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Encyclopedia > William Moulton Marston
William Moulton Marston
Born May 9, 1893(1893-05-09)
Cliftondale, Massachusetts
Died May 2, 1947 (aged 53)
Rye, New York
Nationality American
Education Harvard University
B.A. 1915
L.L.B 1918
Ph.D. 1921 (Psychology)
Occupation Psychologist
"Wonder Woman" writer
Employers American University
Tufts University
Known for Systolic blood-pressure test
Creator of Wonder Woman
Spouse(s) Elizabeth Holloway Marston
Partner Olive Byrne
Children (Elizabeth's children):
Pete & Olive Ann
(Olive's children):
Byrne & Donn

Dr. William Moulton Marston (May 9, 1893May 2, 1947) was an American psychologist, feminist theorist, inventor, and comic book author who created the character Wonder Woman. Two women, his wife Elizabeth Holloway Marston and Olive Byrne, (who lived with the couple in a polyamorous relationship), served as exemplars for the character and greatly influenced her creation.[1][2] is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Saugus is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Rye, NY City Seal. ... This article is about the state. ... Harvard redirects here. ... For other universities known as American University, see American University (disambiguation). ... Tufts redirects here. ... For other uses, see Wonder Woman (disambiguation). ... Elizabeth Sadie Holloway Marston (February 20, 1893 – March 27, 1993) was an American psychologist who was a career woman at a time when it was difficult for women to be so. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An American comic book is a small magazine originating in the United States containing a narrative in the comics form. ... For other uses, see Wonder Woman (disambiguation). ... Elizabeth Sadie Holloway Marston (February 20, 1893 – March 27, 1993) was an American psychologist who was a career woman at a time when it was difficult for women to be so. ... Polyamory (from Greek (, literally “multiple”) and Latin (literally “love”)) is the desire, practice, or acceptance of having more than one loving, intimate relationship at a time with the full knowledge and consent of everyone involved. ...


He was inducted into the Comic Book Hall of Fame in 2006. The Will Eisner Comic Industry Award is given for creative achievement in comic books. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life and career

Born in Saugus, Massachusetts, William Marston was educated at Harvard University, receiving his B.A. in 1915, an L.L.B. in 1918, and a Ph.D. in Psychology in 1921. After teaching at American University in Washington D.C. and Tufts University in Medford MA, Marston traveled to Universal Studios in California in 1929, where he spent a year as Director of Public Services. Saugus is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... For other universities known as American University, see American University (disambiguation). ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Tufts redirects here. ...   Nickname: medfa (bostonian) Settled: 1630 â€“ Incorporated: 1630 Zip Code(s): 02155 â€“ Area Code(s): 339 / 781 Official website: http://www. ... This article is about the American media conglomerate. ... This article is about the U.S state. ...


Psychologist and inventor

Marston is credited as the creator of the systolic blood-pressure test used in an attempt to detect deception, which became one component of the modern polygraph. According to their son, Marston's wife, Elizabeth Holloway Marston, was also involved in the development of the systolic blood-pressure test: "According to Marston’s son, it was his mother Elizabeth, Marston’s wife, who suggested to him that 'When she got mad or excited, her blood pressure seemed to climb' (Lamb, 2001). Although Elizabeth is not listed as Marston’s collaborator in his early work, Lamb, Matte (1996), and others refer directly and indirectly to Elizabeth’s work on her husband’s deception research. She also appears in a picture taken in his polygraph laboratory in the 1920s (reproduced in Marston, 1938)."[3][4] This would be the basis for Wonder Woman's Lasso of Truth. This article is about the forensic instrument. ... Elizabeth Sadie Holloway Marston (February 20, 1893 – March 27, 1993) was an American psychologist who was a career woman at a time when it was difficult for women to be so. ... Wonder Woman holding the Lasso of Truth from Wonder Woman v2 #186. ...


From this work, Marston had been convinced that women were more honest and reliable than men, and could work faster and more accurately. During his lifetime, Marston championed the causes of women of the day.


Marston was also a writer of essays in popular psychology.


In 1928 he published Emotions of Normal People, which elaborated the DISC Theory. Marston viewed people behaving along two axes, with their attention being either passive or active, depending on the individual's perception of his or her environment as either favourable or antagonistic. By placing the axes at right angles, four quadrants form with each describing a behavioral pattern: DISC is a group of psychometric tests based on the 1928 work of psychologist William Moulton Marston. ...

  • Dominance produces activity in an antagonistic environment
  • Inducement produces activity in a favourable environment
  • Steadiness produces passivity in a favourable environment
  • Compliance produces passivity in an antagonistic environment.

Marston posited that there is a male notion of freedom that is inherently anarchic and violent, and an opposing female notion based on "Love Allure" that leads to an ideal state of submission to loving authority.


Wonder Woman

Creation

In an October 25, 1940, interview conducted by former student Olive Byrne (under the pseudonym 'Olive Richard') and published in Family Circle, titled "Don't Laugh at the Comics", Marston described what he saw as the great educational potential of comic books (a follow up article was published two years later in 1942.[5]) This article caught the attention of comics publisher Max Gaines, who hired Marston as an educational consultant for National Periodicals and All-American Publications, two of the companies that would merge to form the future DC Comics. is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Family Circle is an American womens magazine published 15 times a year by Meredith Corporation. ... Maxwell Charles Gaines a. ... The All-American logo, used on their titles during the 1945 split with National All-American Publications is one of three American comic book companies that combined to form the modern-day DC Comics, one of the worlds two largest comics publishers. ... DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ...


In the early 1940s the DC line was dominated by superpowered male characters such as the Green Lantern, Batman, and its flagship character, Superman. According to the Fall 2001 issue of the Boston University alumni magazine, it was his wife Elizabeth's idea to create a female superhero: The Green Lantern redirects here. ... Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still referred to at times as the Batman) is a DC Comics fictional superhero who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. ... Superman is a fictional character and comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ... For the similarly named institution in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... Elizabeth Sadie Holloway Marston (February 20, 1893 – March 27, 1993) was an American psychologist who was a career woman at a time when it was difficult for women to be so. ...

William Moulton Marston, a psychologist already famous for inventing the polygraph (forerunner to the magic lasso), struck upon an idea for a new kind of superhero, one who would triumph not with fists or firepower, but with love. 'Fine,' said Elizabeth. 'But make her a woman.'[6]

Marston introduced the idea to Max Gaines, cofounder (along with Jack Liebowitz) of All-American Publications. Given the go-ahead, Marston developed Wonder Woman with Elizabeth (whom Marston believed to be a model of that era's unconventional, liberated woman).[7] In creating Wonder Woman, Marston was also inspired by Olive Byrne, who lived with the couple in a polygamous/polyamorous relationship.[8] Marston's pseudonym, Charles Moulton, combined his own and Gaines' middle names. Maxwell Charles Gaines a. ... The All-American logo, used on their titles during the 1945 split with National All-American Publications is one of three American comic book companies that combined to form the modern-day DC Comics, one of the worlds two largest comics publishers. ... The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning the practice of multiple marriage) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... Polyamory (from Greek (, literally “multiple”) and Latin (literally “love”)) is the desire, practice, or acceptance of having more than one loving, intimate relationship at a time with the full knowledge and consent of everyone involved. ... For other uses, see Alias. ...


In a 1943 issue of The American Scholar, Marston wrote: Ralph Waldo Emerson Wikisource has original text related to this article: The American Scholar For the publication of Phi Beta Kappa, see The American Scholar (magazine) The American Scholar was a speech given by Ralph Waldo Emerson in 1837 to the Phi Beta Kappa Society in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...

Not even girls want to be girls so long as our feminine archetype lacks force, strength, and power. Not wanting to be girls, they don't want to be tender, submissive, peace-loving as good women are. Women's strong qualities have become despised because of their weakness. The obvious remedy is to create a feminine character with all the strength of Superman plus all the allure of a good and beautiful woman.

Development

Marston used a pen name that combined his middle name with that of Gaines to create Charles Moulton. Marston intended his character, which he called "Suprema", to be "tender, submissive, peaceloving as good women are," combining "all the strength of a Superman plus all the allure of a good and beautiful woman." His character was a native of an all-female utopia who became a crime-fighting U.S. government agent, using her superhuman strength and agility, and her ability to force villains to tell the truth by binding them with her magic lasso. Her appearance, including her heavy silver bracelets (which she used to deflect bullets), was based somewhat on Olive Byrne. A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ... Lariat redirects here. ...


Editor Sheldon Mayer replaced the name "Suprema" with "Wonder Woman", and the character made her debut in All Star Comics #8 (December 1941). The character next appeared in Sensation Comics #1 (January 1942), and six months later, Wonder Woman #1 debuted. Except for four months in 2006, the series has been in print ever since, and now appears bi-monthly. The stories were initially written by Marston and illustrated by newspaper artist Harry Peter. During his life Marston had written many articles and books on psychological topics, but his last six years of writing were devoted to his comics creation. Sheldon Mayer was an American comic book writer. ... For other uses, see Wonder Woman (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 1940s comic book series. ... Sensation Comics is the title of a comic book series published by DC Comics that ran for 109 issues between 1942 and 1952. ...


William Moulton Marston died of cancer on May 2, 1947 in Rye, New York. After his death, Elizabeth and Olive continued to live together until Olive's death in the late 1980s; Elizabeth died in 1993, aged 100. Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Rye, NY City Seal. ... This article is about the state. ...


Themes

Marston's Wonder Woman is often cited as an early example of bondage themes entering popular culture: physical submission appears again and again throughout Marston's comics work, with Wonder Woman and her criminal opponents frequently being tied up or otherwise restrained, and her Amazonian friends engaging in frequent wrestling and bondage play (possibly based on Marston's earlier research studies on sorority initiations). These elements were softened by later writers of the series. Though Marston had described female nature as submissive, in his other writings and interviews he referred to submission to women as a noble and potentially world-saving practice, leading ideally to the establishment of a matriarchy, and did not shy away from the sexual implications of this: A model in bondage cuffs with a leg spreader In the context of BDSM, bondage involves people being tied up or otherwise restrained for pleasure. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... While the term fraternity can be used to describe any number of social organizations, including the Lions Club and the Shriners, fraternities and sororities are most commonly known as social organizations of higher education students in the United States and Canada but there are fraternities in the whole world (for... Matriarchy is a term, which is applied to gynocentric form of society, in which the leading role is by the female and especially by the mothers of a community. ...

"The only hope for peace is to teach people who are full of pep and unbound force to enjoy being bound ... Only when the control of self by others is more pleasant than the unbound assertion of self in human relationships can we hope for a stable, peaceful human society. ... Giving to others, being controlled by them, submitting to other people cannot possibly be enjoyable without a strong erotic element".[9]

About male readers, he later wrote: "Give them an alluring woman stronger than themselves to submit to, and they'll be proud to become her willing slaves!"[10]


Bibliography

Doctoral Dissertation: "Systolic blood pressure symptoms of deception and constituent mental states." (Harvard University, 1921) Harvard redirects here. ...


Books

  • (1999; originally published 1928) Emotions of Normal People. Taylor & Francis Ltd. ISBN 0-415-21076-3
  • (1930) Walter B. Pitkin & William M. Marston, The Art of Sound Pictures. New York: Appleton.
  • (1931) Integrative Psychology: A Study of Unit Response (with C. Daly King, and Elizabeth Holloway Marston).
  • (c. 1932) Venus with us; a tale of the Caesar. New York: Sears.
  • (1936) You can be popular. New York: Home Institute.
  • (1937) Try living. New York: Crowell.
  • (1938) The lie detector test. New York: Smith.
  • (1941) March on! Facing life with courage. New York: Doubleday, Doran.
  • (1943) F.F. Proctor, vaudeville pioneer (with J.H. Feller). New York: Smith.

Journal Articles Elizabeth Sadie Holloway Marston (February 20, 1893 – March 27, 1993) was an American psychologist who was a career woman at a time when it was difficult for women to be so. ...

  • (1917) "Systolic blood pressure symptoms of deception." Journal of Experimental Psychology, Vol 2(2), 117–163.
  • (1920) "Reaction time symptoms of deception." Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 72–87.
  • (1921) "Psychological Possibilities in the Deception Tests." Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 11, 551–570.
  • (1923) "Sex Characteristics of Systolic Blood Pressure Behavior." Journal of Experimental Psychology, 6, 387–419.
  • (1924) "Studies in Testimony." Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 15, 5–31.
  • (1924) "A Theory of Emotions and Affection Based Upon Systolic Blood Pressure Studies." American Journal of Psychology, 35, 469–506.
  • (1925) "Negative type reaction-time symptoms of deception." Psychological Review, 32, 241–247.
  • (1926) "The psychonic theory of consciousness." Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 21, 161–169.
  • (1927) "Primary emotions." Psychological Review, 34, 336–363.
  • (1927) "Consciousness, motation, and emotion." Psyche, 29, 40–52.
  • (1927) "Primary colors and primary emotions." Psyche, 30, 4–33.
  • (1927) "Motor consciousness as a basis for emotion." Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 22, 140-150.
  • (1928) "Materialism, vitalism and psychology." Psyche, 8, 15–34.
  • (1929) "Bodily symptoms of elementary emotions." Psyche, 10, 70–86.
  • (1929) "The psychonic theory of consciousness—an experimental study," (with C.D. King). Psyche, 9, 39–5.
  • (1938) "'You might as well enjoy it.'" Rotarian, 53, No. 3, 22–25.
  • (1938) "What people are for." Rotarian, 53, No. 2, 8-10.
  • (1944) "Why 100,000,000 Americans read comics." The American Scholar, 13 (1), 35-44.
  • (1944) "Women can out-think men!" Ladies Home Journal, 61 (May), 4-5.
  • (1947) "Lie detection's bodily basis and test procedures," in: P.L. Harriman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Psychology, New York, 354-363.
  • Articles "Consciousness," "Defense mechanisms," and "Synapse" in the 1929 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica.

Notes

  1. ^ 'Who Was Wonder Woman?
  2. ^ OUR TOWNS; She's Behind the Match For That Man of Steel
  3. ^ WILLIAM MOULTON MARSTON, THE NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, AND WONDER WOMAN
  4. ^ The Polygraph and Lie Detection
  5. ^ Richard, Olive. Our Women Are Our Future.
  6. ^ 'Who Was Wonder Woman?
  7. ^ 'Who Was Wonder Woman?
  8. ^ Les Daniels, Wonder Woman: The Complete History, (DC Comics, 2000), pp. 28-30.
  9. ^ Jones, Gerard Men of Tomorrow New York: Basic Books 2004, p. 210
  10. ^ Quoted in Daniels, Les, DC Comics Little, Brown and Company, 1995, p. 58; Goulart, Ron, Great American Comic Books Publications International Ltd, 2001, p. 113; Wright, Nicky The Classic Era of American Comics Contemporary Books 2000, p. 98. The third book does not quote with an exclamation point.

References

  • Biographical entry in Jaques Cattell, (ed.), American Men of Science: A Biographical Directory, Seventh Edition, (Lancaster, 1944), pp. 1173–1174.
  • Bunn, Geoffrey C. "The Lie Detector, Wonder Woman and Liberty: The Life and Works of William Moulton Marston, " History of the Human Sciences 10 (1997): 91–119.
  • Daniels, Les, and Chip Kidd. Wonder Woman: A Complete History. (Chronicle Books, 2000); ISBN 0-8118-2913-8
  • Gillespie, Nick. "William Marston’s Secret Identity: The strange private life of Wonder Woman's creator." Reason, May 2001.
  • Glen, Joshua. "Wonder-working power." Boston Globe, 4 April 2004.
  • Lamb, Marguerite. "Who Was Wonder Woman? Long-ago LAW alumna Elizabeth Marston was the muse who gave us a superheroine." Boston University, Fall 2001.
  • Malcom, Andrew H."She's Behind the Match For That Man of Steel". New York Times. 18 February 1992.
  • Moore, Mark Harrison. The Polygraph and Lie Detection. Committee to Review the Scientific Evidence on the Polygraph (National Research Council (U.S.)), 2003.
  • Richard, Olive. "Our Women Are Our Future." Family Circle, 14 August 1942.
  • William Moulton Marston at the Grand Comic-Book Database
  • William Moulton Marston at the Comic Book DB
  • "Charles Moulton" at the Comic Book DB

The libertarian Reason Magazine dedicated an issue to Ayn Rands influence one hundred years after her birth. ... The Boston Globe is the most widely-circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and in the greater New England region. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the similarly named institution in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Family Circle is an American womens magazine published 15 times a year by Meredith Corporation. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and conform with our NPOV policy, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

External links

  • William Moulton Marston.com
  • William Moulton Marston at the Internet Movie Data Base
  • FBI File of William Moulton Marston
  • Bibliography on the histories of lie detectors
Preceded by
None
Wonder Woman writer
1941–1947
Succeeded by
Robert Kanigher
Persondata
NAME Marston, William Moulton
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Psychologist
DATE OF BIRTH May 9, 1893
PLACE OF BIRTH Cliftondale, Massachusetts
DATE OF DEATH May 2, 1947
PLACE OF DEATH Rye, New York
is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Rye, NY City Seal. ... This article is about the state. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
William Marston (1031 words)
Marston's research quickly caught the eye of the federal government, including the FBI and the Department of War, which wanted to use his techniques to question prisoners during World War I.
Marston was called in to consult on the Lindbergh Baby kidnapping case, but his contribution was rejected by the judge.
Marston's sexual ethics were based on a theory of gender characteristics that classed men as aggressive and conflict-oriented, and woman as "alluring" and submissive.
William Moulton Marston - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1102 words)
William Moulton Marston (May 9, 1893–May 2, 1947) was a psychologist, feminist theorist, creator of the "Wonder Woman" character and comic book writer.
The stories were initially written by Marston (under the pseudonym Charles Moulton) and illustrated by newspaper artist Harry Peter.
William Moulton Marston died of cancer on May 2, 1947 in Rye, New York.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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