in the early 20th century Hearst's newspapers lied "remorselessly about radicals," excluded "the word Socialist from their columns" and obeyed "a standing order in all Hearst offices that American Socialism shall never be mentioned favorably." In addition, Sinclair charged that Hearst's "Universal News Bureau" re-wrote the news of the London morning papers in the Hearst office in New York and then fraudulently sent it out to American afternoon newspapers under the by-lines of imaginary names of non-existent "Hearst correspondents" in London, Paris, Venice, Rome, Berlin, etc. Upton Beall Sinclair Jr. ...


Hearst was bashed continually by Communists for being anti-Communist, ultra-nationalist and has also been called a Nazi by some communists. They accused him also of libel (mostly about his articles on the Soviet Union and Stalin, for example those exposing the Ukrainian famine of 1932-1933). This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Child victim of the Holodomor The Ukrainian famine (1932-1933), or Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомор), was one of the largest national catastrophes of the Ukrainian nation in modern history with direct loss of human life in the range of millions (estimates vary). ...


Hearst is rumored to have provided financial assistance to Josephine Terranova after her sensational murder trial in 1906. Josephine Pullare Terranova (b. ...


Hearst also sympathized with Harry J. Anslinger in his war against marijuana. His paper empire (he owned hundreds of acres of timber forests) was threatened by hemp, which could be regrown yearly. He published many of the stories that Anslinger fabricated, aiding the anti-marijuana movement that eventually led to its prohibition in the 1937 Marihuana Tax Act. Harry J. Anslinger is commonly known for his extreme campaign against Cannabis. ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... In the United States, the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act was one of the cornerstone bills that led to the criminalization of cannabis. ...


Citizen Kane

One of the most influential films of all time was Orson Welles' 1941 film Citizen Kane, which was loosely based on Hearst's life (Welles and co-writer Herman J. Mankiewicz added bits and pieces from the lives of other rich men of the time, among them Harold McCormick, Samuel Insull and Howard Hughes into Kane). Hearst used all his resources and influence in an unsuccessful attempt to prevent the film's release. Welles and the studio, RKO, resisted the pressure, but Hearst and his Hollywood friends succeeded in getting theater chains to limit bookings of Kane, resulting in mediocre box-office numbers and harming Welles' profits. This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Citizen Kane is a 1941 mystery/drama film released by RKO Pictures and directed by Orson Welles, his first feature film. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Samuel Insull (November 11, 1859 - July 16, 1938) was an investor in Chicago who was known for purchasing utilities and railroads. ... For the Welsh murderer, see Howard Hughes (murderer). ... RKO could stand for: RKO Pictures The R.K.O. - finishing manoever (and initials) of WWE professional wrestler Randy Orton. ...


Fifty years later, HBO offered a fictionalized version of Hearst's efforts in its picture RKO 281. For other uses, see HBO (disambiguation). ... RKO 281 is a 1999 dramatic film directed by Benjamin Ross and starring Liev Schreiber, James Cromwell, Melanie Griffith, John Malkovich, and Roy Scheider. ...


Now, fifty years after his death, Citizen Kane 's reputation seems secure — it was ranked #1 on the list of the American Film Institute's 100 greatest films of all time — while Hearst's own image has largely been shaped by the film. While the film merely paints a dark portrait of Hearst, it was devastating to the reputation of Marion Davies, fictionalizing her as a talentless drunk. Many years later, Orson Welles said his only regret about Kane was the damage it had done to Davies. In his commentary included on the US DVD, Peter Bogdanovich asserts that the character of Susan Alexander was entirely a satire of Harold McCormick's wife Ganna, rather than of Marion. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with AFIs 100 Years. ... Marion Davies illustrated by Hamilton King, 1920 Marion Davies Marion Davies (January 3, 1897 – September 23, 1961) was an American comedic actress. ... Peter Bogdanovich Serbian Cyrillic Петар Богдановић (born July 30, 1939) is a Serbian-American film director, writer and actor. ...


Death of Thomas Harper Ince

In 1924, silent film producer Thomas Harper Ince ("The Father of the Western") died, officially of a heart attack while on a weekend yacht trip with Hearst, Davies, and other prominent Hollywood personalities. For years, rumors circulated that Hearst had shot Ince, and used his power to cover up the murder. Patty Hearst's 1994 novel, Murder at San Simeon, and a fictional 2001 film, The Cat's Meow, are based on these rumors. Hearst was reportedly extremely jealous of Davies, who had been involved in an affair with Charlie Chaplin — one of several paramours she would have over the years[citation needed]. According to the stories, Hearst went into a rage, mistook Ince for Chaplin, and shot him accidentally. General opinion seems to be that such a cover-up is unlikely, but at that time not entirely impossible. Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Harper Ince (November 6, 1882 – November 20, 1924) was an American silent film actor, director, producer and screenwriter. ... Justus D. Barnes, from The Great Train Robbery The Western is one of the classic American literary and film genres. ... Patricia Campbell Hearst (born February 20, 1954), now known as Patricia Hearst Shaw, is an American newspaper heiress and occasional actress. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... For the 1968 science-fiction film and novel, see 2001: A Space Odyssey The year 2001 in film involved some significant events. ... The Cats Meow is a 2001 American film released in 2002. ... “Charles Chaplin” redirects here. ... An intimate relationship is a interpersonal relationship where there is a great deal of physical or emotional intimacy. ...


Family

In 1974 Hearst's granddaughter, Patty Hearst, made front pages nationwide when she was kidnapped by an extremist group, the Symbionese Liberation Army, and was soon after caught on film helping the group to rob banks. She renounced the SLA soon after her arrest. In 1979, after 22 months in prison, Hearst's sentence was commuted by President Carter. She was fully pardoned in 2001 by President Bill Clinton. Patricia Campbell Hearst (born February 20, 1954), now known as Patricia Hearst Shaw, is an American newspaper heiress and occasional actress. ... The Symbionese Liberation Army (S.L.A.) was an American self-styled urban guerilla warfare group that considered itself a revolutionary vanguard army. ... Commutation of sentence involves the reduction of legal penalties, especially of terms of imprisonment. ... Order: 39th President Term of Office: January 20, 1977–January 20, 1981 Preceded by: Gerald Ford Succeeded by: Ronald Reagan Date of birth: October 1, 1924 Place of birth: Plains, Georgia Date of death: Place of death: First Lady: Rosalynn Carter Political party: Democratic Vice President: Walter Mondale James... A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


In fiction

  • In the musical Newsies, the newsboys strike against the unfair policies of Hearst and his rival, Joseph Pulitzer.
  • In season 3 of the television series Veronica Mars, William Randolph Hearst's last name was featured in Hearst Collage, a central setting in the series.

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck cover art The Life and Times of Scrooge McDuck is a comic book story by Don Rosa about Scrooge McDuck. ... Calisota is a fictional U.S. state, created by Carl Barks in his story The Gilded Man (Four Color #422) and used in comic books produced by the Walt Disney Company. ... Scrooge McDuck or Uncle Scrooge is a fictional Scottish-born anthropomorphic duck created by Carl Barks that first appeared in Four Color Comics #178, Christmas on Bear Mountain, published by Dell Comics in December, 1947. ... Newsies is a 1992 Disney live action film musical starring Christian Bale, David Moscow, and Bill Pullman. ... Joseph Pulitzer Joseph Pulitzer (April 18, 1847 – October 29, 1911) was a Hungarian-American publisher best known for posthumously establishing the Pulitzer Prizes and (along with William Randolph Hearst) for originating yellow journalism. ... Little House on the Prairie is a childrens book by Laura Ingalls Wilder that was published in 1935. ... This article is about the Veronica Mars television series. ... For the ornithologist see James Bond (ornithologist). ... Tomorrow Never Dies, released in 1997, is the eighteenth spy film in the James Bond series, and the second to star Pierce Brosnan as MI6 agent James Bond. ... Elliott Carver is a fictional character and the main villain from the James Bond film Tomorrow Never Dies. ...

See also

The Hearst Castle facade is patterned after a Spanish cathedral. ... Citizen Kane is a 1941 mystery/drama film released by RKO Pictures and directed by Orson Welles, his first feature film. ... Nickname: NMB Motto: Where People Care Location in Miami-Dade and the state of Florida. ... Josephine Pullare Terranova (b. ...

References

  1. ^ The American Pageant: A History of the Republic, Thirteenth edition, Advanced Placement Edition, copyright 2006
  2. ^ "Yale Book of Quotations" (2006) Yale University Press edited by Fred R. Shapiro
  3. ^ Conradi, Peter. Hitler's Piano Player. Carroll & Graf Publishers. 
  • Hearst, William Randolph, Jr. and Jack Casserly. The Hearsts: Father and Son. 1991.
  • Liebling, A.J. The Press. 1981.
  • Lundberg, Ferdinand. Imperial Hearst. 1937.
  • Nasaw, David. The Chief: The Life of William Randolph Hearst. 2000.
  • Pizzitola, Louis. "Hearst Over Hollywood: Power, Passion, and Propaganda in the Movies." 2002.
  • Ben H. Procter; William Randolph Hearst: The Early Years, 1863-1910 1998.
  • St. Johns, Adela Rogers. The Honeycomb. 1969.
  • Swanberg, W.A. Citizen Hearst. 1961.
  • Wilkerson; Marcus M. Public Opinion and the Spanish-American War: A Study in War Propaganda 1932.
  • Reardon, David (2003). "William Hearst". American History: Post-Civil War to the Present. Worldview Software. Retrieved on 2007-09-21. 

Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ... Peter Conradi is an author and journalist who should not be confused with Peter J. Conradi, another author with a similar name. ... Carroll & Graf Publishers is an American publishing company centered in New York City and an imprint of the Avalon Publishing Group. ... Ben H. Procter is an author, and was the Cecil and Ida Green Emeritus Chair in the History Department at Texas Christian University. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Preceded by
William Sulzer
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 11th congressional district

1903 – 1907
Succeeded by
Charles V. Fornes
Preceded by
D. Cady Herrick
Democratic Candidate for Governor of New York
1906 (lost)
Succeeded by
Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler

  Results from FactBites:
 
William Randolph Hearst - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2091 words)
William Randolph was the only child of George Hearst, a successful miner who became a multi-millionaire, and later U.S. Senator from California, and Phoebe Apperson Hearst, a former school teacher from Missouri.
Hearst died in 1951, aged eighty-eight, at Beverly Hills, California, and is buried at Cypress Lawn Memorial Park in Colma, California.
Hearst was reportedly extremely jealous of Davies, who had been involved in an affair with Charlie Chaplin (one of several affairs she would be involved in over the years).
William Randolph Hearst III - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (225 words)
William Randolph Hearst III (born June 1, 1949) became president of the William Randolph Hearst Foundation in early 2003, and is a grandson of William Randolph Hearst and director of the Hearst Corporation.
In 1995 Hearst was named partner at the Silicon Valley venture capital firm of Kleiner, Perkins, Caufield and Byers, where he continues to serve today.
Hearst graduated from Harvard University in 1972 with a degree in mathematics.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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