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Encyclopedia > William II of England
William II
King of the English (more...)
William II, from the Stowe Manuscript
William II, from the Stowe Manuscript
Reign 9 September 10872 August 1100
Coronation 26 September 1087
Predecessor William I
Successor Henry I
Royal house Norman dynasty
Father William I
Mother Matilda of Flanders
Born 1056
Normandy, France
Died 2 August 1100
The New Forest, England
Burial Winchester Cathedral, Winchester

William II (c. 10562 August 1100), the third son of William I of England (William the Conqueror),[1] was King of England from 1087 until 1100, with powers also over Normandy, and influence in Scotland. He was less successful in extending control into Wales. William is commonly known as 'William Rufus', perhaps because of his red-faced appearance.[2] The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... ImageMetadata File history File links William2. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... William I of England (c. ... Henry I (c. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... The Norman dynasty is a series of four monarchs, who ruled England from the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066, until 1154. ... William I of England (c. ... Matilda of Flanders (c. ... Events Creation of the Crab Nebula observed by a Chinese astronomer Anselm of Canterbury leaves Italy. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... For other uses, see New Forest (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close View along the nave of Winchester Cathedral to the west door A plan published in 1911 View of Winchester Cathedral Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire is one of the largest cathedrals in England, said to be the second longest, and with... Winchester is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40,000 within a 3 mile radius of its centre. ... Events Creation of the Crab Nebula observed by a Chinese astronomer Anselm of Canterbury leaves Italy. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... William I of England (c. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... This article is about the country. ...


Although William was an effective soldier, he was a ruthless ruler and, it seems, was little liked by those he governed: according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, he was 'hated by almost all his people.'[3] However, chroniclers tended to take a dim view of William's reign, arguably on account of his long and difficult struggles with the Church: these chroniclers were themselves generally products of the Church, and so might be expected to report him somewhat negatively. Thus William was roundly denounced in his time and after his death for presiding over what was held to be a dissolute court, in terms which, in modern times, have raised questions over his sexuality.[4] According to Norman tradition, William scorned the English and their culture.[5] The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle. ...


William seems to have been a flamboyant character, and his reign was marked by his bellicose temperament. He did not marry, nor did he produce any offspring, legitimate or otherwise. His chief minister was Ranulf Flambard, whom he appointed Bishop of Durham in 1099: this was a political appointment, to a see that was also a great fiefdom.[6] Ranulf Flambard, or Squiffy (died September 5, 1128) was Bishop of Durham and an influential government minister of William Rufus. ... The Bishop of Durham is the officer of the Church of England responsible for the diocese of Durham, one of the oldest in the country. ... Look up see in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fief depiction in a book of hours Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord, generally to a vassal, in return for a form of allegiance, originally to give him the means...

Contents

Early years

William's exact date of birth is unknown, but it was sometime between the years 1056 and 1060. He was the third of four sons, born in his father's Duchy of Normandy, which would be inherited in due course by his elder brother, Robert Curthose. During his youth, he was educated under the eye of Lanfranc, and seemed destined to be a great lord but not a king, until the death of the Conqueror's second son, Richard, put William next in line for the English succession.[7] His father's favourite son, William succeeded to the throne of England on his father's death, but there was always hostility between him and his eldest brother, though they became reconciled after an attempted coup in 1091 by the youngest brother, Henry. Events Creation of the Crab Nebula observed by a Chinese astronomer Anselm of Canterbury leaves Italy. ... May — The Norman leader Robert Guiscard conquers Taranto. ... The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ... Robert II (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. ... Lanfranc (d. ... Henry I (c. ...


Relations between the three brothers had never been excellent. Orderic Vitalis relates an incident that took place at L'Aigle, in 1077 or 1078: William and Henry, having grown bored with casting dice, decided to make mischief by pouring stinking water on their brother Robert from an upper gallery, thus infuriating and shaming him. A brawl broke out, and their father King William I was forced to intercede to restore order.[8] Orderic Vitalis (1075 – c. ... LAigle is a commune of the Orne départment, in France. ... William I of England (c. ...


Appearance

English Royalty
House of Normandy
William I
   Robert II Curthose, Duke of Normandy
   Richard, Duke of Bernay
   William II Rufus
   Adela, Countess of Blois
   Henry I Beauclerc
William II

According to William of Malmesbury, William Rufus was 'well set; his complexion florid, his hair yellow; of open countenance; different coloured eyes, varying with certain glittering specks; of astonishing strength, though not very tall, and his belly rather projecting.'[9] This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... Norman conquests in red. ... William I of England (c. ... Robert, called The Magnificent (French, le Magnifique) for his love of finery, and also called The Devil was the son of Duke Richard II of Normandy and Judith, daughter of Conan I, Duke of Brittany. ... Adela of Blois (c. ... Henry I (c. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ...


England and France

The division of William the Conqueror's lands into two parts presented a dilemma for those nobles who held land on both sides of the Channel. Since the younger William and his brother Robert were natural rivals, these nobles worried that they could not hope to please both of their lords, and thus ran the risk of losing the favour of one ruler or the other, or both.[10] The only solution, as they saw it, was to unite England and Normandy once more under one ruler. The pursuit of this aim led them to revolt against William in favour of Robert in the Rebellion of 1088, under the leadership of the powerful Bishop Odo of Bayeux, who was a half-brother of William the Conqueror.[11] As Robert failed to appear in England to rally his supporters, William won the support of the English with silver and promises of better government, and defeated the rebellion, thus securing his authority. In 1091 he invaded Normandy, crushing Robert's forces and forcing him to cede a portion of his lands. The two made up their differences and William agreed to help Robert recover lands lost to France, notably Maine.[12] This plan was later abandoned, but William continued to pursue a ferociously warlike defence of his French possessions and interests to the end of his life, exemplified by his response to the attempt by Elias de la Flèche, Count of Maine, to take Le Mans in 1099.[13] The Rebellion of 1088 occurred after the death of William the Conqueror and concerned the division of lands in England and Normandy between his two sons William Rufus and Robert Curthose. ... Odo of Bayeux (c. ... Flag of Maine Location of Maine in France Maine is one of the traditional provinces of France. ... This is a list of counts and dukes of Maine, France. ... Le Mans is a city in France, located at the Sarthe River. ...


Thus William Rufus was secure in the most powerful kingdom in Europe, given the contemporary eclipse of the Salian emperors. As in Normandy, his bishops and abbots were bound to him by feudal obligations; and his right of investiture in the Norman tradition prevailed within his kingdom, during the age of the Investiture Controversy that brought excommunication upon the Salian Emperor Henry IV. Anglo-Norman royal institutions reached an efficiency hitherto unknown in medieval Europe, and the king's personal power, through an effective and loyal chancery, penetrated to the local level to an extent unmatched in France.[citation needed] Without the Capetians' ideological trappings of an anointed monarchy forever entangled with the hierarchy of the Church, the king's administration and law unified the realm, rendering him relatively impervious to papal condemnation. The Salian Dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire was founded by Conrad II (c. ... The Investiture Controversy, also known as the lay investiture controversy, was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. ... The Salian Dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire was founded by Conrad II (c. ... Henry IV (November 11, 1050–August 7, 1106) was King of Germany from 1056 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ...


Relations with the Church, and personal beliefs

Less than two years after becoming king, William II lost his father William I's advisor and confidant, the Italian-Norman Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury. After Lanfranc's death, the king delayed appointing a new archbishop for many years, appropriating ecclesiastical revenues in the interim. In panic owing to serious illness in 1093, William nominated as archbishop another Norman-Italian, Anselm of Bec – considered the greatest theologian of his generation – but this led to a long period of animosity between Church and State, Anselm being a stronger supporter of the Gregorian reforms in the Church than Lanfranc. William and Anselm disagreed on a range of ecclesiastical issues, in the course of which the king declared to Anselm that Yesterday I hated him with great hatred, today I hate him with yet greater hatred and he can be certain that tomorrow and thereafter I shall hate him continually with ever fiercer and more bitter hatred.[14] The English clergy, beholden to the king for their preferments and livings, were unable to support Anselm publicly. In 1095 William called a council at Rockingham to bring Anselm to heel, but the archbishop remained firm. In October 1097, Anselm went into exile, taking his case to the Pope. The diplomatic and flexible Urban II, a new pope, was involved in a major conflict with the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, who supported an antipope. Reluctant to make another enemy, Urban came to a concordat with William Rufus, whereby William recognized Urban as pope, and Urban gave sanction to the Anglo-Norman ecclesiastical status quo. Anselm remained in exile, and William was able to claim the revenues of the archbishop of Canterbury to the end of his reign.[15] William I of England (c. ... Lanfranc (d. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... For entities named after Saint Anselm, see Saint Anselms. ... The Gregorian Reform was a series of reforms initiated by Pope Gregory VII and the circle he formed in the papal curia, circa 1050–1080, which dealt with the moral integrity and independence of the clergy. ... Rockingham is a village and civil parish in the Corby district of Northamptonshire, England. ... Pope Urban II (1042 – July 29, 1099), born Otho of Lagery (alternatively: Otto or Odo), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. ... Henry IV (November 11, 1050–August 7, 1106) was King of Germany from 1056 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105. ... For the book by Robert Rankin, see The Antipope. ... A concordat is an agreement between the pope and a government or sovereign on religious matters. ...


However, this conflict was symptomatic of medieval English politics, as exemplified by the murder of Thomas Becket during the reign of the later Norman king Henry II of England, and indeed by Henry VIII's actions centuries later, and as such should not be seen as a defect of William II's reign in particular.[16] Of course, contemporary churchmen were themselves not above engaging in such politics: it is reported that, when Archbishop Lanfranc suggested to William I that he imprison the rebellious bishop Odo of Bayeux, he exclaimed 'What! he is a clergyman'. Lanfranc retorted that 'you will not seize the bishop of Bayeux, but confine the earl of Kent': Odo was both bishop of Bayeux, and earl of Kent.[17] Also, while we have the complaints of contemporaries regarding William II's personal behaviour, on the other hand he was instrumental in assisting the foundation of Bermondsey Abbey, endowing it with the manor of Bermondsey; and it is reported that his 'customary oath' was 'By the Face at Lucca!'[18] It seems reasonable to suppose that such details are indicative of William II's personal beliefs. Saint Thomas Becket, St. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... William I of England (c. ... Odo of Bayeux (c. ... Bermondsey Abbey was an 11th century foundation, and was centred on what is now Bermondsey Square, in the London Borough of Southwark. ...


War and rebellion

William Rufus inherited the Anglo-Norman settlement detailed in Domesday Book, a survey undertaken at his father's command, essentially for the purposes of taxation, which could not have been undertaken anywhere else in Europe at that time, and is a sign of the control of the English monarchy. If he was less effective than his father in containing the Norman lords' propensity for rebellion and violence, through charisma, or political skills, he was forceful in resisting its effects. In 1095, Robert de Mowbray, the earl of Northumbria, refused to attend the Curia Regis, the thrice-annual court where the King announced his governmental decisions to the great lords. William led an army against Robert and defeated him. Robert was dispossessed and imprisoned, and another noble, William of Eu, accused of treachery, was blinded and castrated.[19] A line drawing entitled Domesday Book from Andrew Williamss Historic Byways and Highways of Old England. ... Robert de Mowbray was the earl of Northumbria from 1086 when Aubrey de Coucys lands and titles were finally redistributed and held that post until 1095 when he was deposed for rebelling against William Rufus, King of England. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... Curia Regis is a Latin term meaning Royal Council or Kings court. The Curia Regis in England was a council of tenants-in-chief and ecclesiastics that advised the king of England on legislative matters. ... Castration (also referred as: gelding, neutering, orchiectomy, orchidectomy, and oophorectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which a male loses the functions of the testes or a female loses the functions of the ovaries. ...


In external affairs, William had some successes. In 1091 he repulsed an invasion by King Malcolm III of Scotland, forcing Malcolm to pay homage. In 1092 he built a castle at Carlisle, taking control of Cumbria, which had previously been claimed by the Scots.[11] Subsequently, the two kings quarreled over Malcolm's possessions in England, and Malcolm again invaded, ravaging Northumbria. At the Battle of Alnwick, on 13 November 1093, Malcolm was ambushed by Norman forces led by Robert de Mowbray. Malcolm and his son Edward were slain and Malcolm III's brother Donald seized the throne. William supported Malcolm's son Duncan, who held power for a short time, and then another of Malcolm's sons, Edgar. Edgar conquered Lothian in 1094 and eventually removed Donald in 1097 with William's aid in a campaign led by Edgar Ætheling. Edgar recognised William's authority over Lothian and attended William's court. Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. ... Carlisle Castle is situated in the historic town of Carlisle, Cumbria in England. ... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... The Battle of Alnwick (1093) is one of two battles fought near the town of Alnwick, in Northumberland. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Donald III of Scotland comes to the throne of Scotland. ... Domnall mac Donnchada or Domnall Bán (anglicised Donald III) (c. ... Duncan II (1060?- November 12, 1094) was king of Scotland and a son of Malcolm III and his first wife Ingibiorg and therefore a grandson of Duncan I. For a time he lived as a hostage in England and became king of the Scots after driving out his uncle, Donald... Edgar of Scotland (Etgair mac Maíl Coluim) (1074 – January 8, 1107 ), was king of Scotland from 1097 to 1107. ... Lothian (Lowden in Scots, Lodainn in Gaelic) forms a traditional region of Scotland, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills. ... Edgar Ætheling[1], also known as Edgar the Outlaw, (c. ...


William made unsuccessful forays into Wales in 1096 and 1097.[citation needed] This article is about the country. ...


In 1096, William's brother Robert Curthose joined the First Crusade. He needed money to fund this venture, and pledged his Duchy of Normandy to William in return for a payment of 10,000 marks—a sum equalling about one-fourth of William's annual revenue. In a display of the effectiveness of English taxation, William raised the money by levying a special, heavy, and much-resented tax upon the whole of England. William then ruled Normandy as regent in Robert's absence—Robert did not return until September 1100, one month after William's death. Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ...


As regent for his brother Robert in Normandy, William campaigned in France from 1097 to 1099. He secured northern Maine but failed to seize the French-controlled part of the Vexin region. At the time of his death, he was planning to invade Aquitaine, in southwestern France. Flag of Maine Location of Maine in France Maine is one of the traditional provinces of France. ... The Vexin is a former region in France, divided since the 10th century between the Norman Vexin (Vexin normand) and the French Vexin (Vexin français). ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,308 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...


Death in the New Forest

Death of William Rufus. Lithograph, 1895
Death of William Rufus. Lithograph, 1895

Perhaps the most memorable event in the life of William Rufus was his death, which occurred while William was hunting in the New Forest. He was killed by an arrow through the lung, but the circumstances remain unclear. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1195, 509 KB) Source: Scanned from Ridpaths Universal History, Copyright 1895, Section XII, page 644 Death of William Rufus File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1195, 509 KB) Source: Scanned from Ridpaths Universal History, Copyright 1895, Section XII, page 644 Death of William Rufus File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see New Forest (disambiguation). ...


On a bright August day in 1100, William organised a hunting trip in the New Forest. An account by Orderic Vitalis describes the preparations for the hunt: Orderic Vitalis (1075 – c. ...

...an armourer came in and presented to [William] six arrows. The King immediately took them with great satisfaction, praising the work, and unconscious of what was to happen, kept four of them himself and held out the other two to Walter Tyrrel... saying 'It is only right that the sharpest be given to the man who knows how to shoot the deadliest shots.'[20] Death of William Rufus. ...

On the subsequent hunt, the party spread out as they chased their prey, and William, in the company of Walter Tyrell (or Tirel), Lord of Poix, became separated from the others. It was the last time that William was seen alive.


William was found the next day by a group of local peasants, lying dead in the woods with an arrow wound to his chest. William's body was abandoned by the nobles at the place where he fell, because the law and order of the kingdom died with the king, and they had to flee to their English or Norman estates to secure their interests. William's younger brother, Henry, hastened to Winchester to secure the royal treasury, then to London, where he was crowned within days, before either archbishop could arrive. Legend has it that it was left to a local charcoal-burner named Purkis to take the king's body to Winchester Cathedral on his cart.[citation needed] Henry I (c. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close View along the nave of Winchester Cathedral to the west door A plan published in 1911 View of Winchester Cathedral Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire is one of the largest cathedrals in England, said to be the second longest, and with...


According to the chroniclers, William's death was not murder. Walter and William had been hunting together when Walter let loose a wild shot that, instead of hitting the stag he aimed for, struck William in the chest. Walter tried to help him, but there was nothing he could do. Fearing that he would be charged with murder, Walter panicked, leapt onto his horse, and fled. A version of this tale is given by William of Malmesbury: William of Malmesbury (c. ...

The day before the king died he dreamed that he was let blood by a surgeon, and that the stream, reaching to heaven, clouded the light and intercepted the day. ...he suddenly awoke, commanded a light to be brought, and forbade his attendants to leave him... After dinner he went into the forest, attended by few persons... [Walter Tirel] alone had remained with him, while the others, employed in the chase, were dispersed as chance directed. The sun was now declining, when the king, drawing his bow and letting fly an arrow, slightly wounded a stag which passed before him; and, keenly gazing, followed it, still running, a long time with his eyes, holding up his hand to keep off the power of the sun's rays. At this instant Walter [attempted] to transfix another stag... [but] unknowingly, and without power to prevent it, O gracious God! pierced [the king's] breast with a fatal arrow.


On receiving the wound the king uttered not a word; but breaking off the shaft of the weapon where it projected from his body, and then falling upon the wound, he accelerated his death. Walter immediately ran up, but as he found him senseless and speechless he leaped swiftly upon his horse, and escaped by spurring him to his utmost speed. Indeed there was none to pursue him, some conniving at his flight, others pitying him, and all intent on other matters. Some began to fortify their dwellings, others to plunder, and the rest to look out for a new king.


A few countrymen conveyed the body, placed on a cart, to the cathedral at Winchester, the blood dripping from it all the way. Here it was committed to the ground within the tower, attended by many of the nobility... Next year the tower fell... [William Rufus] died in [1100]... aged above forty years... He was a man much to be pitied by the clergy, for throwing away the soul they laboured to save; to be beloved by stipendiary soldiers for the multitude of his gifts; but not to be lamented by the people, because he suffered their substance to be plundered.[21]

To the chroniclers - men of the Church - such an 'act of God' was a just end for a wicked king. Over the following centuries, the obvious suggestion that one of William's enemies may have had a hand in this extraordinary event has repeatedly been made: chroniclers of the time point out themselves that Walter was renowned as a keen bowman, and thus was unlikely to have fired such an impetuous shot.[citation needed] Moreover, William's brother Henry, who was among the hunting party that day, benefited directly from William's death, shortly thereafter being crowned king. Act of God is a common legal term for events outside of human control, such as sudden floods or other natural disasters, for which no one can be held responsible. ... Henry I (c. ...


Abbot Suger, another chronicler, was Tirel's friend and sheltered him in his French exile. He said later: Suger of Saint-Denis on a medieval window Suger (c. ...

It was laid to the charge of a certain noble, Walter Tirel, that he had shot the king with an arrow; but I have often heard him, when he had nothing to fear nor to hope, solemnly swear that on the day in question he was not in the part of the forest where the king was hunting, nor ever saw him in the forest at all.[22]

William's remains are in Winchester Cathedral, scattered among royal mortuary chests positioned on the presbytery screen, flanking the choir.[citation needed]


The Rufus Stone

A stone known as the Rufus Stone marks the spot where some believe he fell. grid reference SU270124 The British national grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references commonly used in Great Britain, different from using latitude or longitude. ...


The inscription on the Rufus Stone reads:

Here stood the oak tree, on which an arrow shot by Sir Walter Tyrell at a stag, glanced and struck King William the Second, surnamed Rufus, on the breast, of which he instantly died, on the second day of August, anno 1100. King William the Second, surnamed Rufus, being slain, as before related, was laid in a cart, belonging to one Purkis, and drawn from hence, to Winchester, and buried in the Cathedral Church, of that city.

The current monument is made of cast iron and was erected in 1865. Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Sources

Major sources for William Rufus include Orderic Vitalis, William of Malmesbury, and Eadmer. Studies by Frank Barlow and Emma Mason have replaced the judgmental Victorian account of Freeman, E.A., The Reign of William Rufus and the Accession of Henry the First (2 vols.), Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1882, in which the king is said to have combined 'the habits of the ancient Greek and modern Turk' with unseemly irreligion, and which portrays his realm anachronistically as a precursor of the United Kingdom. Orderic Vitalis (1075 – c. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ... Eadmer, or Edmer (c. ... Look up Anachronism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Fictional treatments

William Rufus is a major character in Valerie Anand's historical novel, King of the Wood (1989). Valerie Anand is a British author of historical fiction. ...


He is also a major character in Parke Godwin's Robin and the King (1993), the second volume in Godwin's reinterpretation of the Robin Hood legend. Parke Godwin is an author, known for his popular reinterpretations of the Robin Hood and King Arthur legends. ... For other uses, see Robin Hood (disambiguation). ...


William II is indirectly the subject of two historical novels by George Shipway, called The Paladin and The Wolf Time. The main character of the novels is Walter Tirel (or Tyrell) the supposed assassin of King William, and the main thrust of the plot of the novels is that the assassination was engineered by Henry. For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... George Shipway was a British author best known for his historical novels, but he also tried his hand at political satire in his book The Chilian Club. ...


The death of William Rufus is portrayed in Edward Rutherfurd's fictionalised history of the New Forest, called The Forest (novel) (2000). In Rutherfurd's version of events, the King's death takes place nowhere near the Rufus Stone, and Walter Tyrrell is framed for it by the powerful Clare family. Also, Purkiss is a clever story teller who manages (much later) to convince Charles II that one of his ancestors had been involved. Edward Rutherfurd is the author of a series of books chronicling the history of settlements through their development. ... For other uses, see New Forest (disambiguation). ...


Flambard's Confession (1984) by Marilyn Durham purports to tell the story of William Rufus' reign through the eyes of his right-hand man, Ranulf Flambard. Ranulf Flambard, or Squiffy (died September 5, 1128) was Bishop of Durham and an influential government minister of William Rufus. ...


William Rufus and his relationship with Tyrell is mentioned and the manner of his death is included in Lammas Night by Katherine Kurtz and Deborah Turner Harris. Lammas Night by Katherine Kurtz, Ballantine Books, 1983 Lammas Night is a fantasy novel by American-born author Katherine Kurtz, first published in paperback by Ballantine Books in 1983. ... Katherine (Irene) Kurtz (born 1944) is the author of numerous fantasy novels, especially the Deryni novels. ...


William Rufus is a character in Stephen R. Lawhead's King Raven Trilogy about Robin Hood. Stephen R. Lawhead (born July 2, 1950) is an American writer known for novels, both fantasy and science fiction and more recently his works of historical fiction. ... For other uses, see Robin Hood (disambiguation). ...


On television, William was portrayed by Peter Firth in the 1990 play Blood Royal: William the Conqueror. Peter Firth (born October 27, 1953 in Bradford, Yorkshire, England) is an Academy Award-nominated British actor, well known for a variety of starring roles in film and on television from the 1970s to the 2000s. ...


Ancestors

Richard the Good as part of the Six Dukes of Normandy statue in the town square of Falaise. ... Gunnora or Gunnor (c. ... Robert I, called The Magnificent (French, le Magnifique) for his love of finery, and also called The Devil was the son of Duke Richard II of Normandy and Judith, daughter of Conan I, Duke of Brittany. ... Conan I of Rennes (927 - June 27 992), was count of Rennes and duke of Brittany, from 990 to his death. ... William I of England (c. ... Fulbert of Falaise (fl. ... Herleva (c. ... Arnulf II of Flanders (960 or 961 – March 30, 988) was Count of Flanders from 965 until his death. ... Baldwin IV of Flanders (980 – May 30, 1036), known as the Bearded, was Count of Flanders from 988 until his death. ... Baldwin V of Flanders (died September 1, 1067) was Count of Flanders from 1036 until his death. ... Matilda of Flanders (c. ... Hugh Capet[1] (c. ... Robert II the Pious (French: Robert II le Pieux) (March 27, 972 – July 20, 1031) was King of France from 996 to 1031. ... Adele or Adelaide of Aquitaine (or Adelaide of Poitiers) (c. ... Adela Capet, Adèle of France or Adela of Flanders, known also as Adela the Holy or Adela of Messines; (born in 1009 or 1014 – died at Messines 8 January 1079) was the second daughter of Robert II (the Pious), and Constance of Arles. ... William I (c. ... Gisant of Constance of Arles Constance of Arles (also known as Constance of Provence) (986 - July 25, 1034) was the third wife and queen of King Robert II of France. ... Adelaide[1] (circa 947 – 1026),[2] called the White,[3] was the daughter of Fulk II of Anjou and Gerberga of Maine. ...

See also

Orderic Vitalis (1075 – c. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ... Eadmer, or Edmer (c. ...

References

  1. ^ William II
  2. ^ Barlow, F., William Rufus, Univ. of California Press, 1983, pp. 11-2, "there is little to suggest that William junior was generally and habitually called Rufus in his own lifetime or during the next reign."
  3. ^ See e.g. Garmonsway, G.N., The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Dent, Dutton, 1972 & 1975, p. 235: this is the manuscript 'E', 'Laud', or 'Peterborough' version of the Chronicle.
  4. ^ For more on this see e.g. William of Malmesbury, in e.g. A History of the Norman Kings (1066 - 1125), Llanerch, 1989, pp. 66-7; Barlow, F., William Rufus, Univ. of California Press, 1983; Mason, E., William II: Rufus, the Red King, Tempus 2005; and Montgomery Hyde, H., The Love That Dared not Speak its Name, Little, Brown, 1970, pp.33-35 and quotations from Orderic Vitalis, William of Malmesbury, and Serlo, Bishop of Bayeux and Abbot of Gloucester. Eadmer, who was familiar with the court, and displays a deep dislike of William II, nonetheless makes no specific comment regarding the king's sexuality: see Bosanquet, G. (tr.), Eadmer's History of Recent Events in England, Cresset, 1964, especially pp. ix-x, 49-50.
  5. ^ Cantor, N. F., The Civilization of the Middle Ages, Harper Collins, 1993, pp. 280–84.
  6. ^ For this see William of Malmesbury, in e.g. A History of the Norman Kings (1066 - 1125), Llanerch, 1989, p. 66, and ibid., n. 1. This passage is a good example of the chroniclers' special dislike of William II and his policies, and the appointment should be seen in light of the king's experience with Ranulf's predecessor, William of St. Carileph, for which see William of Malmesbury, ibid., pp. 60-2.
  7. ^ William of Malmesbury, in e.g. A History of the Norman Kings (1066 - 1125), Llanerch, 1989, pp. 43, 46.
  8. ^ Chibnall, M. (ed. & tr.), The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, Oxford Medieval Texts, 1968-1980, ii, pp. 356 ff. See also Barlow, F., William Rufus, Univ. of California Press, 1983, pp. 33-4. Barlow suggests that William and Henry probably urinated over Robert. In the context of the 11th century Norman court, it is tempting merely to observe that 'boys will be boys.'
  9. ^ William of Malmesbury, in e.g. A History Of The Norman Kings (1066 - 1125), Llanerch, 1989, p. 70.
  10. ^ Carpenter, pp. 125-26.
  11. ^ a b Carpenter, p. 129.
  12. ^ William of Malmesbury, in e.g. A History Of The Norman Kings (1066 - 1125), Llanerch, 1989, pp. 62-4.
  13. ^ See Barlow, F., William Rufus, Univ. of California Press, 1983, pp. 402-6.
  14. ^ Bosanquet, G. (tr.), Eadmer's History of Recent Events in England, Cresset, 1964, p. 53.
  15. ^ Carpenter, p. 132.
  16. ^ According to Eadmer, an unusually well placed witness, William II 'protested that Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury could not possibly keep at the same time both the allegiance which he owed to the King and obedience to the Apostolic See against the King's will': see Bosanquet, G. (tr.), Eadmer's History of Recent Events in England, Cresset, 1964, p. 54. Anselm found himself in similar conflict with William II's successor, Henry I of England, as also reported by Eadmer.
  17. ^ William of Malmesbury, in e.g. A History Of The Norman Kings (1066 - 1125), Llanerch, 1989, p. 60.
  18. ^ Bosanquet, G. (tr.), Eadmer's History of Recent Events in England, Cresset, 1964, p. 31, and William of Malmesbury, in e.g. A History Of The Norman Kings (1066 - 1125), Llanerch, 1989, pp. 63, 69. For an interesting discussion of such blasphemous oaths, see Barlow, F., William Rufus, Univ. of California Press, 1983, pp. 116-8. See also Holy Face of Lucca.
  19. ^ Carpenter, p. 131.
  20. ^ Chibnall, M. (ed. & tr.), The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis, Oxford Medieval Texts, 1968-1980, v, pp. 288-90.
  21. ^ William of Malmesbury, in e.g. A History Of The Norman Kings (1066 - 1125), Llanerch, 1989, pp. 72-3.
  22. ^ Suger, Vie de Louis VI le Gros, Waquet, H. (ed. & tr.), Belles Lettres, 1929 & 1964, p. 12.
  • Barlow, Frank, William Rufus, Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1983. ISBN 0-300-08291-6
  • Cantor, Norman F., The Civilization of the Middle Ages, Harper Collins, 1993. ISBN 0-06-092553-1
  • Carpenter, David, The Struggle for Mastery: Britain 1066-1284, Allen Lane, London, 2003.
  • Douglas, David C., William the Conqueror: the Norman impact upon England, Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1964. ISBN 0-520-00350-0
  • Warren Hollister, C., 'The Strange Death of William Rufus', Speculum, 48.4, 1973: pp. 637-653.
  • Mason, Emma, William II: Rufus, the Red King, Tempus, 2005.
  • Mason, Emma, 'William Rufus: myth and reality', Journal of Medieval History, 3.1, 1977: pp. 1-20.
  • Warren, W. L., 'The Death of William Rufus', History Today, 9, 1959.
  • William II of England at Genealogics
William II of England
Born: 1056 Died: 2 August 1100
Regnal titles
Preceded by
William I
King of England
10871100
Succeeded by
Henry I
English royalty
Unknown
William I of England
only clarified his succession
on his deathbed
Heir to the English Throne
as heir apparent
1087
Succeeded by
Robert II, Duke of Normandy
Family information
Robert II of Normandy
House of Norman
William I
King of England
William II of England
Herleva of Falaise
Baldwin V of Flanders
House of Flanders
Matilda of Flanders
Adela of France
House of Capet Major
Notes and references
1. Tompsett, Brian, Directory of Royal Genealogical Data (Hull, UK: University of Hull, 2005).
2. Ross, Kelley L., The Proceedings of the Friesian School (Los Angeles, US: Los Angeles Valley College, 2007).
The initial page of the Peterborough Chronicle. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ... Orderic Vitalis (1075 – c. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ... Eadmer, or Edmer (c. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ... Eadmer, or Edmer (c. ... For entities named after Saint Anselm, see Saint Anselms. ... Henry I (c. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ... Fresco of the Translation of the Volto Santo, San Frediano, Lucca The Holy Face of Lucca (Volto Santo di Lucca) is the venerated wooden corpus of a crucifix, located in the free-standing octagonal Carrara marble chapel (the tempietto or little temple), which was built by the famous Early Renaissance... William of Malmesbury (c. ... Speculum is a quarterly journal published by the Medieval Academy of America. ... The Journal of Medieval History is a major international academic journal devoted to all aspects of the history of Europe in the Middle Ages. ... Genealogics is a free genealogical, historical website run by Leo van de Pas [1] and Ian Fettes. ... Norman conquests in red. ... William I of England (c. ... For the various rulers of the kingdoms within England prior to its formal unification, during the Heptarchy, see Bretwalda. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... Henry I (c. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... William I of England (c. ... Category: ... Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... Robert II (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. ... Robert, called The Magnificent (French, le Magnifique) for his love of finery, and also called The Devil was the son of Duke Richard II of Normandy and Judith, daughter of Conan I, Duke of Brittany. ... Norman conquests in red. ... William I of England (c. ... Herleva (c. ... Baldwin V of Flanders (d. ... The counts of Flanders ruled over the county of Flanders from the 9th century. ... Matilda of Flanders (c. ... Adela Capet, Adèle of France or Adela of Flanders, known also as Adela the Holy or Adela of Messines; (born in 1009 or 1014 – died at Messines 8 January 1079) was the second daughter of Robert II (the Pious), and Constance of Arles. ... The House of Capet includes any of the direct descendants of Robert the Strong. ... For the various rulers of the kingdoms within England prior to its formal unification, during the Heptarchy, see Bretwalda. ... Bretwalda is an Anglo-Saxon term, the first record of which comes from the late ninth-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Northumberland. ... Ælle was king of the South Saxons from 477 to perhaps as late as 514, and was named Bretwalda by Bede, who adds that he was overlord of the English south of the Humber river. ... Ceawlin of Wessex (also spelled Ceaulin or Caelin) is recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as being king of the West Saxons, or Wessex from 560 to 591, and named by Bede in his Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum as the second king to hold imperium over other Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. ... Ethelbert (or Æthelbert, or Aethelberht) (means roughly Magnificent Noble) (c. ... Rædwald, son of Tytila, was King of the East Angles from c 600 AD until his death in c 624 AD. From c 616 he became the most powerful of the English rulers south of the River Humber, and by military action installed a Northumbrian ruler acquiescent to his... Saint Edwin (alternately Eadwine or Æduini) (c. ... Oswald (c. ... Oswiu (612–February 15, 670), also written as Oswio, Oswy, and Osuiu was an Anglo-Saxon Bretwalda. ... Wulfhere (d. ... For the later earl, see Earl Aethelred of Mercia. ... Ethelbald (or Æthelbald) (died 757) was the King of Mercia in England from 716 until his death. ... This article is about Offa of Mercia. ... Coenwulf (or Cenwulf) (died 821) was King of Mercia from 796 to 821. ... Egbert (also Ecgbehrt or Ecgbert, means roughly The shining edge of a blade) (c. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Image File history File links Wyvern. ... For the 10th century Bishop of Sherborne, see Alfred (bishop). ... Edward the Elder (Old English: Ä’adweard se Ieldra) (c. ... Ælfweard (died 2 August 924) was the second known son of Edward the Elder. ... Athelstan redirects here. ... Edmund I (or Eadmund, 921 – May 26, 946), called the Elder, the Deed-Doer, or the Just, was King of England from 939 until his death. ... “Eadred” redirects here. ... Edwy All-Fair or Eadwig (941? – October 1, 959) was the King of England from 955 until his death. ... King Edgar or Eadgar I ( 942 – July 8, 975) was the younger son of King Edmund I of England. ... Not to be confused with Edmund the Martyr. ... Ethelred II (c. ... Sweyn I Forkbeard (actually Svein Otto Haraldsson; in Danish, Svend Tveskæg, originally Svend Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg) (circa 960 - February 3, 1014). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Canute the Great, or Canute I, also known as Cnut in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den Store, Danish: Knud den Store) (died November 12, 1035) was a Viking king of England and Denmark, and Norway, and of... Harold I Harefoot (c. ... Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ... Harold Godwinson (Haraldur Guðinason), or Harold II (c. ... Edgar Ætheling[1], also known as Edgar the Outlaw, (c. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... William I of England (c. ... Henry I (c. ... Stephen (c. ... Empress Matilda (February 1102 – September 10, 1167; sometimes Maud or Maude), also called Matilda, Countess of Anjou or Matilda, Lady of the English, was the daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... Henry V of England (16 September 1387 – 31 August 1422) was one of the great English warrior kings of the Middle Ages. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... Edward V (4 November 1470 – 1483?) was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. ... This article is about King Richard III of England. ... The Tudor Rose: a combination of the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor, was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Edward Tudor redirects here. ... Lady Jane Grey, formally Jane of England (1537 — 12 February 1554), a grand-niece of Henry VIII of England, reigned as uncrowned Queen regnant of the Kingdom of England for nine days[1] in July 1553. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution. ... The English Interregnum was the period of parliamentary and military rule in the land occupied by modern-day England and Wales after the English Civil War. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scotland,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ... For an explanation of terms such as Great Britain, British, United Kingdom, England, Scotland and Wales, see British Isles (terminology). ... This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
William II of England - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2564 words)
William Rufus inherited the Anglo-Norman settlement whose details are reflected in Domesday Book (1086), a survey that could not have been undertaken anywhere in Europe at that time and a signal of the control of the monarchy; but he did not inherit William's charisma or political skills.
William was able to claim the revenues of the archbishopric of Canterbury as long as Anselm remained in exile, and Anselm remained in exile until the reign of William's successor, Henry I.
William's body was abandoned by the nobles at the place where he fell, because the law and order of the kingdom died with the king, and they had to flee to their English or Norman estates to secure their interests.
William II of England (305 words)
William II (called "Rufus") died August 2, 1100) was the third son of William I "the Conqueror" and was King of England from 1087 until 1100.
William's exact date of birth is unknown, but was some time between the years 1056 and 1060.
His father's favourite son, he succeeded to the throne of England on his father's death, but there was always hostility between him and his eldest brother, though they became reconciled after an attempted coup in 1091 by their youngest brother, Henry.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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