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Encyclopedia > William III of England
William III & II
Prince of Orange; Stadtholder of Holland and Zealand, Utrecht, Guelders and Overijssel; King of England, Ireland and Scots; (more...)
William III by Sir Godfrey Kneller
King of England, Scots and Ireland (more...)
Reign 13 February 16898 March 1702
(with Mary II until 28 December 1694)
Coronation 11 April 1689
Predecessor James II
Successor Anne
Co-monarch Mary II
Full name
William Henry of Orange
Titles and styles
HM The King
HH The Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau
Royal house House of Orange-Nassau
Father William II, Prince of Orange
Mother Mary, Princess Royal
Born 14 November 1650(1650-11-14)
[OS: 4 November 1650][1]
Binnenhof, The Hague
Died 8 March 1702 (aged 51)
Kensington Palace, London
Burial Westminster Abbey, London

William III (14 November 16508 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from 11 April 1689, in each case until his death. The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... Sir Godfrey Kneller (August 8, 1646 -October 19, 1723) was an artist, court painter to several British monarchs. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... The designation King of Ireland has been used during three periods of Irish history. ... The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the German House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands - and at times in Europe - since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of... William II (fragment of a 1641 painting by Antoon van Dijck) William II, Prince of Orange (May 27, 1626 – November 6, 1650), stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands from March 14, 1647 until his death. ... Mary, Princess Royal and Princess Orange-Nassau (4 November 1631 - 24 December 1660) was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland and his queen, Henrietta Maria. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Old Style redirects here. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Binnenhof (Dutch, lit. ... Hague redirects here. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Kensington Palace Park Kensington Palace is a royal residence set in Kensington Gardens in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Prince of Orange is a title of nobility, originally associated with the principality of Orange in southern France. ... A stadtholder (Dutch: stadhouder meaning place holder, a Germanic parallel to Latin locum tenens or French lieutenant), means an official who is appointed by the legal ruling Monarch to represent him in a country, and may have a mandate to govern it in his name, in the latter case roughly... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... The designation King of Ireland has been used during three periods of Irish history. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Born a member of the House of Orange-Nassau, William III won the English, Scottish and Irish Crowns following the Glorious Revolution, during which his uncle and father-in-law, James II, was deposed. In England, Scotland and Ireland, William ruled jointly with his wife, Mary II, until her death on 28 December 1694. He reigned as 'William II' in Scotland, but 'William III' in all his other realms. Often he is referred to as William of Orange, a name he shared with many other historical figures. In Northern Ireland and Scotland, he is often informally known as King Billy. The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the German House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands - and at times in Europe - since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... This article is about the country. ...


William III was appointed to the Dutch post of Stadtholder on 28 June 1672 (Old Style), and remained in office until he died. In that context, he is sometimes referred to as 'William Henry, Prince of Orange', as a translation of his Dutch title, Willem Hendrik, Prins van Oranje. A Protestant, William participated in many wars against the powerful Catholic King Louis XIV of France. A stadtholder (Dutch: stadhouder meaning place holder, a Germanic parallel to Latin locum tenens or French lieutenant), means an official who is appointed by the legal ruling Monarch to represent him in a country, and may have a mandate to govern it in his name, in the latter case roughly... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... Old Style can refer to: Old Style and New Style dates, a shift from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar: in Britain in 1752, in Russia in 1918. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ...


Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith. It was largely due to that reputation that he was able to take the crowns of England and Scotland, where many, especially the English aristocracy, were intensely fearful of a revival of Catholicism and the papacy. Undoubtedly, his army and sizable naval fleet also played a role. His reign marked the beginning of the transition from the personal rule of the Stuarts to the more Parliament-centered rule of the House of Hanover. The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ...

Contents

Early life

Birth and family

William's parents, William II of Orange and Mary Stuart, Princess Royal.
William's parents, William II of Orange and Mary Stuart, Princess Royal.

William Henry of Orange, the only child of stadtholder William II, Prince of Orange and Mary, Princess Royal of England, was born in The Hague, The Netherlands on 4 November 1650.[2] Eight days before William's birth, his father died from smallpox; thus William was the Sovereign Prince of Orange from the moment of his birth.[3] Immediately a conflict ensued between the Princess Royal and William II's mother, Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, over the name to be given to the infant. Mary wanted to name him Charles after her brother, her mother-in-law insisted however on giving him the name William or Willem to bolster his prospects of becoming stadtholder.[4] William II had appointed his wife as his son's guardian in his will; however the document remained unsigned at William II's death and was void.[4] On 13 August 1651 the Dutch Hoge Raad (Supreme Council) ruled that guardianship would be shared between Mary (his mother), Amalia (his grandmother) and Frederick William, the Elector of Brandenburg (his uncle, married to his father's sister, Louise Henriette of Nassau).[5] William II, Prince of Orange (May 27, 1626 - November 6, 1650), stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands (March 14, 1647 - November 6, 1650). ... Mary, Princess Royal and Princess Orange-Nassau (4 November 1631 - 24 December 1660) was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland and his queen, Henrietta Maria. ... Hague redirects here. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Roman theatre at Orange, France Orange (Arenjo in Provençal) is a city in the département of Vaucluse, in the south of France. ... Princess Anne, the current Princess Royal Princess Royal is a style customarily (but not automatically) awarded by a British monarch to his or her eldest daughter. ... Amalia of Solms-Braunfels (31 August 1602 – 8 September 1675), countess of Solms-Braunfels, was the wife of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... Hoge Raad der Nederlanden is the Supreme Court of the Netherlands, situated in The Hague. ... Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg. ... The Margrave of Brandenburg was one of the seven Electors of the Holy Roman Empire created by the Golden Bull of 1356. ...


Childhood and education

William's mother showed little personal interest in her son, sometimes being absent for years, and had always deliberately kept herself apart from Dutch society. William's education was first laid in the hands of several Dutch governesses, and some of English descent, including Walburg Howard (a stepdaughter of the future Countess of Chesterfield and half-sister of the future 1st Earl of Bellomont). From April 1656 the Calvinist preacher Cornelis Trigland, a follower of the puritan theologian Gisbertus Voetius, instructed the prince daily in the reformed religion.[6] A short treatise, perhaps by one of William's tutors, Constantijn Huygens, details the ideal education for William entitled Discours sur la nourriture de S.H. Monseigneur le Prince d'Orange.[7] In these lessons, the prince was taught that he was his predestined to become an instrument Divine Providence, fulfilling the historical destiny of the House of Orange.[8] For other people entitled Countess of Chesterfield, see Countess of Chesterfield. ... Charles Henry Kirkhoven, 1st Earl of Bellomont (9 May 1643–1683) was a Dutch-born English peer, known as Lord Wotton from 1649-1680. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Gisbertus Voetius (Voet) (March 3, 1589 — November 1, 1676) was a Dutch theologian. ... Constantijn Huygens (September 4, 1596 - March 28, 1687) was a Dutch poet and composer, Secretary to two Princes, and the father of Christiaan Huygens. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In theology, Divine Providence, or simply Providence, is the sovereignty, superintendence, or agency of God over events in peoples lives and throughout history. ... The Principality of Orange The title originally referred to the sovereign principality of Orange in southern France, which was a property of the House of Orange (from 1702 Orange-Nassau). ...


From early 1659, William spent seven years at the University of Leyden for a formal education — though never officially enrolling as a student — under the guidance of ethics professor Hendrik Bornius.[9] While residing in the Prinsenhof at Leyden, William had a small personal retinue including Hans Willem Bentinck, and a new governor: Frederik van Nassau, Lord Zuylestein, the illegitimate son of stadtholder Frederick Henry of Orange. He was taught French until after the death of his mother by Samuel Chappuzeau, who was dismissed by William's grandmother early in 1661 .[10] Leiden University in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. ... The Earl of Portland Hans William Bentinck, 1st Earl of Portland, KG, PC (20 July 1649-23 November 1709), the son of Bernard Baron Bentinck of Diepenheim, was a Dutch and English nobleman born as Hans Willem Bentinck. ... Frederick Henry (January 29, 1584–March 14, 1647), Prince of Orange, the youngest child of William the Silent, was born at Delft about six months before his fathers assassination. ... Samuel Chappuzeau (1625-1701) was a French scholar, author, poet and playwright whose best-known work today is Le Théâtre François, a description of French Theatre in the 17th century. ...


Ward of Charles II

William's uncle, Charles II of England, took an interest in his upbringing.
William's uncle, Charles II of England, took an interest in his upbringing.

On 25 September 1660 the States of Holland resolved to take charge of William's education to ensure he would acquire the skills necessary to serve in an as yet undetermined future state function.[11] This first involvement of the authorities would not last long, however. On 23 December 1660, when William was just ten years old, his mother died of smallpox at Whitehall Palace, London while visiting her brother King Charles II.[11] In her will, Mary requested that Charles look after William's interests, and the English King now demanded the States of Holland end their interference.[12] To appease Charles, they complied on 30 September 1661.[13] In 1661, Lord Zuylestein began to work for Charles, and induced William to write letters to the English king asking his uncle to interfere on his behalf to improve his prospects on the stadtholderate.[14] Charles then exploited this issue for political leverage, trying to sow dissension in Dutch society between the Orangists and the republican "States" faction. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (752x1159, 66 KB) Beschreibung Description: Charles II. of England Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (752x1159, 66 KB) Beschreibung Description: Charles II. of England Source: http://www. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... The States of Holland and West Friesland were the representation of the three Estates (standen): Nobility, Clergy and Commons to the court of the Count of Holland. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... The Palace of Whitehall was the main residence of the English monarchs in London from 1530 until 1698 when all except Inigo Jones 1622 Banqueting House was destroyed by fire. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Orangism is a form of royalistic loyalty to the House of Orange-Nassau of the Netherlands. ...


Intrigue and adolescence

The Dutch authorities did their best at first to ignore these intrigues, but in the Second Anglo-Dutch War one of Charles's peace conditions was the improvement of the position of his nephew.[14] As a countermeasure in 1666, when William was sixteen, the States of Holland officially made him a ward of the government, or a "Child of State".[14] All pro-English courtiers, including Lord Zuylestein, were removed from William's company.[14] William begged Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt to allow Lord Zuylestein to stay. De Witt, the leading politician of the Republic, refused, but took part of William's education into his own hands, instructing him weekly in state matters — and joining him in a regular game of real tennis. The Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought between England and the United Provinces from 4 March 1665 until 31 July 1667. ... The Grand Pensionary (Dutch: raad(s)pensionaris) was the most important Dutch official during the time of the United Provinces. ... Johan de Witt (September 24, 1625, Dordrecht - August 20, 1672, The Hague) was a significant Dutch political figure. ... Jeu de paume in the 17th century. ...


In September 1668, Amalia and Frederick William declared that William had reached the age of majority; an act of dubious legality, as boys only attained majority at 23, with a special permit needed for an earlier age of majority. Although no such permit ever was issued, the declaration was condoned by the authorities to avoid raising political tensions. Friedrich Wilhelm I of Brandenburg. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Early offices

Johan de Witt took over William's education in 1666.
Johan de Witt took over William's education in 1666.

William II held, in official feudal order, the office of stadtholder of Guelders, Holland, Zealand, Utrecht, and Overijssel. However all these five provinces suspended the office of stadtholder upon William II's death. During the "First Stadtholderless Era," power was de facto held from 1653 by Grand Pensionary Johan de Witt. The Treaty of Westminster (1654), which ended the First Anglo-Dutch War, had a secret annex attached on demand of Oliver Cromwell: the Act of Seclusion, which forbade the province of Holland to appoint a member of the House of Orange as stadtholder. After the English Restoration, the Act of Seclusion, which had not remained a secret for very long, was declared void as the English Commonwealth (with which the treaty had been concluded) no longer existed. In September 1660, Mary and Amalia tried to convince several provincial States to designate William as their future stadtholder, but all eventually refused. A stadtholder (Dutch: stadhouder meaning place holder, a Germanic parallel to Latin locum tenens or French lieutenant), means an official who is appointed by the legal ruling Monarch to represent him in a country, and may have a mandate to govern it in his name, in the latter case roughly... Original coat of arms of the county and duchy of Guelders This article deals with the historical county and duchy of Guelders, for other meanings see Gelderland. ... This article is about a region in the Netherlands. ... Capital Middelburg Largest city Terneuzen Queens Commissioner Karla Peijs Religion (1999) Protestant 35% Catholic 23% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   1,788 km² (10th) 1,146 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 380,186 (11th) 213/km² (10th) Anthem Zeeuws volkslied ISO NL-ZE Official website www. ... Utrecht is the smallest province of the Netherlands, and is located in the center of the country. ... Flag of Overijssel Overijssel is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country. ... The 1654 Treaty of Westminster ended the First Anglo-Dutch War of 1652–1654. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... The Act of Seclusion is a secret annex in the Treaty of Westminster (1654) between the United Provinces and the Commonwealth of England in which William III, Prince of Orange, was excluded from the office of Stadtholder. ... For other uses, see Restoration. ... The Commonwealth was the republican government which ruled first England and then the whole of Britain, Ireland, the colonies and other Crown possessions during the periods from 1649 (the monarch Charles I being beheaded on January 30 and An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth being passed by the...


Exclusion from stadtholdership

In 1667, as William III approached the age of eighteen, the pro-Orange party again attempted to bring the Prince to power by securing for him the offices of stadtholder and Captain-General. To prevent the restoration of the influence of the House of Orange, De Witt allowed the pensionary of Haarlem, Gaspar Fagel, to procure on 5 August 1667 issuance of the Eternal Edict by the States of Holland.[15] The Edict declared that the Captain-General or Admiral-General of the Netherlands could not serve as stadtholder in any province.[15] Furthermore, the province of Holland abolished the very office of stadtholder and the four other provinces followed suit in March 1670, establishing the so-called "Harmony".[15] De Witt demanded an oath from each Hollandic regent (city council member) to uphold the Edict; all but one complied.[15] Captain General (and its literal equivalent in several languages) is a high military rank and a gubernatorial title. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 32. ... Gaspar Fagel, painted by Johannes Vollevens Gaspar Fagel (January 25, 1634, The Hague - December 15, 1688) was a Dutch statesman. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... The Eternal Edict is a resolution from 1667 in which the States of Holland on instigation of Grand Pensionary of Holland Johan de Witt decided to abolish the office of Stadtholder and in which the remaining six provinces of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands declared the office of...

Gaspar Fagel replaced De Witt as Grand Pensionary, and was more friendly to William's interests.
Gaspar Fagel replaced De Witt as Grand Pensionary, and was more friendly to William's interests.

William saw all this as a defeat, but in fact this arrangement was a comprise: De Witt would have preferred to ignore the prince completely, but now his eventual rise to the office of supreme army commander was implicit.[16] Also, De Witt conceded that William would be admitted as a member of the Raad van State, the Council of State, then the generality organ administering the defence budget. William was introduced to the council on 31 May 1670, with full voting powers despite De Witt's attempts to limit his role to that of an advisor. Another victory for William was that the States of Zealand on 19 September 1668 received him as First Noble, the first in rank of the nobility delegates in the States of that province. To be received, William had to escape the attention of his state tutors and secretly travel to Middelburg. It was this event that had triggered his being prematurely declared of age by his guardians. Gaspar Fagel, painted by Johannes Vollevens Gaspar Fagel (January 25, 1634, The Hague - December 15, 1688) was a Dutch statesman. ... The Council of State is the name of an organ of government in many states, and especially in republics. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1670 (MDCLXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1668 (MDCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 53. ...


In November 1670, William obtained permission to travel to England to urge king Charles to pay back at least a part of the 2,797,859 guilder debt the House of Stuart owed the House of Orange. The structural penury of the English crown precluded much progress in that respect. William was greatly surprised when Charles tried to convert him to Catholicism, recommended as the ideal religion for absolutist kings. His shocked reaction made Charles decide not to make his nephew privy to his secret Treaty of Dover with France, directed at destroying the Dutch Republic and installing William as puppet "sovereign" of a Hollandic rump state. William returned to the Dutch Republic in February 1671, having disappointed his uncle but having made a good impression on several politicians who would later belong to the Whig party. ISO 4217 Code NLG User(s) The Netherlands Inflation 2. ... The Treaty of Dover was secret treaty of 1670 between Charles II of England and Louis XIV of France. ... A rump state is the remnant of a once-larger government, left with limited powers or authority after a disaster, invasion or military occupation. ...


During 1671, the Republic's situation deteriorated quickly. Though De Witt was in a state of denial, there were many signs of an impending Anglo-French attack. In view of the threat, many provinces wanted William to be appointed Captain-General as soon as possible, despite his youth and inexperience. On 15 December 1671 the States of Utrecht made this their official policy. On 19 January 1672 the States of Holland made a counterproposal: to appoint William for just a single campaign. The prince refused this and on 25 February a compromise was reached: an appointment by the States-General of the Netherlands for one summer, followed by a permanent appointment on his 22nd birthday. is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The States-General (Staten-Generaal) is the parliament of the Netherlands. ...


Meanwhile William had written a secret letter to Charles in January 1672 asking his uncle to exploit the situation by exerting pressure on the States-General to appoint William stadtholder. In return, William would ally the Republic with England and serve Charles's interests as much as his "honour and the loyalty due to this state" allowed. Charles took no action on the proposal; for him it would have meant a difficult renegotiation with France. He intended to enforce Dutch servitude by force.


Becoming stadtholder

War with France

Main article: Franco-Dutch War

For the Dutch Republic 1672 proved calamitous, becoming known as the "disaster year" due to the Franco-Dutch War in which the Netherlands were invaded by France, under Louis XIV, who had the aid of England (Third Anglo-Dutch War), Münster, and Cologne. Although the Anglo-French fleet was disabled by the Battle of Solebay, in June the French army quickly overran Gelderland and Utrecht, and the States of Overijssel surrendered on 5 July to Münster. William on 14 June withdrew with the remnants of his field army into Holland, where the States had ordered the flooding of Dutch Water Line on 8 June. Louis XIV, believing the war was over, began negotiations to extract as large a sum of money from the Dutch as possible. The presence of a large French army in the heart of the Republic caused a general panic. There were many disturbances and in most cities the councils turned Orangist. On 4 July the States of Holland appointed William stadtholder, and he took the oath on 9 July. On 5 July a special envoy from Charles, Lord Arlington, met with William in Nieuwerbrug. He offered to make William Sovereign Prince of Holland in exchange for his capitulation — whereas a stadtholder was a mere civil servant. When William refused, Arlington threatened that William would witness the end of his state. William made his famous answer: "There is one way to avoid this: to die defending it in the last ditch". On 7 July, the inundations were complete and the further advance of the French army was, to its great surprise, effectively blocked. On 16 July Zealand offered the stadtholderate to William. The same day England promised Louis in the Accord of Heeswijk never to conclude a separate peace. On 18 July William received a letter from Charles, claiming that the only real obstacle to peace was the continued influence of De Witt and his faction. William sent a secret letter back offering ₤400,000, Surinam, and Sluys; in return Charles would make him Sovereign Prince and conclude a separate peace. Charles, greatly annoyed, refused and accused William of scheming behind his back with "Whig" leaders. The Dutch War (1672–1678) was a war fought between France and a quadruple alliance consisting of Brandenburg, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and the United Provinces. ... The Dutch War (1672–1678) was a war fought between France and a quadruple alliance consisting of Brandenburg, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and the United Provinces. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other places with the same or similar names, and other uses of the word, see Munster (disambiguation) Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... Combatants United Provinces (Netherlands) England, France Commanders Michiel de Ruyter Adriaen Banckert Willem Joseph van Ghent The Duke of York and Albany, The Earl of Sandwich, Jean II dEstrées Strength 75 ships 93 ships Casualties 1 ship destroyed, 1 captured 1 ship destroyed The naval Battle of Solebay... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... the New Waterline The Dutch Water Line was a series of waterbased defences conceived by Maurice of Nassau and realised by his half brother Fredrick Henry. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington (1618 - July 28, 1685), was an English statesman. ... Nieuwerbrug () is a town in the Dutch province of South Holland. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic of Suriname, more commonly known as Suriname or Surinam, (formerly known as Netherlands Guiana and Dutch Guiana) is a country in northern South America, in between French Guiana to the east and Guyana to the west. ... Sluis is a municipality and a town in the southwestern Netherlands in the west of Zeeuws-Vlaanderen. ...

Louis XIV of France became William's life-long enemy.
Louis XIV of France became William's life-long enemy.

Johan de Witt had been unable to function as Grand Pensionary after having been wounded by an attempt on his life on 21 June. On 15 August William published Charles's letter of 18 July to incite the populace against De Witt. On 20 August, he and his brother, Cornelis de Witt, were brutally murdered by an Orangist civil militia in The Hague. Today, some historians believe that William may have been directly complicit in the murder. Gaspar Fagel then became Grand Pensionary. After this William replaced 130 regents with his followers. He was also appointed Admiral-General of the Netherlands. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (704x889, 294 KB) no rights due of age File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Louis XIV of France Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (704x889, 294 KB) no rights due of age File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Louis XIV of France Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Louis XIV redirects here. ... Johan de Witt (September 24, 1625, Dordrecht - August 20, 1672, The Hague) was a significant Dutch political figure. ... The Grand Pensionary (Dutch: raad(s)pensionaris) was the most important Dutch official during the time of the United Provinces. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cornelis, or Cornelius de Witt (1623-1672) was a Dutch statesman. ... Gaspar Fagel, painted by Johannes Vollevens Gaspar Fagel (January 25, 1634, The Hague - December 15, 1688) was a Dutch statesman. ...


William III continued to fight against the invaders from England and France, allying himself with Spain. In November 1672 he took his army to Maastricht to threaten the French supply lines. In August 1672, Münster had lifted the siege of Groningen and in December the territory of Drenthe was liberated. In 1673, the situation further improved. Though Louis took Maastricht and an audacious attack of William against Charleroi failed, Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter defeated the Anglo-French fleet three times, forcing Charles to end England's involvement by the Treaty of Westminster (1674); from late 1673 onwards France slowly withdrew from the territory of the Republic with the exception of Maastricht. Fagel now proposed to treat the liberated provinces of Utrecht, Gelderland (Guelders) and Overijssel as conquered territory (Generality Lands), as punishment for their quick surrender to the enemy. William refused but obtained a special mandate from the States-General to newly appoint all delegates in the States of these provinces. William tried to exploit this to fulfill his desire to become sovereign. His followers in the States of Utrecht on 26 April 1674 appointed him hereditary stadtholder in the male line of descent. William bought the country house formerly owned by Cornelis de Graeff and had it rebuilt by Maurits Post. It is now the Soestdijk Palace. The States of Guelders on 30 January 1675 offered the titles of Duke of Guelders and Count of Zutphen. Very negative reactions to this from Zealand and the city of Amsterdam, where the stock market collapsed, made William ultimately decide to decline these honours; in 1675 he was merely appointed stadtholder of Gelderland and Overijssel. Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 60. ... For the German town, see Gröningen. ... For the Dutch footballer, see Royston Drenthe. ... Charleroi (Walloon: TchÃ¥lerwè) is the first city and municipality of Wallonia in population. ... Lieutenant Admiral is a senior naval military rank in some countries of the world. ... Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter, Lieutenant-Admiral of the United Provinces by Ferdinand Bol, painted 1667 Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter (24 March 1607 – 29 April 1676) is one of the most famous admirals in Dutch history. ... The Treaty of Westminster was the peace treaty that ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War. ... The Generality Lands (Dutch: Generaliteitslanden) were border territories of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, that were directly governed by the Estates-General of the Netherlands. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... Maurits Post (1645-1677) was a Dutch Golden Age architect. ... Soestdijk Palace, where Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard lived for over six decades. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1675 (MDCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Zutphen (old alternate spelling: Zutfen) is a municipality and a town in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands on the right bank of the IJssel at the influx of the Berkel, and a junction station 29 km by rail N.N.E. of Arnhem. ... A stock market is a market for the trading of company stock, and derivatives of same; both of these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. ...


Marriage

William married his first cousin, the future Queen Mary II, in 1677.
William married his first cousin, the future Queen Mary II, in 1677.

Meanwhile the war lingered on as the French army was much too strong to be decisively defeated in open battle. To strengthen his position, William sought to marry his first cousin Mary, the daughter of James, Duke of York and later James II of England. James was not inclined to consent; however, Charles pressured his brother to do so. The marriage occurred on 4 November 1677. Despite a difficult start, the marriage was a success although fruitless. Image File history File links Queen_Mary_II.jpg‎ Portrait of Queen Mary II, Wearing a Blue and Red Dress and Holding a Sprig of Orange Blossom by William Wissing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those... Image File history File links Queen_Mary_II.jpg‎ Portrait of Queen Mary II, Wearing a Blue and Red Dress and Holding a Sprig of Orange Blossom by William Wissing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1677 (MDCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


During the 1690s rumors of William's homosexual inclinations grew and led to the publication of many satirical pamphlets.[17] He had several male favourites, including a Rotterdam bailiff Van Zuylen van Nijveld, and two Dutch courtiers to whom he granted English dignities: Hans Willem Bentinck became Earl of Portland, and Arnold Joost van Keppel was created Earl of Albemarle. William was especially close to his fellow Dutch countrymen and made little headway into his new dominions as a monarch, always something of an outsider to his British subjects. He himself expressed it this way: "I clearly perceive that this people was not made for me, nor was I made for this people".[18] Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... The Earl of Portland Hans William Bentinck, 1st Earl of Portland, KG, PC (20 July 1649-23 November 1709), the son of Bernard Baron Bentinck of Diepenheim, was a Dutch and English nobleman born as Hans Willem Bentinck. ... The title of Earl of Portland has been created twice in the Peerage of England, most recently for Hans Willem Bentinck, the favorite of King William III in 1689. ... Arnold Joost van Keppel, 1st Earl of Albemarle, and lord of Voorst in Gelderland (c. ... Earls of Albemarle. ...


Bentinck's closeness to William aroused jealousies, but there seems to have been no serious suggestion that there was anything improper about their relationship. The same could not be said for Keppel, who was 20 years William's junior and strikingly handsome, and had risen from being a royal page to an earldom with suspicious ease. Portland wrote to William in 1697 that 'the kindness which your Majesty has for a young man, and the way in which you seem to authorise his liberties... make the world say things I am ashamed to hear'. This, he said, was 'tarnishing a reputation which has never before been subject to such accusations'. William replied, saying, 'It seems to me very extraordinary that it should be imposible to have esteem and regard for a young man without it being criminal'. There are a couple of Keppels:- Hummelo en Keppel Arnold Joost van Keppel, 1st Earl of Albemarle Augustus Keppel, 1st Viscount Keppel Keppel Island Great Keppel Island Wilson, Keppel and Betty Alice Keppel, Edward VIIs last favorita, and great grandmother to Camilla Parker-Bowles. ... Portland has many meanings. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher...


It is impossible after 300 years to know the truth of these matters, when royal courts were always surrounded by intrigue, gossip and propaganda. It is possible, though not likely, that William and Bentinck had been lovers in their youth, and possible also that his relationship with Keppel was sexual. It is also possible that William had homosexual tendencies which he never acted on, but which led him to favour attractive young men, especially if they were capable and loyal.


Several facts must be set against the theory that William III was homosexual. First, he was deeply devoted to his wife. Their marriage was childless, but they shared a bed, and had the marriage not been consummated such a scandal would have been reported. His grief at her death was spectacular. Second (and despite this) he was known to have had a long affair with an English lady-in-waiting, Elizabeth Villiers, which ended only in 1685 when it was discovered that James II was using the affair as a means of espionage and blackmail at William's court. Third, both Portland and Abermale had well documented heterosexual afairs. None of these facts are conclusive, but they weigh heavily when there is no direct evidence to support the opposite view. [19] Elizabeth Villiers ( 1657- April 19, 1733), was the daughter of Colonel Sir Edward Villiers of Richmond and his wife, Frances Howard. ... James II can refer to: James II of Scotland James II of England James II of Aragon James II of Cyprus This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Peace with France, intrigue with England

By 1678, the strain of continuing the war, financial and otherwise, induced Louis to seek peace. William however remained very suspicious of Louis, thinking the French king desired "Universal Kingship" over Europe, whereas Louis described William as "my mortal enemy" and saw him as an obnoxious warmonger. France's continued small annexations in Germany (the Réunion policy) and the recalling of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, caused a surge of Huguenot refugees to the Republic. This led William III to join various anti-French alliances, such as the Association League, and ultimately the League of Augsburg (an anti-French coalition that also included the Holy Roman Empire, Sweden, Spain and several German states) in 1686. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... The Grand Alliance was a European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Portugal, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular...

Portrait of William by Peter Lely
Portrait of William by Peter Lely

After his marriage, William became a possible candidate for the English throne if his father-in-law (and uncle) James would be excluded because of his Catholicism. During the crisis concerning the Exclusion Bill in 1680, Charles at first invited William to come to England to bolster the king's position against the exclusionists, then withdrew his invitation — after which Lord Sunderland also tried to bring William over but now to put pressure on Charles. The ever-cautious stadtholder remained at home, however. Nevertheless he secretly induced the States-General to send the Insinuation to Charles, beseeching the king to prevent any Catholics from succeeding him, though not naming James explicitly. Receiving indignant reactions from Charles and James, William denied any involvement. Download high resolution version (800x1008, 97 KB)By Peter Lely. ... Download high resolution version (800x1008, 97 KB)By Peter Lely. ... Sir Peter Lely (14 September 1618 - 30 November 1680) was a painter of Dutch origin. ... During the reign of Charles II of England, the Exclusion Bill crisis ran from 1678 till 1681. ... Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland (1640 - September 28, 1702) was an English statesman and nobleman. ...


In 1684, William bought a manor, today called Het Loo, near Apeldoorn and had it rebuilt into a palace. The garden and the palace were decorated by Romeyn de Hooghe and Daniel Marot. In 1685, when James II ascended, William at first attempted conciliatory approach with James, whom he hoped would join the League of Augsburg, whilst at the same time trying not to offend the Protestants in England. At the time William and Mary were still direct heirs. But by 1687, it became clear that James would not join the League and in November his wife Mary of Modena was announced to be pregnant. That month, to gain the favour of English Protestants, William wrote open letter to the English people in which he disapproved of James's religious policies. Seeing him as a friend, and often having maintained secret contacts with him for years, many English politicians began to negotiate an armed invasion of England. Het Loo and its gardens, more ambitious than they were actually executed, in an early 18th century engraving (watercolor added) The former royal residence Het Loo near Apeldoorn, Netherlands, was built starting in 1684 for the Stadtholder Willem, known to English-language readers as William III of Orange and his... Satellite picture Apeldoorn ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a town in the province of Gelderland, about 60 miles east of Amsterdam, in central Netherlands. ... Romeyn de Hooghe (1645–1708) was an important and prolific late Dutch Baroque engraver and caricaturist in the 17th century. ... Daniel Marot (1661-1752) was a French Protestant, an architect, furniture designer and engraver at the forefront of the classicizing Late Baroque Louis XIV style. ... Mary of Modena (October 5, 1658 – May 7, 1718) was the queen consort of King James II of England. ... An open letter is a letter that is intended to be read by a wide audience, or a letter intended for an individual, but that is nonetheless widely distributed intentionally. ...


Glorious Revolution

Main article: Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William...

Invasion of England

William at first opposed the prospect of invasion, but in April 1688, when England concluded a naval agreement with France, began to assemble an expeditionary force. Still, he was hesitant about such an operation, believing that the English people would not react well to a foreign invader. He therefore in April demanded in a letter to Rear-Admiral Arthur Herbert that the most eminent English Protestants first invite him to invade. In June, James II's second wife, Mary of Modena, bore a son (James Francis Edward), who displaced William's wife to become first in the line of succession. Public anger also increased due to the trial of seven bishops who had publicly opposed James II's religious policies and had petitioned him to reform them. The acquittal of the bishops signalled a major defeat for the Government of James II, and encouraged further resistance to its activities. Arthur Herbert, 1st Earl of Torrington (c. ... Mary of Modena (October 5, 1658 – May 7, 1718) was the queen consort of King James II of England. ... James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart, the Old Pretender, (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed King James II of England and VII of Scots, and as such laid claim to the English and Scottish thrones (as... The Seven Bishops were seven bishops of the Church of England. ...

William's arrival in England
William's arrival in England

On 30 June 1688 — the same day the bishops were acquitted — a group of political figures known as the "Immortal Seven" complied with William's earlier request, sending him a formal invitation. William's intentions to invade were public knowledge by September 1688. With a Dutch army, William landed at Brixham in southwest England on 5 November 1688. He came ashore from the ship Den Briel ("Brill") carried aloft by a local fisherman Peter Varwell to proclaim "the liberties of England and the Protestant religion I will maintain". William had come ashore with 15,500-foot soldiers and up to 4,000 horse. Gilbert Burnet, the Bishop of Salisbury, was more precise and claimed the figure to be 14,352. On his way to London William stayed at Forde House in Newton Abbot and is alleged to have held his first parliament nearby (Parliament Cottages, as they are now known, can still be seen today). James's support began to dissolve almost immediately upon William's arrival; Protestant officers defected from the English army (the most notable of whom was Lord Churchill of Eyemouth, James's most able commander), and influential noblemen across the country declared their support for the invader. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 514 pixelsFull resolution (3518 × 2260 pixels, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 514 pixelsFull resolution (3518 × 2260 pixels, file size: 3. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... The Immortal Seven were seven notable English citizens who issued the Invitation to William, a document asking William of Orange to depose James II in favour of Williams wife Mary, culminating in the Glorious Revolution. ... The Invitation to William was a coded letter sent by the Immortal Seven to William, Prince of Orange at the start of the Revolution of 1688. ... Brixham (IPA: ) is a small town in the county of Devon, in the south-west of England. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... Brielle, also called Den Briel, (population: 15,948 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Gilbert Burnet (September 18, 1643-March 17, 1715) was a Scottish divine and historian, and Bishop of Salisbury. ... Arms of the Bishop of Salisbury The Bishop of Salisbury is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Salisbury in the Province of Canterbury. ... You may be looking for Newton Abbot (UK Parliament constituency) , Newton Abbot is a market town in Devon, England on the River Teign, with a population of 23,580 (2001 census). ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) (O.S)[1] was an English soldier and statesman whose career spanned the reigns of five monarchs throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. ...


James at first attempted to resist William, but saw that his efforts would prove futile. He sent representatives to negotiate with William, but secretly attempted to flee on 11 December. A group of fishermen caught him and brought him back to London. He successfully escaped in a second attempt on 23 December. William actually permitted James to leave the country, not wanting to make him a martyr for the Roman Catholic cause. is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ...


Proclaimed King

Silver crown coin of William III, dated 1695. The Latin inscription is (obverse) GVLIELMVS III DEI GRA[TIA] (reverse) MAG[NAE] BR[ITANNIAE], FRA[NCIAE], ET HIB[ERNIAE] REX 1695. English: "William III, By the grace of God, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, 1695." The reverse shows the arms, clockwise from top, of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, centered on William's personal arms of the House of Orange-Nassau.
Silver crown coin of William III, dated 1695. The Latin inscription is (obverse) GVLIELMVS III DEI GRA[TIA] (reverse) MAG[NAE] BR[ITANNIAE], FRA[NCIAE], ET HIB[ERNIAE] REX 1695. English: "William III, By the grace of God, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, 1695." The reverse shows the arms, clockwise from top, of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, centered on William's personal arms of the House of Orange-Nassau.

In 1689, a Convention Parliament summoned by the Prince of Orange assembled, and much discussion relating to the appropriate course of action ensued. William III felt insecure about his position; though only his wife was formally eligible to assume the throne, he wished to reign as King in his own right, rather than as a mere consort. The only precedent for a joint monarchy in England dated from the sixteenth century: when Queen Mary I married the Spanish Prince Philip, it was agreed that the latter would take the title of King. But Philip II remained King only during his wife's lifetime, and restrictions were placed on his power. William, on the other hand, demanded that he remain as King even after his wife's death. Although the majority of Tory Lords proposed to acclaim her as sole ruler, Mary, remaining loyal to her husband, refused. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1040x520, 285 KB) Silver crown of William III, dated 1695. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1040x520, 285 KB) Silver crown of William III, dated 1695. ... The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the German House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands - and at times in Europe - since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of... The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments, of 1399, 1660 and 1689. ... King consort is a title given in some monarchies to the husband of a Queen regnant. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories...


On 13 February 1689, Parliament passed the Declaration of Right, in which it deemed that James, by attempting to flee on 11 December 1688, had abdicated the government of the realm, thereby leaving the Throne vacant. The Crown was not offered to James's eldest son, James Francis Edward (who would have been the heir-apparent under normal circumstances), but to William and Mary as joint Sovereigns. It was, however, provided that "the sole and full exercise of the regal power be only in and executed by the said Prince of Orange in the names of the said Prince and Princess during their joint lives". is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments, of 1399, 1660 and 1689. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ...


William and Mary were crowned together at Westminster Abbey on 11 April 1689 by the Bishop of London, Henry Compton. Normally, the coronation is performed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, but the Archbishop at the time, William Sancroft, refused to recognise James II's removal. On the day of the coronation, the Convention of the Estates of Scotland—which was much more divided than the English Parliament—finally declared that James was no longer King of Scotland. William and Mary were offered the Scottish Crown; they accepted on 11 May. William was officially "William II" of Scotland, for there was only one previous Scottish King named William (see William I). The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Arms of the Bishop of London The Bishop of London is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. ... Henry Compton (1632 - July 7, 1713), English divine, was the sixth and youngest son of the second earl of Northampton. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... William Sancroft (1616-1693), archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Fressingfield in Suffolk on January 30, 1616, and entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in July 1634. ... The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba in Gaelic, Scots Pairlament in Scots) is the national legislature of Scotland. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William I the Lion ( known in Gaelic as Uilliam Garm1 or William the Rough), (1142/1143 - December 4, 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. ...


Revolution Settlement

William III of England encouraged the passage of the Act of Toleration 1689, which guaranteed religious toleration to certain Protestant nonconformists. It did not, however, extend toleration to Roman Catholics or those of non-Christian faiths. Thus the Act was not as wide-ranging as James II's Declaration of Indulgence, which attempted to grant freedom of conscience to people of all faiths. The Act of Toleration was an act of the English Parliament (24 May 1689) which granted freedom of worship to Nonconformists , Protestants who dissented from the Church of England such as Baptists, Congregationalists, Quakers and Methodists. ... A nonconformist is an English or Welsh Protestant of any non-Anglican denomination, chiefly advocating religious liberty. ... The Declaration of Indulgence (or the declaration for the liberty of conscience) was made by King James II of England, on the April 4, 1687. ...


In December 1689, one of the most important constitutional documents in English history, the Bill of Rights, was passed. The Act—which restated and confirmed many provisions of the earlier Declaration of Right—established restrictions on the royal prerogative; it was provided, amongst other things, that the Sovereign could not suspend laws passed by Parliament, levy taxes without parliamentary consent, infringe the right to petition, raise a standing army during peacetime without parliamentary consent, deny the right to bear arms to Protestant subjects, unduly interfere with parliamentary elections, punish members of either House of Parliament for anything said during debates, require excessive bail or inflict cruel and unusual punishments. William was opposed to the imposition of such constraints, but he wisely chose not to engage in a conflict with Parliament and agreed to abide by the statute. English Bill of Rights (1689). ... The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in common law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the Crown alone. ... The word bail as a legal term means: Security, usually a sum of money, exchanged for the release of an arrested person as a guarantee of that persons appearance for trial. ...


The Bill of Rights also settled the question of succession to the Crown. After the death of either William or Mary, the other would continue to reign. Next in the line of succession was Mary II's sister, the Princess Anne, and her issue. Finally, any children William might have had by a subsequent marriage were included in the line of succession. Non-Protestants, as well as those who married Roman Catholics, were excluded from the succession. Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ...


Rule with Mary II

War in Europe

Portrait of William III wearing the Great George

William continued to be absent from the realm for extended periods during his war with France. England joined the League of Augsburg, which then became known as the "Grand Alliance." Whilst William was away fighting, his wife, Mary II, governed the realm, but acted on his advice. Each time he returned to England, Mary gave up her power to him ungrudgingly. Such an arrangement lasted for the rest of Mary's life. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (717x900, 150 KB) Samenvatting old painting of the King Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): William III of England Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (717x900, 150 KB) Samenvatting old painting of the King Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): William III of England Metadata This file contains additional information, probably...


Resistance at home

Although most in England accepted William as Sovereign, he faced considerable opposition in Scotland and Ireland. The Scottish Jacobites— those who believed that James II was the legitimate monarch — won a stunning victory on 27 July 1689 at the Battle of Killiecrankie, but were nevertheless subdued within a month. William's reputation suffered following the Massacre of Glencoe (1692), in which seventy-eight Highland Scots were murdered or died of exposure for not properly pledging their allegiance to the new King and Queen. Bowing to public opinion, William dismissed those responsible for the massacre, though they still remained in his favour; in the words of the historian John Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton, "one became a colonel, another a knight, a third a peer, and a fourth an earl." Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Jacobite Royalists (Highlanders & Irish) Orange Royalists (Covenanters, Lowlanders) Commanders Viscount Dundee† Hugh Mackay Strength 2400 foot 3500 foot Casualties 800, inc. ... Glencoe The Massacre of Glencoe occurred in Glen Coe, Scotland, in the early morning of 13 February 1692, during the era of the Glorious Revolution and Jacobitism. ... John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton, KCVO (10 January 1834 – 19 June 1902), commonly known as simply Lord Acton, was an English historian, the only son of Sir Ferdinand Dalberg-Acton, 7th Baronet and grandson of the Neapolitan admiral, Sir John Acton, 6th Baronet. ... For other persons named John Dalrymple, see John Dalrymple (disambiguation). ...


In Ireland, where the French aided the rebels, fighting continued for much longer, although James II had perforce to flee the island after the Battle of the Boyne (1690). The victory in Ireland is commemorated annually by the The Twelfth. After the Anglo-Dutch fleet defeated a French fleet at La Hogue in 1692, the allies for a short period controlled the seas, and Ireland was conquered shortly thereafter. At the same time, the Grand Alliance fared poorly on land. William lost Namur in the Spanish Netherlands in 1692, and was disastrously beaten at the Battle of Landen in 1693. For the context of this war see Jacobitism and Glorious Revolution. ... Combatants Jacobite Forces -6000 French troops, 19,000 Irish Catholic troops Williamite Forces -English, Scottish, Dutch, Danish, Huguenot and Ulster Protestant troops Commanders James VII and II William III of England Strength 25,000 36,000 Casualties ~1,500 ~750 William III (William of Orange) King of England, Scotland and... The Twelfth is an annual Protestant celebration on 12 July, originating in Ireland. ... The Battle of Barfleur, 29 May 1692 by Richard Paton, painted 18th century. ... Namur (Dutch: Namen) is a province of Wallonia and of Belgium. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... The Battle of Landen (or Neerwinden), in the current Belgian province of Flemish Brabant, was a battle in the War of the Grand Alliance, fought in the Netherlands on July 29, 1693 between the French army of Marshal Luxembourg and the Allied army of King William III of England. ...


Later years

Mary II died of smallpox in 1694, leaving William III to rule alone. Although he had previously mistreated his wife and kept mistresses (the best-known of which was Elizabeth Villiers), William deeply mourned his wife's death. Although he was brought up as a Calvinist, he converted to Anglicanism. His popularity, however, plummeted during his reign as a sole Sovereign. Elizabeth Villiers ( 1657- April 19, 1733), was the daughter of Colonel Sir Edward Villiers of Richmond and his wife, Frances Howard. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ...


Peace with France

A Statue of King William III marking the centre of Petersfield, Hampshire
A Statue of King William III marking the centre of Petersfield, Hampshire

In 1696, the Dutch territory of Drenthe made William its Stadtholder. In the same year, Jacobites made an attempt to restore James to the English throne by assassinating William III, but the plot failed. Considering the failure, Louis XIV offered to have James elected King of Poland in the same year. James feared that acceptance of the Polish Crown might (in the minds of the English people) render him ineligible as King of England. In rejecting this offer, James made what would prove a fateful decision: less than a year later, France ceased to sponsor him. In accordance with the Treaty of Rijswijk (20 September 1697), which ended the War of the Grand Alliance, Louis recognised William III as King of England, and undertook to give no further assistance to James II. Thus deprived of French dynastic backing after 1697, Jacobites did not pose any further serious threats during William's reign. Image File history File links King_William_III_statue. ... Petersfield is a market town in the English county of Hampshire, situated on the northern border of the South Downs. ... For the Dutch footballer, see Royston Drenthe. ... The Treaty of Ryswick was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands). ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher...


As his life drew towards its conclusion, William, like many other European rulers, felt concern over the question of succession to the throne of Spain, which brought with it vast territories in Italy, the Low Countries and the New World. The King of Spain, Charles II, was an invalid with no prospect of having children; amongst his closest relatives were Louis XIV (the King of France) and Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. William sought to prevent the Spanish inheritance from going to either monarch, for he feared that such a calamity would upset the balance of power. William and Louis XIV agreed to the First Partition Treaty, which provided for the division of the Spanish Empire: Duke Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria (whom William himself chose) would obtain Spain, while France and the Holy Roman Emperor would divide the remaining territories between them. The Spaniards, however, expressed shock at William's boldness; they had not been previously consulted on the dismemberment of their own empire, and strove to keep the Spanish territories united. For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... Charles II of Spain (Carlos Segundo) (November 6, 1661, Madrid - November 1, 1700, Madrid) was King of Spain, Naples, Sicily, nearly all of Italy (except Piedmont, the Papal States and Venice), and Spains overseas Empire, stretching from Mexico to the Philippines. ... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Balance of power in international relations is a central concept in realist theory. ... The Treaty of Den Haag (also known as the Treaty of The Hague or the First Partition Treaty) was signed on October 11, 1698 between England and France. ... Duke Joseph Ferdinand Leopold of Bavaria (28 October 1692 - 6 February 1699) was the son of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria (1679-1705, 1714-1726) and his first wife, Marie Antonie of Austria, daughter of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, maternal granddaughter of King Felipe IV of Spain. ...


At first, William and Louis ignored the wishes of the Spanish court. When, however, Joseph Ferdinand died of smallpox, the issue re-opened. In 1700, the two rulers agreed to the Second Partition Treaty (also called the Treaty of London), under which the territories in Italy would pass to a son of the King of France, and the other Spanish territories would be inherited by a son of the Holy Roman Emperor. This arrangement infuriated both the Spanish — who still sought to prevent the dissolution of their empire — and the Holy Roman Emperor — to whom the Italian territories were much more useful than the other lands. Unexpectedly, the invalid King of Spain, Charles II, interfered as he lay dying in late 1700. Unilaterally, he willed all Spanish territories to Philip, a grandson of Louis XIV. The French conveniently ignored the Second Partition Treaty and claimed the entire Spanish inheritance. Furthermore, Louis XIV alienated William III by recognising James Francis Edward Stuart — the son of the former King James II, who had died in 1701 — as King of England. The subsequent conflict, known as the War of the Spanish Succession, continued until 1713. The Treaty of London, agreed in 1700 and sometimes known as the Second Partition Treaty, was an attempt to restore the Pragmatic Sanction following the death of Duke Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria, which had undermined the First Partition Treaty (the Treaty of the Hague, 1698). ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart, the Old Pretender, (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766) was the son of the deposed King James II of England and VII of Scots, and as such laid claim to the English and Scottish thrones (as... Combatants Habsburg Empire England (1701-6) Great Britain (1707-14)[1] Dutch Republic Kingdom of Portugal Crown of Aragon Duchy of Savoy [2] Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Hungarian Rebels [3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Duke of Marlborough Marquis de Ruvigny...


British succession

The Spanish inheritance, however, was not the only one which concerned William. His marriage with Mary II had not yielded any children, and he did not seem likely to remarry. Mary's sister, the Princess Anne, had borne numerous children, all of whom died during childhood. The death of William, Duke of Gloucester in 1700 left the Princess Anne as the only individual left in the line of succession established by the Bill of Rights. As the complete exhaustion of the line of succession would have encouraged a restoration of James II's line, Parliament saw fit to pass the Act of Settlement 1701, in which it was provided that the Crown would be inherited by a distant relative, Sophia, Electress of Hanover and her Protestant heirs if Princess Anne died without surviving issue, and if William III failed to have surviving issue by any subsequent marriage. (Several Catholics with genealogically senior claims to Sophia were omitted.) The Act extended to England and Ireland, but not to Scotland, whose Estates had not been consulted before the selection of Sophia. William, Duke of Gloucester ( 24 July 1689 - 29 July 1700) was the only child of Princess (later Queen) Anne of England to survive infancy. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ... Act of Settlement The Electress Sophia of Hanover The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... Electress Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia, Countess Palatine of Simmern; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the youngest daughter of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, of the House of Wittelsbach, the Winter King of Bohemia, and Elizabeth Stuart. ...


Like the Bill of Rights before it, the Act of Settlement not only addressed succession to the Throne, but also limited the power of the Crown. Future sovereigns were forbidden to use English resources to defend any of their other realms, unless parliamentary consent was first obtained. To ensure the independence of the judiciary, it was enacted that judges would serve during good behaviour, rather than at the pleasure of the Sovereign. It was also enacted that a pardon issued by the Sovereign could not impede an impeachment. Depiction of the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson, then President of the United States, in 1868. ...


Death

In 1702, William died of pneumonia, a complication from a broken collarbone, resulting from a fall off his horse. It was believed by some that his horse had stumbled into a mole's burrow, and as a result many Jacobites toasted "the little gentleman in the black velvet waistcoat." Years later, Sir Winston Churchill, in his epic the History of the English Speaking Peoples, put it more poetically when he said that the fall "opened the trapdoor to a host of lurking foes". This article is about human pneumonia. ... For other uses, see Mole. ... Churchill redirects here. ... History of the English Speaking Peoples cover A History of the English Speaking Peoples is a four-volume history of Britain and the English speaking nations, written by Winston Churchill, covering the period from the Norman Conquest of Britain (1066) to the beginning of World War I (1914). ...


William was buried in Westminster Abbey alongside his wife. The reign of William's successor, Anne, was marked by attempts to extend the provisions of the Act of Settlement to Scotland. Angered by the English Parliament's failure to consult with them before choosing Sophia of Hanover, the Estates of Scotland enacted the Act of Security, forcing Anne to grant the Royal Assent by threatening to withdraw troops from the army fighting in the War of the Spanish Succession. The Act provided that, if Anne died without a child, the Estates could elect the next monarch from amongst the Protestant descendants of previous Scottish Kings, but could not choose the English successor unless various religious, political and economic conditions were met. In turn, the English Parliament attempted to force the Scots to capitulate by restricting trade, thereby crippling the Scottish economy. The Scottish Estates were forced to agree to the Act of Union 1707, which united England and Scotland into a single realm called Great Britain; succession was to be under the terms established by the Act of Settlement. The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... The Scottish Act of Security was a response by the Scottish Parliament to the English Act of Settlement. ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (taking effect on 26 March) by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ...


William's death also brought an end to the Dutch House of Orange-Nassau, of which members had served as stadtholder of Holland and the majority of the other provinces of the Dutch Republic since the time of William the Silent (William I). The five provinces over which William III ruled — Holland, Zealand, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel — all suspended the office of Stadtholder after William III's death. The remaining two provinces — Friesland and Groningen — were never governed by William III, and continued to retain a separate Stadtholder, Johan Willem Friso. Under William III's will, Friso stood to inherit the Principality of Orange as well as several lordships in the Netherlands. He was an agnatic relative of the princes of Orange-Nassau, as well as a descendant of William the Silent through a female. However, the Prussian King Frederick I also claimed the Principality as the senior cognatic heir, stadtholder Frederick Henry having been his maternal grandfather and William III his first cousin. The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the German House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands - and at times in Europe - since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of... William I (William the Silent) William I, Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau (April 24, 1533 – July 10, 1584) was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. ... Capital Leeuwarden Queens Commissioner drs. ... Capital Groningen Queens Commissioner J.G.M. (Hans) Alders Religion (1999) Protestant 29% Catholic 7% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   2,336 km² (8th) 623 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 574,042 (9th) 246/km² (9th) Anthem Grunnens Laid ISO NL-GR Official website www. ... Johan Willem Friso (1687 -1711) was stadholder of Friesland until his untimely death by drowning in the Hollands Diep in 1711. ... In hereditary monarchies, particularly in more ancient or in more underdeveloped times, seniority was a much used principle of order of succession. ... Frederick I of Prussia (German: , July 11, 1657 – February 25, 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III; ) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and the first King in Prussia (1701 – 1713). ... Primogeniture is the common law right of the first born son to inherit the entire estate, to the exclusion of younger siblings. ...


Johan Willem Friso died in 1711, leaving his claim to his son, William. Under the Treaty of Utrecht, which was agreed to in 1713, Frederick I of Prussia (who kept the title as part of his titulary) allowed the King of France, Louis XIV, to take the lands of Orange; William Friso, or William IV, who had no resources to fight for lands located in southern France, was left with the title of "Prince of Orange" which had accumulated high prestige in the Netherlands as well as in the entire Protestant world. William IV was also restored to the office of Stadtholder in 1747. (From 1747 onwards, there was one Stadtholder for the entire Republic, rather than a separate Stadtholder for each province.) William IV, Prince of Orange, stadtholder of The Netherlands (May 4, 1711–October 22, 1751), was born in Leeuwarden, The Netherlands. ... A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ...


Legacy

Statue of an idealised William III by John Michael Rysbrack erected in Queen Square, Bristol in 1736.
Statue of an idealised William III by John Michael Rysbrack erected in Queen Square, Bristol in 1736.
Statue of William III in front of Kensington Palace. Donated by William II, German Emperor in 1907.
Statue of William III in front of Kensington Palace. Donated by William II, German Emperor in 1907.

William's primary achievement was to contain France when it was in a position to impose its will across much of Europe. His life was largely opposed to the will of the French King Louis XIV. This effort continued after his death during the War of the Spanish Succession. Another important consequence of William's reign in England involved the ending of a bitter conflict between Crown and Parliament that had lasted since the accession of the first English monarch of the House of Stuart, James I, in 1603. The conflict over royal and parliamentary power had led to the English Civil War during the 1640s and the Glorious Revolution of 1688. During William's reign, however, the conflict was settled in Parliament's favour by the Bill of Rights 1689, the Triennial Act 1694 and the Act of Settlement 1701. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 745 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2187 × 1760 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 745 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2187 × 1760 pixel, file size: 2. ... Johannes Michel or John Michael Rysbrack (born June 27, 1694 in Antwerp; died January 8, 1770 in London) was an 18th century Flemish sculptor. ... Queen Square is a public open space in the centre of the historic city of Bristol, England. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 1. ... William II or Wilhelm II (born Prince Frederick William Albert Victor of Prussia; German: ) (27 January 1859–4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and Prussia from 15 June 1888 to... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire England (1701-6) Great Britain (1707-14)[1] Dutch Republic Kingdom of Portugal Crown of Aragon Duchy of Savoy [2] Kingdom of France Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Bavaria Hungarian Rebels [3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy Margrave of Baden Count Starhemberg Duke of Marlborough Marquis de Ruvigny... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later also of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... English Bill of Rights (1689). ... The Triennial Act, of 1641, was a piece of legislation passed by the English Long Parliament, during the reign of King Charles I. The act requires that the Parliament meet for at least a fifty-day session once every three years. ... Act of Settlement The Electress Sophia of Hanover The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ...


His decision to grant the Royal Charter in 1694 to the Bank of England, a private institution owned by bankers, is his most relevant economic legacy. It laid the financial foundation of the English take over of the central role of the Dutch Republic and Bank of Amsterdam in global commerce in the 18th century. William endowed the College of William and Mary (in present day Williamsburg, Virginia) in 1693. Nassau, the capital of the Bahamas, is named after him. Similarly Nassau County, New York the western most county on Long Island, is a namesake. Long Island itself was also known as Nassau during early Dutch rule. For the ship of the same name, see Royal Charter (ship). ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... The Bank of Amsterdam was an early commercial bank, vouched for by the city of Amsterdam, established in 1609. ... The College of William and Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M or The College) is a small, selective, coeducational public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. ... Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses of Nassau, see Nassau (disambiguation). ... Nassau County is a suburban city county in the New York Metropolitan Area east of New York City in the U.S. state of New York. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ...


The modern day Orange Institution is named after William III, and makes a point of celebrating his victory at the Boyne. New York was briefly renamed New Orange for him. His name was applied to the fort and administrative center for the city on two separate occasions reflecting his different sovereign status—first as Fort Willem Hendrick in 1673 when the Dutch renamed New York to New Orange and then as Fort William in 1691 when the English evicted Colonists who had seized the fort and city.[20] Orange, Connecticut and The Oranges in northern New Jersey, are named for him. Orange parade in Glasgow (1 June 2003) The Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly in Northern Ireland and Scotland with lodges throughout the Commonwealth and in Canada and the United States. ... This article is about the state. ... Fort Amsterdam was the name of the Dutch fort that was constructed on the southern tip of Manhattan in 1625. ... Orange is a town located in New Haven County, Connecticut. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... The Oranges are a group of four municipalities in Essex County, New Jersey, all of which have the word Orange in their name. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


The joint style of William III and Mary II was "William and Mary, by the Grace of God, King and Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, etc." when they ascended the Throne. (The claim to France was only nominal, and had been asserted by every English King since Edward III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled, see English claims to the French throne) From 11 April 1689—when the Estates of Scotland recognised them as Sovereigns—the style "William and Mary, by the Grace of God, King and Queen of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, etc." was used. After Mary's death, William continued to use the same style, omitting the reference to Mary, mutatis mutandis'. The Kingdom of England was first unified as a state by Athelstan of Wessex. ... // Fidei defensor is the Latin original of the English and French titles. ... This article is about the King of England. ... The English claims to the French throne have a long and rather complex history between the 1340s and the 1800s. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1689 (MDCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba in Gaelic, Scots Pairlament in Scots) is the national legislature of Scotland. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... In Latin, mutatis mutandis means upon changing what needs to be changed, where what needs to be changed is usually implied by a prior statement assumed to be understood by the reader. ...


The arms used by the King and Queen were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland); overall an escutcheon Azure billetty and a lion rampant Or. Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ...


Ancestors

William of Nassau (Dutch: Willem de Rijke) (10 April 1487 – 6 October 1559), was a count of Nassau-Dillenburg from the House of Nassau. ... William I (William the Silent). ... Juliana of Stolberg (Juliane von Stolberg-Wernigerode) (Stolberg, 15 februari 1506 - Dillenburg, June 1580) was the daughter of Botho VIII of Stolberg-Wernigerode and Anna of Eppstein-Königstein. ... Frederick Henry (January 29, 1584–March 14, 1647), Prince of Orange, the youngest child of William the Silent, was born at Delft about six months before his fathers assassination. ... Gaspard de Coligny Gaspard de Coligny (February 16, 1519 – August 24, 1572), Seigneur (Lord) de Châtillon held the office of Admiral of France and is best remembered as a Huguenot leader. ... Louise de Coligny (1555-1620) was the daughter of Gaspard de Coligny and Charlotte de Laval. ... William II (fragment of a 1641 painting by Antoon van Dijck) William II, Prince of Orange (May 27, 1626 – November 6, 1650), stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands from March 14, 1647 until his death. ... Amalia of Solms-Braunfels (31 August 1602 – 8 September 1675), countess of Solms-Braunfels, was the wife of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange. ... Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 9 or 10 February 1567), commonly known as Lord Darnley, king consort of Scotland, was the first cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, and the father of her son King James VI, who also succeded Elizabeth I of England. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Mary, Queen of Scots redirects here. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution. ... Frederick II of Denmark and Norway Frederick II (July 1, 1534 - April 4, 1588), King of Denmark and Norway from 1559 until his death. ... Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ... Hans Knieper: Königin Sophie von Dänemark For other uses, see Sofie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (disambiguation). ... Mary, Princess Royal and Princess Orange-Nassau (4 November 1631 - 24 December 1660) was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland and his queen, Henrietta Maria. ... Antoine de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme (22 April 1518 _ 17 November 1562). ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... Jeanne dAlbret Jeanne dAlbret (January 7, 1528 - June 9, 1572) was Queen of Navarre from 1555 to 1572, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, duke of Vendome and mother of Henry IV of France. ... Queen Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 – September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Mariae) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert, son... Francesco I of Tuscany. ... Marie de Medici (April 26, 1573 - July 3, 1642), born in Italy as Maria de Medici, was queen consort of France under the French name Marie de Médicis. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

In popular culture

William has been played on screen by:

Bernard Lee as M in The Man with the Golden Gun Bernard Lee (January 10, 1908 – January 16, 1981) was a British actor, best known for his role as M in the first eleven James Bond films. ... The Black Tulip, a story about the gardener Cornelius van Baerle and the beautiful Rosa, is one of the most popular novels by Alexandre Dumas, père and filled with excitement and romance. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... A publicity shot of Henry Daniell in the 1940s Henry Daniell (March 5, 1894, London – October 31, 1963) was an British actor, best known for his villainous screen roles, but who had a long and prestigious career on stage as well as in films. ... Captain Kidd is a 1945 film, starring Charles Laughton, Randolph Scott, Barbara Britton, and John Carradine, directed by Rowland V. Lee, produced by Benedict Bogeaus and James Nasser, and released by United Artists. ... Against All Flags is a 1952 action film starring Errol Flynn as Brian Hawke, Maureen OHara as Prudence Spitfire Stevens and Anthony Quinn as Roc Brasiliano. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The First Churchills was a BBC miniseries from 1969 about the life of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough and his wife, Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough. ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... This article is about the television network. ... Thomas Antonius Cornelis Ancion, known by the pseudonym Thom Hoffman, (born March 3, 1957 in Wassenaar) is a Dutch actor and photographer. ... Orlando is a 1992 film, based on Virginia Woolfs novel Orlando: A Biography, starring Tilda Swinton as Orlando, Billy Zane as Marmaduke Bonthrop Shelmerdine, and Quentin Crisp as Queen Elizabeth. ... For the American writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff. ... Corin William Redgrave (born 16 July 1939) is an English actor. ... Henry Purcell Henry Purcell (IPA: ;[1] September 10 (?),[2], 1659–November 21, 1695), was an English Baroque composer. ...

See also

This is the British monarchs family tree, from James I of England (and VI of Scotland) to the present queen, Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. ... This is the Kings of France family tree, including all kings, from Charles Magne to the advent of the Republic. ... The Principality of Orange The title originally referred to the sovereign principality of Orange in southern France, which was a property of the House of Orange (from 1702 Orange-Nassau). ... The Baroque Cycle is a series of books written by Neal Stephenson and published in 2003 and 2004. ... Neal Town Stephenson (born October 31, 1959) is an American writer, known primarily for his science fiction works in the postcyberpunk genre with a penchant for explorations of society, mathematics, currency, and the history of science. ... Coenraad van Beuningen, 1673, by Caspar Netscher Coenraad van Beuningen (1622 - Amsterdam, 26 October 1693) was the Republic most experienced diplomat, burgemeester of Amsterdam in 1669, 1672, 1680, 1681, 1683 and 1684, and from 1681 a VOC director. ...

Notes

  1. ^ During William's lifetime, two calendars were in use in Europe: the Julian or 'Old Style' in Britain and parts of Eastern Europe, and the Gregorian or 'New Style' elsewhere, including in the Netherlands. At William's birth, Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: thus William was born on 14 November 1650 by the Julian calendar, but on 4 November 1650 by the Gregorian. Moreover, the English new year began on 25 March (the anniversary of the Incarnation) and not on 1 January (until the general adoption of the Gregorian calendar in the UK in 1753). Unless otherwise noted, the remainder of the dates in this article follow the Julian Calendar.
  2. ^ Claydon, 9
  3. ^ Claydon, 14
  4. ^ a b Troost, 26
  5. ^ Troost, 26–27. The Prussian prince was chosen because he could act as a neutral party mediating between the two women, but also because as a possible heir he had an interest in protecting the Orange family fortune, which Amalia feared Mary would squander.
  6. ^ Troost, 34
  7. ^ Troost, 27. The author may also have been Christiaan Huygens or Johan van den Kerckhoven. Ibid.
  8. ^ Troost, 36–37
  9. ^ Troost, 37–40
  10. ^ Meinel
  11. ^ a b Troost, 43
  12. ^ Troost, 43–44
  13. ^ Troost, 44
  14. ^ a b c d Troost, 49
  15. ^ a b c d Troost, 52–53
  16. ^ Troost, 53–54
  17. ^ Culture and Society In Britain, J. Black (ed.), Manchester, 1997. p97
  18. ^ Journaal van Christiaan Huygens, i, 132
  19. ^ H. and B. van der Zee, William and Mary, London, 1973
  20. ^ The History of North America by Guy Carleton Lee by Guy Carleton Lee Francis and Francis Newton Thorpe Published 1904 Published by G. Barrie & sons, p. 167 The Dutch Under English Rule

The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Christiaan Huygens (pronounced in English (IPA): ; in Dutch: ) (April 14, 1629 – July 8, 1698), was a Dutch mathematician, astronomer and physicist; born in The Hague as the son of Constantijn Huygens. ...

References

  • "William III (England)." (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. London: Cambridge University Press.
  • Claydon, Tony, William III: Profiles in Power (2002) ISBN 0582405238.
  • Meinel, Freidrich, Samuel Chappuzeau 1625-1701, a dissertation, University of Leipzig, 1908
  • Robb, Nesca, William of Orange (1962)
  • Troost, Wout, William III, The Stadholder-king: A Political Biography (2005) (transaltion by J.C. Grayson) ISBN 0754650715.
  • Van der Kiste, John, William and Mary (2003) ISBN 0750930489.
  • Waller, Maureen, "Sovereign Ladies: Sex, Sacrifice, and Power. The Six Reigning Queens of England." St. Martin's Press, New York, 2006. ISBN 0-312-33801-5
  • McFerran, Noel S. (2004). "The Jacobite Heritage."
  • British Broadcasting Corporation. (2004). "William III."

The University of Leipzig (German Universität Leipzig), located in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony (former Kingdom of Saxony), Germany, is one of the oldest universities in Europe. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
William III of England
  • Official House of Orange website
  • William, Prince of Orange
  • King Billy
  • House of Orange
  • Het Loo Palace
William III of England and Orange & II of Scots & I of Ireland
Cadet branch of the House of Nassau
Born: 14 November 1650 Died: 8 March 1702
Regnal titles
Preceded by
William II
Prince of Orange
1650 – 1702
Succeeded by
Frederick I of Prussia or
Johan Willem Friso of Nassau-Dietz
Baron of Breda
1650 – 1702
Succeeded by
Johan Willem Friso of Nassau-Dietz
Preceded by
William II of Orange
Stadtholder of Holland and Zealand
1672 – 1702
Succeeded by
William IV of Orange
Stadtholder of Utrecht
1674 – 1702
Stadtholder of Guelders and Overijssel
1675 – 1702
Preceded by
James II
King of England
King of Ireland

1689 – 1702
with Mary II (1689–1694)
Succeeded by
Anne
King of Scots
1689 – 1702
with Mary II (1689–1694)
English royalty
Preceded by
James, Prince of Wales
Heir to the English, Scottish and Irish Thrones
as heir apparent to Mary II
13 February 1689 – 28 December 1694
Succeeded by
Princess Anne
Political offices
Preceded by
James II
Lord High Admiral
1689
Succeeded by
The Earl of Torrington
Persondata
NAME William III of England
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Prince of Orange, King of England and Ireland
DATE OF BIRTH 14 November 1650
PLACE OF BIRTH Binnenhof, The Hague
DATE OF DEATH 9 March 1702
PLACE OF DEATH Kensington Palace, London
is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1650 (MDCL) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Binnenhof (Dutch, lit. ... Hague redirects here. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Kensington Palace Park Kensington Palace is a royal residence set in Kensington Gardens in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
William III of England - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3957 words)
William III was appointed to the Dutch post of Stadtholder on 28 June 1672, and remained in office until he died.
William of Orange, the son of William II, Prince of Orange and Mary Stuart, was born in The Hague.
William III felt insecure about his position; though only his wife was formally eligible to assume the throne, he wished to reign as King in his own right, rather than as a mere consort.
William III (of England, Scotland, and Ireland) - MSN Encarta (541 words)
William III (of England, Scotland, and Ireland), called William of Orange (1650-1702), King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1689-1702), and stadtholder of the Netherlands (1672-1702), who helped form the Grand Alliance and led England in its so-called Glorious Revolution.
As a result of William's superior diplomacy, however, which also included the strengthening of ties with England by his marriage (1677) to the English princess Mary (eldest daughter of his uncle, James, Duke of York, later King James II), Louis XIV agreed to terminate the war on terms favourable to the Dutch.
William's reign continued to be marked by abortive Jacobite plots to restore James to the throne.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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