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Encyclopedia > William Jennings Bryan
William Jennings Bryan
William Jennings Bryan

In office
March 5, 1913 – June 9, 1915
Preceded by Philander C. Knox
Succeeded by Robert Lansing

Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Nebraska's 1st district
In office
March 4, 1891 – March 3, 1895
Preceded by William James Connell
Succeeded by Jesse Burr Strode

Born March 19, 1860(1860-03-19)
Salem, Illinois, U.S.
Died July 26, 1925 (aged 65)
Dayton, Tennessee, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Spouse Mary Baird Bryan
Profession Politician, Lawyer
Religion Presbyterian

William Jennings Bryan (March 19, 1860July 26, 1925) was an American lawyer, statesman, and politician. He was a three-time Democratic Party nominee for President of the United States. One of the most popular speakers in American history, he was noted for his deep, commanding voice. Bryan was a devout Presbyterian, a strong proponent of popular democracy, an outspoken critic of banks and railroads, a leader of the silverite movement in the 1890s, a dominant figure in the Democratic Party, a peace advocate, a prohibitionist, an opponent of Darwinism, and one of the most prominent leaders of Populism in late 19th- and early 20th century America. He was called "The Great Commoner" because of his total faith in the goodness and rightness of the common people. He was defeated by William McKinley in the intensely fought 1896 election and 1900 election, but retained control of the Democratic Party. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... William Jennings Bryan, (March 19, 1860–July 26, 1925) born in Salem, Illinois, was a gifted orator and three-time United States presidential candidate. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Philander C. Knox Philander Chase Knox (May 6, 1853–October 12, 1921) was an American lawyer and politician who served as Attorney General and U.S. Senator and was Secretary of State from 1909-1913. ... This article is about the former Secretary of State. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... The 1st Nebraska Congressional District seat encompasses most of the eastern quarter of the state. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... William James Connell (b. ... Jesse Burr Strode (b. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... This article is about the city named Salem in Illinois. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dayton is a city in Rhea County, Tennessee, United States. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Presbyterianism is a tradition shared by a large number of Christian denominations which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Silverites were a group in the mid 19th century whom advocated that silver should continue to be a monetary standard along with gold and be sold at a dollar a tray. ... A peace dove, widely known as a symbol for peace, featuring an olive branch in the doves beak. ... The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ... Charles Darwin Darwinism is a term for the underlying theory in those ideas of Charles Darwin concerning evolution and natural selection. ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ...


Bryan was one of the most energetic campaigners in American history, inventing the national stumping tour for presidential candidates. In his three failed presidential bids, he promoted Free Silver in 1896, anti-imperialism in 1900, and trust-busting in 1908, calling on all Democrats to renounce states rights in cases where corporations are protected, fight the trusts and big banks, and embrace populist ideas. President Woodrow Wilson appointed him Secretary of State in 1913, but Bryan resigned in protest against what he viewed as Wilson's provocative language in dealing with the Lusitania crisis in 1915. In the 1920s, he was a strong supporter of Prohibition, but is probably best known today for his crusade against Darwinism, which culminated in the Scopes Trial in 1925. He died five days after the case was decided. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Anti-imperialism, strictly speaking, is a term that may be applied to or movement opposed to some form of imperialism. ... Trust-busting refers to government activities designed to break up trusts or monopolies. ... A trust or business trust was a form of business entity used in the late 19th century with intent to create a monopoly. ... Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... RMS Lusitania was a British luxury ocean liner owned by the Cunard Steamship Line Shipping Company and built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland. ... Prohibition in the United States aimed to achieve alcohol abstinence through legal means. ... The Scopes Trial (, often called the Scopes Monkey Trial) was an American legal case that tested a law passed on March 13, 1925, which forbade the teaching, in any state-funded educational establishment in Tennessee, of any theory that denies the story of the Divine Creation of man as taught...

Contents

Background and early career: 1860–1896

Bryan was born in Salem, Illinois, in the Little Egypt region of southern Illinois, on March 19, 1860, the son of Silas and Mary Ann Bryan. This article is about the city named Salem in Illinois. ... The Little Egypt region of Illinois Little Egypt is the southern area of the state of Illinois in the United States of America. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ...

William Jennings Bryan as a younger man.

Silas Bryan was born in Virginia, of Irish stock. He attended law school in Lebanon, Illinois and taught high school while preparing for the bar exam. While teaching there, he met, and eventually married, one of his students, Mary Elizabeth Jennings. They settled in Salem, Illinois, a young town with a population of approximately 2000. Silas Bryan, a Jacksonian Democrat, won election to the Illinois State Senate, where he knew Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas. Silas lost his seat to a Republican in 1860, the year of William Jennings Bryan's birth, but quickly rebounded by winning election as a state circuit judge. Download high resolution version (2400x2941, 764 KB)Photograph of William Jennings Bryan as a young man. ... Download high resolution version (2400x2941, 764 KB)Photograph of William Jennings Bryan as a young man. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Downtown Lebanon Downtown Lebanon Lebanon is a city in St. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... A bar examination is an series of tests conducted at regular intervals to determine whether a candidate is qualified to practice law in a given American examination usually consists of the following: complicated essay questions concerning that jurisdictions law; the Multistate Bar Examination, a standardized, nationwide examination containing generalized... Jacksonian democracy is the term used in American politics to describe the period when the common man participated in the government, occurring after Jeffersonian democracy. ... The Illinois Senate convenes at the Illinois State Capitol in Springfield. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Stephen A. Douglas Stephen Arnold Douglas (April 23, 1813 - June 3, 1861), American politician from Illinois, was one of the Democratic Party nominees for President in 1860 (the other being John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky). ... The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ...


In 1866, the family moved to a 520-acre (2.1 km²) farm north of Salem, living in a ten-room house that was the envy of Marion County. Silas served as a sort of "gentleman farmer" and William Jennings Bryan grew up in this agricultural setting. In 1872, Silas left the bench to run for the House of Representatives, with the backing of the Democratic and Greenback parties, but lost to a Republican. He returned to his law practice. Marion County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... The Greenback Party (Greenback-Labor Party) was an American political party that was active between 1874 and 1884. ...


Both of Bryan's parents were devout Christians. Since his father was a Baptist and his mother a Methodist, Bryan grew up attending Methodist services on Sunday mornings and Baptist services in the afternoon. In 1872, Mariah Bryan joined the Salem Baptists and the family now worshiped with the Baptists in the morning - at this point, William began spending his Sunday afternoons at the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. In 1874, at age 14, Bryan attended a revival and was baptized and joined the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. In later life, Bryan would refer to the day of his baptism as the most important day in his life, but, being raised in a devout family, at the time it caused little change in his daily routine. As an adult, Bryan left the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in favor of the larger Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... Replica of the log house in Dickson County, Tenn. ... A revival meeting is a series of Christian religious services held with an eye to encourage active members of a religious body and to provoke those outside of it to become part of it. ... The Presbyterian Church (USA) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States. ...


Bryan was home schooled until age 10, finding in the Bible and McGuffey Readers the views he adhered to all his life, such as that gambling and liquor were evil and sinful. In 1874, 14-year-old Bryan was sent to Jacksonville to attend Whipple Academy, the academy attached to Illinois College. Following high school, he entered Illinois College and studied classics, graduating as valedictorian in 1881. During his time at Illinois College, Bryan was a proud member of the Sigma Pi literary society. He then moved to Chicago to study law at Union Law College. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Two of the best known school books in the history of American education were the 18th century New England Primer and the 19th century McGuffey Readers. ... Gamble redirects here. ... Spirits redirects here. ... Jacksonville is a city in Morgan County, Illinois, United States. ... Illinois College is a private liberal arts college affiliated with the United Church of Christ and the Presbyterian Church (USA); it is located in Jacksonville, Illinois. ... For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... In the United States and Canada, the title of valedictorian (an anglicized derivation from the Latin vale dicere, to say farewell) is given to the top graduate of the graduating class (the Australia/New Zealand equivalent being dux, although some Australian universities use the American term) of an educational institution. ... Sigma Pi (ΣΠ) is an international college social fraternity with chapters in the United States and Canada. ... A literary society is a group of people interested in literature. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... The Northwestern University School of Law is a private American law school in Chicago, Illinois. ...


He married Mary Baird in 1884; she became a lawyer and collaborated with him on all his speeches and writings. He practiced law in Jacksonville (1883–87), then moved to the boom city of Lincoln, Nebraska. Bryan was elected to Congress in the Democratic landslide of 1890 and reelected by 140 votes in 1892. In 1894 he ran for the Senate, but was overwhelmed in the Republican landslide. Jacksonville is a city located in Morgan County, Illinois. ... Nickname: Location in Nebraska Coordinates: , Country   State     County United States   Nebraska     Lancaster Founded[1]   Renamed   Incorporated 1856   July 29, 1867   April 1, 1869 Government  - Mayor Chris Beutler Area  - City 195. ...


In Bryan's first years in Lincoln, he traveled to Valentine, Nebraska on business where he formed a strong friendship with an aspiring young cattleman named James Dahlman. Over the next forty years they remained friends, with Dahlman carrying Nebraska for Bryan twice while he was state Democratic Party chairman. Even when Dahlman became closely associated with Omaha's vice elements, including the breweries, as the city's eight-term mayor, he and Bryan maintained a collegial relationship.[1] Valentine is a city in Cherry County, Nebraska, United States. ... James Charles Dahlman (December 15, 1856 - January 21, 1930), also known as Jim Dahlman, Cowboy Jim and Mayor Jim, was an eight-term mayor of Omaha, Nebraska, serving the city for 23 years. ...


First battle for the White House: 1896

A Republican satire on Bryan's "Cross of Gold" speech.

At the 1896 Democratic National Convention, Bryan galvanized the silver forces to defeat the Bourbon Democrats, who supported incumbent President Grover Cleveland and who had long controlled the party. His famous "Cross of Gold" speech, delivered prior to voting for the presidential nominee, lambasted Eastern monied classes for supporting the gold standard at the expense of the average worker. Bryan's stance, directly opposing the conservative Cleveland and the Bourbon Democrats, united the agrarian and silver factions and won him the nomination. Just 36, the youngest presidential nominee ever, Bryan formally received the nominations of the Populist Party and the Silver Republican Party in addition to the Democratic nomination. Voters from any party could vote for him without crossing party lines, an important advantage in an era of intense party loyalty. Republicans ridiculed Bryan as a Populist. However, "Bryan's reform program was so similar to that of the Populists that he has often been mistaken for a Populist, but he remained a staunch Democrat throughout the Populist period."[2] The Populists nominated him only once (in 1896); they refused to do so in previous and later elections mostly due to an incident that occurred during the 1896 election. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... GOP redirects here. ... The Cross of Gold speech was a speech famously delivered by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, Illinois. ... The 1896 Democratic National Convention, held at the Chicago Coliseum from July 7 to July 11, was the scene of William Jennings Bryans nomination as Democratic presidential candidate for the 1896 U.S. presidential election, the youngest ever nominee. ... Bourbon Democrats was a term used in the United States from 1876 to 1904 to refer to conservative or reactionary members of the Democratic Party, especially those who supported President Grover Cleveland in 1884-1896 and Alton B. Parker in 1904. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908), the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States, was the only President to serve non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). ... The Cross of Gold speech was a speech famously delivered by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, Illinois. ... For other uses, see Gold standard (disambiguation). ... The Populist Party (also known as the Peoples Party) was a short-lived political party in the United States in the late 19th century. ... The Silver Republican Party was a United States political faction active in the 1890s. ...

Bryan/Sewall campaign poster.

Along with nominating Bryan for president, the Populists nominated Georgia Representative Thomas E. Watson for the vice presidency, in hope Bryan would chose Watson to be his Democratic running mate as well. However, Bryan instead chose Maine industrialist and politician Arthur Sewall for the candidacy. The Populist Party was greatly disappointed in Bryan's decision and thereafter paid little attention to him. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 427 pixelsFull resolution (965 × 515 pixel, file size: 82 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 427 pixelsFull resolution (965 × 515 pixel, file size: 82 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Thomas Edward Watson (5 September 1856–26 September 1922), generally known as Tom Watson, was a United States politician from Georgia. ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Arthur Sewall (November 25, 1835 _ September 5, 1900 was a U.S. Democratic politician from Maine most notable as William Jennings Bryans first running mate in 1896. ...


Bryan crusaded against the gold standard and the money interests, demanding Bimetallism and "Free Silver" at a ratio of 16:1. Most leading Democratic newspapers rejected his candidacy, so he took his cause directly to several million men, women and children who flocked to hear one of his 500 speeches given in 27 states. In economics, bimetallism is a monetary standard in which the value of the monetary unit can be expressed either with a certain amount of gold or with a certain amount of silver: the ratio between the two metals is fixed by law. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Bryan as Populist swallowing the Democratic party; 1896 cartoon from the Republican magazine Judge.

The Republicans nominated William McKinley on a program of prosperity through industrial growth, high tariffs and sound money (that is, gold.) Republicans discovered that, by August, Bryan was solidly ahead in the South and West, and far behind in the Northeast. But he also appeared to be ahead in the Midwest, so the Republicans concentrated their efforts there. They counter-crusaded against Bryan, warning that he was a madman—a religious fanatic surrounded by anarchists—who would wreck the economy. By late September, the Republicans felt they were ahead in the decisive Midwest and began emphasizing that McKinley would bring prosperity to every group of Americans. McKinley scored solid gains among the middle classes, factory and railroad workers, prosperous farmers and among the German Americans who rejected free silver. William McKinley won by a margin of 271 to 176 in the electoral college. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1746x1268, 584 KB) Summary 1896 Judge cartoon shows Bryan/Populism swallowing up the Democratic party. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1746x1268, 584 KB) Summary 1896 Judge cartoon shows Bryan/Populism swallowing up the Democratic party. ... The Populist Party (also known as the Peoples Party) was a short-lived political party in the United States in the late 19th century. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... GOP redirects here. ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Administrators, remember to check if anything links here, the page history (last edit) and any revisions of CSD before deleting. ... German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry. ... Electoral votes by state/federal district, for the elections of 2004 and 2008 The United States Electoral College is a term used to describe the 538 President Electors who meet every 4 years to cast the electoral votes for President and Vice President of the United States; their votes represent...


War and peace: 1898–1900

Conservatives in 1900 ridiculed Bryan's eclectic platform.
Conservatives in 1900 ridiculed Bryan's eclectic platform.

Although Bryan never won an election after 1892, he continued to dominate the Democratic party. He strongly supported going to war with Spain in 1898, and volunteered for combat, arguing that "Universal peace cannot come until justice is enthroned throughout the world. Until the right has triumphed in every land and love reigns in every heart, government must, as a last resort, appeal to force." Bryan volunteered and became colonel of a Nebraska militia regiment; he spent the war in Florida and never saw combat. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1163, 179 KB) Summary Harpers Weekly magazine cover USA 1900 Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1163, 179 KB) Summary Harpers Weekly magazine cover USA 1900 Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties...


After the war, Bryan came to denounce the imperialism that resulted from it. He strongly opposed the annexation of the Philippines (though he did support the Treaty of Paris that ended the war). He ran as an anti-imperialist in 1900, finding himself in an awkward alliance with Andrew Carnegie and other millionaire anti-imperialists. Republicans mocked Bryan as indecisive, or even a coward, a theme high school history teacher Henry Littlefield claimed was echoed in the portrayal of the Cowardly Lion in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900). In 1900, he combined anti-imperialism with free silver, saying: The Treaty of Paris of 1898, signed on December 10, 1898, ended the Spanish-American War. ... Andrew Carnegie (last name pronounced IPA: )[1] (November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was a Scottish industrialist, businessman, a major philanthropist, and the founder of Pittsburghs Carnegie Steel Company which later became U.S. Steel. ... Cover of The Cowardly Lion of Oz (1929) by Ruth Plumly Thompson. ... Most readers in 1900 read The Wonderful Wizard of Oz as a fairy tale, but cartoonists recognized that Baum and Denslow were using images that editorial cartoonists had long used to portray American politicians. ...

The nation is of age and it can do what it pleases; it can spurn the traditions of the past; it can repudiate the principles upon which the nation rests; it can employ force instead of reason; it can substitute might for right; it can conquer weaker people; it can exploit their lands, appropriate their property and kill their people; but it cannot repeal the moral law or escape the punishment decreed for the violation of human rights.[3]

Bryan giving a speech during his 1908 run for the presidency.

His stamina was evident from his schedule. In a typical day he gave four hour-long speeches and shorter talks that added up to six hours of speaking. At an average rate of 175 words a minute, he turned out 63,000 words, enough to fill 52 columns of a newspaper. (No paper printed more than a column or two.) In Wisconsin, he once made 12 speeches in 15 hours. [4]. He held his base in the South, but lost part of the West as McKinley retained the Northeast and Midwest and rolled up a landslide. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 580 pixelsFull resolution (858 × 622 pixel, file size: 45 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 580 pixelsFull resolution (858 × 622 pixel, file size: 45 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


On the Chautauqua circuit: 1900–1912

Following his failed presidential bid in 1900, the 40-year-old Bryan re-examined his life and concluded that he had let his passion for politics obscure his calling as a Christian. He now prepared a number of speeches in defense of the Christian faith and hit the lecture circuit, especially the Chautauqua circuit. For the next 25+ years, Bryan would be the most popular Chautauqua speaker, delivering thousands of speeches, even while serving as secretary of state. He spoke on a wide variety of topics, but he preferred religious topics. His most popular lecture (and his personal favorite) was a lecture entitled "The Prince of Peace": in it, Bryan stressed that religion was the only solid foundation of morality, and that individual and group morality was the only foundation for peace and equality. Another famous lecture from this period, "The Value of an Ideal", was a stirring call to public service. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Chautauqua (pronounced ) is an adult education movement in the United States, highly popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ...

William Jennings Bryan addresses a crowd from a train in Utica, New York, October 21, 1908.
William Jennings Bryan addresses a crowd from a train in Utica, New York, October 21, 1908.

As early as 1905, Bryan was warning Chautauquans of the dangers of Darwinism: "The Darwinian theory represents man reaching his present perfection by the operation of the law of hate - the merciless law by which the strong crowd out and kill off the weak. If this is the law of our development then, if there is any logic that can bind the human mind, we shall turn backward to the beast in proportion as we substitute the law of love. I choose to believe that love rather than hatred is the law of development." Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 552 pixelsFull resolution (876 × 604 pixel, file size: 73 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 552 pixelsFull resolution (876 × 604 pixel, file size: 73 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Utica, New York is a city in the state of New York, and the county seat of Oneida County. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Charles Darwin Darwinism is a term for the underlying theory in those ideas of Charles Darwin concerning evolution and natural selection. ...


Bryan also now threw himself into the work of the Social Gospel. Bryan served on organizations containing a large number of theological liberals: he sat on the temperance committee of the Federal Council of Churches and on the general committee of the short-lived Interchurch World Movement. The Social Gospel movement is a Protestant Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the late 19th century and early 20th century. ... A cartoon from Australia ca. ... The National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA (usually identified as National Council of Churches, or NCC) is a religious organization currently (2006) consisting of 35 Protestant, Anglican, Orthodox, African-American and historic Christian denominations in the United States, and is widely regarded as a leading force...


In the years following his 1900 presidential loss, Bryan founded a weekly magazine, The Commoner, calling on Democrats to dissolve the trusts, regulate the railroads more tightly and support the Progressive Movement. He regarded prohibition as a "local" issue and did not endorse it until 1910. In London in 1906, he presented a plan to the Inter-Parliamentary Peace Conference for arbitration of disputes that he hoped would avert warfare. He tentatively called for nationalization of the railroads, then backtracked and called only for more regulation. His party nominated gold bug Alton B. Parker in 1904, but Bryan was back in 1908, losing this time to William Howard Taft. Progressive Movement is the term used to refer collectively to several various movements around the world that adhere to progressivism. ... The term gold bug is used to describe investors who are very bullish on buying the commodity (XAU - ISO 4217) gold. ... Alton Brooks Parker (May 14, 1852 – May 10, 1926) was an American lawyer and judge and a U.S. presidential candidate in the 1904 elections. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ...

Cartoon depicting Secretary of State Bryan reading news from the war fronts in 1914.
Cartoon depicting Secretary of State Bryan reading news from the war fronts in 1914.

Bryan's speech to the students of Washington and Lee University began the Washington & Lee Mock Convention, which still continues 100 years later. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 504 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (533 × 634 pixel, file size: 123 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)http://teachpol. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 504 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (533 × 634 pixel, file size: 123 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)http://teachpol. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Washington and Lee University is a private liberal arts college in Lexington, Virginia. ...


Secretary of State: 1913–1915

After supporting Woodrow Wilson for the presidency in 1912, he was rewarded with the top job as Secretary of State. Wilson made all the major foreign policy decisions himself, only nominally consulting Bryan. Dedicated to peace (though not a pacifist), Bryan negotiated 28 treaties that promised arbitration of disputes before war broke out between that country and the United States; onto which Germany never signed. He supported American military intervention in the civil war in Mexico in 1914. Bryan resigned in June 1915 over Wilson's strong notes demanding "strict accountability for any infringement of [American] rights, intentional or incidental." He campaigned energetically for Wilson's reelection in 1916. When war finally was declared in April 1917, Bryan wrote Wilson, "Believing it to be the duty of the citizen to bear his part of the burden of war and his share of the peril, I hereby tender my services to the Government. Please enroll me as a private whenever I am needed and assign me to any work that I can do."[5] Wilson, however, did not allow Bryan to rejoin the military and did not offer him any wartime role, so he threw his energies into successful campaigns for Constitutional amendments on prohibition and women's suffrage. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Prohibition in the United States aimed to achieve alcohol abstinence through legal means. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ...


Prohibition battles: 1916–1925

Bryan moved to Florida in part to avoid the Nebraska ethnics (especially the German Americans) who were "wet" and opposed to prohibition. (Coletta 3:116). He remained as busy as ever, often filling lucrative speaking engagements. Always pious, during the final years of his life, he was extremely active in religious organizations and devoted himself to the defense of fundamentalist Christianity. After leaving the State Department, he shifted focus to social and moral issues, and to world disarmament. He refused to support the party nominee in 1920 because he was not dry enough. As one biographer explains, This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Fundamentalist Christianity is a fundamentalist movement, especially within American Protestantism. ...

Bryan epitomized the prohibitionist viewpoint: Protestant and nativist, hostile to the corporation and the evils of urban civilization, devoted to personal regeneration and the social gospel, he sincerely believed that prohibition would contribute to the physical health and moral improvement of the individual, stimulate civic progress, and end the notorious abuses connected with the liquor traffic. Hence he became interested when its devotees in Nebraska viewed direct legislation as a means of obtaining antisaloon laws.[6]
William Jennings Bryan and wife, Mary, in New York City, June 19, 1915.

He was thus primarily interested in destroying the liquor interest, which controlled politics in many inner-city wards and seemed to be on the other side of every issue. His national campaigning helped Congress pass the 18th Amendment in 1918, which shut down all saloons starting in 1920. While prohibition was in effect, however, he did not work to secure better enforcement. He ignored the Ku Klux Klan, expecting it would soon fold. He strongly opposed wet Al Smith for the nomination in 1924 and his brother, Nebraska Governor Charles W. Bryan, was put on the ticket with John W. Davis as candidate for vice president to keep the Bryanites in line. Bryan was very close to his younger brother Charles and endorsed him for the vice presidency. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 543 pixelsFull resolution (865 × 587 pixel, file size: 64 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 543 pixelsFull resolution (865 × 587 pixel, file size: 64 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)http://hdl. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Amendment XVIII in the National Archives Prohibition agents destroying barrels of alcohol. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... Alfred Emanuel Al Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was Governor of New York, and Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... List of Nebraska Governors David Butler Republican 1867-1871 William H. James Republican 1871-1873 Robert Wilkinson Furnas Republican 1873-1875 Silas Garber Republican 1875-1879 Albinus Nance Republican 1879-1883 James W. Dawes Republican 1883-1887 John Milton Thayer Republican 1887-1892 James E. Boyd Democratic 1892-1893 Lorenzo... Charles Wayland Bryan (February 10, 1867 - March 4, 1945), was the younger brother of perennial U.S. Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan. ... John W. Davis John William Davis (April 13, 1873 — March 24, 1955) was an American politician and lawyer. ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ...


Bryan was the chief proponent of the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act, the precursor to our modern War on Drugs. However, he argued on behalf of the act's passage more on international obligation rather than on moral grounds.[7] The Harrison Narcotics Tax Act was an American law that regulated and taxed the production, importation, distribution and use of opiates. ... Massive mark-ups for drugs, areas/drugs/index. ...


Fighting Darwinism: 1918–1925

In his famous Chautauqua lecture, "The Prince of Peace," Bryan had warned of the possibility that the theory of evolution could undermine the foundations of morality. However, at this point, he concluded "While I do not accept the Darwinian theory I shall not quarrel with you about it." Chautauqua (pronounced ) is an adult education movement in the United States, highly popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ...


This attitude changed when the horrors of the First World War convinced Bryan that Darwinism was not only a potential threat, but had in fact undermined morality. Before World War I, Bryan had been an optimist who believed that moral progress could achieve equality at home and, in the international field, peace between all the nations of the world. World War I convinced him that this optimism was misplaced and that moral progress had ground to a complete halt. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


In concluding that Darwinism was responsible for the immorality of the present age, Bryan was heavily influenced by two books. The first was Headquarters Nights: A Record of Conversations and Experiences at the Headquarters of the German Army in Belgium and France by Vernon Kellogg (1917), which forwarded that most German military leaders were committed Darwinists who were skeptical of Christianity. The second was The Science of Power by Benjamin Kidd (1918), which argued that German nationalism, materialism, and militarism could be attributed to the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche, which it claimed in turn was the logical outworking of the Darwinian hypothesis. Vernon Myman Lyman Kellogg Vernon Kellogg encounters two refugees on a Moscow street, while on a humanitarian mission. ... “Nietzschean” redirects here. ...

Charles W. and William J. Bryan.

In 1920, Bryan told the World Brotherhood Congress that Darwinism was "the most paralyzing influence with which civilization has had to deal in the last century" and that Nietzsche, in carrying Darwinism to its logical conclusion, had "promulgated a philosophy that condemned democracy. . . denounced Christianity. . . denied the existence of God, overturned all concepts of morality. . . and endeavored to substitute the worship of the superhuman for the worship of Jehovah." Image File history File links Size of this preview: 411 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (548 × 799 pixel, file size: 69 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 411 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (548 × 799 pixel, file size: 69 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Charles Wayland Bryan (February 10, 1867 - March 4, 1945), was the younger brother of perennial U.S. Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan. ...


However, it was not until 1921 that Bryan saw the threat to morality posed by Darwinism as a major internal threat to the US. The major study which seemed to convince Bryan of this was James H. Leuba's The Belief in God and Immortality, a Psychological, Anthropological and Statistical Study (1916). In this study, Leuba showed that a considerable number of college students lost their faith during the four years they spent in college. Bryan was horrified that the next generation of American leaders might have the degraded sense of morality which he believed had prevailed in Germany and caused the Great War. Bryan decided it was time to act and launched his massive anti-evolution campaign. James Henry Leuba (1867-1946) was an American psychologist, best known for his contributions to the Psychology of Religion. ...

Ever HopefulA November 1924 cartoon depicts Bryan with his brother, Charles, sitting on a log marked "Almost the Solid South" looking at the sun marked "1928" where more hope might come for them. Charles unsuccessfully ran for the vice presidency in the 1924 election having lost a number of southern states.
Ever Hopeful
A November 1924 cartoon depicts Bryan with his brother, Charles, sitting on a log marked "Almost the Solid South" looking at the sun marked "1928" where more hope might come for them. Charles unsuccessfully ran for the vice presidency in the 1924 election having lost a number of southern states.

The campaign kicked off when Union Theological Seminary in Virginia invited Bryan to deliver the James Sprunt Lectures in October 1921. The heart of the lectures was a lecture entitled "The Origin of Man", in which Bryan addressed what he saw as the question foundational to all other moral and political questions: what is the role of man in the universe and what is the purpose of man? For Bryan, the Bible was absolutely central to answering this question, and moral responsibility and the spirit of brotherhood could only rest on belief in God. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Charles Wayland Bryan (February 10, 1867 - March 4, 1945), was the younger brother of perennial U.S. Democratic presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan. ... The phrase Solid South describes the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era, 1876-1964. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... The United States presidential election of 1924 was won by incumbent President Calvin Coolidge, the Republican candidate. ... Union Theological Seminary & Presbyterian School of Christian Education is an institution of the Presbyterian Church (USA). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


The Sprunt lectures were published as In His Image, and sold over 100,000 copies, while "The Origin of Man" was published separately as The Menace of Darwinism and also sold very well.


Bryan was worried that Darwinism was making grounds not only in the universities, but also within the church itself. Many colleges were still church-affiliated at this point. The developments of 19th century liberal theology, and higher criticism in particular, had left the door open to the point where many clergymen were willing to embrace Darwinism and claimed that it was not contradictory with their being Christians. Determined to put an end to this, Bryan, who had long served as a Presbyterian elder, decided to run for the position of Moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the USA, which was at the time embroiled in the Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy. (Under presbyterian church governance, clergy and laymen are equally represented in the General Assembly, and the post of Moderator is open to any member of General Assembly.) Bryan's main competition in the race was the Rev. Charles F. Wishart, president of the College of Wooster, who had loudly endorsed the teaching of Darwinism in the college. Bryan lost to Wishart by a vote of 451-427. Bryan then failed in a proposal to cut off funds to schools where Darwinism was taught. Instead the General Assembly announced disapproval of materialistic (as opposed to theistic) evolution. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called... Higher criticism, also known as historical criticism, is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ... A religious elder (in Greek, πρεσβυτερος [presbyteros]) is valued for his or her wisdom, in part for their age, on the grounds that the older one is then the more one is likely to know. ... The Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is an honorary role, held for 12 months. ... The Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy was a religious controversy within the Presbyterian Church in the USA. It is conventionally dated as beginning with the preaching of Harry Emerson Fosdicks sermon Shall the Fundamentalists Win? in 1922 and ending with J. Gresham Machen and a number of other conservative Presbyterian theologians... Presbyterian governance of a church is typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders. ... The College of Wooster is a liberal arts college with fewer than 2000 students located in Wooster, Ohio, in Wayne County, Ohio. ...


For all of Bryan's crusade against Darwinism, he was not nearly as much of a fundamentalist as many modern day creationists. For example, from page 13 of Ronald L. Number's Harvard University Press book on creationism's history: Charles Darwin Darwinism is a term for the underlying theory in those ideas of Charles Darwin concerning evolution and natural selection. ... Fundamentalism is a movement to maintain strict adherence to founding principles. ... Creationism is generally the belief that the universe was created by a deity, or alternatively by one or more powerful and intelligent beings. ...

William Jennings Bryan, the much misunderstood leader of the post–World War I antievolution crusade, not only read the Mosaic “days” as geological “ages” but allowed for the possibility of organic evolution— so long as it did not impinge on the supernatural origin of Adam and Eve.[8]

Therefore, Bryan is more accurately described as a "day-age creationist." ...


Scopes Trial: 1925

Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan chat in court during the Scopes Trial.
Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan chat in court during the Scopes Trial.

In addition to his unsuccessful advocacy of banning the teaching of evolution in church-run universities, Bryan also actively lobbied in favor of state laws banning public schools from teaching evolution. The legislatures of several southern states proved more receptive to his anti-evolution message than the Presbyterian Church had, and consequently passed laws banning the teaching of evolution in public schools after Bryan addressed them. A prominent example was the Butler Act of 1925, making it unlawful in Tennessee to teach that mankind evolved from lower life forms.[9] Photo taken of Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan during the scopes trial in 1925. ... Photo taken of Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan during the scopes trial in 1925. ... Clarence Seward Darrow (April 18, 1857 Kinsman Township, Trumbull County, Ohio - March 13, 1938 Chicago) was an American lawyer and leading member of the American Civil Liberties Union, best known for defending teenaged thrill killers Leopold and Loeb in their trial for murdering 14-year-old Bobby Franks (1924) and... The Scopes Trial (, often called the Scopes Monkey Trial) was an American legal case that tested a law passed on March 13, 1925, which forbade the teaching, in any state-funded educational establishment in Tennessee, of any theory that denies the story of the Divine Creation of man as taught... For the United Kingdom Butler Education Act, see Education Act 1944. ...


Bryan's participation in the highly publicized 1925 Scopes Trial served as a capstone to his career. He was asked by William Bell Riley to represent the World Christian Fundamentals Association as counsel at the trial. During the trial Bryan took the stand and was questioned by defense lawyer Clarence Darrow about his views on the Bible. Biologist Stephen Jay Gould has speculated that Bryan's antievolution views were a result of his Populist idealism and suggests that Bryan's fight was really against Social Darwinism. Others, such as biographer Michael Kazin, reject that conclusion based on Bryan's failure during the trial to attack the eugenics in the textbook, Civic Biology.[10] The national media reported the trial in great detail, with H. L. Mencken using Bryan as a symbol of Southern ignorance and anti-intellectualism. The Scopes Trial (, often called the Scopes Monkey Trial) was an American legal case that tested a law passed on March 13, 1925, which forbade the teaching, in any state-funded educational establishment in Tennessee, of any theory that denies the story of the Divine Creation of man as taught... William Bell Riley (born March 22, 1861 in Greene County, Indiana, USA; died December 5, 1947 Minneapolis, Minnesota) was known as The Grand Old Man of Fundamentalism. ... World Christian Fundamentals Association, religious organization founded in 1919 by the Baptist minister William Bell Riley of the First Baptist Church, Minneapolis, Minnesota. ... Clarence Seward Darrow (April 18, 1857 Kinsman Township, Trumbull County, Ohio - March 13, 1938 Chicago) was an American lawyer and leading member of the American Civil Liberties Union, best known for defending teenaged thrill killers Leopold and Loeb in their trial for murdering 14-year-old Bobby Franks (1924) and... Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... Social Darwinism is the idea that Charles Darwins theory can be extended and applied to the social realm, i. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Civic Biology was the science book that John T. Scopes used to teach his class the theory of evolution. ... H. L. (Henry Louis) Mencken (September 12, 1880, Baltimore – January 29, 1956, Baltimore), was a journalist, essayist, magazine editor, satirist, acerbic critic of American life and culture, and a student of the American English. ...


Bryan died on July 26, 1925, only five days after the trial ended, but any speculations his death may have been tied to the trial are unfounded. Immediately after the trial, he continued to edit and deliver speeches, traveling hundreds of miles that week. On Sunday, he drove from Chattanooga to Dayton to attend a church service, ate a meal and died while sleeping that afternoon. School Superintendent Walter White proposed that Dayton should create a Christian college as a lasting memorial to Bryan; fund raising was successful and Bryan College opened in 1930. Bryan is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. His tombstone reads "He kept the Faith." is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bryan College is a private co-educational Christian college located in Dayton, Tennessee. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Popular image

The 1950s play by Jerome Lawrence and Robert Edwin Lee, Inherit the Wind, is heavily based on the Scopes Trial, though it actually was written as a response to McCarthyism. A populist thrice-defeated Presidential candidate from Nebraska named Matthew Harrison Brady comes to a small town named Hillsboro in the deep south to help prosecute a young teacher for teaching Darwin to his schoolchildren. He is opposed by a famous liberal lawyer, Henry Drummond, and chastised by a cynical newspaperman as the trial assumes a national profile. However, the play is often criticized for severely mischaracterizing Bryan. (It should be noted, however, that the character of Brady himself is somewhat sympathetic; it is the townspeople supporting him who are drawn in a negative light.) The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Inherit the Wind is a play by Jerome Lawrence and Robert Edwin Lee, which opened on Broadway in January 1955, a 1960 Hollywood film based on the play, and three television remakes. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ...


Bryan also appears as a character in Douglas Moore's 1956 opera, The Ballad of Baby Doe and is briefly mentioned in John Steinbeck's East of Eden. He was also mentioned on the May 23, 2007 episode of The Daily Show when fictional comedian Geoffrey Foxworthington (a knock off of Jeff Foxworthy) quotes, "If your dream Vice President is William Jennings Bryan, you might be a puzzlewit." Douglas Stuart Moore (August 10, 1893 - July 25, 1969) was an American composer, educator, and author. ... For other members of the family, see Steinbeck (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see East of Eden (disambiguation). ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Daily Show (currently The Daily Show with Jon Stewart) is a Peabody and Emmy Award-winning American satirical television program produced by and airing on Comedy Central. ... Comedian Jeff Foxworthy accepts a new jacket from 3rd Infantry Division Commander Army Maj. ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ...


Legacy

Statue of Bryan outside his home "Fairview" in Lincoln, Nebraska.
Statue of Bryan on the lawn of the Rhea County, Tennessee courthouse in Dayton, Tennessee.
Statue of Bryan on the lawn of the Rhea County, Tennessee courthouse in Dayton, Tennessee.

Kazin (2006) considers him the first of the 20th century "celebrity politicians" better known for their personalities and communications skills than their political views. However, author Shannon Jones (2006) writes that one of the few topics touched on by historians is Bryan's apparent support of American racism, and never took a principled stand against white supremacy in the South. Jones contends it is not hard to understand why because, "The ruling elite in the South, the remnants of the old southern slaveholding oligarchy, formed a critical base of the Democratic Party. This Party had defended slavery and secession and had led the struggle against post-Civil War Reconstruction. It had opposed granting suffrage to freed slaves and generally opposed all progressive reforms aimed at alleviating the oppression of blacks and poor whites. No politician could hope for national leadership in the Democratic Party, let alone expect to win the presidency, by attacking the system of racial oppression in the South." Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 1. ... Nickname: Location in Nebraska Coordinates: , Country   State     County United States   Nebraska     Lancaster Founded[1]   Renamed   Incorporated 1856   July 29, 1867   April 1, 1869 Government  - Mayor Chris Beutler Area  - City 195. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Rhea County is a county located in the state of Tennessee. ... Dayton is a city in Rhea County, Tennessee, United States. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ...


Alan Wolfe has concluded that Bryan's "legacy remains complicated." Form and content mix uneasily in Bryan's politics. The content of his speeches. . . leads in a direct line to the progressive reforms adopted by 20th century Democrats. But the form his actions took—-a romantic invocation of the American past, a populist insistence on the wisdom of ordinary folk, a faith-based insistence on sincerity and character. Alan Wolfe is a political scientist and author. ...


Bryan County, Oklahoma was named after him.[11] Bryan County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. ...


Secondary sources

Biographies

  • Cherny, Robert W. A Righteous Cause: The Life of William Jennings Bryan (1994).
  • Coletta; Paolo E. William Jennings Bryan 3 vols. (1964), the most detailed biography.
  • Glad, Paul W. The Trumpet Soundeth: William Jennings Bryan and His Democracy 1896-1912 (1966).
  • Hibben; Paxton. The Peerless Leader, William Jennings Bryan (1929).
  • Kazin, Michael. A Godly Hero: The Life of William Jennings Bryan (2006).
  • Koenig, Louis W. Bryan: A Political Biography of William Jennings Bryan (1971).
  • Werner; M. R. Bryan (1929).

Specialized studies

  • Barnes, James A. "Myths of the Bryan Campaign," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 34 (December 1947) on 1896 campaign; online in JSTOR.
  • Cherny, Robert W. "William Jennings Bryan and the Historians." Nebraska History 1996 77(3-4): 184-193. ISSN 0028-1859. Analysis of the historiography.
  • Edwards, Mark. "Rethinking the Failure of Fundamentalist Political Antievolutionism after 1925" Fides et Historia 2000 32(2): 89-106. ISSN 0884-5379 Argues that fundamentalists thought they had won Scopes trial but death of Bryan shook their confidence.
  • Glad, Paul W. McKinley, Bryan and the People (1991), on 1896.
  • Hohenstein, Kurt. "William Jennings Bryan and the Income Tax: Economic Statism and Judicial Usurpation in the Election of 1896" Journal of Law & Politics 2000 16(1): 163-192. ISSN 0749-2227
  • Jeansonne, Glen. "Goldbugs, Silverites, and Satirists: Caricature and Humor in the Presidential Election of 1896." Journal of American Culture 1988 11(2): 1-8. ISSN 0191-1813
  • Larson, Edward. Summer for the Gods (1997), on the Scopes Trial.
  • Longfield, Bradley J. "For Church and Country: the Fundamentalist-modernist Conflict in the Presbyterian Church." Journal of Presbyterian History 2000 78(1): 34-50. ISSN 0022-3883 Puts Scopes in larger religious context.
  • Mahan, Russell L. "William Jennings Bryan and the Presidential Campaign of 1896" White House Studies 2003 3(2): 215-227. ISSN 1535-4768
  • Murphy, Troy A. "William Jennings Bryan: Boy Orator, Broken Man, and the 'Evolution' of America's Public Philosophy." Great Plains Quarterly 2002 22(2): 83-98. ISSN 0275-7664
  • Willard H. Smith. "William Jennings Bryan and the Social Gospel," The Journal of American History, Vol. 53, No. 1. (Jun., 1966), pp. 41-60. in JSTOR
  • Taylor, Jeff. Where Did the Party Go?: William Jennings Bryan, Hubert Humphrey, and the Jeffersonian Legacy (2006), on Bryan's place in Democratic Party history and ideology.
  • Wood, L. Maren. "The Monkey Trial Myth: Popular Culture Representations of the Scopes Trial" Canadian Review of American Studies 2002 32(2): 147-164. ISSN 0007-7720

ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ...

Primary sources

  • Bryan, Mary Baird, ed. The Memoirs of William Jennings Bryan (1925).
  • Bryan, William Jennings. The First Battle: A Story of the Campaign of 1896 (1897), speeches from 1896 campaign.
  • Bryan, William Jennings. Under Other Flags: Travels, Lectures, Speeches (1905) Fifth edition.
  • Ginger, Ray, ed. William Jennings Bryan; Selections (1967).
  • Whicher, George F., ed. William Jennings Bryan and the Campaign of 1896 (1953), primary and secondary sources.

See also

The history of creationism is tied to the history of religions. ... The Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy was a religious controversy within the Presbyterian Church in the USA. It is conventionally dated as beginning with the preaching of Harry Emerson Fosdicks sermon Shall the Fundamentalists Win? in 1922 and ending with J. Gresham Machen and a number of other conservative Presbyterian theologians... Most readers in 1900 read The Wonderful Wizard of Oz as a fairy tale, but cartoonists recognized that Baum and Denslow were using images that editorial cartoonists had long used to portray American politicians. ... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... Progressive Movement is the term used to refer collectively to several various movements around the world that adhere to progressivism. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
William Jennings Bryan
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
William Jennings Bryan
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Wikisource has original works written by or about:
William Jennings Bryan
  • William Jennings Bryan at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
  • Political Cartoon, on 1900 presidential campaign; Harper's Weekly "He Made It All By Himself" [1]
  • American Memory: Today in History: March 19
  • Works by William Jennings Bryan at Project Gutenberg
  • The Duel In the Shade - Darrow's examination of Bryan at the Scopes Trial
  • "William Jennings Bryan" at The American Experience: Woodrow Wilson on PBS
  • "William Jennings Bryan" at The American Experience: The Monkey Trial on PBS
  • Washington & Lee Mock Convention
  • Text of Vachel Lindsay's famous poem honoring Bryan.
  • William Jennings Bryan cylinder recordings, from the Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project at the University of California, Santa Barbara Library.
  • Michael Kazin: "A Godly Hero" interview about Jennings on The Diane Rehm Show
  • "The Deity of Christ" - paper by Bryan on the subject
  • Information on Bryan's thought and influence, including quotations from his speeches and writings.
  • Author Shannon Brown examines Bryan's position on racism.
  • William Jennings Bryan at the Internet Movie Database
  • William Jennings Bryan: The Ideal Republic (listen online)
  • Side-by-side comparison of the Scopes trial with the film version of Inherit the Wind
  • William Jennings Bryan papers at Nebraska State Historical Society
  • William Jennings Bryan at Find A Grave

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress is a biographical dictionary of all members of both houses of the United States Congress, past and present. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... The Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project is a free digital collection maintained by the University of California, Santa Barbara Libraries with streaming and downloadable versions of over 5,000 phonograph cylinders manufactured between 1895 and the mid 1920s. ... The University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) is a coeducational public university located on the Pacific Ocean in Santa Barbara County, California, USA. It is one out of 10 campuses of the University of California. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... The Nebraska State Historical Society is a Nebraska state agency, originally founded in 1878 to It was designated a state institution in 1883, and upgraded to a state agency per 1994 state legislation. ... Find A Grave is an online database of seventeen million cemeteries and burial records. ...

References

  1. ^ Folsom, B.W. (1999) No More Free Markets Or Free Beer: The Progressive Era in Nebraska, 1900-1924. Lexington Books. p 57-59.
  2. ^ Coletta, (1964), vol.1, pg.40
  3. ^ Hibben, Peerless Leader, 220
  4. ^ Coletta 1:272
  5. ^ Hibben, Peerless Leader, p. 356
  6. ^ Coletta vol 2 p. 8
  7. ^ Historical documents
  8. ^ The Creationists: From Scientific Creationism to Intelligent Design, expanded edition, Ronald L. Numbers, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England, 2006 ISBN-10: 0-674-02339-0
  9. ^ "It shall be unlawful..." to teach "...any theory that denies the story of the Divine Creation of man as taught in the Bible, and to teach instead that man has descended from a lower order of animals." [Section 1 of House Bill No. 185]
  10. ^ Kazin p.289
  11. ^ Oklahoma Historical Society. "Origin of County Names in Oklahoma", Chronicles of Oklahoma 2:1 (March 1924) 75-82 (retrieved August 18, 2006).
Political offices
Preceded by
Philander C. Knox
United States Secretary of State
March 5, 1913 – June 9, 1915
Succeeded by
Robert Lansing
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
William James Connell
Member from Nebraska's 1st congressional district
March 4, 1891 – March 3, 1895
Succeeded by
Jesse Burr Strode
Party political offices
Preceded by
James Baird Weaver
Populist Party presidential candidate
1896
Succeeded by
Wharton Barker
Preceded by
Grover Cleveland
Democratic Party presidential candidate
1896, 1900
Succeeded by
Alton B. Parker
Preceded by
Alton B. Parker
Democratic Party Presidential nominee
1908
Succeeded by
Woodrow Wilson
Persondata
NAME Bryan, William
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION United States Secretary of State
DATE OF BIRTH March 19, 1860
PLACE OF BIRTH Salem, Illinois, U.S.
DATE OF DEATH July 26, 1925
PLACE OF DEATH Dayton, Tennessee, U.S.

  Results from FactBites:
 
1896: William Jennings Bryan (1325 words)
William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925) was a Congressman from Nebraska, three-time presidential candidate (1896, 1900, and 1908), and later Secretary of State under President Woodrow Wilson.
William Jennings Bryan, of Lincoln, Neb., who is sometimes known as "the Boy Orator of the Platte," is a native of Illinois.
Bryan says she is invaluable to him in suggestions and the preparation of material and in advice as to points and methods.
William Jennings Bryan Biography and Summary (395 words)
William Jennings Bryan spent a lifetime giving speeches and running for office but is best remembered for his involvement in one of the most publicized legal battles of the twentieth century.
Bryan was born in Salem, Illinois, on March 19, 1860, and was...
William Jennings Bryan Born March 19, 1860 (Salem, Illinois) Died July 26, 1925 (Dayton, Ohio) Lawyer and politician During his long career in law and politics, including three unsuccessful bids for the presidency, William Jennings Bryan gained fame for...
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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