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Encyclopedia > William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham
The Earl of Chatham


In office
30 July 1766 – 14 October 1768
Monarch George III
Preceded by The Marquess of Rockingham
Succeeded by The Duke of Grafton

Born 15 November 1708(1708-11-15)
Westminster, London
Died 11 May 1778 (age 69)
Hayes, Kent
Political party Whig
Alma mater Trinity College, Oxford

William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham PC (15 November 170811 May 1778) was a British Whig statesman who achieved his greatest fame as Secretary of State during the Seven Years' War (known as the French and Indian War in North America) and who was later Prime Minister of Great Britain. He is often known as William Pitt the Elder to distinguish him from his son, William Pitt the Younger. He was also known as The Great Commoner. The major American city of Pittsburgh was named after him. Also, Pittsylvania County, Virginia, the smaller community of Pittsburg, New Hampshire and Chatham University (since he was Earl of Chatham) are named in his honour. Chatham, NJ is also named after him. Portrait of William Pitt the Elder, 1st Earl of Chatham (1708-1778). ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... George III redirects here. ... Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham (May 13, 1730 – July 1, 1782) was a British Whig statesman, most notable for his two terms as Whig Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... The Most Noble Augustus Henry FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton, KG, PC (28 September 1735–14 March 1811) was a British Whig statesman of the Georgian era. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1778 (MDCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Hayes is a place in the London Borough of Bromley, south-east London, England. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... College name The College of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity and Sir Thomas Pope (Knight) Named after The Holy Trinity Established 1555 Sister College Churchill College President Sir Ivor Roberts KCMG MA JCR President Richard Appleton Undergraduates 298 MCR President Andrew Ng Graduates 105 Homepage Boatclub See also Trinity... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1778 (MDCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ... Pittsylvania County is a county located in the state of Virginia. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Pittsburg is a town in Coos County, New Hampshire, USA. The population was 867 at the 2000 census. ... Chatham University is an American liberal arts womens college with coeducational graduate programs located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvanias Squirrel Hill neighborhood. ... Chatham, New Jersey may refer to two neighboring municipalities in Morris County, New Jersey – Chatham Borough and Chatham Township, or to both of them together. ...

Contents

Early life

Pitt was born at Westminster. He was the younger son of Robert Pitt of Boconnoc, Cornwall, and grandson of Thomas Pitt (1653–1726), governor of Madras, who was known as "Diamond" Pitt because he sold a diamond of extraordinary size to the Regent Orléans for around £135,000. It was mainly by this fortunate transaction that the governor was enabled to raise his family, which was one of old standing, to a position of wealth and political influence. The latter he acquired by purchasing the burgage tenures of Old Sarum. Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... Boconnoc is a village in the Caradon district of Cornwall, United Kingdom, about four miles east of Lostwithiel. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Thomas Pitt Thomas Pitt (July 5, 1653 – April 28, 1726), born at Blandford Forum, Dorset, to a rector and his wife, was a British merchant involved in trade with India. ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... Regent Diamond Weight 140. ... Philippe of Orléans Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Philippe Charles (August 2, 1674 – December 2, 1723) called Duke of Chartres (1674–1701), and then Duke of Orléans (1701–1723) was Regent of France from 1715 to 1723. ... a tenure under which property in England and Scotland was held under the king or a lord of a town was maintained for a yearly rent or for rendering a service such as watching and warding This article is a stub. ... Woodcut of Old Sarum as it was during its height Old Sarum is the site of the earliest settlement of Salisbury, England, with evidence of human habitation as early as 3000 BC. It sits on a hill about two miles (3km) north of modern Salisbury on the west side of...


William Pitt was educated at Eton, and, in January 1727, was entered as a gentleman commoner at Trinity College, Oxford. There is evidence that he was an extensively read, if not a minutely accurate classical scholar; and it is noteworthy that Demosthenes was his favourite author, and that he diligently cultivated the faculty of expression by the practice of translation and re-translation. The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for boys, founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. It is located in Eton, near Windsor in England, north of Windsor Castle, and... College name The College of the Most Holy and Undivided Trinity and Sir Thomas Pope (Knight) Named after The Holy Trinity Established 1555 Sister College Churchill College President Sir Ivor Roberts KCMG MA JCR President Richard Appleton Undergraduates 298 MCR President Andrew Ng Graduates 105 Homepage Boatclub See also Trinity... For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, Dēmosthénēs) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ...


A hereditary gout, from which he had suffered even during his school-days, compelled him to leave the university without taking his degree, in order to travel abroad. He spent some time in France and Italy, but the disease proved intractable, and he continued subject to attacks of growing intensity at frequent intervals until the close of his life. In 1727, his father had died, and, on his return home, it was necessary for him, as the younger son, to choose a profession. Having chosen the army, he obtained, through the interest of his friends, a cornet's commission in the dragoons. George II never forgot the jibes of 'the terrible cornet of horse'. For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ... Cornet was the third and lowest grade of commissioned officer in a British cavalry troop, after the Captain and Lieutenant. ... A light dragoon from the American Revolution A dragoon is a soldier trained to fight on foot, but transport himself on horseback. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ...


But his military career was destined to be short. His elder brother Thomas having been returned at the general election of 1734 both for Oakhampton and for Old Sarum, and having preferred to sit for the former, the family borough fell to the younger brother by the sort of natural right usually recognized in such cases. Accordingly, in February 1735, William Pitt entered parliament as member for the rotten borough of Old Sarum. Attaching himself at once to the formidable band of discontented Whigs, known as the Patriots, whom Walpole's love of exclusive power had forced into opposition under Pulteney, Pitt became in a very short time one of its most prominent members. The British general election, 1734 returned members to serve in the House of Commons of the 8th Parliament of Great Britain to be held, after the merger of the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland in 1707. ... Look up Borough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... The term rotten borough referred to a parliamentary borough or constituency in Great Britain and Ireland which, due to size and population, was controlled and used by a patron to exercise undue and unrepresentative influence within parliament. ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, (commonly known as Robert Walpole, or Sir Robert Walpole) KG, KB, PC (26 August 1676 – 18 March 1745) was a British statesman who is generally regarded as having been the first Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... William Pulteney (1684 - July 7, 1764) was an English politician, created Earl of Bath in 1742 by King George II. The son of William Pulteney by his first wife, Mary Floyd, he was born in April 1684 into an old Leicestershire family. ...


Politics in the Commons

His maiden speech was delivered in April 1736, in the debate on the congratulatory address to George II on the marriage of Frederick, Prince of Wales. The occasion was one of compliment, and there is nothing striking in the speech as reported; but it served to gain for him the attention of the house when he presented himself, as he soon afterwards did, in debates of a party character. So obnoxious did he become as a critic of the government, that Walpole thought fit to punish him by procuring his dismissal from the army. The Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales (Frederick Louis; 1 February 1707 – 31 March 1751) was a member of the British Royal Family, the eldest son of George II. He was born into the House of Hanover and, under the Act of Settlement passed by the English Parliament in 1701, Frederick...


Some years later, he had occasion vigorously to denounce the system of cashiering officers for political differences, but with characteristic loftiness of spirit he disdained to make any reference to his own case. The loss of his commission was soon made up to him. The heir to the throne, as was usually the case in the House of Hanover, if not in reigning families generally, was the patron of the opposition, and the ex-cornet became groom of the bed-chamber to Prince Frederick. The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Parliamentary Opposition is a form of political opposition to a designated government, particularly in a Westminster-based parliamentary system. ...


In this new position, his hostility to the government did not, as may be supposed, in any degree relax. He had all the natural gifts an orator could desire—a commanding presence, a graceful though somewhat theatrical bearing, an eye of piercing brightness, and a voice of the utmost flexibility. His style, if occasionally somewhat turgid, was elevated and passionate, and it always bore the impress of that intensity of conviction which is the most powerful instrument a speaker can have to sway the convictions of an audience. It was natural, therefore, that in the series of stormy debates, protracted through several years, that ended in the downfall of Walpole, his eloquence should have been one of the strongest of the forces that combined to bring about the final result.


Specially effective, according to contemporary testimony, were his speeches against the Hanoverian subsidies, against the Spanish Convention in 1739, and in favour of the motion in 1742 for an investigation into the last ten years of Walpole's administration. It must be borne in mind that the reports of these speeches which have come down to us were made from hearsay, or at best from recollection, and are necessarily therefore most imperfect. In the speech against the Convention in the House of Commons on 8 March, 1739 Pitt said: The Treaty of El Pardo was signed on January 14, 1739 between representatives of the British Empire and the Spanish Empire. ...

When trade is at stake, it is your last intrenchment; you must defend it or perish...Sir, Spain knows the consequence of a war in America. Whoever gains, it must prove fatal to her. She knows it, and must therefore avoid it; but she knows that England does not dare to make it...Is this any longer an English Parliament, if, with more ships in your harbours than in all the navies of Europe; with above two millions of people in your American colonies, you will bear to hear of the expediency of receiving from Spain an insecure, unsatisfactory, dishonorable Convention? [1]

The best-known specimen of Pitt's eloquence, his reply to the sneers of Horatio Walpole at his youth and declamatory manner, which has found a place in so many handbooks of elocution, is evidently, in form at least, the work, not of Pitt, but of Dr Johnson, who furnished the report to the Gentleman's Magazine. Probably Pitt did say something of the kind attributed to him, though even this is by no means certain in view of Johnson's repentant admission that he had often invented not merely the form, but the substance of entire debates. Horatio Walpole, 1st Baron Walpole of Wolterton (8 December 1678 - 1757), English diplomatist, was a son of Robert Walpole of Houghton, Norfolk, and a younger brother of the great Sir Robert Walpole. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... The Gentlemans Magazine was the first general-interest magazine, and the most influential periodical of its time. ...


In 1742, Walpole was at last forced to succumb to the long-continued attacks of opposition, and was succeeded as Prime Minister by Lord Wilmington, though the real power in the new government was divided between Lord Carteret and the Pelham brothers (Henry and Thomas, Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne). Pitt's conduct on the change of administration was open to grave censure. The relentless vindictiveness with which he insisted on the prosecution of Walpole, and supported the bill of indemnity to witnesses against the fallen minister, was in itself not magnanimous; but it appears positively unworthy when it is known that a short time before Pitt had offered, on certain conditions, to use all his influence in the other direction. Possibly, he was embittered at the time by the fact that, owing to the strong personal dislike of the king, caused chiefly by the contemptuous tone in which he had spoken of Hanover, he did not by obtaining a place in the new ministry reap the fruits of the victory to which he had so largely contributed. The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... The Rt. ... The Right Honourable John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville, PC (22 April 1690–22 January 1763), English statesman, commonly known by his earlier title as Lord Carteret, was the son of George Carteret, 1st Baron Carteret (1667 - 1695), by his marriage with Grace Granville (September 3, 1654 - October 18, 1744), daughter... The Right Honourable Henry Pelham (25 September 1694–6 March 1754) was a British Whig statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain from 27 August 1743 to his death about ten years later. ... Arms of Thomas Pelham-Holles Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne and 1st Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme (July 21, 1693 – November 17, 1768) was a British Whig statesman, whose official life extended throughout the Whig supremacy of the 18th century. ... The ministry refers to all government ministers (whether or not they are in cabinet) headed by a prime minister. ...


The so-called "broad-bottom" administration formed by the Pelhams in 1744, after the dismissal of Carteret, though it included several of those with whom he had been accustomed to act, did not at first include Pitt himself even in a subordinate office. Before the obstacle to his admission was overcome, he had received a remarkable accession to his private fortune.

Pitt the Elder
Pitt the Elder

When the Dowager Duchess of Marlborough died in 1744, at the age of eighty four, she left him a legacy of £10,000 as an "acknowledgment of the noble defence he had made for the support of the laws of England and to prevent the ruin of his country". As her hatred was known to be at least as strong as her love, the legacy was probably as much a mark of her detestation of Walpole as of her admiration of Pitt. It may be mentioned here, though it does not come in chronological order, that Pitt was a second time the object of a form of acknowledgment of public virtue which few statesmen have had the fortune to receive even once. About twenty years after the Marlborough legacy, Sir William Pynsent, a Somerset baronet to whom he was personally quite unknown, left him his entire estate, worth about three thousand a year, in testimony of approval of his political career. Image File history File links Brad Pitt This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links Brad Pitt This work is copyrighted. ... Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, c. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... For the brush-footed butterfly species, see Euthalia nais. ...


Rise into government

It was with no very good grace that the king at length consented to give Pitt a place in the government, although the latter did all he could to ingratiate himself at court, by changing his tone on the questions on which he had made himself offensive. To force the matter, the Pelhams had to resign expressly on the question whether he should be admitted or not, and it was only after all other arrangements had proved impracticable, that they were reinstated with the obnoxious politician as vice-treasurer of Ireland. This was in February 1746.


In May of the same year, he was promoted to the more important and lucrative office of paymaster-general, which gave him a place in the privy council, though not in the cabinet. Here he had an opportunity of displaying his public spirit and integrity in a way that deeply impressed both the king and the country. It had been the usual practise of previous paymasters to appropriate to themselves the interest of all money lying in their hands by way of advance, and also to accept a commission of 1/2% on all foreign subsidies. Although there was no strong public sentiment against the practise, Pitt altogether refused to profit by it. All advances were lodged by him in the Bank of England until required, and all subsidies were paid over without deduction, even though it was pressed upon him, so that he did not draw a shilling from his office beyond the salary legally attaching to it. Conduct like this, though obviously disinterested, did not go without immediate and ample reward, in the public confidence which it created, and which formed the mainspring of Pitt's power as a statesman. The Paymaster of the Forces was a British government position. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... This article is about the governmental body. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ...


The administration formed in 1746 lasted without material change until 1754. It would appear from his published correspondence that Pitt had a greater influence in shaping its policy than his comparatively subordinate position would in itself have entitled him to. His conduct in supporting measures, such as the Spanish treaty and the continental subsidies, which he had violently denounced when in opposition, had been much criticized; but within certain limits, not indeed very well defined, inconsistency has never been counted a vice in an English statesman. The times change, and he is not blamed for changing with the times.


Pitt in office, looking back on the commencement of his public life, might have used the plea "A good deal has happened since then", at least as justly as some others have done. Allowance must always be made for the restraints and responsibilities of office. In Pitt's case, too, it is to be borne in mind that the opposition with which he had acted gradually dwindled away, and that it ceased to have any organized existence after the death of the prince of Wales in 1751. Then in regard to the important question with Spain as to the right of search, Pitt has disarmed criticism by acknowledging that the course he followed during Walpole's administration was indefensible.


All due weight being given to these various considerations, it must be admitted, nevertheless, that Pitt did overstep the limits within which inconsistency is usually regarded as venial. His one great object was first to gain office, and then to make his tenure of office secure by conciliating the favour of the king. The entire revolution which much of his policy underwent in order to effect this object bears too close a resemblance to the sudden and inexplicable changes of front habitual to placemen of the Tadpole stamp to be altogether pleasant to contemplate in a politician of pure aims and lofty ambition. Humiliating is not too strong a term to apply to a letter in which he expresses his desire to "efface the past by every action of his life", in order that he may stand well with the king.


In 1754, Henry Pelham died, and was succeeded at the head of affairs by his brother, the Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. To Pitt, the change brought no advancement, and he had thus an opportunity of testing the truth of the description of his chief given by Sir Robert Walpole, "His name is treason." But there was for a time no open breach. Pitt continued at his post; and at the general election which took place during the year he even accepted a nomination for the duke's pocket borough of Aldborough. He had sat for Seaford since 1747. The term rotten borough (or pocket borough, as they were seen as being in the pocket of a patron) refers to a parliamentary borough or constituency in the Kingdom of England (pre-1707), the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707-1801), the Kingdom of Ireland (1536-1801) and the United Kingdom... Aldborough is a village located in the West Riding of Yorkshire, and lies within the Borough of Harrogate in North Yorkshire. ... Seaford is the name of a place in the United Kingdom: Seaford, East Sussex Seaford is the name of some places in the United States of America: Seaford, Delaware Seaford, New York Seaford, Virginia Seaford is also a place in Victoria, Australia: Seaford, Victoria This is a disambiguation page &#8212...


When parliament met, however, he was not long in showing the state of his feelings. Ignoring Sir Thomas Robinson, the political nobody to whom Newcastle had entrusted the management of the Commons, he made frequent and vehement attacks on Newcastle himself, though still continuing to serve under him. In this strange state matters continued for about a year. At length, just after the meeting of parliament in November 1751, Pitt was dismissed from office, having on the debate on the address spoken at great length against a new system of continental subsidies, proposed by the government of which he was a member. Henry Fox, who had just before been appointed Secretary of State, retained his place, and though the two men continued to be of the same party, and afterwards served again in the same government, there was henceforward a rivalry between them, which makes the celebrated opposition of their illustrious sons seem like an inherited quarrel. Thomas Robinson, 1st Baron Grantham, KB, PC (c. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, (28 September 1705-1 July 1774) was an English statesman. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ...


Another year had scarcely passed when Pitt was again in power. The inherent weakness of the government, the vigour and eloquence of his opposition, and a series of military disasters abroad combined to rouse a public feeling of indignation which could not be withstood, and in December 1756 Pitt, who now sat for Okehampton, became Secretary of State for the Southern Department, and Leader of the House of Commons under the premiership of the Duke of Devonshire. Upon entering this coalition, Pitt said to Devonshire: "My Lord, I am sure I can save this country, and no one else can".[1] Okehampton is a town in Devon, England, at the northern edge of Dartmoor, on the River Okement. ... The Secretary of State for the Southern Department was a position in the cabinet of the government of United Kingdom up to 1782. ... The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. ... William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire (c. ...


He had made it a condition of his joining any administration that Newcastle should be excluded from it, thus showing a resentment which, though natural enough, proved fatal to the lengthened existence of his government. With the king unfriendly, and Newcastle, whose corrupt influence was still dominant in the Commons, estranged, it was impossible to carry on a government by the aid of public opinion alone, however emphatically that might have declared itself on his side. The historian Basil Williams has claimed that this is the first time in British history when a "man was called to supreme power by the voice of the people" rather than by the king's appointment or as the choice of Parliament.[2] (Arthur Frederick) Basil Williams OBE (4th April 1867 - 5th January 1950) was a British historian. ...


In April 1757, accordingly, he found himself again dismissed from office on account of his opposition to the king's favourite continental policy. But the power that was insufficient to keep him in office was strong enough to make any arrangement that excluded him impracticable. The public voice spoke in a way that was not to be mistaken. Probably no English minister ever received in so short a time so many proofs of the confidence and admiration of the public, the capital and all the chief towns voting him addresses and the freedom of their corporations. (E.g. London presented him with the first ever honorary Freedom of the City awarded in history.) Horace Walpole recorded the freedoms of various cities awarded to Pitt: It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

For some weeks it rained gold boxes: Chester, Worcester, Norwich, Bedford, Salisbury, Yarmouth, Tewkesbury, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Stirling, and other populous and chief towns following the example. Exeter, with singular affection, sent boxes of oak.[3]

From the political deadlock that ensued relief could only be had by an arrangement between Newcastle and Pitt (called "Broad Bottom Government"). In 18th century politics, the broad bottom government (or broad bottom administration) is a government with cross-party appeal, according (among others) to John Stuart Shaw, The Political History of Eighteenth-century Scotland, 1999, when he describes the time of the Seven Years War. ...


After some weeks' negotiation, in the course of which the firmness and moderation of "The Great Commoner", as he had come to be called, contrasted favourably with the characteristic tortuosities of the crafty peer, matters were settled on such a basis that, while Newcastle was the nominal, Pitt was the virtual head of the government. On his acceptance of office, he was chosen member for Bath. For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ... , Bath is a small city in Somerset, England most famous for its historic baths fed by three hot springs. ...


The Newcastle and Pitt ministry

A coalition with Newcastle was formed in June 1757, and continued in power until 1761. During the four years of its existence, it has been usual to say that the biography of Pitt is the history of England, so thoroughly was he identified with the events which make this period, insofar as the external relations of the country are concerned, one of the most successful from the imperial point of view. A detailed account of these events belongs to history; all that is needed in a biography is to point out the extent to which Pitt's personal influence may really be traced in them. England is the largest and most populous of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ...


It is scarcely too much to say that, in the general opinion of his contemporaries, the whole glory of these years was due to his single genius; his alone was the mind that planned, and his the spirit that animated the brilliant achievements of the British arms in all the four quarters of the globe. The London Magazine of 1766 offered 'Pitt, Pompadour, Prussia, Providence' as the reasons for Britain's success in the Seven Years' War. Posterity, indeed, has been able to recognize more fully the independent genius of those who carried out his purposes. The heroism of Wolfe would have been irrepressible, Clive would have proved himself "a heaven-born general", and Frederick the Great would have written his name in history as one of the most skillful strategists the world has known, whoever had held the seals of office in England. Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... Major General Wolfe. ... Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, meeting with Mir Jafar after Plassey, by Francis Hayman Major-General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey, KB (29 September 1725 - 22 November 1774), also known as Clive of India, was the soldier of fortune and commander who established the military supremacy of the... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ...


But Pitt's relation to all three was such as to entitle him to a large share in the credit of their deeds. He inspired trust in his chosen commanders by his indifference to rules of seniority — several of 'Pitt's boys', like Keppel, captor of Gorée, were in their thirties — and by his clear orders. It was his discernment that selected Wolfe to lead the attack on Quebec, and gave him the opportunity of dying a victor on the heights of Abraham. He had personally less to do with the successes in India than with the other great enterprises that shed an undying lustre on his administration; but his generous praise in parliament stimulated the genius of Clive, and the forces that acted at the close of the struggle were animated by his indomitable spirit. Augustus Keppel, 1st Viscount Keppel (25 April 1725 - 2 October 1786), was a British admiral who held sea commands during the Seven Years War and the War of American Independence. ... ÃŽle de Gorée (i. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, fought September 13, 1759, was a decisive battle during the French and Indian War, the U.S. name for the North American phase of the Seven Years War. ...


Pitt's particular genius was to finance an army on the continent to drain French men and resources so that Britain might concentrate on what he held to be the vital spheres: Canada and the West Indies; whilst Clive successfully defeated Siraj Ud Daulah, (the last independent Nawab of Bengal) at Plassey (1757), securing India. The Continental campaign was carried on by Cumberland, defeated at Klosterzeven (1757) and thereafter by Ferdinand of Brunswick, later victor at Minden; Britain's Continental campaign had two major strands firstly subsidising allies, particularly Frederick the Great and second financing an army to divert French resources from the colonial war and to also defend Hanover (which was the territory of the Kings of England at this time) The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Mîrzâ Mah. ... siraj-ud-daula was the last independent nawab of bengal, he lost his state bengal to mir Quasim because he was busy in his luxurious life of a king ... The Battle of Plassey was a battle that took place on June 23, 1757, near Plassey (Palashee (পলাশী) in Bengali), a small village on the Bhagirathi River (a distributary of Ganges River) located just north of Kolkata and south of Murshidabad in India. ... The Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, KG, KB, PC (15 April 1721–31 October 1765), a younger son of King George II of Great Britain and Queen Caroline, was a noted military leader. ... Zeven is a town in the district of Rotenburg, in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Ferdinand (12 January 1721, Brunswick – 3 July 1792), Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, was a Prussian field marshal (1758–1766) known for his participation in the Seven Years War. ... Combatants Great Britain, Hanover, Kingdom of Prussia France Commanders Prince Ferdinand Louis Georges Érasme de Contades Strength 60,500 56,000 Casualties 2,800 10,000-11,000 The Battle of Minden was a battle fought on August 1, 1759 during the Seven Years War. ... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ... , Hanover(i) (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ...


Pitt, the first real Imperialist in modern English history, was the directing mind in the expansion of his country, and with him the beginning of empire is rightly associated. The Seven Years' War might well, moreover, have been another Thirty Years' War if Pitt had not furnished Frederick with an annual subsidy of £700,000, and in addition relieved him of the task of defending western Germany against France: this was the policy that allowed Pitt to boast of having 'won Canada on the banks of the Rhine'. Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... Combatants Sweden (from 1630)  Bohemia Denmark-Norway (1625-1629) Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire ( Catholic League) Spain Austria Bavaria Denmark-Norway (1643-1645) Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of...


Contemporary opinion was, of course, incompetent to estimate the permanent results gained for the country by the brilliant foreign policy of Pitt. It has long been generally agreed that by several of his most costly expeditions nothing was really won but glory: the policy of diversionary attacks on places like Rochefort was memorably described as 'breaking windows with gold guineas'. It has even been said that the only permanent acquisition that England owed directly to him was her Canadian dominion; and, strictly speaking, this is true, it being admitted that the campaign by which the Indian empire was virtually won was not planned by him, though brought to a successful issue during his ministry. A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Rochefort is a commune in western France, a seaport on the Atlantic Ocean. ...


But material aggrandisement, though the only tangible, is not the only real or lasting effect of a war policy. More may be gained by crushing a formidable rival than by conquering a province. The loss of her Canadian possessions was only one of a series of disasters suffered by France, which included the victories at sea of Boscawen at Lagos and Hawke at Quiberon Bay. Such defeats radically affected the future of Europe and the world. Deprived of her most valuable colonies both in the East and in the West, and thoroughly defeated on the continent, France's humiliation was the beginning of a new epoch in history. Edward Boscawen (August 10, 1711 - January 10, 1761) was a British (Cornish) admiral. ... The naval Battle of Lagos took place on 19 August 1759 during the Seven Years War off the coasts of Spain and Portugal, and is named after Lagos, Portugal. ... Edward Hawke, 1st Baron Hawke, (February 21, 1705 - October 16, 1781) was an admiral in the Royal Navy. ... The naval Battle of Quiberon Bay took place on 20 November 1759 during the Seven Years War in Quiberon Bay, off the coast of France near St. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


The victorious policy of Pitt destroyed the military prestige which repeated experience has shown to be in France as in no other country the very life of monarchy, and thus was not the least of the influences that slowly brought about the French Revolution. It effectually deprived France of the lead in the councils of Europe which she had hitherto arrogated to herself, and so affected the whole course of continental politics. It is such far-reaching results as these, and not the mere acquisition of a single colony, however valuable, that constitute Pitt's claim to be considered as the most powerful minister that ever guided the foreign policy of England. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


The dissolution of the ministry

The first and most important of a series of changes which ultimately led to the dissolution of the ministry was the death of George II on 25 October 1760, and the accession of his grandson, George III. The new king was inclined to view politics in personal terms and taught to believe that 'Pitt had the blackest of hearts'. As was natural, the new king had counsellors of his own, the chief of whom, Lord Bute, was at once admitted to the cabinet as a secretary of state. Between Bute and Pitt there speedily arose an occasion of serious difference. is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... George III redirects here. ... John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (May 25, 1713 - March 10, 1792), was a Scottish nobleman who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain (1762-1763) under George III. A close relative of the Campbell clan (his mother was a daughter of the First Duke of Argyll), Bute succeeded to...


The existence of the so-called family compact by which the Bourbons of France and Spain bound themselves in an offensive alliance against England was suspected, Pitt urged that it should be met by a pre emptive strike against Spain's navy and her colonies. To this course Bute would not consent, and as his refusal was endorsed by all his colleagues save Temple, Pitt had no choice but to leave a cabinet in which his advice on a vital question had been rejected: "Being responsible, I will direct, and will be responsible for nothing that I do not direct." Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Richard Grenville-Temple, 2nd Earl Temple (September 26, 1711 - September 12, 1779) was an English politician. ...


On his resignation, which took place in October 1761, the King urged him to accept some signal mark of royal favour in the form most agreeable to himself. Accordingly he obtained a pension of £3000 a year for three lives, and his wife, Lady Hester Grenville, whom he had married in 1754, was created Baroness Chatham in her own right. Pitt's domestic life was happy. Hester Pitt, Countess of Chatham and 1st Baroness Chatham (8 November 1720–9 April 1803) was the wife of William Pitt (the Elder), 1st Earl of Chatham, who was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1766 to 1768. ... The Earl of Chatham was a peerage given to William Pitt the Elder in 1766, after which he became Lord Privy Seal. ...


Pitt's spirit was too lofty to admit of his entering on any merely factious opposition to the government he had quitted. On the contrary, his conduct after his retirement was distinguished by a moderation and disinterestedness which, as Burke has remarked, "set a seal upon his character." The war with Spain, in which he had urged the cabinet to take the initiative, proved inevitable; but he scorned to use the occasion for "altercation and recrimination", and spoke in support of the government measures for carrying on the war. Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ...


To the preliminaries of the peace concluded in February 1763 he offered an indignant resistance, considering the terms quite inadequate to the successes that had been gained by the country. When the treaty was discussed in parliament in December of the preceding year, though suffering from a severe attack of gout, he was carried down to the House, and in a speech of three hours' duration, interrupted more than once by paroxysms of pain, he strongly protested against its various conditions. These conditions included the return of the sugar islands (but Britain retained Dominica); trading stations in West Africa (won by Boscawen); Pondicherry, (France's Indian colony); and fishing rights in Newfoundland. Pitt's opposition arose through two heads: France had been given the means to become once more formidable at sea, whilst Frederick had been betrayed. The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... Paroxysm can have several meanings. ... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ...


However, there were strong reasons for concluding the peace: the National Debt had increased from £74.5m. in 1755 to £133.25m. in 1763, the year of the peace. The requirement to pay down this debt, and the lack of French threat in Canada, were major movers in the subsequent American War of Independence. The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ...


The physical cause which rendered this effort so painful probably accounts for the infrequency of his appearances in parliament, as well as for much that is otherwise inexplicable in his subsequent conduct. In 1763 he spoke against the obnoxious tax on cider, imposed by his brother-in-law, George Grenville, and his opposition, though unsuccessful in the House, helped to keep alive his popularity with the country, which cordially hated the excise and all connected with it. When next year the question of general warrants was raised in connexion with the case of Wilkes, Pitt vigorously maintained their illegality, thus defending at once the privileges of Parliament and the freedom of the press. “Taxes” redirects here. ... Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... George Grenville (14 October 1712 – 13 November 1770) was a British Whig statesman who served in government for the relatively short period of seven years, reaching the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        Excise tax, sometimes called an excise duty, is a type of... A Writ of Assistance is a legal writ that serves as a general search warrant. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ...


During 1765 he seems to have been totally incapacitated for public business. In the following year he supported with great power the proposal of the Rockingham administration for the repeal of the American Stamp Act, arguing that it was unconstitutional to impose taxes upon the colonies. He thus endorsed the contention of the colonists on the ground of principle, while the majority of those who acted with him contented themselves with resisting the disastrous taxation scheme on the ground of expediency. Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham (May 13, 1730 – July 1, 1782) was a British Whig statesman, most notable for his two terms as Whig Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... The Stamp Act of 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. ...


The Repeal Act, indeed, was only passed pari passu with another censuring the American assemblies, and declaring the authority of the British parliament over the colonies "in all cases whatsoever"; so that the House of Commons repudiated in the most formal manner the principle Pitt laid down. His language in approval of the resistance of the colonists was unusually bold, and perhaps no one but himself could have employed it with impunity at a time when the freedom of debate was only imperfectly conceded. The Declaratory Act may also refer to the Dependency of Ireland on Great Britain Act 1719. ... A deliberative assembly is an organization, comprised of members, that uses a parliamentary procedure for making decisions. ...


Pitt had not been long out of office when he was solicited to return to it, and the solicitations were more than once renewed. Unsuccessful overtures were made to him in 1763, and twice in 1765, in May and June - the negotiator in May being the king's uncle, the Duke of Cumberland, who went down in person to Hayes, Pitt's seat in Kent. It is known that he had the opportunity of joining the Marquis of Rockingham's short-lived administration at any time on his own terms, and his conduct in declining an arrangement with that minister has been more generally condemned than any other step in his public life. The Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, KG, KB, PC (15 April 1721–31 October 1765), a younger son of King George II of Great Britain and Queen Caroline, was a noted military leader. ... Hayes is a place in the London Borough of Bromley, south-east London, England. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ...


The second Pitt ministry

In July 1766 Rockingham was dismissed, and Pitt was entrusted by the King with the task of forming a government entirely on his own conditions. The result was a cabinet, strong much beyond the average in its individual members, but weak to powerlessness in the diversity of its composition. Burke, in a memorable passage of a memorable speech, has described this "chequered and speckled" administration with great humour, speaking of it as "patriots and courtiers, King's friends and republicans; Whigs and Tories... indeed a very curious show, but utterly unsafe to touch and unsure to stand on." Pitt chose for himself the office of Lord Privy Seal, which necessitated his removal to the House of Lords; and in August he became Earl of Chatham and Viscount Pitt. The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is one of the traditional sinecure offices in the British Cabinet. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Earl of Chatham was a peerage given to William Pitt the Elder in 1766, after which he became Lord Privy Seal. ...


His principle, 'measures not men', appealed to the King whom he proposed to serve by 'destroying all party distinctions'. The problems which faced the government he seemed specially fitted to tackle: the observance of the Treaty of Paris by France and Spain, tension between American colonists and the mother country, the status of the East India Company. Choosing for himself freedom from the routines of office, as Lord Privy Seal he made appointments without regard for connections but perceived merit. Charles Townshend to the Exchequer, Shelburne as Secretary of State, to order American affairs. He set about his duties with tempestuous energy. Yet in October 1768 he resigned after a catastrophic ministry, leaving such leadership as he could give to Grafton, his First Lord of the Treasury. What had gone wrong? The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is one of the traditional sinecure offices in the British Cabinet. ... This page is on the former Chancellor of the Exchequer. ... The Exchequer was (and in some cases still is) a part of the governments of England (latterly to include Wales, Scotland and Ireland) that was responsible for the management and collection of revenues. ... William Petty Fitzmaurice, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne (2 May 1737–7 May 1805), also known as the Earl of Shelburne (1761–1784), was a British statesman. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... The Most Noble Augustus Henry FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton, KG, PC (28 September 1735–14 March 1811) was a British Whig statesman of the Georgian era. ... The First Lord of the Treasury is the head of the commission exercising the ancient office of Lord High Treasurer in the United Kingdom, usually but not always the Prime Minister. ...


By the acceptance of a peerage, the great commoner lost at least as much and as suddenly in popularity as he gained in dignity. One significant indication of this may be mentioned. In view of his probable accession to power, preparations were made in the City of London for a banquet and a general illumination to celebrate the event. But the celebration was at once countermanded when it was known that he had become Earl of Chatham. The instantaneous revulsion of public feeling was somewhat unreasonable, for Pitt's health seems now to have been beyond doubt so shattered by his hereditary malady, that he was already in old age though only fifty-eight. It was natural, therefore, that he should choose a sinecure office, and the ease of the Lords. But a popular idol nearly always suffers by removal from immediate contact with the popular sympathy, be the motives for removal what they may. For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... A sinecure (from Latin sine, without, and cura, care) means an office which requires or involves little or no responsibility, labour, or active service. ...


One of the earliest acts of the new ministry was to lay an embargo upon corn, which was thought necessary in order to prevent a dearth resulting from the unprecedentedly bad harvest of 1766. The measure was strongly opposed, and Lord Chatham delivered his first speech in the House of Lords in support of it. It proved to be almost the only measure introduced by his government in which he personally interested himself. For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ... Grain redirects here. ...


In 1767, Townshend produced the duties on tea, glass and paper, so offensive to the American colonists whom Chatham thought he understood. This page is on the former Chancellor of the Exchequer. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ...


His attention had been directed to the growing importance of the affairs of India, and there is evidence in his correspondence that he was meditating a comprehensive scheme for transferring much of the power of the East India Company to the crown, when he was withdrawn from public business in a manner that has always been regarded as somewhat mysterious. It may be questioned, indeed, whether even had his powers been unimpaired he could have carried out any decided policy on any question with a cabinet representing interests so various and conflicting; but, as it happened, he was incapacitated physically and mentally during nearly the whole period of his tenure of office. The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ...


He scarcely ever saw any of his colleagues though they repeatedly and urgently pressed for interviews with him, and even an offer from the king to visit him in person was declined, though in the language of profound and almost abject respect which always marked his communications with the court. It has been insinuated both by contemporary and by later critics that being disappointed at his loss of popularity, and convinced of the impossibility of co-operating with his colleagues, he exaggerated his malady as a pretext for the inaction that was forced upon him by circumstances.


But there is no sufficient reason to doubt that he was really, as his friends represented, in a state that utterly unfitted him for business. He seems to have been freed for a time from the pangs of gout only to be afflicted with a species of mental alienation bordering on insanity. This is the most satisfactory, as it is the most obvious, explanation of his utter indifference in presence of one of the most momentous problems that ever pressed for solution on an English statesman. A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...


Those who are able to read the history in the light of what occurred later may perhaps be convinced that no policy whatever initiated, after 1766 could have prevented or even materially delayed the United States Declaration of Independence; but to the politicians of that time the coming event had not yet cast so dark a shadow before as to paralyse all action, and if any man could have allayed the growing discontent of the colonists and prevented the ultimate dismemberment of the empire, it would have been Lord Chatham. The United States Declaration of Independence was an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were Free and Independent States and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to...


The fact that he not only did nothing to remove existing difficulties, but remained passive while his colleagues took the fatal step which led directly to separation, is in itself clear proof of his entire incapacity. The imposition of the import duty on tea and other commodities was the project of Charles Townshend, and was carried into effect in 1767 without consultation with Lord Chatham, if not in opposition to his wishes. It is probably the most singular thing in connexion with this singular administration, that its most pregnant measure should thus have been one directly opposed to the well-known principles of its head. This page is on the former Chancellor of the Exchequer. ...


For many months, things remained in the curious position that he who was understood to be the head of the cabinet had as little share in the government of the country as an unenfranchised peasant. As the chief could not or would not lead, the subordinates naturally chose their own paths and not his. The lines of Chatham's policy were abandoned in other cases besides the imposition of the import duty; his opponents were taken into confidence; and friends, such as Amherst and Shelburne, were dismissed from their posts. When at length in October 1768 he tendered his resignation on the ground of shattered health, he did not fail to mention the dismissal of Amherst and Shelburne as a personal grievance. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning vote) is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... Jeffrey Amherst, painted by Joshua Reynolds in 1765 Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst (sometimes spelled Geoffrey, or Jeffrey, he himself spelled his name as Jeffery) (January 29, 1717 – August 3, 1797) served as an officer in the British Army. ... William Petty Fitzmaurice, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne (2 May 1737–7 May 1805), also known as the Earl of Shelburne (1761–1784), was a British statesman. ...


Later life

Arms of the Pitt family. Note that his family's coat of arms forms the template for that of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Arms of the Pitt family. Note that his family's coat of arms forms the template for that of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Soon after his resignation a renewed attack of gout freed Chatham from the mental disease under which he had so long suffered. He had been nearly two years and a half in seclusion when, in July 1769, he again appeared in public at a royal levee. It was not, however, until 1770 that he resumed his seat in the House of Lords. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 479 pixelsFull resolution (1794 × 1074 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 479 pixelsFull resolution (1794 × 1074 pixel, file size: 1. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


As he realised the gravity of the American situation, Chatham re-entered the fray, declaring that 'he would be in earnest for the public' and 'a scarecrow of violence to the gentler warblers of the grove'. They, moderate Whigs, found a prophet in Edmund Burke, who wrote of Chatham that he wanted 'to keep hovering in the air, above all parties, and to swoop down where the prey may prove best'. Such was Grafton, victim of Chatham's swift swoop on behalf of 'Wilkes and Liberty'. Pitt had not lost his nose for the big issue, the smell of injustice, a threat to the liberty of subjects. But Grafton was followed by North, and Chatham went off to farm, his cows typically housed in palatial stalls. Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... The Most Noble Augustus Henry FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton, KG, PC (28 September 1735–14 March 1811) was a British Whig statesman of the Georgian era. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Chatham's warnings on America went unregarded until the eve of war. Then brave efforts to present his case, passionate, deeply pondered, for the concession of fundamental liberties - no taxation without consent, independent judges, trial by jury, along with the recognition of the United States Congress - foundered on the ignorance and complacency of Parliament. In his last years he found again words to express the concern for the rights of British subjects which had been constant among the inconsistencies of his political dealings. In January 1775. The House of Lords rejected his Bill for reconciliation. After war had broken out, he warned that America could not be conquered. Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...


He had now almost no personal following, mainly owing to the grave mistake he had made in not forming an alliance with the Rockingham party. But his eloquence was as powerful as ever, and all its power was directed against the government policy in the contest with America, which had become the question of all-absorbing interest. His last appearance in the House of Lords was on 7 April 1778, on the occasion of the Duke of Richmond's motion for an address praying the king to conclude peace with America on any terms. April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1778 (MDCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond and Lennox (1733 - December 1806), was one of the most remarkable men of the 18th century, being chiefly famous for his advanced views on the question of parliamentary reform. ...


In view of the hostile demonstrations of France the various parties had come generally to see the necessity of such a measure. But Chatham could not brook the thought of a step which implied submission to the "natural enemy" whom it had been the main object of his life to humble, and he declaimed for a considerable time, though with sadly diminished vigour, against the motion. After the Duke of Richmond had replied, he rose again excitedly as if to speak, pressed his hand upon his breast, and fell down in a fit. His last words before he collapsed were: 'My Lords, any state is better than despair; if we must fall, let us fall like men.' James Harris MP, however, recorded that Lord Nugent had told him that Chatham's last words in the Lords were: 'If the Americans defend independence, they shall find me in their way' and that his very last words (spoken to his son) were: 'Leave your dying father, and go to the defence of your country'.[4] James Harris may refer to: James Howard Harris, 3rd Earl of Malmesbury (1807–1889) James Harris (comedy writer) James Harris (football player) (born 1947), first modern black professional American football quarterback to start a season James Harris (Grammarian) (1709–1780), English James Harris (politician), 2000 and 2004 U.S. presidential... Robert Craggs-Nugent, 1st Earl Nugent (1702 - October 13, 1788), Irish politician and poet, son of Michael Nugent and Mary, daughter of the ninth Lord Trimlestown, was born at Carlanstown, Co. ... John Pitt, 2nd Earl of Chatham (9 October 1756 - 24 September 1835) was the eldest son of Pitt the Elder, and elder brother to Pitt the Younger. ...


He was removed to his seat at Hayes, where his son William read Homer to him: the passage about the death of Hector. Chatham died on 11 May. With graceful unanimity all parties combined to show their sense of the national loss. The Commons presented an address to the king praying that the deceased statesman might be buried with the honours of a public funeral, and voted a sum for a public monument which was erected over his grave in Westminster Abbey. In the Guildhall Burke's inscription summed up what he had meant to the City: he was 'the minister by whom commerce was united with and made to flourish by war'. Soon after the funeral a bill was passed bestowing a pension of £4,000 a year on his successors in the earldom, He had a family of three sons and two daughters, of whom the second son, William, was destined to add fresh lustre to a name which is one of the greatest in the history of England. William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hector (disambiguation). ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Monument (disambiguation). ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... The Guildhall The Guildhall complex in c. ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... An Earl as a member of the British peerage ranks below a Marquess and above a Viscount. ... William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ...


Dr. Johnson is reported to have said that "Walpole was a minister given by the king to the people, but Pitt was a minister given by the people to the king", and the remark correctly indicates Chatham's distinctive place among English statesmen. He was the first minister whose main strength lay in the support of the nation at large as distinct from its representatives in the Commons, where his personal following was always small. He was the first to discern that public opinion, though generally slow to form and slow to act, is in the end the paramount power in the state; and he was the first to use it not in an emergency merely, but throughout a whole political career.


He marks the commencement of that vast change in the movement of English politics by which it has come about that the sentiment of the great mass of the people now tells effectively on the action of the government from day to day–almost from hour to hour. He was well fitted to secure the sympathy and admiration of his countrymen, for his virtues and his failings were alike English. He was often inconsistent, he was generally intractable and overbearing, and he was always pompous and affected to a degree which, Macaulay has remarked, seems scarcely compatible with true greatness. see also Politics of the United Kingdom This politics-related article is a stub. ... Quotes His imagination resembled the wings of an ostrich. ...


Of the last quality evidence is furnished in the stilted style of his letters, and in the fact recorded by Seward that he never permitted his under-secretaries to sit in his presence. Burke speaks of "some significant, pompous, creeping, explanatory, ambiguous matter, in the true Chathamic style." But these defects were known only to the inner circle of his associates.


To the outside public he was endeared as a statesman who could do or suffer "nothing base", and who had the rare power of transfusing his own indomitable energy and courage into all who served under him. "A spirited foreign policy" has always been popular in England, and Pitt was the most popular of English ministers, because he was the most successful exponent of such a policy. In domestic affairs his influence was small and almost entirely indirect. He himself confessed his unfitness for dealing with questions of finance. The commercial prosperity that was produced by his war policy was in a great part delusive, as prosperity so produced must always be, though it had permanent effects of the highest moment in the rise of such centres of industry as Glasgow. This, however, was a remote result which he could have neither intended nor foreseen. For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ...


Family and personal life

Pitt married Lady Hester Grenville (bef. 1727-3 April 1803), daughter of the 1st Countess Temple, on 16 October 1754. They had at least four children: Hester Pitt, Countess of Chatham and 1st Baroness Chatham (8 November 1720–9 April 1803) was the wife of William Pitt (the Elder), 1st Earl of Chatham, who was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1766 to 1768. ... Events 1727 to 1800 - Lt. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Hester Temple, 1st Countess Temple (c. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl Stanhope (August 3, 1753 – December 15, 1816) was a British statesman and scientist. ... The title of Earl Stanhope was created in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1718 for James Stanhope, the principal minister of King George I. The title became extinct upon the death of the 7th Earl in 1967. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... John Pitt, 2nd Earl of Chatham (9 October 1756 - 24 September 1835) was the eldest son of Pitt the Elder, and elder brother to Pitt the Younger. ... Mary Elizabeth Pitt, née Townshend, Countess of Chatham (1762 - 1821) was the second daughter of Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney. ... William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ... Edward James Eliot (August 24, 1758 – September 20, 1797), Member of Parliament, was born in Cornwall, the son of Edward Craggs-Eliot (1727 – 1804), politician, created Baron Eliot in 1784. ... Edward Craggs-Eliot was born Edward Eliot in London on July 8, 1727 to Richard Eliot (c. ...

Titles from birth to death

  • Mr. William Pitt (1708–1746)
  • The Rt. Hon. William Pitt (1746–1747)
  • The Rt. Hon. William Pitt, MP (1747–1766)
  • The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Chatham, PC (1766–1778)

See also

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

After British General John Forbes occupied Fort Duquesne during the French and Indian War, he ordered the site's reconstruction and named it after then-Secretary of State Pitt. He also named the settlement between the rivers "Pittsborough", which would eventually become known as Pittsburgh.


The correspondence of Lord Chatham, in four volumes, was published in 1838–1840; and a volume of his letters to Lord Camelford in 1804. The Rev. Francis Thackeray's History of the Rt. Hon. William Pitt, Earl of Chatham (2 vols., 1827), is a ponderous and shapeless work. Frederic Harrison's Chatham, in the "Twelve English Statesmen" series (1905), though skilfully executed, takes a rather academic and modern Liberal view. A German work, William Pitt, Graf von Chatham, by Albert von Ruville (3 vols., 1905; English trans. 1907), is the best and most thorough account of Chatham, his period, and his policy, which has appeared. See also the separate article on William Pitt, and the authorities referred to, especially the Rev. William Hunt's appendix i. to his vol. x. of The Political History of England (1905). Thomas Pitt, 1st Baron Camelford (March 3, 1737 – January 19, 1793) was a British politician. ... Frederic Harrison, English historian Frederic Harrison (October 18, 1831 - 1923), English jurist and historian, was born in London on the 18th of October 1831. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This could refer to William Henry Hunt, English water-colour painter. ... Look up appendix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Barney Gumble and Wade Boggs discuss England's greatest Prime Ministers in a third season episode of "The Simpsons" entitled Homer at the Bat. In their heated discussion, Wade Boggs promotes Pitt the Elder, and Barney Gumble promotes Lord Palmerston. The scene ends with Barney punching out both Wade Boggs and Moe Szyslak, who he mistakenly believes also promotes Pitt the Elder. Barnard Barney Gumble is a character on The Simpsons, voiced by Dan Castellaneta. ... Wade Anthony Boggs (born June 15, 1958 in Omaha, Nebraska) is a former third baseman in Major League Baseball, primarily with the Boston Red Sox. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Homer at the Bat is the seventeenth episode of The Simpsons third season. ... The Right Honourable Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston (October 20, 1784 - October 18, 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid 19th century. ... Morris Moe Szyslak (pronounced //) is a fictional character on the animated series The Simpsons, voiced by Hank Azaria. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Horace Walpole, Memoirs of the Reign of King George II: Volume III, (Yale University Press, 1985), p. 1.
  2. ^ Basil Williams, The Whig Supremacy, 1714-60, (Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 375.
  3. ^ Walpole, Memoirs: Volume II, p. 251.
  4. ^ Jeremy Black, Pitt the Elder (Cambridge University Press, 1992), p. 299.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jeremy Black MBE is British historian and a Professor of History at the University of Exeter. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

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Political offices
Preceded by
Thomas Winnington
Paymaster of the Forces
1746 – 1755
Succeeded by
The Earl of Darlington
Viscount Dupplin
Preceded by
Henry Fox
Secretary of State for the Southern Department
1756 – 1757
Succeeded by
The Earl of Holdernesse
Leader of the House of Commons
1756 – 1761
Succeeded by
George Grenville
Preceded by
The Earl of Holdernesse
Secretary of State for the Southern Department
1757 – 1761
Succeeded by
The Earl of Egremont
Preceded by
The Marquess of Rockingham
Prime Minister of Great Britain
30 July 1766 – 14 October 1768
Succeeded by
The Duke of Grafton
Preceded by
The Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne
Lord Privy Seal
1766 – 1768
Succeeded by
The Earl of Bristol
Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
William Hay
The Hon. William Gage
Member of Parliament for Seaford
with William Hay

1747 – 1754
Succeeded by
William Hay
The Hon. William Gage
Preceded by
Andrew Wilkinson
Nathaniel Newnham
Member of Parliament for Aldborough
with Andrew Wilkinson

1754 – 1756
Succeeded by
Andrew Wilkinson
Nathaniel Cholmley
Preceded by
Sir George Lyttelton, Bt
Robert Vyner
Member of Parliament for Okehampton
with Robert Vyner

1756 – 1757
Succeeded by
Robert Vyner
Thomas Potter
Preceded by
Robert Henley
John Louis Ligonier
Member of Parliament for Bath
with The Viscount Ligonier 1757–1763
Sir John Sebright, Bt 1763–1766

1757 – 1766
Succeeded by
Sir John Sebright, Bt
John Smith
Peerage of Great Britain
New creation Earl of Chatham
1766 – 1778
Succeeded by
John Pitt

  Results from FactBites:
 
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6149 words)
William Pitt was educated at Eton, and, in January 1727, was entered as a gentleman commoner at Trinity College, Oxford.
In Pitt's case, too, it is to be borne in mind that the opposition with which he had acted gradually dwindled away, and that it ceased to have any organized existence after the death of the prince of Wales in 1751.
Pitt, the first real Imperialist in modern English history, was the directing mind in the expansion of his country, and with him the beginning of empire is rightly associated.
Wikipedia: William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham (327 words)
William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, commonly known as William Pitt the Elder, (November 15, 1708 - May 11, 1778) was an English politician, born in London, who was the nominal Prime Minister and Lord Privy Seal (1766-68) and Secretary of State for the Southern Department (1756-61).
Pitt was recalled in 1766 and formed a second coalition government, not nearly successful as the first.
Chatham's second son, William Pitt the Younger, was a prominent Tory statesman at the end of the 18th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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