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Encyclopedia > William Lyon Mackenzie King
The Right Honourable
 William Lyon Mackenzie King
 PC OM CMG PhD (Harv) MA (Harv) MA (UofT) LLB (Osgoode) BA (UofT)
William Lyon Mackenzie King

In office
October 23, 1935 – November 15, 1948
Monarch George V, Edward VIII, George VI
Governor General John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir, Chief Justice Sir Lyman Poore Duff as Administrator and Acting Governor General, Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone
Preceded by Richard Bedford Bennett
Succeeded by Louis St-Laurent
In office
September 25, 1926 – August 6, 1930
Governor General Freeman Freeman-Thomas, 1st Marquess of Willingdon
Preceded by Arthur Meighen
Succeeded by Richard Bedford Bennett
In office
December 29, 1921 – June 28, 1926
Governor General Julian Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy
Preceded by Arthur Meighen
Succeeded by Arthur Meighen

Born December 17, 1874(1874-12-17)
Berlin, Ontario
Died July 22, 1950 (aged 75)
Wright County, Quebec
Political party Liberal Party of Canada
Spouse Single; Never married
Children None
Alma mater University of Toronto, University of Chicago, Osgoode Law School, Harvard University
Profession Lawyer, Professor, Civil Servant, Journalist
Religion Presbyterian (Spiritualist) [1]

William Lyon Mackenzie King PC OM CMG (December 17, 1874July 22, 1950) was the tenth Prime Minister of Canada from December 29, 1921, to June 28, 1926; September 25, 1926, to August 6, 1930; and October 23, 1935, to November 15, 1948. With over 21 years in the office, he was the longest serving Prime Minister in British Commonwealth history. He is commonly known either by his full name or as Mackenzie King. Mackenzie was one of his given names, not part of his surname, but he was never publicly referred to as simply "William King." Friends and family called him by his nickname, "Rex." William Lyon Mackenzie (March 12, 1795 – August 28, 1861) was a Scottish-Canadian journalist, politician, and leader of an unsuccessful rebellion. ... The Right Honourable (abbreviated as or ) is an honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain people in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Anglophone Caribbean and in other Commonwealth Realms, and elsewhere. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the... The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... Harvard redirects here. ... A Master of Arts is a postgraduate academic masters degree awarded by universities in North America and the United Kingdom (excluding the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge. ... Harvard redirects here. ... A Master of Arts is a postgraduate academic masters degree awarded by universities in North America and the United Kingdom (excluding the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... LLB redirects here. ... Osgoode Hall Law School of York University, is a Canadian law school, located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... A B.A. issued from the University of Tennessee. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on 20... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir, GCMG, GCVO, CH, PC (26 August 1875 – 11 February 1940), was a Scottish novelist and Unionist politician who served as Governor General of Canada. ... Sir Lyman Poore Duff, PC , GCMG (Ontario, January 7, 1865 – April 26, 1955) was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada and briefly served as Acting Governor General of Canada in 1940. ... Major-General Alexander Augustus Frederick William Alfred George Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone, KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, DSO, PC, FRS, born His Serene Highness Prince Alexander of Teck (14 April 1874–16 January 1957), was a member of the British Royal Family, the younger brother of Queen Mary. ... For the British composer named Richard Bennett, see Richard Rodney Bennett. ... Louis Stephen St. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Freeman Freeman-Thomas, 1st Marquess of Willingdon, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, GBE, PC (12 September 1866 – 12 August 1941) was a British Liberal politician who served as Governor General of Canada and Viceroy of India. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... For the British composer named Richard Bennett, see Richard Rodney Bennett. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Julian Hedworth George Byng Field Marshal Julian Hedworth George Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy, GCB, GCMG, MVO (11 September 1862–6 June 1935) was a career British Army officer who served with distinction during World War I with the British Expeditionary Force in France, in the Battle of Gallipoli... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... , The City of Kitchener (IPA ) is a city in southwestern Ontario, Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wright County is an historic county located in the Canadian province of Quebec. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... ż In relationships, a single person is one who is not married, or, more broadly, who is not in an exclusive romantic relationship. ... A bachelor is a man above the age of majority who has never been married (see single). ... For other uses, see Alma mater (disambiguation). ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... Harvard redirects here. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ... The Roman civil service in action. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... This article is about the religion. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the... The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ...

Contents

Early life

King was born in Berlin, Ontario (now Kitchener) to John King and Isabel Grace Mackenzie. His grandfather was William Lyon Mackenzie, first mayor of Toronto and leader of the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1837. His father was a lawyer, later a professor at Osgoode Hall Law School, and the family lived comfortably. King had three siblings: older sister Isabel "Bella" Christina Grace (1873–1915), younger sister Janet "Jennie" Lindsey (1876–1962), and younger brother Dougall Macdougall "Max" (1878–1922)[1]. King attended Berlin Central School (now Suddaby Public School) and Berlin High School (now Kitchener-Waterloo Collegiate and Vocational School). , The City of Kitchener (IPA ) is a city in southwestern Ontario, Canada. ... William Lyon Mackenzie (March 12, 1795 – August 28, 1861) was a Scottish-Canadian journalist, politician, and leader of an unsuccessful rebellion. ... The Republic of Canadas flag - the two stars represent Upper and Lower Canada. ... Osgoode Hall Law School of York University, is a Canadian law school, located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Suddaby Public School Suddaby Public School, originally known as Central School, is a public elementary school in Kitchener, Ontario (formerly known as Berlin, Canada West). ... Kitchener-Waterloo Collegiate and Vocational School, sometimes shortened to Kitchener Collegiate Institute and often abbreviated KCI, is a public secondary school in Kitchener, Ontario, Canada. ...


University

King eventually earned five university degrees. He obtained two from the University of Toronto: B.A. 1895, and M.A. 1897. He earned his LL.B. in 1896 from the Osgoode Hall Law School. [2] While attending the University of Toronto and Osgoode, he met nine of his cabinet ministers during his time as prime minister, all of whom, including him, were members of the Kappa Alpha Society.[3] While at the University of Toronto, King also met Arthur Meighen, a future political rival; the two men did not get on especially well from the start. After studying at the University of Chicago, Mackenzie King proceeded to Harvard University, receiving an M.A. in political economy 1898. In 1909 his request to receive a Ph.D. for a dissertation he had written nine years earlier, called "Sweating Systems and the Clothing Trade in the United States, England, and Germany,"[4] was granted. [5] He was the second Canadian Prime Minister to have earned a doctorate; Sir John Abbott was the first. King also taught economics at Harvard.[6] The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Osgoode Hall Law School of York University, is a Canadian law school, located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... The Kappa Alpha Society (ΚΑ), founded in 1825, is the progenitor of the modern fraternity system in North America according to Bairds Manual. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... Harvard redirects here. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Hon. ...


Civil servant, Minister of Labour

King worked as a newspaper reporter for the Toronto Globe while studying at the University of Toronto. In 1900, he became Canada's first Deputy Minister of Labour. In Canada, a Deputy Minister is the senior civil servant in a government department and assists the Minister of the department who is a member of the Canadian Cabinet. ...

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
The Secret of Heroism

In 1901, King's roommate, Henry Albert Harper, died heroically during a skating party thrown by the earl of Minto, Governor General of Canada. At the party, the young daughter of Andrew George Blair, Minister of Railways and Canals, fell through the ice of the frozen Ottawa River. Harper dove into the water to save the child, and perished trying to rescue her. King led the effort to raise a memorial to Harper, which resulted in the erection of the Sir Galahad statue on Parliament Hill in 1905. In 1906, King published a memoir of Harper, entitled The Secret of Heroism. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... A photograph of Harper A Canadian journalist and civil servant, Henry Albert Harper was best known as a friend of future Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, and is commemmorated by the most central statue at Parliament Hill. ... In 1885, as Middletons chief of staff Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto, KG, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC (London July 9, 1845 – March 1, 1914 Minto, Roxburghshire), known between 1859 and 1891 as Viscount Melgund, was a British politician, Governor General of Canada, and Viceroy of... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada, or (masculine): Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state. ... Andrew George Blair (March 7, 1844_January 25, 1907) was a New Brunswick politician. ... The portfolio of Minister of Railways and Canals was created by Statute 42 Victoria, c. ... This is about the river in Canada. ... Sir Galahad was one of the knights of King Arthurs Round Table in Arthurian legend. ... For the hill in London, see Parliament Hill, London. ...


He was first elected to Parliament as a Liberal in a 1908 by-election, and was re-elected by acclamation in a 1909 by-election following his appointment as the first-ever Minister of Labour. Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Senate Chamber of Parliament Hill in Ottawa. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ... In the Cabinet of Canada, the Minister of Labour is responsible for setting national labour standards and federal labour dispute mechanisms. ...


King's term as Minister of Labour was marked by two significant achievements. He led the passage of the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act and the Combines Investigation Act, which he had erected during his civil and parliamentary service. The legislation significantly improved the financial situation for millions of Canadian workers. [7] He lost his seat in the 1911 general election, which saw the Conservatives defeat his Liberals. The Canadian parliament after the 1911 election The Canadian federal election of 1911 was held to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The name Conservative Party of Canada has been used twice in Canadian history. ...


Industrial consultant, author

Following his party's defeat, he went to the United States to work for the Rockefeller family's Foundation at their invitation, heading their new Department of Industrial Research. [8] The post offered a substantial salary. He formed a close working association and friendship with the family leader, John D. Rockefeller Jr., advising him through the turbulent period of the 1914 strike and Ludlow massacre at a family-owned coal company in Colorado, which subsequently set the stage for a new era in labor management in America.[9] The Rockefeller family, the renowned Cleveland family of John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937) (Senior) and his brother William Rockefeller (1841-1922), is an American industrial, banking, and political family of German American origin that made the worlds largest private fortune in the oil business during the late 19th and... The Rockefeller Foundation (RF) is a prominent philanthropic organization based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. ... John D. Rockefeller, Jr. ... Ludlow massacre monument The Ludlow massacre was the death of about 20 people during an attack by the Colorado National Guard on a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families, at Ludlow, Colorado on April 20, 1914. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ...


King faced criticism from certain quarters during World War I for not serving in Canada's military (instead working for the Rockefellers), but he was 40 years old when the war began, was not in good physical condition, never gave up his Ottawa home, and travelled to the United States on an as-needed basis, performing valuable service by helping to keep war-related industries running smoothly. [10] “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

King, while writing Industry and Humanity, 1917.
King, while writing Industry and Humanity, 1917.

He returned to Canada to run in the 1917 election, which focused almost entirely on the conscription issue, and lost again, due to his opposition to conscription, which was supported by the majority of English Canadians. The Canadian parliament after the 1917 election The 1917 Canadian federal election (sometimes referred to as the khaki election) was held on December 17, 1917, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ...


In 1918 King, assisted by his friend F.A. McGregor, published the far-sighted book Industry and Humanity: A Study in the Principles Underlying Industrial Reconstruction, which, although it was not received with fanfare at the time, laid out the course for the next 30 years of King's political aims, which were largely realized during that time. The book has been called the most important written by a Canadian statesman. [11]


Liberal Leader

King, in court dress, speaking on Parliament Hill during a ceremony celebrating the Diamond Jubilee of Confederation, July 1, 1927
King, in court dress, speaking on Parliament Hill during a ceremony celebrating the Diamond Jubilee of Confederation, July 1, 1927

In 1919, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Liberal party leader, died, and the first Liberal leadership convention was held. King entered the contest, and won over a field of four rivals, on the fourth ballot. He soon returned to parliament in a by-election. King remained leader until 1948. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (451x640, 54 KB) Right Hon. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (451x640, 54 KB) Right Hon. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Laurier re-directs here. ... The first three leaders of the Liberal Party of Canada were not chosen at a convention. ... A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ...


Prime Minister

In the 1921 election, his party defeated Arthur Meighen and the Conservatives, and he became Prime Minister. King's Liberals had only a minority position, however, since they won 115 out of 233 seats; the Conservatives won 50, the newly-formed Progressive Party won 65 (but declined to form the official Opposition), and there were three Independents. This was the first minority government in Canadian history.[12] The Canadian parliament after the 1921 election The Canadian federal election of 1921 was held on December 6, 1921 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... The Progressive Party of Canada was a political party in Canada in the 1920s and 1930s. ...


First term

Despite prolonged negotiations, King was unable to attract the Progressives into his government, but once Parliament opened, he relied on their support to defeat non-confidence motions from the Conservatives. King was also opposed in many policies by the Progressives, which did not support trade tariffs. King faced a delicate balancing act of reducing tariffs enough to please the prairie-based Progressives, which were largely a farmer-based group, but not too much to alienate his vital support in Ontario and Quebec, the heart of Canadian manufacturing industries. King and Meighen sparred constantly and bitterly in Commons debates.[13] Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ...


As King's term wore on, the Progressives gradually weakened. Their effective and passionate leader, Thomas Crerar, resigned to return to his grain business, and was replaced by the more placid Robert Forke. The socialist reformer J.S. Woodsworth gradually gained influence and power, and King was able to reach an accommodation with him on policy matters, since the two shared many common ideas and plans.[14] Thomas Alexander Crerar (June 17, 1876-April 11, 1975) was a western Canadian politician and a leader of the short lived Progressive Party of Canada. ... Robert Forke Robert Forke (April 6, 1860 – February 2, 1934) was a Canadian politican. ... J.S. Woodsworth James Shaver Woodsworth (July 29, 1874 – March 21, 1942) was a pioneer in the Canadian social democratic movement. ...


Second term

See also: King-Byng Affair

King called an election in 1925, in which the Conservatives won the most seats, but not a majority in the House of Commons. King held on to power with the support of the Progressives. Soon into his term, however, a bribery scandal in the Department of Customs was revealed, which led to more support for the Conservatives and Progressives, and the possibility that King would be forced to resign. King asked Governor General Lord Byng to dissolve Parliament and call another election, but Byng refused, the only time in Canadian history that the Governor General has exercised such a power. King resigned, and Byng asked Meighen to form a new government. When Meighen's government was defeated in the House of Commons a short time later, however, Byng called a new election in 1926, in which King's Liberals won a majority government. Mackenzie King requested a dissolution of Parliament. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1925 election The Canadian federal election of 1925 was held to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation. ... Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois... The Progressive Party of Canada was a political party in Canada in the 1920s and 1930s. ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada, or (masculine): Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state. ... Julian Hedworth George Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy (September 11, 1862 - June 6, 1935) was commander of the Canadian army in World War I, and later became Governor General of Canada. ... Canada is a country of 32 million inhabitants that occupies the northern portion of the North American continent, and is the worlds second largest country in area. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1926 election The Canadian federal election of 1926 was held to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ...


Third term

In his third term, King introduced old-age pensions. In February 1930, he appointed Cairine Wilson, whom he knew personally, as the first female senator in Canadian history. His government was in power during the beginning of the Great Depression, but lost the election of 1930 to the Conservative Party, led by Richard Bedford Bennett. King stayed on as Opposition Leader. For the lodging, see Pension (lodging). ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cairine Reay Mackay Wilson (February 4, 1885 _ March 3, 1962) was Canadas first female senator. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... The Canadian parliament after the 1930 election The Canadian federal election of 1930 was held on July 28, 1930 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons to the 17th Parliament. ... For the British composer named Richard Bennett, see Richard Rodney Bennett. ...


Fourth term

King's Liberals were returned to power once more in the 1935 election. The worst of the Depression had passed, and King implemented relief programs such as the National Housing Act and National Employment Commission. His government also created the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in 1936, Trans-Canada Airlines (the precursor to Air Canada) in 1937, and the National Film Board of Canada in 1939. In 1938, he changed the Bank of Canada from a private company to a crown corporation.[15] The Canadian parliament after the 1935 election The Canadian federal election of 1935 was held to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Radio-Canada redirects here. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Air Canada (TSX: AC.A, TSX: AC.B) is Canadas largest airline and flag carrier. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Film Board of Canada (usually National Film Board or NFB) is a Canadian public filmmaking organization established to produce and distribute films that inform Canadians and promote Canada around the world. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the defunct commercial bank, see Bank of Canada (commercial). ... In Commonwealth countries a Crown corporation is a state-controlled company or enterprise (a public corporation). ...


Ethnic policies

While Minister of Labour, King was appointed to investigate the causes of and claims for compensation resulting from the 1907 Asiatic Exclusion League riots in Vancouver's Chinatown and Japantown. One of the claims for damages came from Chinese opium manufacturers, which led King to investigate narcotics use in Vancouver. King became alarmed upon hearing that white women were also opium users, not just Chinese men, and he then initiated the process that led to the first legislation outlawing narcotics in Canada.[16] Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Historical stubs ... Image:Millennium Gate. ... Japantown is a common name for official Japanese American or Japanese Canadian communities in big cities. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ...


Consistent with British appeasement King met with Adolf Hitler, and commented in his journal: "I believe the world will yet come to see a very great man - mystic in Hitler [...] who will rank some day with Joan of Arc among the deliverers of his people."[17] Under King's admistration the Canadian government was consistent with other governments, in limiting Jewish immigration in the face of the Holocaust in Nazi dominated areas of Europe. In June 1939 Canada along with Cuba, the United States, and Britain refused to allow the 900 Jewish refugees aboard the passenger ship M.S. St. Louis refuge [18] There was an outcry in the press, leading one historian to quip that King "had a weather vane where most people had a heart."[19] Hitler redirects here. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Jewish refugees aboard the SS while the ship was docked in the port of Havana. ...


Fifth term, Second World War

King George VI, Queen Elizabeth, and Prime Minister Mackenzie King in Banff, Alberta, 1939
King George VI, Queen Elizabeth, and Prime Minister Mackenzie King in Banff, Alberta, 1939
King (back right) with (clockwise from King) Franklin D. Roosevelt, Governor General Alexander Cambridge and Winston Churchill on the terrace of the citadel in Quebec, Canada during the Ottawa conference
King (back right) with (clockwise from King) Franklin D. Roosevelt, Governor General Alexander Cambridge and Winston Churchill on the terrace of the citadel in Quebec, Canada during the Ottawa conference
King (far right) together with (from left to right) Governor General Alexander Cambridge, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill at the Octagon Conference, Quebec City, September, 1944
King (far right) together with (from left to right) Governor General Alexander Cambridge, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill at the Octagon Conference, Quebec City, September, 1944

King realized the necessity of World War II before Hitler invaded Poland in 1939, and actually began mobilizing on 25 Aug 1939, with full mobilization on 1 September. Unlike World War I, however, when Canada was automatically at war as soon as Britain joined, King asserted Canadian autonomy by waiting until September 10, a full week after Britain's declaration, when a vote in the House of Commons took place, to support the government's decision to declare war. During this time Canada was able to acquire weapons from the United States. Upon declaring war Canada would not be able to purchase weapons from the US, under the US policy then in force of not arming belligerents. This issue soon became a moot point as the American embargo was revoked in November 1939. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George) (December 14, 1895 - February 6, 1952) was the third British monarch of the House of Windsor, reigning from December 11, 1936 to February 6, 1952. ... Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, later Queen Elizabeth (Elizabeth Angela Marguerite; 4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002), was the Queen Consort of King George VI of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 1936 until his death in 1952. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 772 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1517 × 1179 pixel, file size: 241 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 772 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1517 × 1179 pixel, file size: 241 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... FDR redirects here. ... Major-General Alexander Augustus Frederick William Alfred George Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone, KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, DSO, PC, FRS, born His Serene Highness Prince Alexander of Teck (14 April 1874–16 January 1957), was a member of the British Royal Family, the younger brother of Queen Mary. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Image File history File links Octagon2. ... Image File history File links Octagon2. ... Major-General Alexander Augustus Frederick William Alfred George Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone, KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, DSO, PC, FRS, born His Serene Highness Prince Alexander of Teck (14 April 1874–16 January 1957), was a member of the British Royal Family, the younger brother of Queen Mary. ... FDR redirects here. ... Churchill redirects here. ... The Second Quebec Conference (codenamed OCTAGON) was a high level military conference held during World War II between the British and United States governments. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article describes military mobilization. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ...


King's government greatly expanded the role of the National Research Council of Canada during the war, moving into full-scale research of nuclear physics, nuclear engineering, and commercial use of nuclear power in the following years. King, with C.D. Howe acting as point man, approved the move of the nuclear group from Montreal to Chalk River, Ontario in 1944, with the establishment of Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories and the residential town of Deep River, Ontario. Canada became a world leader in this field, with the NRX reactor becoming operational in 1947; at the time, NRX was the only operational nuclear reactor outside the United States.[20] The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) is Canadas leading organization for scientific research and development. ... This box:      Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the breakdown of atomic nuclei and/or other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... The Right Honourable Clarence Decatur C.D. Howe, PC (January 15, 1886 - December 31, 1960) was a leading Canadian politician. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... ... The Chalk River Laboratories also Chalk River Labs and formerly the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories is a Canadian nuclear research facility located in Deep River, Ontario. ... Town Hall in Deep River. ... NRX was a heavy water moderated, light water cooled, nuclear research reactor at the Canadian Chalk River Laboratories, which experienced one of the worlds first major reactor accidents 12 December 1952. ...


King's promise not to impose conscription contributed to the defeat of Maurice Duplessis's Union Nationale Quebec provincial government in 1939 and Liberals' re-election in the 1940 election. But after the fall of France in 1940, Canada introduced conscription for home service. Still, only volunteers were to be sent overseas. King wanted to avoid a repeat of the Conscription Crisis of 1917. By 1942, the military was pressing King hard to send conscripts to Europe. In 1942, King held a national plebiscite on the issue asking the nation to relieve him of the commitment he had made during the election campaign. He said that his policy was "conscription if necessary, but not necessarily conscription." Duplessis campaigning in the 1952 election. ... The Canadian parliament after the 1940 election The Canadian federal election of 1940 was the 19th general election in Canadian history. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Conscription Crisis of 1917 was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War I. // At the outbreak of war in 1914, over 30,000 volunteers joined the army, far more than expected. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


French Canadians voted overwhelmingly against conscription, but a majority of English Canadians supported it. French and English conscripts were sent to fight in the Aleutian Islands in 1943 - technically North American soil and therefore not "overseas" - but the mix of Canadian volunteers and draftees found the Japanese had fled before their arrival. Otherwise, King continued with a campaign to recruit volunteers, hoping to address the problem with the shortage of troops caused by heavy losses in the Dieppe Raid in 1942, in Italy in 1943, and after the Battle of Normandy in 1944. In November 1944, the Government decided it was necessary to send conscripts to Europe. This led to a brief political crisis (see Conscription Crisis of 1944) and a mutiny by conscripts posted in British Columbia, but the war ended a few months later. Over 15,000 conscripts went to Europe, though only a few hundred saw combat. Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants  Canada  United Kingdom  United States  Germany Commanders Louis Mountbatten J. H. Roberts Gerd von Rundstedt Strength 6,086 1,500 Casualties Canada: 950 dead, 2,340 captured or wounded; United Kingdom: 600; United States:4+; 311 dead, 280 wounded The Dieppe Raid, also known as The Battle of Dieppe... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Conscription Crisis of 1944 was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War II. It was similar to the Conscription Crisis of 1917, but was not as politically damaging. ... The Terrace Mutiny was a revolt by Canadian soldiers based in Terrace, British Columbia during World War II. The mutiny, which began on November 24, 1944 and ended on November 29, 1944, was the most serious breach of discipline in Canadian military history. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944...


King was extremely unpopular among Canadian servicemen and women during the war, who were generally pro-conscription.[citation needed] His appearances at Canadian Army installations in Britain (and, after 6 June 1944, in continental Europe) were invariably greeted with boos and catcalls.[citation needed] When he was defeated after the war in his Prince Albert riding, the servicemen's vote was considered instrumental, and a sign was placed outside the town, similar to those that had been erected in The Netherlands, reading, "This Town Liberated by the Canadian Army". Canadian Forces Land Force Command (LF) is responsible for army operations within the Canadian Armed Forces. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941, King’s government oversaw the Japanese-Canadian internment on Canada’s west coast, which gave 22,000 BC residents 24 hours to pack. This was done even though the RCMP and Canadian military had told the Government that most Japanese citizens were law-abiding and not a threat. Major General Ken Stuart even wrote to Ottawa to say "I cannot see that the Japanese Canadians constitute the slightest menace to national security."[21] The federal government confiscated and sold the property and belongings of the incarcerated Japanese at public auction. After the war, King offered Japanese-Canadians the option of “repatriation" to a war-ravaged Japan, even though many had never been there and did not speak the language; they were not allowed back to coastal areas until his government fell several years later.[citation needed] During World War II, more than 22,000 Japanese Canadians were forcibly interned in Canada. ...


Canadian autonomy

Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King becomes the first person to take the Oath of Citizenship, from Chief Justice Thibaudeau Rinfret, in the Supreme Court, January 3, 1947
Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King becomes the first person to take the Oath of Citizenship, from Chief Justice Thibaudeau Rinfret, in the Supreme Court, January 3, 1947

Throughout his tenure, King led Canada from a colony with responsible government to an autonomous nation within the British Commonwealth. During the Chanak Crisis of 1922, King refused to support the British without first consulting Parliament, while the Conservative leader, Arthur Meighen, supported Britain. The British were disappointed with King's response, but the crisis was soon resolved, as King had anticipated.[22] After the King-Byng Affair, King went to the Imperial Conference of 1926 and argued for greater autonomy of the Dominions. This resulted in the Balfour Declaration 1926, which announced the equal status of all members of the British Commonwealth (as it was known then), including Britain. This eventually led to the Statute of Westminster 1931. The Canadian city of Hamilton hosted the first Empire Games in 1930; this competition later became known as the Commonwealth Games. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... The purpose of the Oath of Citizenship, as opposed to the Oath of Allegiance, is for new Canadian citizens to pledge their loyalty not only to the Sovereign, Queen Elizabeth II, as representative of the State, but also to the laws and customs of their new country. ... The Right Hon. ... The Right Honourable Thibaudeau Rinfret, PC (June 22, 1879 - July 25, 1962) was a Canadian jurist and Chief Justice of Canada. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of independent sovereign states, most of which were once governed by the United Kingdom and are its former colonies. ... The Chanak Crisis (also called the Chanak Affair) occurred in September 1922, when British and French troops stationed near Çanakkale (also called Chanak) to guard the neutral zone of the Dardanelles were threatened with attack by Turkish troops after the recapture of Ä°zmir (Smyrna) following the Greek defeat. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Imperial Conferences were gatherings of British Empire government leaders in London in 1887, 1897, 1902, 1907, 1911, 1921, 1923, 1926, 1930 and 1937. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a page about Dominions of the British Empire/Commonwealth. ... The Balfour Declaration of 1926 is a report of the October-November 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... Hamilton may refer to: // Duke of Hamilton, Chief of the name of Hamilton, and Heir general of Walter fitz Gilbert of Cadzow. ... Current flag of the Commonwealth Games Federation Locations of the games, and participating countries Commonwealth Games Federation seal, adopted in 2001 The Commonwealth Games is a multinational, multi-sport event. ...


In the lead up to World War II, King affirmed Canadian autonomy by saying that the Canadian Parliament would make the final decision on the issue of going to war. He reassured the pro-British Canadians that Parliament would surely decide that Canada would be at Britain's side if Great Britain was drawn into a major war. At the same time, he reassured those who were suspicious of British influence in Canada by promising that Canada would not participate in British colonial wars. His Quebec lieutenant, Ernest Lapointe, promised French-Canadians that the government would not introduce conscription; individual participation would be voluntary. In 1939, in a country which had seemed deeply divided, these promises made it possible for Parliament to agree almost unanimously to declare war. King played two roles. On the one hand, he told English Canadians that Canada would no doubt enter war if Britain did. On the other hand, he and his Quebec lieutenant Ernest Lapointe told French Canadians that Canada would only go to war if it was in the country's best interests. With the dual messages, King slowly led Canada toward war without causing strife between Canada's two main linguistic communities. As his final step in asserting Canada's autonomy, King ensured that the Canadian Parliament made its own declaration of war one week after Britain. King's government introduced the Canadian Citizenship Act in 1946, which officially created the notion of "Canadian citizens". Prior to this, Canadians were considered British subjects living in Canada. On January 3, 1947, King received Canadian citizenship certificate number 0001.[23] The Right Honourable Ernest Lapointe, PC (October 6, 1876 - November 26, 1941) was a Canadian politician. ... For information on the representative of the Queen in Right of Quebec, see Lieutenant Governor of Quebec. ... The Right Honourable Ernest Lapointe, PC (October 6, 1876 - November 26, 1941) was a Canadian politician. ... The Canadian Citizenship Act is an Act of the Government of Canada, which came into effect on July 1, 1947, recognizing the definition of a Canadian, including reference to them being British subjects. ... Canadian citizenship is obtained by birth in Canada (other than as a child of a foreign diplomat), by birth abroad, when at least one parent is a Canadian citizen, or can be granted to a permanent resident who lives in Canada for three out of four years before applying for... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Post-war Canada, sixth term

Mackenzie King was not charismatic and did not have a large personal following. Only 8 Canadians in 100 picked him when the Canadian Gallup (CIPO) poll asked in September, 1946, "What person living in any part of the world today do you admire?" Nevertheless, his Liberal Party was re-elected in the election of 1945. King had been considered a minor player in the war by both United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. King did act as a link between the two countries between September 1939 and December 1941, but after the U.S. entered the war his position was largely redundant. King's most important contribution to wartime diplomacy was his crafting of a plan in June 1940 to host a British government in exile and to aid in the transfer of the British fleet to Canadian ports. He also hosted a major conference in Quebec City in 1943. King helped found the United Nations in 1945.[citation needed] The Canadian parliament after the 1945 election The Canadian federal election of 1945 was the 20th general election in Canadian history. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... FDR redirects here. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Quebec Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date... UN redirects here. ...


After the war, King quickly dismantled wartime controls. Unlike World War I, press censorship ended with the hostilities. He began an ambitious program of social programs and laid the groundwork for Newfoundland and Labrador's entry into Canada. King also had to deal with the deepening Cold War and the fallout from espionage revelations of Russian cipher clerk Igor Gouzenko, who defected in Ottawa in 1945. This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ...


In 1948, he retired after 22 years as prime minister, and was succeeded as Liberal Party leader, and Prime Minister of Canada, by his Justice Minister, Louis St. Laurent. King also had the most number of terms (three) as Prime Minister. Sir John A. MacDonald was second-in-line, also with 22 years, as the longest-serving Prime Minister in Canadian History (1867 - 1873, 1878 - 1891). The Minister of Justice (French: Ministre de la Justice) is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who is responsible for the Department of Justice and is also Attorney General of Canada. ... Louis Stephen St. ...


Personal life

Much of the information on King's personal life can be sourced to the diaries he kept from 1893 until his death in 1950. One biographer has collectively described these diaries as "the most important single political document in twentieth-century Canadian history,"[24] as, in addition to the unique insight on King's private life they provide, the directions and motivations of the Canadian war efforts and other events are described in detail.[25] Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A recruiting poster in Canada. ...


Mackenzie King was a cautious politician who tailored his policies to prevailing opinions. "Parliament will decide," he liked to say when pressed to act.


Privately, he was highly eccentric with his preference for communing with spirits, including those of Leonardo da Vinci, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, his dead mother, and several of his Irish Terrier dogs, all named Pat. He also claimed to commune with the spirit of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, American president and close friend.[26] He sought personal reassurance from the spirit world, rather than seeking political advice. Indeed, after his death, one of his mediums said that she had not realized that he was a politician. King asked whether his party would win the 1935 election, one of the few times politics came up during his seances. His occult interests were not widely known during his years in office, and only became publicized later, and have seen in his occult activities a penchant for forging unities from antitheses, thus having latent political import. In 1953 Time Magazine stated that he owned — and used — both a Ouija board and a crystal ball. In the 1970s biographers used the extensive diaries he kept during most of his life to delve deeper into his occult activities. One person he held seances with was Canadian Artist Homer Watson. “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... Laurier re-directs here. ... The Irish Terrier is a dog breed from Ireland, one of many breeds of Terrier. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... For the photographer, see Weegee. ... This article is about the fortune telling object; for other uses, see Crystal ball (disambiguation). ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... See Diary (novel) for the novel by Chuck Palahniuk. ... Homer Ranford Watson (January 14, 1855 – May 30, 1936) is a Canadian landscape painter born in 1855 in the village of Doon (now part of Kitchener), Ontario. ...


King never married, but had several close female friends, including Joan Patteson, a married woman with whom he spent some of his leisure time.


Some historians have interpreted passages in his diaries as suggesting that King regularly had sexual relations with prostitutes.[27] Others, also basing their claims on passages of his dairies, have suggested that King was in love with Lord Tweedsmuir, whom he had chosen for appointment as Governor General in 1935. [28] Prostitution is the sale of sexual services (typically manual stimulation, oral sex, sexual intercourse, or anal sex) for cash or other kind of return, generally indiscriminately with many persons. ... John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir (August 26, 1875 - February 11, 1940), was a Scottish novelist and politician who served as Governor General of Canada. ... A Governor-General is most generally a governor of high rank, or a principal governor ranking above ordinary governors. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ...


Death

Mackenzie King's headstone
Mackenzie King's headstone

Mackenzie King died on July 22, 1950, at Kingsmere from pneumonia, with his retirement plans to write his memoirs unfulfilled. He is buried in Mount Pleasant Cemetery, Toronto. Unmarried, King is survived by relative Margery King. is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Mount Pleasant Cemetery is a famous cemetery located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...


Legacy

King's image on the Canadian fifty-dollar bill
King's image on the Canadian fifty-dollar bill

His likeness is on the Canadian fifty-dollar bill. Image File history File links Canadian $50, Front Source: Bank of Canada File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Canadian $50, Front Source: Bank of Canada File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Canadian $50, front Canadian $50, back The Canadian $50 bill is one of five different banknotes of Canadian currency. ... Canadian $50, front Canadian $50, back The Canadian $50 bill is one of five different banknotes of Canadian currency. ...


Following the publication of King's diaries in the 1970s, several fictional works about him were published by Canadian writers. These included Elizabeth Gourlay's novel Isabel, Allan Stratton's play Rexy and Heather Robertson's trilogy Willie: A Romance (1983), Lily: A Rhapsody in Red (1986) and Igor: A Novel of Intrigue (1989). Allan Stratton is an award winning, internationally published and produced Canadian playwright and novelist. ...


In 1998, there was controversy over King's exclusion from a memorial to the Quebec Conference of 1943, which was attended by King, Roosevelt, and Churchill. The monument was built by the sovereigntist Parti Québécois government of Quebec, which justified the decision on the basis that King was not important enough. Canadian federalists, however, accused the government of Quebec of trying to advance their own political agenda. Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Left to right: Athlone, Roosevelot, Churchill, and King The Quebec Conference (codenamed QUADRANT) was a high level military conference held during World War II between the British and United States governments. ... Quebec The Quebec sovereignty movement is a movement calling for the attainment of sovereignty for Quebec, a province of the country of Canada. ... The Parti Québécois [PQ] (translation: Quebecker Party) is a separatist political party that advocates national sovereignty for the Canadian province of Quebec and secession from Canada, as well as social democratic policies and has traditionally had support from the labour movement. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


Mackenzie King was not charismatic or media-savvy and did not have a large personal following. It is often suggested that he would not have held power as long as he did, or even at all, during the age of television which was ushered in not long after his retirement.


King left no published political memoirs, although his aforementioned private diaries were extensively detailed. His main published work remains his 1918 book Industry and Humanity.


Part of his country retreat, now called Mackenzie King Estate, at Kingsmere in the Gatineau Park, near Ottawa, is open to the public. The house King died in, called "The Farm", is the official residence of the Speaker of the Canadian House of Commons and is not part of the park. We dont have an article called Kingsmere Start this article Search for Kingsmere in. ... Gatineau Park is a federal park in western Quebec near the city of Gatineau, Quebec, Canada. ... -1... The Farm is the official residence of the Speaker of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Current house speaker Peter Milliken In Canada the Speaker of the House of Commons (French: Président de la Chambre des communes) is the presiding officer of the lower house and is elected by fellow MPs. ...


The Woodside National Historic Site in Kitchener, Ontario was the cherished boyhood home of William Lyon Mackenzie King. The estate has over 4.65 hectares of garden and parkland for exploring and relaxing, and the house has been restored to reflect life during King's era. , The City of Kitchener (IPA ) is a city in southwestern Ontario, Canada. ...


Supreme Court appointments

Statue of Mackenzie King on Parliament Hill, in Ottawa, Ontario
Statue of Mackenzie King on Parliament Hill, in Ottawa, Ontario

King chose the following jurists to be appointed as justices of the Supreme Court of Canada by the Governor General: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 435 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): William Lyon Mackenzie King Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 435 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): William Lyon Mackenzie King Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... For the hill in London, see Parliament Hill, London. ... -1... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... The Governor General of Canada (French (feminine): Gouverneure générale du Canada, or (masculine): Gouverneur général du Canada) is the vice-regal representative in Canada of the Canadian monarch, who is the head of state. ...

The Honourable Arthur Cyrille Albert Malouin (March 13, 1857 – April 5, 1936) was a Canadian lawyer, politician, and Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... The Right Honourable Francis Alexander Anglin, PC (April 2, 1865 - March 2, 1933) was Chief Justice of Canada from September 16, 1924 until February 28, 1933. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Puisne Justice or Puisne Judge (pronounced puny) is the title for a regular member of a Court. ... Laurier redirects here. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Honourable Edmund Leslie Newcombe (February 17, 1859 – December 9, 1931) was a Canadian lawyer, civil servant, and Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Right Honourable Thibaudeau Rinfret, PC (June 22, 1879 - July 25, 1962) was a Canadian jurist and Chief Justice of Canada. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Lamont The Honourable John Henderson Lamont (November 12, 1865 – March 10, 1936) was a Canadian lawyer, politician, and Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Honourable Robert Smith (December 7, 1858 – March 18, 1942) was a Canadian lawyer, politician and Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Honourable Lawrence Arthur Dumoulin Cannon (April 28, 1877 – December 25, 1939) was a Canadian lawyer and Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Albert Blellock Hudson (August 21, 1875—January 6, 1947) was a politician and judge from Manitoba, Canada. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Right Honourable Robert Taschereau, PC , CC (Quebec, 1896 – 1970) was a lawyer who became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada and who briefly served as acting Governor General of Canada following the death of Georges Vanier in 1967. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Ivan Cleveland Rand (April 27, 1884 - January 2, 1969) was a Canadian Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Honourable Mr. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... The Honourable James Wilfred (Bill) Estey (December 1, 1889 – January 22, 1956) was a Canadian lawyer, politician, and jurist. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Holland Locke (September 16, 1887 - May 30, 1980) was a Canadian Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada. ... -1... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Site Map - Mackenzie King - Exhibitions - Library and Archives Canada
  2. ^ William Lyon Mackenzie King's entry in the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
  3. ^ William Lyon Mackenzie King's Diary online
  4. ^ The Age of Mackenzie King, p.42
  5. ^ The Age of Mackenzie King, p.150
  6. ^ Bruce Hutchison, The Incredible Canadian, Toronto: Longmans, 1952, p. 249.
  7. ^ Hutchison, Bruce. The Incredible Canadian, Toronto: Longmans Canada (1952) pgs 28-33
  8. ^ Hutchison, Bruce. The Incredible Canadian, Toronto, Longmans Canada (1952), pg. 34
  9. ^ Chernow,Ron, "Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr.", London: Warner Books (1998) pgs 571-586
  10. ^ Hutchison, Bruce. The Incredible Canadian, Toronto, Longmans Canada (1952), pgs 34-35
  11. ^ Bruce Hutchison, The Incredible Canadian, Toronto: Longmans, 1952, pp 38-44.
  12. ^ The Incredible Canadian, by Bruce Hutchison, Toronto 1952, Longmans Canada, pp. 64-65.
  13. ^ The Incredible Canadian, by Bruce Hutchison, pp. 66-76.
  14. ^ The Incredible Canadian, by Bruce Hutchison, pp. 76-78.
  15. ^ Who we are- About the Bank- Bank of Canada
  16. ^ Green M., . A History of Narcotics Control: The Formative Years,(1979) University of Toronto Law Review) pg. 37.
  17. ^ 'William Lyon Mackenzie King's Diary online, March 27, 1938 pg. 4
  18. ^ Knowles, Valerie. Strangers at Our Gates: Canadian Immigration and Immigration Policy, 1540-1997, (Toronto: Dundurn, 1997).
  19. ^ Ferguson, Will. Bastards and Boneheads: Canada's Glorious Leaders Past and Present, (Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre, 1999) pg. 168.
  20. ^ Nucleus: The History of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, by Robert Bothwell, Toronto 1988, University of Toronto Press.
  21. ^ Sunahara, Ann Gomer. The Politics of Racism: The Uprooting of Japanese Canadians During the Second World War, (Toronto: Lorimer, 1981) pg. 23.
  22. ^ The Incredible Canadian, by Bruce Hutchison, Toronto 1952, Longmans Canada.
  23. ^ CBC Archives: The first officially Canadian citizens
  24. ^ Stacey, C.P. (1985), A Very Double Life: The Private World of Mackenzie King, p. 9
  25. ^ Stacey, C.P. (1985), A Very Double Life: The Private World of Mackenzie King, p. 194
  26. ^ The Incredible Canadian, by Bruce Hutchison.
  27. ^ Stacey, C.P. (1985), A Very Double Life: The Private World of Mackenzie King
  28. ^ Jarvis, Ian, and David Collins (Directors). (1992). Willie: Canada’s Bachelor Prime Minister. Toronto, Canada: Butterfly Productions.

William Bruce Hutchison (June 5, 1901 – September 14, 1992) was a Canadian author and journalist. ... William Bruce Hutchison (June 5, 1901 – September 14, 1992) was a Canadian author and journalist. ... Robert Bothwell is a professor of Canadian history, and the foremost scholar on Canadian Cold War participation, as well as a much published author. ... William Bruce Hutchison (June 5, 1901 – September 14, 1992) was a Canadian author and journalist. ... William Bruce Hutchison (June 5, 1901 – September 14, 1992) was a Canadian author and journalist. ...

Secondary sources

Professor Jack Lawrence Granatstein, OC , Ph. ... Colonel Charles Perry Stacey (30 July 1906 – 17 November 1989) O.C., O.BE., CD, BA, AM, Ph. ... Colonel Charles Perry Stacey (30 July 1906 – 17 November 1989) O.C., O.BE., CD, BA, AM, Ph. ...

Popular books

  • Bliss, Michael. Right Honourable Men: The Descent of Canadian Politics from Macdonald to Mulroney (1994), pp. 123-184.
  • Bowering, George. Egotists and Autocrats: the Prime Ministers of Canada, 1999.
  • Donaldson, Gordon. The Prime Ministers of Canada, 1997.
  • Ferguson, Will. Bastards and Boneheads: Canada's Glorious Leaders, Past and Present, 1999.
  • [[Bruce Hutchison|Hutchison

Michael Bliss (born 1941) is a Canadian historian and outspoken public figure. ... George Harry Bowering (born 1935) is a prolific Canadian novelist, poet, historian, and biographer. ... Gordon Donaldson is a Canadian author and journalist. ... Will Ferguson is a Canadian writer and novelist who is best known for his humorous observations on Canadian history and culture. ...

Television series

Donald Brittain, O.C. (June 10, 1928 – July 21, 1989) was an acclaimed filmmaker with the National Film Board of Canada. ...

Primary sources

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
William Lyon Mackenzie King
Preceded by
None
Minister of Labour
1909–1911
Succeeded by
Thomas Wilson Crothers
Preceded by
Daniel McKenzie
(interim)
Leader of the Liberal Party
1919–1948
Succeeded by
Louis St. Laurent
Preceded by
Daniel McKenzie
(interim)
Leader of the Opposition
1919-1921
Succeeded by
Arthur Meighen
Preceded by
Arthur Meighen
Prime Minister of Canada
1921–1926
Succeeded by
Arthur Meighen
Secretary of State for External Affairs
1921–1926
Preceded by
Arthur Meighen
Leader of the Opposition
1926
Succeeded by
Arthur Meighen
Preceded by
Arthur Meighen
Prime Minister of Canada
1926–1930
Succeeded by
R.B. Bennett
Secretary of State for External Affairs
1926–1930
Preceded by
R.B. Bennett
Leader of the Opposition
1930-1935
Succeeded by
R.B. Bennett
Preceded by
R.B. Bennett
Secretary of State for External Affairs
1935–1946
Succeeded by
Louis St. Laurent
Prime Minister of Canada
1935–1948
Preceded by
Joseph E. Seagram
MP for Waterloo North, ON
1908–1911
Succeeded by
William G. Weichel
Preceded by
Joseph Read
MP for Prince, PEI
1919–1921
Succeeded by
Alfred E. MacLean
Preceded by
John Armstrong
MP for York North, ON
1921–1925
Succeeded by
Thomas H. Lennox
Preceded by
Charles McDonald
MP for Prince Albert, SK
1926–1945
Succeeded by
Edward LeRoy Bowerman
Preceded by
William B. McDiarmid
MP for Glengarry, ON
1945–1949
Succeeded by
William J. Major
Persondata
NAME King, William Lyon Mackenzie
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION 10th Prime Minister of Canada (1926-1930,1935-1948)
DATE OF BIRTH December 17, 1874
PLACE OF BIRTH Berlin, Ontario
DATE OF DEATH July 22, 1950
PLACE OF DEATH Ottawa
In the Cabinet of Canada, the Minister of Labour is responsible for setting national labour standards and federal labour dispute mechanisms. ... Thomas Wilson Crothers (January 1, 1850 – December 10, 1921) was a Canadian politician. ... Daniel Duncan McKenzie (1859-1927) was interim leader of the Liberal Party of Canada in 1919, following the death of Sir Wilfrid Laurier on February 17, 1919. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... Louis Stephen St. ... Daniel Duncan McKenzie (1859-1927) was interim leader of the Liberal Party of Canada in 1919, following the death of Sir Wilfrid Laurier on February 17, 1919. ... The Leader of the Opposition (French: Chef de lOpposition) in Canada is the Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Canadas Secretary of State for External Affairs was, from 1909 to 1993, the member of the Cabinet of Canada responsible for overseeing the federal governments international relations and the former Department of External Affairs. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... The Leader of the Opposition (French: Chef de lOpposition) in Canada is the Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... For the British composer named Richard Bennett, see Richard Rodney Bennett. ... Canadas Secretary of State for External Affairs was, from 1909 to 1993, the member of the Cabinet of Canada responsible for overseeing the federal governments international relations and the former Department of External Affairs. ... For the British composer named Richard Bennett, see Richard Rodney Bennett. ... The Leader of the Opposition (French: Chef de lOpposition) in Canada is the Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ... For the British composer named Richard Bennett, see Richard Rodney Bennett. ... For the British composer named Richard Bennett, see Richard Rodney Bennett. ... Canadas Secretary of State for External Affairs was, from 1909 to 1993, the member of the Cabinet of Canada responsible for overseeing the federal governments international relations and the former Department of External Affairs. ... Louis Stephen St. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... Joseph Emm Seagram (c. ... Waterloo North was a former federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Ontario. ... Prince was a federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons. ... York North was an electoral district in Ontario, Canada, that was represented in the Canadian House of Commons from Confederation in 1867 until 2004. ... Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Prince Consort to Queen Victoria Prince Albert is the third-largest city in Saskatchewan, Canada. ... Glengarry was a former federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Ontario. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... For other persons named John Alexander Macdonald, see John Alexander Macdonald (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Alexander Mackenzie, see Alexander Mackenzie (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Alexander Macdonald, see John Alexander Macdonald (disambiguation). ... The Hon. ... Sir John Sparrow David Thompson, KCMG, PC, QC, (November 10, 1845 – December 12, 1894) was a Canadian lawyer and judge who served as the fourth Prime Minister of Canada from December 5, 1892 to December 12, 1894 as well as Premier of Nova Scotia in 1882. ... Sir Mackenzie Bowell, PC , KCMG (December 27, 1823 – December 10, 1917) was the fifth Prime Minister of Canada from December 21, 1894 to April 27, 1896. ... Not to be confused with Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper who was Sir Charles Tuppers son. ... Laurier redirects here. ... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC, GCMG, KC (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett, PC, KC (July 3, 1870 – June 26, 1947) was the eleventh Prime Minister of Canada from August 7, 1930 to October 23, 1935. ... Louis Stephen St. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (18 September 1895 – 16 August 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... Mike Pearson redirects here. ... “Trudeau” redirects here. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... “Trudeau” redirects here. ... John Napier Wyndham Turner PC CC QC (born June 7, 1929) was the seventeenth Prime Minister of Canada from June 30, 1984 to September 17, 1984. ... Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... This article is about the former Canadian Prime Minster. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ... For other uses, see Paul Martin (disambiguation). ... Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... George Brown George Brown (November 29, 1818 – May 9, 1880) was a Scottish-born Canadian journalist and politician. ... For other persons named Alexander Mackenzie, see Alexander Mackenzie (disambiguation). ... Dominick Edward Blake, PC, QC (October 13, 1833 – March 1, 1912), (known as Edward Blake) was Premier of Ontario, Canada, from 1871 to 1872 and leader of the Liberal Party of Canada from 1880 to 1887. ... Laurier redirects here. ... Louis Stephen St. ... Mike Pearson redirects here. ... “Trudeau” redirects here. ... John Napier Wyndham Turner PC CC QC (born June 7, 1929) was the seventeenth Prime Minister of Canada from June 30, 1984 to September 17, 1984. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ... For other uses, see Paul Martin (disambiguation). ... Stéphane Maurice Dion, PC, MP, Ph. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Canadas Secretary of State for External Affairs was, from 1909 to 1993, the member of the Cabinet of Canada responsible for overseeing the federal governments international relations and the former Department of External Affairs. ... Hon. ... Hon. ... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC, GCMG, KC (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett, PC, KC (July 3, 1870 – June 26, 1947) was the eleventh Prime Minister of Canada from August 7, 1930 to October 23, 1935. ... Louis Stephen St. ... Mike Pearson redirects here. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (18 September 1895 – 16 August 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... Sidney Earle Smith (March 9, 1897-March 17, 1959) was a noted academic and Canadas Secretary of State for External Affairs under John Diefenbaker. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (18 September 1895 – 16 August 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... The Honourable Howard Charles Green, PC (November 5, 1895 – June 26, 1989) was a Canadian politician and parliamentarian. ... The Right Hon. ... Mitchell William Sharp,PC,CC (May 11, 1911–March 19, 2004), a Canadian politician and a Companion of the Order of Canada, was most noted for his service as a Liberal Cabinet minister. ... 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Belinda Caroline Stronach, PC, MP (born May 2, 1966 in Newmarket, Ontario) is a Canadian businessperson, philanthropist, politician, and a Liberal Member of Parliament (MP) in the Canadian House of Commons. ... Liza Frulla, PC (born March 30, 1949) is a former Quebec politician. ... Kenneth Wayne Ken Dryden, PC, MP, BA, LL.B (born August 8, 1947) is a Canadian politician, lawyer, businessman, author and retired National Hockey League goaltender. ... Diane Finley PC, MP (born October 3, 1958 in Hamilton, Ontario) is a Canadian politician. ... Monte Kenton Solberg PC, MP (born September 17, 1958 in Calgary, Alberta) is a Canadian Member of Parliament, representing the riding of Medicine Hat in the Canadian House of Commons as a member of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... In the Canadian cabinet the President of The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: President du Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is nominally in charge of the Privy Council Office. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Honourable Adam Johnston Fergusson Blair Adam Johnston Fergusson Blair, PC known prior to 1862 as Adam Johnston Fergusson (4 November 1815 – 30 December 1867) was Canadian lawyer and politician. ... Joseph Howe, PC (December 13, 1804 – June 1, 1873) was a ship builder and born the son of John Howe and Mary Edes at Halifax, Nova Scotia. ... Sir Edward Kenny PC (July 1, 1800 – May 16, 1891) was a Canadian politician. ... Not to be confused with Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper who was Sir Charles Tuppers son. ... John OConnor, PC (January 1, 1824 – November 3, 1887) was a Canadian politician and cabinet minister. ... The Honourable Hugh Macdonald, PC was a member of the First Canadian Parliament, representing the Antigonish riding of Nova Scotia, along with William Hallett Ray, initially as an Anti-Confederate and later as a Liberal-Conservative. ... Lucius Seth Huntington Source: Library and Archives Canada Lucius Seth Huntington (May 26, 1827-May 19, 1886) was a Quebec lawyer, journalist and political figure. ... The Hon. ... Dominick Edward Blake, PC, QC (October 13, 1833 – March 1, 1912), (known as Edward Blake) was Premier of Ontario, Canada, from 1871 to 1872 and leader of the Liberal Party of Canada from 1880 to 1887. ... John OConnor, PC (January 1, 1824 – November 3, 1887) was a Canadian politician and cabinet minister. ... Louis-Rodrigue Masson Source: Library and Archives Canada Louis-Rodrigue Masson (baptized Louis-François-Roderick Masson) (6 November 1833 – 8 November 1903) was a Canadian Member of Parliament, senator, and Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec. ... Joseph-Alfred Mousseau The Honourable Joseph-Alfred Mousseau, PC (July 18, 1838 – March 30, 1886), was a French Canadian politician. ... Archibald McLelan The Honourable Senator Archibald Woodbury McLelan, PC (20 December 1824 – 26 June 1890) was a Canadian shipbuilder and politician. ... For other persons named John Alexander Macdonald, see John Alexander Macdonald (disambiguation). ... Charles Carroll Colby Source: Library and Archives Canada Charles Carroll Colby (December 10, 1827 – December 10, 1907) was a Canadian lawyer, businessman and politician. ... The Hon. ... William Bullock Ives (17 November 1841 – 15 July 1899) was a Canadian politician. ... Sir Mackenzie Bowell, PC , KCMG (December 27, 1823 – December 10, 1917) was the fifth Prime Minister of Canada from December 21, 1894 to April 27, 1896. ... Sir Auguste-Réal Angers (1837 – 14 April 1919) was a Canadian judge and parliamentarian, holding seats both as a Member of the Canadian House of Commons, and as a Senator. ... Laurier redirects here. ... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC, GCMG, KC (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... Newton Wesley Rowell (November 1, 1867-November 22, 1941) was a Canadian lawyer and politician and leading lay figure in the Methodist church. ... James Alexander Calder, PC, BA, (September 17, 1868 – July 20, 1956) was a Canadian politician. ... Louis-Philippe Normand (September 21, 1863 – June 27, 1928) was a Canadian physician and politician. ... Arthur Meighen, PC, QC, BA, LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920 to December 29, 1921 and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett, PC, KC (July 3, 1870 – June 26, 1947) was the eleventh Prime Minister of Canada from August 7, 1930 to October 23, 1935. ... Louis Stephen St. ... The Honourable Lionel Chevier, PC , CC (April 2, 1903 - July 8, 1987) was a Canadian Member of Parliament and cabinet minister. ... Noël Dorion (July 24, 1904 - March 9, 1980) was a law professor, lawyer and Canadian politician. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (18 September 1895 – 16 August 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... Maurice Lamontagne (September 7, 1917 – June 12, 1983) was a Canadian economist and politician. ... The Honourable George James McIlraith, PC (July 29, 1908 - August 19, 1992) was a lawyer and Canadian parliamentarian. ... The Honourable Guy Favreau, PC , QC , BA , LL.B (May 20, 1917 – July 11, 1967) was a Canadian lawyer, politician and judge. ... Hon. ... “Trudeau” redirects here. ... Allan MacEachen Allan Joseph MacEachen, PC (born July 6, 1921) is one of Canadas elder statesmen and was the first Deputy Prime Minister of Canada. ... Donald Stovel Macdonald, PC, CC (born March 1, 1932) is a former Canadian Liberal politician and Cabinet minister. ... Allan MacEachen Allan Joseph MacEachen, PC (born July 6, 1921) is one of Canadas elder statesmen and was the first Deputy Prime Minister of Canada. ... Mitchell William Sharp,PC,CC (May 11, 1911–March 19, 2004), a Canadian politician and a Companion of the Order of Canada, was most noted for his service as a Liberal Cabinet minister. ... Allan MacEachen Allan Joseph MacEachen, PC (born July 6, 1921) is one of Canadas elder statesmen and was the first Deputy Prime Minister of Canada. ... Walter David Baker, P.C. August 22, 1930 - November 13, 1983) was a Canadian parliamentarian and lawyer. ... Yvon Pinard (born October 10, 1940) is a judge and former Canadian politician. ... André Ouellet (born April 6, 1939) is the former president of Canada Post, and a long time Liberal politician in Canada. ... Erik Hersholt Nielsen, P.C., D.F.C., Q.C., LL.B., (born February 24, 1924) is a former Canadian politician and longtime Progressive Conservative Member of Parliament for Yukon. ... MP Ray Hnatyshyn & Gilles Lamontagne Minister of National Defence attend a reception following a parade at #107 Spitfire Royal Canadian Air Cadet Squadron in Saskatoon, SK - circa 1980 Ramon John Ray Hnatyshyn, PC, CC, CMM, CD, BA, LL.B, QC, FRHSC (hon) (anglicized pronunciation ) (March 16, 1934 – December 18, 2002... Donald Frank Mazankowski, PC, OC, AOE (born July 27, 1935, in Viking, Alberta) was a Canadian politician who served as a cabinet minister under Prime Ministers Joe Clark and Brian Mulroney. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... The Honourable Pierre Blais, PC (born December 30, 1948) is a Canadian jurist and former politician and Cabinet minister. ... The Honourable Marcel Massé, PC , OC , QC , BA , LL.B , B.Phil (born June 23, 1940) is a former Canadian politician and civil servant. ... Stéphane Maurice Dion, PC, MP, Ph. ... Denis Coderre (born July 25, 1963) is a Canadian politician. ... The Honourable Lucienne Robillard, PC, MP (born June 16, 1945) is a Canadian politician and Cabinet minister. ... Hon. ... Peter Van Loan, PC, MP (born April 18, 1963) (sometimes referred to as PVL) is a Canadian politician. ... Ronalee Rona Ambrose, PC, BA, MA, MP (born March 15, 1969 in Valleyview, Alberta) is Canadas current Minister of the Environment. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses of the word Kitchener please see Kitchener (disambiguation) Map of Waterloo Regional Municipality, Ontario with Kitchener in red. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... -1...

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King, William Lyon Mackenzie (1076 words)
William Lyon Mackenzie King, politician, prime minister of Canada 1921-26, 1926-30 and 1935-48 (b at Berlin [Kitchener], Ont 17 Dec 1874; d at Ottawa 22 July 1950), grandson of William Lyon MACKENZIE.
King graduated from the University of Toronto in 1895 and studied economics at Chicago and Harvard.
King acted as conciliator in a number of strikes, his major legislative achievement being the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act of 1907, which delayed strikes or lockouts in public utilities or mines until a conciliation board achieved a settlement or published a report.
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