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Encyclopedia > William Osler
Sir William Osler

Sir William Osler, 1st Baronet (July 12, 1849December 29, 1919) was a Canadian-born physician. He has been called one of the greatest icons of modern medicine and the Father of Modern Medicine (who he considered to be Avicenna) Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Doctor by Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... medicines, see Medication. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...

Contents

Biography

He was born in Bond Head, Canada West (now Ontario), and raised after 1857 in Dundas, Ontario. His family included his parents, Rev. Featherstone Lake Osler and Ellen Free Picton, and included two older brothers; Britton Bath Osler (1839-1901), and Edmund Boyd Osler (1845-1924). Bradford West Gwillimbury, town in south-central Ontario, in the County of Simcoe in the Greater Toronto Area on the Holland River. ... Canada West was the western portion of the former Province of Canada from 1841 to 1867. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... Dundas, Ontario, Canada held a town charter between 1848 and 2001. ... Britton Bath Osler (19 June 1839 – 5 February 1901) was a Canadian lawyer and prosecutor. ... Edmund Boyd Osler in 1896 Edmund Boyd Osler (1845 – August 4, 1924) was a Canadian banker and politician. ...


As a teenager, his aim was to follow his father into the Anglican ministry and to that end he entered Trinity College, Toronto in the autumn of 1867. However, his chief interest proved to be medicine and, forsaking his original intention, he enrolled in the Toronto School of Medicine. This was a proprietary, or privately owned, institution (not to be confused with the Medical Faculty of the University of Toronto, which was then not active as a teaching body.) After two years at the Toronto School of Medicine , Osler came to McGill University in Montreal where he obtained his medical degree (MDCM) in 1872. Anglican Church of Canada The Anglican Church of Canada (the ACC) is the Canadian branch of the Anglican Communion. ... For other institutions named Trinity College, see Trinity College. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... McGill University is a publicly funded, co-educational research university located in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ...


Following post-graduate training in Europe, Osler returned to McGill University as a professor in 1874. It is here that he created the first formalized journal club. In 1884 he was appointed Chair of Clinical Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia; in 1889 he became the first chief of staff at Johns Hopkins Hospital, and in 1893 one of the first professors of medicine at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore. In 1905 he was appointed to the Regius Chair of Medicine at Oxford, which he held until his death. Osler was created a baronet in 1911 for his many contributions to the field of medicine. McGill University is a publicly funded, co-educational research university located in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A journal club is a group of individuals who meet regularly to critically evaluate recent articles in scientific literature. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Johns Hopkins Hospital is a teaching hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland, is a highly regarded medical school and biomedical research institute in the United States. ... Nickname: Motto: The Greatest City in America,[4] Get in on it. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Regius Professor of Medicine is an appointment held at the University of Oxford. ... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ... A baronet (traditional abbreviation Bart, modern abbreviation Bt) or the rare female equivalent, a baronetess (abbreviation Btss), is the holder of a hereditary title awarded by the British Crown known as a baronetcy. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Osler was a prolific author and a great collector of books and other material relevant to the history of medicine. He willed his library to McGill University where it forms the nucleus of McGill University's Osler Library of the History of Medicine, which opened in 1929. The printed and extensively annotated catalogue of this donation is entitled "Bibliotheca Osleriana: a catalogue of books illustrating the history of medicine and science, collected, arranged and annotated by Sir William Osler, Bt. and bequeathed to McGill University". Sir William and Lady Osler's ashes now rest in a niche within the Osler Library, surrounded by his beloved books. Osler was a strong supporter of libraries and served on the library committees at most of the universities he taught at and was a member of the Board of Curators of the Bodleian Library in Oxford. He was instrumental in founding the Medical Library Association in North America and served as its second President from 1901-1904. In Britain he was the first (and only) President of the Medical Library Association of Great Britain and Ireland. [Ref http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/toc/hir/21/4] This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... McGill University is a publicly funded, co-educational research university located in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Entrance to the Library, with the coats-of-arms of several Oxford colleges The Bodleian Library, the main research library of the University of Oxford, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe, and in England is second in size only to the British Library. ... The Medical Library Association was founded in 1898 as the Association of Medical Librarians and changed its name to Medical Library Association in 1907. ...


An inveterate prankster, he wrote several humorous pieces under the pseudonym Egerton Yorrick Davis, even fooling the editors of the Philadelphia Medical News with a report on the supposed phenomenon of penis captivus. (See: Osler Library Studies in the History of Medicine 3. The Works of Egerton Yorrick Davis, MD: Sir William Osler’s Alter Ego edited, annotated and introduced by Dr. Richard L. Golden. A collection of writings by the fictitious surgical character, E.Y. Davis - ISBN 07717-0548-4 - available from the Osler Library.) Penis captivus is a possible urban legend describing an event that allegedly happens in rare instances during heterosexual intercourse when the muscles in the vagina clamp down on the penis much more firmly than usual, making it impossible for the penis to withdraw from the vagina regardless of erection status. ...


Perhaps Osler's greatest contribution to medicine was to insist that students learned from seeing and talking to patients and the establishment of the medical residency program. This latter idea spread across the English-speaking world and remains in place today in most teaching hospitals. Through this system, doctors in training make up much of a hospital's medical staff. The success of his residency system depended, in large part, on its pyramidal structure with many interns, fewer assistant residents and a single chief resident, who originally occupied that position for years. Residency is a stage of postgraduate medical training in North America and leads to eligibility for board certification in a primary care or referral specialty. ...

The Four Doctors by John Singer Sargent, 1905, depicts the four physicians who founded Johns Hopkins Hospital. The original hangs in the William H. Welch Medical Library of Johns Hopkins University.
From left to right: William Henry Welch, William Stewart Halsted, Osler, Howard Kelly

In 1889, Osler accepted the position of Physician-in-Chief at the recently founded Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore. He quickly increased his reputation as clinician, humanitarian and teacher. He presided over a rapidly-expanding domain. In the Hospital's first year of operation, when it had 220 beds, 788 patients were seen for a total of over 15,000 days of treatment. Sixteen years later, when Osler left for Oxford, over 4,200 patients were seen for a total of nearly 110,000 days of treatment. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Self Portrait, oil painting, 1907 John Singer Sargent (January 12, 1856 – April 14, 1925) was the most successful portrait painter of his era, as well as a gifted landscape painter and watercolorist. ... The Johns Hopkins Hospital is a teaching hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The Four Doctors by John Singer Sargent, 1905. ... Howard Atwood Kelly (Feb, 20 1858 - Jan, 12 1943) was a distinguished American gynecologist, born at Camden, N. J., and educated at the University of Pennsylvania, where he graduated B.A. in 1877 and M.D. in 1882, and where he was associate professor of obstetrics in 1888-89. ... The Johns Hopkins Hospital is a teaching hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United...


Soon after coming to Baltimore, Osler insisted that his medical students get to the bedside early in their training; by their third year they were taking patient histories, performing physicals and doing lab tests examining secretions, blood and excreta instead of sitting in a lecture hall, dutifully taking notes. He diminished the role of didactic lectures and once said he hoped his tombstone would say only, "He brought medical students into the wards for bedside teaching." The Didactic is facts based as opposed to the Dialectic which is feelings based. ...


While at Hopkins, Osler also established the full-time, sleep-in residency system whereby staff physicians lived in the Administration Building of the Hospital. As established, the residency was open-ended, and long tenure was the rule. Doctors spent as long as seven or eight years as residents, during which time they led a restricted, almost monastic life. Osler's contribution to medical education of which he was proudest was his idea of clinical clerkships--having third and fourth year students work with patients on the wards. He pioneered the practice of bedside teaching making rounds with a handful of students, demonstrating what one student referred to as his method of "incomparably thorough physical examination."


Osler is well known in the field of gerontology for the speech he gave when leaving Hopkins to become the Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford. His speech (The Fixed Period), given on 22 February 1905, included some controversial words about old age. Osler, who had a well-developed humorous side to his character, was in his mid-fifties when he gave the speech and in it he mentioned Anthony Trollope's "The Fixed Period", which envisaged a College where men retired at 60 and after a contemplative period of a year were 'peacefully extinguished' by chloroform. He claimed that, "the effective, moving, vitalizing work of the world is done between the ages of twenty-five and forty" and it was downhill from then on. Osler's speech was covered by the popular press which headlined their reports with "Osler recommends chloroform at sixty". The Fixed Period speech is included in the book of his collected addresses, "Aequanititas with other Addresses to Medical Students etc.") Anthony Trollope (April 24, 1815 – December 6, 1882) became one of the most successful, prolific and respected English novelists of the Victorian era. ...


He himself liked to say, "He who studies medicine without books sails an uncharted sea, but he who studies medicine without patients does not go to sea at all." He is also remembered for saying, "If you listen carefully to the patient they will tell you the diagnosis" which emphasises the importance of taking a good history.


Throughout his life Osler was a great admirer of the 17th century physician and philosopher Sir Thomas Browne. In 1994 he was inducted into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame. Sir Thomas Browne (October 19, 1605 – October 19, 1682) was an English author of varied works that disclose his wide learning in diverse fields including medicine, religion, science and the esoteric. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... The Canadian Medical Hall of Fame is a Canadian charitable organization, founded in 1994, that honours Canadians who have contributed to the understanding of disease and improving the health of people. ...


Osler was a prolific author and public speaker and his public speaking and writing were both done in a clear, lucid style. His most famous work, The Principles and Practice of Medicine quickly became a bible to students and clinicians alike. It continued to be published in many editions until 2001 and was translated into many languages. (See Osler Library Studies in the History of Medicine vol. 8.A History of William Osler’s The Principles and Practice of Medicine by Richard Golden. ISBN 07717-0615-4. Available from the Osler Library.) Osler's essays were important guides to physicians. The title of his most famous essay, Aequanimitas, espousing the importance of imperturbability, is used on the Osler housestaff tie and scarf at Hopkins. The Principles and Practice of Medicine: designed for the use of practitioners and students of medicine is a medical textbook by Sir William Osler. ...


Osler was a true Renaissance man -- a physician, clinician, pathologist, teacher, diagnostician, bibliophile, historian, classicist, essayist, conversationalist, organizer, manager and author. He established a tradition at Hopkins that became the goal of those who succeeded him. He once said, "I desire no other epitaph … than the statement that I taught medical students in the wards, as I regard this as by far the most useful and important work I have been called upon to do."


He died, at the age of 70, in 1919, during the Spanish influenza epidemic; his wife, Grace, lived another nine years. Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Chart of deaths in major cities The 1918 flu pandemic, commonly referred to as the Spanish flu, was a category 5 influenza pandemic between 1918 and 1920 caused by an unusually severe and deadly Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1. ...


In 1925 a monumental biography of William Osler was written by Harvey Cushing. A later and somewhat more critical, biography by Michael Bliss was published in 1999. Harvey Cushing (c. ... Michael Bliss (born 1941) is a Canadian historian and outspoken public figure. ...


Trivia

Osler House is the student mess for clinical medical students of Oxford University and is found at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford. It provides a common room area, computers and freshly made sandwiches. The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... John Radcliffe. ...


Eponyms

Osler lent his name to a number of diseases and symptoms, as well as having buildings named after him. An eponym is the name of a person, whether real or fictitious, who has (or is thought to have) given rise to the name of a particular place, tribe, discovery, or other item. ...

Oslers Sign, named in honor of the famous Professor Sir Willima Osler, Professor of Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University- an artificially and falsely elevated blood pressure reading obtained through sphygnomanometry due to arteriosclerotic, calcified vessels which do not physiologically compress with pressure- therefore the blood pressure reading is... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring blood pressure. ... Atherosclerosis is a disease affecting arterial blood vessels. ... Section of an artery For other uses, see Artery (disambiguation). ... Oslers nodes are red, raised lesions in the finger pads, indicative of the heart disease, subacute bacterial endocarditis. ... Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. ... Janeway lesions are non-tender, small erythematous or haemorrhagic macules or nodules in the palms or soles, which are pathognomonic of infective endocarditis. ... In medicine, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome, is a genetic disorder that leads to vascular malformations. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Polycythemia is a condition in which there is a net increase in the total number of red blood cells in the body. ... Sir William Osler Elementary is a public elementary school in Vancouver, British Columbia part of School District 39 Vancouver. ... This article refers to the city in British Columbia, Canada. ... The Hamilton Wentworth District School Board (HWDSB) is based out of Hamilton, Ontario. ... Dundas, Ontario, Canada held a town charter between 1848 and 2001. ... The Simcoe County District School Board (SCDSB) is one of Ontarios largest public school boards, serving Simcoe County. ... Bradford West Gwillimbury, town in south-central Ontario, in the County of Simcoe in the Greater Toronto Area on the Holland River. ... McGill University is a publicly funded, co-educational research university located in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... The William Osler Health Centre (WOHC) is one of the largest hospital corporations in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Brampton Memorial Hospital (BMH) is a 367-bed acute care hospital located in central Brampton, Ontario. ... Nickname: Location in the Region of Peel, in the Province of Ontario Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario Region Peel Incorporation 1853 (village)   1873 (town)   1974 (city) Government  - Mayor Susan Fennell  - Governing Body Brampton City Council (click for members)  - MPs Navdeep Bains, Colleen Beaumier, Ruby Dhalla, Gurbax Malhi  - MPPs Vic Dhillon... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

References

  • Bliss, Michael. William Osler : a life in medicine, University of Toronto Press, c1999. ISBN 0-8020-4349-6
  • Cushing, Harvey. The life of Sir William Osler, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1925.
  • Osler, William. The Quotable Osler, American College of Physicians, 2003. ISBN 1-930513-34-8
  • Famous Canadian Physicians: Sir William Osler at Library and Archives Canada
  • Osler, William. Bibliotheca Osleriana: A Catalogue of Books Illustrating the History of Medicine and Science. Revised Edition, McGill-Queen's University Press, 1969. ISBN 0-773590-50-1 , ISBN13 9780773590502.

External links

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William Osler - definition of William Osler in Encyclopedia (371 words)
Osler was created a baronet in 1911 for his great contributions to the field of medicine.
Osler was a prolific author and a great collector of books relevant to the history of medicine.
Osler's nodes are painful indentiations on the muscular pads of hands and feet, a symptom of infectious endocarditis.
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