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Encyclopedia > William IV of the United Kingdom
William IV
King of the United Kingdom; King of Hanover (more...)
William IV, painted by Sir Martin Archer Shee, 1833
William IV, painted by Sir Martin Archer Shee, 1833
Reign 26 June 183020 June 1837
Predecessor George IV
Successor Victoria (in the United Kingdom)
Ernest Augustus I (in Hanover)
Consort Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Issue
Princess Charlotte of Clarence
Princess Elizabeth of Clarence
Full name
William Henry
Titles and styles
HM The King
HRH The Duke of Clarence and St Andrews
HRH The Prince William
Royal house House of Hanover
Royal anthem God Save the King
Father George III
Mother Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Born 21 August 1765(1765-08-21)
Buckingham House, London
Baptised 20 September 1765
St James's Palace, London
Died 20 June 1837 (aged 71)
Windsor Castle, Berkshire
Burial 8 July 1837
St George's Chapel, Windsor
Occupation Military (Naval)

William IV (William Henry; 21 August 176520 June 1837) was King of Hanover and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 26 June 1830 until his death. William, the third son of George III and younger brother and successor to George IV, was the last king and penultimate monarch of the House of Hanover. For the various rulers of the kingdoms within England prior to its formal unification, during the Heptarchy, see Bretwalda. ... Hanover (German Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... Sir Martin Archer Shee (December 23, 1770 - August 13, 1850) was an Irish portrait painter and president of the Royal Academy. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... George IV redirects here. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... Ernest Augustus I of Hanover Ernest Augustus I, King of Hanover (5 June 1771 – 18 November 1851), also known (1799-1837) as the Duke of Cumberland, was the fifth son and eighth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. ... Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen (Adelaide Louise Theresa Caroline Amelia) ( 13 August 1792 - 2 December 1849 ) as Queen Adelaide was the Queen consort of King William IV of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Her Highness Princess Charlotte of Clarence (Charlotte Augusta Louisa) (March 21, 1819-March 21, 1819) was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of King George III. At the time of her birth she was third in the line of succession to the British throne. ... Princess Elizabeth of Clarence (Elizabeth Georgiana Adelaide) (10 December 1820 – 4 March 1821) was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of King George III. At the time of her birth she was third in the line of succession to the British throne. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... A royal anthem is a patriotic song, much like a national anthem that recognizes the nations monarch. ... Publication of an early version in The Gentlemans Magazine, 15 October 1745. ... George III redirects here. ... Queen Charlotte, (née Duchess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; 19 May 1744 – 17 November 1818) was the queen consort of George III of the United Kingdom (1738–1820). ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Main entrance of St Jamess Palace, London St Jamess Palace is one of Londons oldest and most historic palaces. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Members of the public outside St Georges Chapel at Windsor Castle, waiting to watch the Garter Procession St Georges Chapel is the place of worship at Windsor Castle in England. ... This article is about the English town. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Hanover (German Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... This article is about the historical state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1927). ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... George III redirects here. ... George IV redirects here. ... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ...


He served in the Royal Navy in his youth and was, both during his reign and afterwards, nicknamed the Sailor King. He served in North America and the Caribbean, but saw little actual fighting. As a result of the deaths and childlessness of his two older brothers, he inherited the throne when he was sixty-four years old. His reign saw several reforms: the poor law was updated, child labour restricted and slavery abolished throughout the British Empire. One of the most important pieces of legislation was the Reform Act 1832, which refashioned the British electoral system. Though William did not engage in politics as much as his brother or his father, he was the most recent monarch to appoint a Prime Minister contrary to the will of Parliament. During his reign, his other kingdom, Hanover, adopted a liberal constitution. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... North American redirects here. ... West Indies redirects here. ... A hereditary monarchy is the most common style of monarchy and is the form that is used by almost all of the worlds existing monarchies. ... This article deals chiefly with the English Poor Laws covering England and Wales. ... A twelve year old American uneducated child laborer, Furman Owens, who stated Yes I want to learn but cant when I work all the time. ... The Slavery Abolition Act (citation ) was an 1833 Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom abolishing slavery throughout the British Empire. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom. ...


At his death William had no surviving legitimate children. He was succeeded in the United Kingdom by his niece, Victoria, and in Hanover by his brother, Ernest Augustus. Queen Victoria redirects here. ... Ernest Augustus I of Hanover Ernest Augustus I, King of Hanover (5 June 1771 – 18 November 1851), also known (1799-1837) as the Duke of Cumberland, was the fifth son and eighth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. ...

Contents

Early life

William was born in the early hours of the morning on 21 August 1765 at Buckingham House, the third child and son of George III and Queen Charlotte.[1] He had two elder brothers (Prince George, Prince of Wales and Prince Frederick, Duke of York), and was not expected to inherit the Crown. He was baptized in the Great Council Chamber of St James's Palace on 20 September 1765 and his godparents were the Duke of Gloucester, Prince Henry and Princess Augusta Charlotte. is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... George III redirects here. ... Queen Charlotte, (née Duchess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; 19 May 1744 – 17 November 1818) was the queen consort of George III of the United Kingdom (1738–1820). ... George IV redirects here. ... His Royal Highness The Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (Frederick Augustus) (16 August 1763 - 5 January 1827) was a member of the British Royal Family, the second eldest child, and second son of King George III. From 1820 until his own death in 1827, he was the heir... Main entrance of St Jamess Palace, London St Jamess Palace is one of Londons oldest and most historic palaces. ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... HRH Prince William Henry, Earl of Connaught, 1st Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh (November 14, 1743 - August 25, 1805) was a British prince and military officer, younger brother of King George III. He was born to Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha at Leicester House in... Prince Henry Frederick, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn (7 November 1745 - 18 September 1790) was the sixth child of Frederick, Prince of Wales and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, and a younger brother of George III. // [edit] Early life HRH Prince Henry Frederick of Wales was born on 7 November 1745... Princess Augusta Charlotte of Wales (31 July 1737 - 23 March 1813), was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of King George II and sister of King George III. She later married into the Ducal House of Brunswick, of which she was already a member. ...


Most of his early life was spent at Richmond and Kew, where he was educated by private tutors.[2] At the age of thirteen, he joined the Royal Navy as a midshipman,[3] and was present at the Battle of Cape St. Vincent in 1780.[4] His time in the navy seems to have been little different to the experiences of other sailors, doing his share of the cooking[5] and getting arrested with his shipmates after a drunken brawl on Gibraltar.[6] He served in New York during the American War of Independence, becoming the first British monarch-to-be to visit the United States (each of his successors, excepting Victoria, has done so either before or after accession). While the prince was in America, George Washington approved a plot to kidnap him, writing "The spirit of enterprise so conspicuous in your plan for surprising in their quarters and bringing off the Prince William Henry and Admiral Digby merits applause; and you have my authority to make the attempt in any manner, and at such a time, as your judgment may direct. I am fully persuaded, that it is unnecessary to caution you against offering insult or indignity to the persons of the Prince or Admiral…"[7][8] The plot did not come to fruition; the British heard of it and assigned guards to the prince, who had up till then walked around New York unescorted.[9] Richmond is a suburb and the principal settlement of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in south west London, England. ... Kew is a place in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in South West London. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... A midshipman is a subordinate officer, or alternatively a commissioned officer of the lowest rank, in the navies of several English-speaking countries. ... Combatants Britain Spain Commanders George Rodney Juan de Lángara Strength 18 ships of the line 9 ships of the line 2 frigates Casualties 32 dead 102 wounded 1 ship destroyed 4 ships captured The naval Battle of Cape St Vincent, or Battle of Cape Santa Maria, took place on... This article is about the state. ... This article is about military actions only. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ...


William became a Lieutenant in 1785 and Captain of HMS Pegasus the following year.[10] In 1786, he was stationed in the West Indies under Horatio Nelson, who wrote of William, "In his professional line, he is superior to two-thirds, I am sure, of the [Naval] list; and in attention to orders, and respect to his superior officer, I hardly know his equal."[11] On his return, he visited the South of Ireland, where he openly socialised with Catholic families, much to his father's disapproval.[12] He was given command of the frigate HMS Andromeda in 1788, and was promoted to Rear-Admiral in command of HMS Valiant the following year.[13] Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... For other uses, see Captain (disambiguation). ... Watercolor of what is believed to be HMS Pegasus in St. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Lord Nelson Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson (September 29, 1758 – October 21, 1805) was a British admiral who won fame as a leading naval commander. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... For other ships of the same name, see HMS Valiant. ...


William sought to be made a Duke like his elder brothers, and to receive a similar Parliamentary grant, but his father was reluctant. To put pressure on him, William threatened to run for the House of Commons for the constituency of Totnes in Devon. Appalled at the prospect of his son making his case to the voters, George III created him Duke of Clarence and St Andrews and Earl of Munster on 16 May 1789,[14] supposedly saying, "I well know it is another vote added to the Opposition."[15] Although he allied himself publicly with the Whigs and his elder brothers (who were known for their conflict with their father), the Prince of Wales and the Duke of York, William's record was inconsistent and cannot, like many politicians of the time, be certainly ascribed to a single party.[16] This article is about the nobility title. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... Totnes is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ... Duke of Clarence is a title which has been traditionally awarded to junior members of the English and British royal families. ... The title of Earl of Munster was created twice - first in the Peerage of Ireland in 1789 as a subsidiary title of the Duke of Clarence, and then, after that title merged with the crown upon the accession of William IV in 1830, in 1831 for the Kings illegitimate... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Service and politics

William in dress uniform painted by Sir Martin Archer Shee, c.1800 (detail)
William in dress uniform painted by Sir Martin Archer Shee, c.1800 (detail)

The newly created Duke ceased his active service in the Royal Navy in 1790.[17] When the United Kingdom declared war on France in 1793, he was anxious to serve his country and expected a command, but was not given a ship, perhaps at first because he had broken his arm by falling down some stairs drunk, but later because he gave a speech in the House of Lords opposing the war.[18] The following year he spoke in favour of the war, expecting a command after his change of heart. None came. The Admiralty did not even reply to his request.[19] He did not lose hope of being appointed to an active post, but when he was made an admiral in 1798, the rank was purely titular.[20] Despite repeated petitions, he was never given a command throughout the Napoleonic Wars.[21] In 1811, he was appointed to the honorary position of Admiral of the Fleet. In 1813, he came nearest to any actual fighting, when he visited the British troops fighting in the Low Countries. Watching the bombardment of Antwerp from a church steeple, he came under fire. A bullet pierced his coat.[22] This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Royal Navy Insignia Shoulder board The flag of an Admiral of the Fleet is the Union Flag, and is in 1:2 rather than the 2:3 of other admirals flags. ... For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ...


Instead of serving at sea, he spent time in the House of Lords, where he spoke in opposition to the abolition of slavery, which although not legal in the United Kingdom still existed in the British colonies. Freedom would do the slaves little good, he argued. He had travelled widely and, in his eyes, the living standard among freemen in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland was worse than that among slaves in the West Indies.[23] Freedom did not necessarily bring prosperity. He thought conditions should be improved but full emancipation would imperil the well-being of former slaves by destroying the economy, and ruin Britain's maritime strength by cutting off its trade routes. He claimed that the slave trade benefitted native Africans who would otherwise be killed by their warlike neighbours if not sold into bondage. His experience in the West Indies lent gravitas to his position, which was perceived as well-argued and just by some of his contemporaries.[24] Others thought it "shocking that so young a man, under no bias of interest, should be earnest in continuance of the slave trade".[25] As pointed out by one of his biographers, it is so obvious today that slavery is evil that it is easy to condemn William's point of view but at the time his arguments, in favour of improved conditions but ultimate maintenance of the system, were considered moderate by many of his peers.[26] On other issues he was more liberal, such as supporting moves to abolish penal laws against dissenting Christians.[27] The Highlands and Islands is one of the eight electoral regions of the Scottish Parliament which were created in 1999. ... In the most general sense, penal is the body of laws that are enforced by the State in its own name and impose penalties for their violation, as opposed to civil law that seeks to redress private wrongs. ... English Dissenters were dissenters from England who opposed State interference in religious matters and founded their own communities over the 16th to 18th century period. ...


In 1797, the Duke was appointed Ranger of Bushy Park, which carried with it residence at Bushy House. He would use Bushy as his principal residence until he became King.[28] His London residence, Clarence House, was constructed to the designs of John Nash between 1825 and 1827.[29] Bushy Park in Autumn Bushy Park is the second largest of the Royal Parks of London. ... Bushy House Bushy House is a former royal residence in Teddington in South West London, on the site of the National Physical Laboratory, overlooking Bushy Park. ... Clarence House, London Clarence House is a royal home in London, situated in The Mall. ... John Nash For other people of the same name, see John Nash. ...


Marriage

From 1791, the Duke of Clarence lived for twenty years with an Irish actress, Dorothea Bland, better known by her stage name, Mrs. Jordan,[17] the title "Mrs" was assumed at the start of her stage career to explain an inconvenient pregnancy[30] and "Jordan" because she had "crossed the water" from Ireland to Britain.[31] Mrs Jordan ( November 21, 1761 – July 5, 1816), actress, was the mistress of King William IV of the United Kingdom. ...


William was part of the first generation to grow to maturity under the Royal Marriages Act 1772, which forbade descendants of George II from marrying unless they obtained the monarch's consent, or, if over the age of 25, giving twelve months' notice to the Privy Council. Several of George III's sons, including William, chose to cohabit with the women they loved, rather than seeking a wife. After all, the younger sons, including William, were not expected to figure in the succession, which was considered secure once the Prince of Wales married and had a daughter, Princess Charlotte. The Royal Marriages Act of 1772 made it illegal for any member of the British royal family (defined as all descendants of King George II, excluding descendants of princesses who marry foreigners) under the age of 25 to marry without the consent of the ruling monarch. ... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically in a monarchy. ... Engraving from a portrait of Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales, in the National Portrait Gallery, attributed to Sir Thomas Lawrence Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales (January 7, 1796 – November 6, 1817) was the only child of the ill-fated marriage between George IV (at that time the Prince of Wales...


The couple had ten illegitimate children, five sons and five daughters, who were given the surname "FitzClarence".[32][33] The affair would last for twenty years before ending in 1811. Mrs. Jordan was given a financial settlement of £4400 per year and custody of the daughters, on condition she did not resume the stage. When she did take up her acting career again, to repay debts incurred by her son-in-law (the husband of one of Mrs. Jordan's daughters from a previous relationship), the Duke took custody of the daughters. With her career failing, she fled to France to escape her creditors, and died, impoverished and in ill-health, near Paris in 1816.[34] William had another illegitimate son, William, before he met Mrs. Jordan and whose mother is unknown, who drowned off Madagascar in 1807.[35] Caroline von Linsingen, whose father was a general in the Hanoverian infantry, claimed to have had a son, Heinrich, by William in around 1790 but William was not in Hanover at the time that she claims and the story is considered implausible.[36]


When Clarence's niece, Princess Charlotte, the second-in-line to the throne, died in childbirth in 1817, the King was left with twelve children, and no legitimate grandchildren. The race was on among the Royal Dukes to marry and produce an heir. William had great advantages in this race—his two older brothers were both childless and estranged from their wives, who were in any case both probably beyond childbearing age, and William was the healthiest of the three.[37] If he lived long enough and could procure a healthy young bride, he could become King and sire the next monarch. However, William's first choices to wed either met with the disapproval of the Prince Regent or turned him down. Princess Anne of Denmark refused the match. His younger brother, the Duke of Cambridge, was sent to Germany to scout out the available Protestant princesses; he came up with Princess Augusta of Hesse-Cassel, but her father declined the match.[38] Two months later, the Duke of Cambridge married her himself. Eventually, a princess was found who was amicable, home-loving, and was willing to accept, even enthusiastically welcome, William's nine surviving children, several of whom had not yet reached adulthood.[39] At Kew on 11 July 1818,[40] Clarence married Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, the daughter of the Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. At 25, Adelaide was half William's age. This article is about the nobility title. ... Prince Adolphus Frederick, Duke of Cambridge (24 February 1774-8 July 1850), was the tenth-born child and seventh son of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Princess Augusta of Hesse-Cassel, later Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Cambridge, (7 July 1797 – 6 April 1889) was the consort of Prince Adolphus, 1st Duke of Cambridge, the tenth born child and seventh son of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. ... Kew is a place in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames in South West London. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen (Adelaide Louise Theresa Caroline Amelia) ( 13 August 1792 - 2 December 1849 ) as Queen Adelaide was the Queen consort of King William IV of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ...


The marriage, which lasted almost twenty years until William's death, was a happy one. The new Duchess took both William and his finances in hand. For their first year of marriage, the couple lived in economical fashion in Germany, William's debts were soon on the way to being paid, especially since Parliament had voted him an increased allowance, which he reluctantly accepted after his requests to increase it further were refused.[41] William is not known to have had mistresses.[42][13][43] The major sorrow of the marriage is that they did not have healthy children which would have secured the succession. The couple had two short-lived daughters, and Adelaide suffered three miscarriages.[44] Despite this, false rumours that Adelaide was pregnant persisted into William's reign—he dismissed them as "damned stuff".[45]


Lord High Admiral

Clarence's elder brother, the Prince of Wales, had been Prince Regent since 1811 because of the mental illness of their father, George III. In 1820, the king died, leaving the Crown to the Prince Regent, who became George IV. The Duke of Clarence was now second in line to the Throne, preceded only by his brother, Frederick, Duke of York. Reformed since his marriage, William walked for hours, ate relatively frugally, and the only drink he imbibed in quantity was barley water flavoured with lemon.[46] Both of his brothers were unhealthy. When the Duke of York died in 1827, Clarence, then more than sixty years old, became heir presumptive. Later that year, the incoming Prime Minister, George Canning, appointed Clarence to the office of Lord High Admiral, which had been in commission (that is, exercised by a board rather than by a single individual) since 1709. While in office, Clarence attempted to take independent control of naval affairs, although the law required him to act, under almost all circumstances, on the advice of his Council. The King, through the Prime Minister, by now Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, requested his resignation in 1828; the Duke of Clarence complied.[42] Prince Regent (or Prince Regnant, as a direct borrowing from French language) is a prince who rules a country instead of a sovereign, e. ... George IV redirects here. ... George Canning (11 April 1770 – 8 August 1827) was a British statesman and politician who served as Foreign Secretary and, briefly, Prime Minister. ... For the international law of the sea, see Admiralty law. ... Italic text His Grace Field Marshal the Most Noble Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ...


Despite the difficulties which the Duke experienced, he did considerable good as Lord High Admiral, abolishing the cat o' nine tails for most offences other than mutiny, attempting to improve the standard of naval gunnery, and requiring regular reports of the condition and preparedness of each ship. He commissioned the first steam warship and advocated for more.[47] Holding the office permitted William to make mistakes and learn from them—a process that might have been far more costly had he not learnt before becoming King that he could act only with the advice of his councillors.[48][42] A leather cat o nine tails This article discusses an implement of punishment. ... Mutiny AKA. Matt Daye Is A conspiracy among members of a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the military; or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change or overthrow an existing authority. ...


William spent the remaining time during his brother's reign in the House of Lords. He supported the Catholic Emancipation Bill against the opposition of his younger brother, the Duke of Cumberland, describing the latter's position on the Bill as "infamous", to the younger Duke's outrage.[49] George IV's health was increasingly bad; it was obvious by early 1830 that he was near death. William's genuine affection for his older brother could not mask his rising anticipation that he would soon be King.[50] Catholic Emancipation was a process in Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century which involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics which had been introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the Penal Laws. ... Ernest Augustus I of Hanover Ernest Augustus I, King of Hanover (5 June 1771 – 18 November 1851), also known (1799-1837) as the Duke of Cumberland, was the fifth son and eighth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. ...


Accession and the Reform Crisis

William IV
William IV
British Royalty
House of Hanover
William IV
   Princess Charlotte of Clarence
   Princess Elizabeth of Clarence

When George IV died on 26 June 1830 without surviving legitimate issue, the Duke of Clarence ascended the Throne, aged 64, as William IV—the oldest person ever to assume the British throne.[51] One legend has it that when informed, in the early morning, of his brother's passing, he stated his intent to return to bed, as he had long wished to sleep with a Queen.[52] Unlike his extravagant brother, William was unassuming, discouraging pomp and ceremony. In contrast to George IV, who tended to spend most of his time in Windsor Castle, William was known, especially early in his reign, to walk, unaccompanied, through London or Brighton. Until the Reform Crisis eroded his standing, he was very popular among the people, who saw him as more approachable and down-to-earth than his brother.[53] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 150 × 207 pixelsFull resolution (150 × 207 pixel, file size: 8 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to nl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 150 × 207 pixelsFull resolution (150 × 207 pixel, file size: 8 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to nl. ... This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Image File history File links UK_Arms_1801. ... Her Highness Princess Charlotte of Clarence (Charlotte Augusta Louisa) (March 21, 1819-March 21, 1819) was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of King George III. At the time of her birth she was third in the line of succession to the British throne. ... Princess Elizabeth of Clarence (Elizabeth Georgiana Adelaide) (10 December 1820 – 4 March 1821) was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of King George III. At the time of her birth she was third in the line of succession to the British throne. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... For other places with the same name, see Brighton (disambiguation). ...


Upon taking the throne, William did not forget his nine surviving illegitimate children, creating his eldest son Earl of Munster and granting the other children the precedence of a younger son (or daughter) of a marquess. Despite this his children importuned for greater opportunities, disgusting elements of the press which reported that the "impudence and rapacity of the FitzJordans is unexampled".[54] The relationship between William and his offspring "was punctuated by a series of savage and, for the King at least, painful quarrels" over money and honours.[55] George Augustus Frederick FitzClarence, 1st Earl of Munster PC (29 January 1794 – 20 March 1842), was the eldest son of William IV of the United Kingdom and his long-time mistress Dorothy Jordan. ...


At the time, the death of the monarch required fresh elections and, in the general election of 1830, Wellington's Tories lost to the Whigs under Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, who became Prime Minister. Lord Grey pledged to reform the electoral system, which had seen few changes since the fifteenth century. The inequities in the system were great; for example, large towns such as Manchester and Birmingham elected no members (though they were part of county constituencies), while small boroughs—known as rotten or pocket boroughs—such as Old Sarum with just seven voters, elected two members of Parliament each. Often, the rotten boroughs were controlled by great aristocrats, whose nominees would invariably be elected by the constituents—who were, most often, their tenants—especially since the secret ballot was not yet used in Parliamentary elections. Landowners who controlled seats were even able to sell them to prospective candidates.[56] The 1830 UK general election, fought in the aftermath of the Swing Riots, saw electoral reform as a major election issue. ... For other uses, see Tory (disambiguation). ... The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... The Right Honourable Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, KG, PC (13 March 1764–17 July 1845), known as Viscount Howick between 1806 and 1807, was a British Whig statesman and Prime Minister. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... This article is about the British city. ... The term rotten borough referred to a parliamentary borough or constituency in Great Britain and Ireland which, due to size and population, was controlled and used by a patron to exercise undue and unrepresentative influence within parliament. ... The term rotten borough (or pocket borough, as they were seen as being in the pocket of a patron) refers to a parliamentary borough or constituency in the Kingdom of England (pre-1707), the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707-1801), the Kingdom of Ireland (1536-1801) and the United Kingdom... This article needs to be wikified. ...


As monarch, William IV played an important role in the Reform Crisis. When the House of Commons defeated the First Reform Bill in 1831, Lord Grey's ministry urged an immediate dissolution of Parliament and a new general election. At first, William hesitated to exercise his power to dissolve Parliament because elections had just been held the year before and the country was in a state of high excitement which might boil over into violence. He was, however, irritated by the conduct of the Opposition, which formally moved the passage of an Address, or resolution, in the House of Lords, against dissolution. Regarding the Opposition's motion as an attack on his power, and at the urgent request of Lord Grey and his ministers, William IV prepared to go in person to the House of Lords, where debate on the Address was raging, and prorogue Parliament.[57] When initially told that his horses could not be ready at such short notice, William is supposed to have said, "Then I will go in a hackney cab!"[58] Coach and horses were assembled quickly and William immediately proceeded to Parliament. The House was in uproar; Lord Londonderry brandished a whip, threatening to thrash the Government supporters, and was held back by four of his colleagues. William hastily put on the crown and dissolved Parliament.[59] This forced new elections for the House of Commons, which yielded a great victory for the reformers. But although the House of Commons was clearly in favour of parliamentary reform, the House of Lords remained implacably opposed to it.[60] A prorogation is the period between two sessions of a legislative body. ... Charles William Stewart, later Vane, 3rd Marquess of Londonderry, KG, GCB, GCH, PC (18 May 1778 – 6 March 1854) was a British soldier, politician and nobleman, the son (by his second wife) of the 1st Marquess of Londonderry, and half-brother to Lord Castlereagh. ... The 1831 UK general election, the last before the Reform Act of 1832, saw electoral reform as the major election issue. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...


The crisis saw a brief interlude for the celebration of the King's Coronation on 8 September 1831. At first, the King wished to dispense with the coronation entirely, feeling that his wearing the crown while proroguing Parliament answered any need.[61] He was persuaded otherwise by traditionalists. He refused, however, to celebrate the coronation in the expensive way his brother had, dispensing with the banquet, and budgeting less than a tenth of what had been expended ten years previously.[62] When traditionalist Tories threatened to boycott what they called the "Half Crown-nation",[63] the King retorted that they should go ahead, and that he anticipated "greater convenience of room and less heat".[64] British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Half-Crown coin of Oliver Cromwell, 1658 The half-crown was a denomination of British money worth two shillings and sixpence, being one-eighth of a pound. ...


After the rejection of the Second Reform Bill by the Upper House in October 1831, agitation for reform grew across the country; demonstrations grew violent in so-called "Reform Riots". In the face of popular excitement, the Grey ministry refused to accept defeat in the House of Lords, and re-introduced the Bill, which still faced difficulties in the House of Lords. Frustrated by the Lords' recalcitrance, Grey suggested that the King create a sufficient number of new peers to ensure the passage of the Reform Bill. The King objected—he had already created 22 new peers in his coronation honours[65]—but reluctantly agreed to the creation of the number of peers sufficient "to secure the success of the bill".[66] However, the King, citing the difficulties with a permanent expansion of the Peerage, told Grey that the creations must be restricted as much as possible to the eldest sons and collateral heirs of existing peers, so that the created peerages would eventually be absorbed as subsidiary titles. Bowing to popular pressure, the Lords did not reject the bill outright, but began preparing to change its basic character through amendments. Grey and his fellow ministers decided to resign if the King did not agree to an immediate and large creation to force the bill through in its entirety.[67] The King refused, and accepted their resignations. The King attempted to restore the Duke of Wellington to office, but Wellington had insufficient support to form a ministry and the King's popularity sunk to an all-time low. Mud was slung at his carriage and he was publicly hissed. On Wellington's advice, and after mass public meetings demanding reform, the King agreed to reappoint Grey's ministry, and to create new peers if the House of Lords continued to pose difficulties. Concerned by the threat of the creations, most of the bill's opponents abstained and the Reform Act 1832 was passed. The mob blamed William's poor judgement on the influence of his reactionary wife and brother, and his popularity recovered.[68] For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ... The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom. ...


Foreign policy

William distrusted foreigners, particularly anyone French,[69] which he acknowledged as a "prejudice".[70] However, he also felt strongly that Britain should not interfere in the internal affairs of other nations, which brought him into conflict with the interventionist Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston.[71] William was supportive of Belgian independence and, after unacceptable Dutch and French candidates were put forward, favoured Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the widower of his niece, Charlotte, as a candidate for the newly-created Belgian throne.[72] The greatest breach with Palmerston was over Hanover. William never visited Hanover as its King. His brother, the Duke of Cambridge, acted as regent throughout his reign. In 1832, Metternich introduced laws which curbed fledging liberal movements in Germany. The Hanoverian government supported Metternich, much to Palmerston's dismay, but Palmerston had no power over Hanoverian policy and so Hanover favoured Metternich, while Britain was against him.[73] In 1833, Hanover was given a constitution which empowered the middle class, gave limited power to the lower classes, and expanded the role of the parliament of Hanover. The constitution was revoked after William's death by the new king, William's brother, Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland. Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, KG, GCB, PC (20 October 1784 – 18 October 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... This article is about the historical Belgian Revolution of the 1830s. ... Leopold I of the Belgians (Leopold George Christian Frederick of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, later of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha) (b. ... Metternich redirects here. ... Ernest Augustus I of Hanover Ernest Augustus I, King of Hanover (5 June 1771 – 18 November 1851), also known (1799-1837) as the Duke of Cumberland, was the fifth son and eighth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. ...


Though he had a reputation for tactlessness and buffoonery, William could be shrewd and diplomatic. He foresaw that the potential construction of a canal at Suez would make good relations with Egypt vital to Britain.[74] Later in his reign he flattered the American ambassador at a dinner by announcing that he regretted not being "born a free, independent American, so much did he respect that nation, which had given birth to George Washington, the greatest man that ever lived".[75] By exercising his personal charm, William assisted in the repair of Anglo-American relations, which had been so deeply damaged during the reign of his father.[76] For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ...


Later life

Half-Crown of William IV, 1836. The inscription reads GULIELMUS IIII D(ei) G(ratia) BRITANNIAR REX F(idei) D(efensor) (William IV by the Grace of God King of the Britains, Defender of the Faith)

For the remainder of his reign, William interfered actively in politics only once, in 1834; when he became the last Sovereign to choose a Prime Minister contrary to the will of Parliament. Two years after the passage of the Reform Act of 1832, the ministry had become unpopular and in 1834, Lord Grey resigned; one of the Whigs in his cabinet, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, replaced him. The Melbourne administration, for the most part, included the same members as the Grey administration; though disliked by many in the country, it retained an overwhelming majority in the House of Commons. Some members of the Government, however, were anathema to the King, and increasingly left-wing policies concerned him. The previous year Grey had already pushed through a bill reforming the Church of Ireland. The Church collected tithes throughout Ireland, supported multiple bishoprics and was wealthy. However, barely an eighth of the Irish population belonged to the Church of Ireland. In some parishes, there were no Church of Ireland members at all, but there was still a priest paid for by tithes collected from the local Catholics and Presbyterians, leading to charges that idle priests were living in luxury at the expense of the Irish living at the level of subsistence. Grey's bill had reduced the number of bishoprics by half, abolished some of the sinecures and overhauled the tithe system. Further measures to appropriate the surplus revenues of the Church of Ireland were contemplated by the more radical members of the government.[77] ImageMetadata File history File links William4coin. ... ImageMetadata File history File links William4coin. ... Arms of Lord Melbourne William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, PC (15 March 1779–24 November 1848) was a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary (1830-1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835-1841), and a mentor of Queen Victoria. ... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... A tithe (from Old English teogoþa tenth) is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a (usually) voluntary contribution or as a tax or levy, usually to support a Jewish or Christian religious organization. ... Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ...


In November 1834, the Leader of the House of Commons and Chancellor of the Exchequer, John Charles Spencer, Viscount Althorp, inherited a peerage, thus removing him from the House of Commons to the Lords. Melbourne had to appoint a new Commons leader, but the only candidate that Melbourne felt suitable to replace Althorp was Lord John Russell, who William (and many others) found unacceptable. William claimed that the ministry had been weakened beyond repair and used the removal of Lord Althorp—not from the Government, but from one House to the other—as the pretext for the dismissal of the entire ministry. With Lord Melbourne gone, William chose to entrust power to a Tory, Sir Robert Peel. Since Peel was then in Italy, the Duke of Wellington was provisionally appointed Prime Minister.[78] When Peel returned and assumed leadership of the ministry for himself, he saw the impossibility of governing because of the Whig majority in the House of Commons. Consequently, Parliament was dissolved to force fresh elections. Although the Tories won more seats than the previous election, they were still in the minority. Peel remained in office for a few months, but resigned after a series of parliamentary defeats. Lord Melbourne was restored to the Prime Minister's office, remaining there for the rest of William's reign.[79] Melbourne's government mooted more ideas to introduce greater democracy, such as the devolvement of powers to the Legislative Council of Lower Canada, which greatly alarmed the King, who feared it would eventually lead to the loss of the colony.[80] After an outburst in which he expressed his disapproval, as was his way, he became more contrite and approved the Cabinet's recommendations for reform.[81] The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... John Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl Spencer (1782-1845), known during his fathers lifetime by his courtesy title Viscount Althorp, was an English statesman. ... John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, KG, GCMG, PC (18 August 1792 – 28 May 1878), known as Lord John Russell before 1861, was an English Whig and Liberal politician who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom in the mid-19th century. ... For other people named Robert Peel, see Robert Peel (disambiguation). ... The 1835 UK general election saw Robert Peels Conservatives make large gains from their low of the 1832 election, but the Whigs maintained a large majority. ... The 1832 UK general election, the first after the Reform Act, saw the Whigs win a large majority, with the Tories winning less than 30% of the vote. ... The Legislative Council of Lower Canada was the upper house of the bicameral structure of provincial government in Lower Canada until 1838. ...


Both the King and Queen were fond of their niece, Princess Victoria of Kent. Their attempts to forge a close relationship with the girl were frustrated by the conflict between the King and the Duchess of Kent, the young princess's mother. The King, angered at what he took to be disrespect from the Duchess to his wife, expressed publicly with typically blunt candour in the presence of Adelaide, the Duchess and Victoria, his hope that he would survive until Princess Victoria was 18 so that the Duchess of Kent would never be appointed Regent. The speech was so shocking that Victoria burst into tears, and it undoubtedly contributed to her tempered view of him as "a good old man, though eccentric and singular".[82] He would survive, though mortally ill, to the month after Victoria's coming of age. "Poor old man!", Victoria wrote as he lay dying, "I feel sorry for him; he was always personally kind to me."[83] Queen Victoria redirects here. ... Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (Mary Louise Victoria; 17 August 1786 – 16 March 1861), later HRH The Duchess of Kent, was the mother of Queen Victoria. ...


William was "very much shaken and affected" by the death of his eldest daughter, Sophia, Lady de L'Isle, in childbirth in April 1837.[84] William and his eldest son, George, Earl of Munster, were estranged at the time, but William hoped that a letter of condolence from Munster signalled a reconciliation. His hopes were not fulfilled and Munster, still thinking he had not been given sufficient money or patronage, remained bitter to the end, despite being created an Earl just a few years before.[85]


Queen Adelaide stayed beside William's deathbed devotedly, not going to bed herself for more than ten days.[86] William IV died from heart failure in the early hours of the morning of 20 June 1837 at Windsor Castle, where he was buried. As he had no living legitimate issue, the Crown of the United Kingdom passed to Princess Victoria. Under the Salic Law, a woman could not rule Hanover; thus, the Hanoverian Crown went to William IV's brother, Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland. William's death thus ended the personal union of Britain and Hanover, which had persisted since 1714. The main beneficiaries of his will were his eight surviving children by Mrs. Jordan.[42] Although William IV is not the direct ancestor of the later monarchs of the United Kingdom, he has many descendants through his illegitimate family with Mrs. Jordan, including Conservative leader David Cameron, the TV presenter Adam Hart-Davis, and author and statesman Duff Cooper.[87][88] Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... // The Salic law (Lat. ... Ernest Augustus I of Hanover Ernest Augustus I, King of Hanover (5 June 1771 – 18 November 1851), also known (1799-1837) as the Duke of Cumberland, was the fifth son and eighth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. ... Mrs Jordan ( November 21, 1761 – July 5, 1816), actress, was the mistress of King William IV of the United Kingdom. ... For the Canadian ice hockey player, see Dave Cameron. ... Dr. Adam John Hart-Davis (born July 4, 1943) is a British author, photographer, and broadcaster, well-known in the UK for presenting the television series Local Heroes and What the Romans Did for Us, the latter spawning several spin-off series involving the Victorians, the Tudors, and the Stuarts. ... Alfred Duff Cooper, 1st Viscount Norwich (February 22, 1890 - January 1, 1954), known universally as Duff Cooper, was a British diplomat, Cabinet member and acclaimed author. ...


Legacy

A statue of William IV in Göttingen, Germany
A statue of William IV in Göttingen, Germany

William's reign was short, but eventful. The ascendancy of the House of Commons and the corresponding decline of the House of Lords was marked by the Reform Crisis, during which the threat of flooding the Upper House with peers was used effectively for the first time by a ministry. The weakening of the House of Lords continued during the nineteenth century, and culminated during the twentieth century with the passage of the Parliament Act 1911. The same threat which had been used during the Reform Crisis—the threat to flood the House of Lords by creating several new peers—was used to procure its passage. Image File history File links King_William_IV._monument_Göttingen. ... Image File history File links King_William_IV._monument_Göttingen. ... Göttingen marketplace with old city hall, Gänseliesel fountain and pedestrian zone Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... The Palace of Westminster, also known as the Houses of Parliament. ...


The reduction in the influence of the Crown was clearly indicated by the events of William's reign, especially the dismissal of the Melbourne ministry. The crisis relating to Melbourne's dismissal also indicated the reduction in the King's influence with the people. During the reign of George III, the King could have dismissed one ministry, appointed another, dissolved Parliament, and expected the people to vote in favour of the new administration. Such was the result of a dissolution in 1784, after the dismissal of the Fox-North Coalition, and 1807, after the dismissal of William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville. But when William IV dismissed the Melbourne ministry, the Tories under Sir Robert Peel were not able to win the ensuing elections. The King's ability to influence the opinion of the people, and therefore national policy, had been reduced. None of William's successors has attempted to remove a ministry or appoint another against the wishes of Parliament. William understood that as a constitutional monarch he was powerless to act against the opinion of Parliament. He said, "I have my view of things, and I tell them to my ministers. If they do not adopt them, I cannot help it. I have done my duty."[89] William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, Prime Minister of Great Britain 1783 & 1807-1809. ... William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville (October 25, 1759 - January 12, 1834), was a British Whig statesman and Prime Minister. ...


During his reign great reforms were enacted by Parliament including the Factory Act, preventing child labour, the Abolition Act, emancipating slaves in the colonies, and the Poor Law, standardising provision for the destitute.[13] He attracted criticism from reformers, who felt that reform did not go far enough, and from reactionaries, who felt that reform went too far. The modern interpretation is that he failed to satisfy either political extreme by trying to find compromise between two bitterly opposed factions, but in the process proved himself more capable as a constitutional monarch than many had supposed.[90][91]


In popular culture

In Patrick O'Brian's final novel of the Aubrey-Maturin series, Captain Jack Aubrey is obliged to accept as midshipman a bastard son of the Duke of Clarence, as a "first voyager". The novel paints a colourful picture of the Duke and acknowledges his reputation as a competent seaman and commander. Patrick OBrian (12 December 1914 – 2 January 2000; born as Richard Patrick Russ) was an English novelist and translator, best known for his Aubrey–Maturin series of novels set in the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars and centered on the friendship of Captain Jack Aubrey and the Irish... The Aubrey–Maturin series, also known as the Aubreyad, is a sequence of 20 historical novels by Patrick OBrian, set during the Napoleonic Wars and centring on the friendship between Captain Jack Aubrey of the Royal Navy and his ships surgeon Stephen Maturin, who is also a physician... A midshipman is a subordinate officer, or alternatively a commissioned officer of the lowest rank, in the navies of several English-speaking countries. ...


He is portrayed by Ernst G. Schiffner in the German film Mädchenjahre einer Königin (1936), based on the play by Geza Silberer about the early life of Queen Victoria. In the TV miniseries Victoria and Albert (2001), he was portrayed by Peter Ustinov. In the 2006 film Amazing Grace he was portrayed by Toby Jones and is incorrectly seen sitting in the House of Commons. In the forthcoming The Young Victoria (2008) he is played by Jim Broadbent. Sir Peter Alexander Ustinov, CBE (IPA: ; April 16, 1921 – March 28, 2004), born Peter Alexander Baron von Ustinov, was an Academy Award-winning English actor, writer, dramatist and raconteur of French, Italian, Swiss, Russian, German and Ethiopian ancestry. ... Amazing Grace is a 2006 film directed by Michael Apted about the campaign against the slave trade in 18th century Britain, led by famous abolitionist William Wilberforce, who was responsible for steering anti-slave trade legislation through the British parliament. ... Toby Jones as Truman Capote, with Sandra Bullock as Harper Lee, in Infamous (2006) For the artist, see Toby Jones (artist). ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... The Young Victoria is a Jean-Marc Vallée film set for 2008 release. ... James Broadbent (born May 24, 1949) is an Academy Award-winning English theatre, film and television actor. ...


Titles, styles, honours and arms

Monarchical Styles of
King William IV of the United Kingdom
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Sir

Image File history File links Edward's_crown_PD_cleaned. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Look up majesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Majesty is an English word rooting in the Latin Maiestas, meaning literally, Greatness. ...

Titles and styles

William's official style as King was William the Fourth, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith. is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Honours

British Honours

James VII ordained the modern Order. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ...

Arms

His arms were those of his two kingdoms, the United Kingdom and Hanover, superimposed:- Quarterly, I and IV Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland); overall an escutcheon tierced per pale and per chevron (for Hanover), I Gules two lions passant guardant Or (for Brunswick), II Or a semy of hearts Gules a lion rampant Azure (for Lüneburg), III Gules a horse courant Argent (for Westfalen), the whole inescutcheon surmounted by a crown. Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ...


Ancestors

George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[1] was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... Sophia Dorothea (15 September 1666 – 13 November 1726) was the wife and cousin of George Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, later George I of Great Britain, and mother of George II through an arranged marriage of state, instigated by the machinations of Duchess Sophia of Hanover. ... The Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales (Frederick Louis; 1 February 1707 – 31 March 1751) was a member of the British Royal Family, the eldest son of George II. He was born into the House of Hanover and, under the Act of Settlement passed by the English Parliament in 1701, Frederick... Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach (October 18, 1654 - March 22, 1686), succeeded his father Albrecht V as margrave in 1667. ... Caroline of Ansbach (later Queen Caroline; Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline; 1 March 1683 – 20 November 1737) was the queen consort of George II. // Margravine Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach was born on 1 March 1683, at Ansbach in Germany, the daughter of Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and his second wife... George III redirects here. ... Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (b. ... Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (b. ... Magdalena Sibylle of Saxe-Weissenfels (2 September 1648 – 7 January 1681) was a German noblewoman. ... Augusta of Saxe-Gotha Augusta of Saxe-Gotha (November 30, 1719 – February 8, 1772) was Princess of Wales from May 8, 1736 to March 31, 1751. ... Karl Wilhelm of Anhalt-Zerbst (October 16, 1652 - November 3, 1718) was a German prince from the House of Ascania, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst between 1667 and his death, and great-grandfather of King George III of Great Britain. ... Magdalena Augusta (October 13, 1679 - October 11, 1740) was a Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg and grandmother of George III of England. ... Adolf Friedrich II of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (19 October 1658 - 12 May 1708) was reigning Duke from 1658 to his death. ... Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Strelitz, February 23, 1708 - Mirow, June 5, 1752) was the second son of the Prince of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and father of Queen Charlotte of England. ... Queen Charlotte, (née Duchess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; 19 May 1744 – 17 November 1818) was the queen consort of George III of the United Kingdom (1738–1820). ... Ernest Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen Ernst Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen (b. ... Princess Elizabeth Albertine Princess of Saxe-Hildburghausen, Duchess in Saxony (4 August 1713 - 29 June 1761) was a member of the reigning family of Mecklenburg-Strelitz during the 18th century. ...

Issue

All legitimate issue of William IV were born, and died, before his accession to the throne. They were therefore styled as Prince/Princess of Clarence with the style of Royal Highness. This is a list of British princes from the accession of King George I in 1714. ... This is a list of British princesses from the accession of King George I in 1714. ... HRH is an abbreviation for the style His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness. ...

Name Birth Death Notes[33]
Princess Charlotte of Clarence 27 March 1819, Hanover 27 March 1819, Hanover Charlotte Augusta Louisa
Princess Elizabeth of Clarence 10 December 1820, St. James's Palace 4 March 1821, St. James's Palace Elizabeth Georgiana Adelaide

is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1819 (MDCCCXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) in the [[Grhttp://en. ... , Hanover(i) (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1819 (MDCCCXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) in the [[Grhttp://en. ... , Hanover(i) (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... Princess Elizabeth of Clarence (Elizabeth Georgiana Adelaide) (10 December 1820 – 4 March 1821) was a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of King George III. At the time of her birth she was third in the line of succession to the British throne. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... St Jamess Palace and The Mall by Jan Kip, 1715. ...

Note and sources

  1. ^ Ziegler, p.12
  2. ^ Ziegler, pp.13–19
  3. ^ Ziegler, pp.23–31
  4. ^ Allen, p.29 and Ziegler, p.32
  5. ^ Ziegler, p.29
  6. ^ Ziegler, p.33
  7. ^ George Washington writing to Colonel Ogden, 28 March 1782, quoted in Allen, p.31 and Ziegler, p.39
  8. ^ "Letter to Matthias Ogden, March 28, 1782" in the Gilder Lehrman Collection, published online by The Claremont Institute. Retrieved on 11 April 2008
  9. ^ Allen, p.32 and Ziegler, p.39
  10. ^ Ziegler, pp.54–57
  11. ^ Ziegler, p.59
  12. ^ Allen, p.35
  13. ^ a b c Ashley, Mike (1998). The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens. London: Robinson, pp.686–687. ISBN 1-84119-096-9. 
  14. ^ Ziegler, p.70
  15. ^ Memoirs of Sir Nathaniel Wraxall, 1st Baronet, p.154 quoted in Ziegler, p.89
  16. ^ Allen, p.46 and Ziegler, pp.89–92
  17. ^ a b William IV, Official web site of the British Monarchy, <http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page116.asp>. Retrieved on 6 July 2007 
  18. ^ Ziegler, pp.91–94
  19. ^ Ziegler, p.94
  20. ^ Ziegler, p.95
  21. ^ Ziegler, pp.95–97
  22. ^ Ziegler, p.115
  23. ^ Ziegler, p.54
  24. ^ Ziegler, pp.97–99
  25. ^ Zachary Macaulay writing to Miss Mills, 1 June 1799, quoted in Ziegler, p.98
  26. ^ Ziegler, p.97
  27. ^ Ziegler, p.99
  28. ^ Allen, pp.52–53 and Ziegler, p.82
  29. ^ "Royal Residences: Clarence House" Official web site of the British Monarchy. Retrieved on 9 April 2008
  30. ^ Van der Kiste, p.51
  31. ^ Allen, p.49 and Ziegler, p.76
  32. ^ Ziegler, p.296
  33. ^ a b Weir, Alison (1996). Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy, Revised edition. Random House, pp.303–304. ISBN 0712674489. 
  34. ^ Ziegler, pp.108–109
  35. ^ William writing to Lord Collingwood, 21 May 1808, quoted in Ziegler, p.83
  36. ^ Allen, p.36 and Ziegler, p.50
  37. ^ Ziegler, p.118
  38. ^ Electoral Prince of Hesse-Cassel writing to the Duke of Cambridge, 1 March 1818, quoted in Ziegler, p.121
  39. ^ Ziegler, p.121
  40. ^ The Times, Monday, 13 July 1818 p. 3 col. A
  41. ^ Ziegler, pp.121–129
  42. ^ a b c d Brock, Michael (2004), "William IV (1765–1837)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press), doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29451, <http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/29451>. Retrieved on 6 July 2007 
  43. ^ Allen, p.87
  44. ^ Ziegler, p.126
  45. ^ Ziegler, p.268
  46. ^ Ziegler, p.130
  47. ^ Ziegler, p.141
  48. ^ Ziegler, p.133
  49. ^ Ziegler, p.143
  50. ^ Allen, pp.77–78 and Ziegler, p.143
  51. ^ Ashley, p.3
  52. ^ Ziegler, p.144
  53. ^ Allen, pp.83–86 and Ziegler, pp.150–154
  54. ^ Morning Post quoted in Ziegler, p.158
  55. ^ Ziegler, pp.158–159
  56. ^ Ziegler, pp.177–180
  57. ^ Ziegler, pp.182–188
  58. ^ Ziegler, p.188
  59. ^ Allen, pp.121–122 and Ziegler, p.189
  60. ^ Allen, pp.124–127 and Ziegler, pp.190–191
  61. ^ Allen, pp.124, 130 and Ziegler, pp.189, 192
  62. ^ Ziegler, pp.192–193
  63. ^ Allen, p.130 and Ziegler, p.193
  64. ^ Sir Herbert Taylor, the King's secretary, writing to Lord Grey, 15 August 1831, quoted in Ziegler, p.194
  65. ^ Allen, p.132
  66. ^ Correspondence of Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey with William IV and Sir Herbert Taylor, edited by Henry Grey, 3rd Earl Grey, (1867) 2.102, 113, quoted in Brock
  67. ^ Allen, pp.137–141 and Ziegler, pp.196–212
  68. ^ Ziegler, pp.214–222
  69. ^ Allen, p.205 and Ziegler, p.223
  70. ^ Sir Herbert Taylor writing to Lord Grey, 1 May 1832, quoted in Ziegler, p.224
  71. ^ Ziegler, p.225
  72. ^ Ziegler, p.227
  73. ^ Ziegler, pp.230–231
  74. ^ William writing to Palmerston, 1 June 1833, quoted in Ziegler, p.234
  75. ^ Ziegler, p.292
  76. ^ Allen, p.229
  77. ^ Ziegler, pp.242–255
  78. ^ Ziegler, pp.256–257
  79. ^ Ziegler, pp.261–267
  80. ^ Ziegler, p.274
  81. ^ Allen, pp.221–222
  82. ^ Allen, p.225
  83. ^ Victoria writing to Leopold, 19 June 1837, quoted in Ziegler, p.290
  84. ^ Sir Herbert Taylor quoted in Ziegler, p.287
  85. ^ Ziegler, p.287
  86. ^ Ziegler, p.289
  87. ^ Pierce, Andrew (5 December 2005). "Cameron's royal link makes him a true blue". The Times. Retrieved on 4 April 2008
  88. ^ Family Detective (5 January 2008). "Adam Hart-Davis". The Telegraph. Retrieved on 4 April 2008
  89. ^ Recollections of John Hobhouse, 1st Baron Broughton, quoted in Ziegler, p.276
  90. ^ Fulford, Roger (1967). "William IV". Collier's Encyclopedia 23. p.493. 
  91. ^ Ziegler, pp.291–294

Zachary Macaulay (1768-1838) was a British colonial governor, influential 18th century philanthropist, a man of evangelical piety and a supporter of William Wilberforce. ... Alison Weir (born 1951) is a British writer of history books for the general public, mostly in the form of biographies about British kings and queens. ... Cuthbert Collingwood, 1st Baron Collingwood (26 September 1750 – 7 March 1810) was an admiral of the Royal Navy, notable as a partner with Horatio Nelson in several of the great victories of the Napoleonic Wars. ... William I, Elector of Hesse (German: ) (June 3, 1743 – February 27, 1821) was the eldest surviving son of Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel and Princess Mary of Great Britain, the daughter of George II. Upon the death of his father on October 31, 1785 he became William IX, Landgrave... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Right Honourable Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, KG, PC (13 March 1764–17 July 1845), known as Viscount Howick between 1806 and 1807, was a British Whig statesman and Prime Minister. ... Henry George Grey, 3rd Earl Grey (December 28, 1802 October 9, 1894), was an English statesman. ... John Cam Hobhouse, 1st Baron Broughton and 2nd Baronet, PC (1786–1869) was the eldest son of Sir Benjamin Hobhouse, born at Redland near Bristol, educated at Westminster School and at Cambridge, where he became intimate with Lord Byron, and accompanied him in his journeys in the Peninsula, Greece, and...

References

  • Allen, W. Gore (1960). King William IV. London: Cresset Press.
  • Brock, Michael (2004), "William IV (1765–1837)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press), doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29451, <http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/29451>. Retrieved on 6 July 2007  (Subscription required).
  • Van der Kiste, John (1994). George III's Children. Stroud: Sutton Publishing Ltd.
  • Ziegler, Philip (1971). King William IV. London: Collins. ISBN 0-00-211934-X.

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... John Van der Kiste, author, was born in Wendover, Buckinghamshire, in 1954, son of Wing Commander Guy Van der Kiste (1912-99). ... Highly regarded British biographer and historian. ...

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
William IV of the United Kingdom
  • Royal Genealogies
  • Memoir of His Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence (a contemporary biography) in The Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction, Supplement to Volume 10, No. 291, December 1827
William IV of the United Kingdom
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
Born: 21 August 1765 Died: 20 June 1837
Regnal titles
Preceded by
George IV
King of the United Kingdom
26 June 1830 – 20 June 1837
Succeeded by
Victoria
King of Hanover
26 June 1830 – 20 June 1837
Succeeded by
Ernest Augustus I
Political offices
Preceded by
The Viscount Melville
as First Lord of the Admiralty
Lord High Admiral
1827 – 1828
Succeeded by
The Viscount Melville
as First Lord of the Admiralty
British royalty
Preceded by
Prince Frederick, Duke of York
Heir to the Throne
as heir presumptive
1827 – 1830
Succeeded by
Princess Victoria of Kent
later became Queen Victoria
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Prince Frederick, Duke of York
and Albany
Great Master of the Order of the Bath
1827 – 1830
Vacant
Title next held by
Prince Augustus Frederick,
Duke of Sussex
Peerage of Great Britain
New creation Duke of Clarence and St Andrews
1789 – 1830
Merged in the crown
Persondata
NAME William IV of the United Kingdom
ALTERNATIVE NAMES William Henry
SHORT DESCRIPTION King of Hanover and the United Kingdom
DATE OF BIRTH 21 August 1765
PLACE OF BIRTH Buckingham House, London
DATE OF DEATH 20 June 1837
PLACE OF DEATH Windsor Castle, Berkshire
Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... Ernest Augustus (German: Ernst August; 20 November 1629, Herzberg – 23 January 1698, Herrenhausen) was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Calenberg (or Hanover) subdivision of the duchy. ... George I (George Louis; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727)[1] was King of Great Britain and Ireland, from 1 August 1714 until his death. ... George II (George Augustus; 10 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... George III redirects here. ... Hanover (German Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... George III redirects here. ... George IV redirects here. ... Ernest Augustus I of Hanover Ernest Augustus I, King of Hanover (5 June 1771 – 18 November 1851), also known (1799-1837) as the Duke of Cumberland, was the fifth son and eighth child of King George III of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte. ... George V, King of Hanover and 2nd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, Georg Friedrich Alexander Karl Ernst August (27 May 1819 – 12 June 1878) was the only son of Ernst August I, King of Hanover and 1st Duke of Cumberland (fifth son of King George III of the United Kingdom... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
William IV of the United Kingdom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2319 words)
William IV (William Henry) (21 August 1765–20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom and of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death.
William, the son of King George III and younger brother and successor of King George IV, was the penultimate monarch of the House of Hanover.
William was born on 21 August 1765 at Buckingham House, the son of King George III and Queen Charlotte.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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