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Encyclopedia > William II, German Emperor
William II
German Emperor, King of Prussia
In this photo of William, his right hand is holding the withered one, concealing it.
Reign 15 June 18889 November 1918
Born 27 January 1859(1859-01-27)
Berlin, Prussia
Died 4 June 1941 (aged 82)
Doorn, Netherlands
Predecessor Frederick III
Successor Monarchy abolished
Friedrich Ebert (as Chancellor and de facto Head of State of the Weimar Republic)
Consort Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein
Issue Crown Prince William
Prince Eitel Friedrich
Prince Adalbert
Prince August Wilhelm
Prince Oskar
Prince Joachim
Princess Viktoria Luise
Royal House Hohenzollern
Royal anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial)
Father Frederick III, German Emperor
Mother Victoria, Princess Royal

William II (German: Wilhelm II) (born Prince Frederick William Victor Albert of Prussia; German: Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Preußen) (27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Kaiser is a German title meaning emperor, derived from the Roman title of Caesar, as is the Slavic title of Czar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Gatehouse of castle Doorn The former Kaiser lived here for more than twenty years. ... Frederick III (Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen) was German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling for 99 days until his death in 1888. ... This is not the Friedrich Ebert involved in the founding of the GDR, but rather his father. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Victor August Ernst (6 May 1882 – 20 July 1951) of the House of Hohenzollern was the last Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Prussia and the German Empire. ... Prince Eitel Friedrich (Wilhelm Eitel Friedrich Christian Karl) (July 7, 1883–December 8, 1942) was a son of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany by his first wife, Duchess Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein. ... Prince Adalbert (July 14, 1884–September 22, 1948) was a son of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany by his first wife, Augusta Viktoria, Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein. ... Prince Augustus Wilhelm (January 29, 1887–March 25, 1949), called Auwi, was the fourth son of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany by his first wife, Augusta Viktoria, Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein. ... Prince Oskar of Prussia (July 27, 1888–January 27, 1958) was the son of Kaiser Wilhelm II and Augusta Viktoria, Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein. ... Prince Joachim Franz Humbert of Prussia (17 December 1890-18 July 1920) was the youngest son of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, by his first wife, Augusta of Schleswig-Holstein-Augustenburg. ... Princess Viktoria Luise (13 September 1892–11 December 1980), Duchess of Brunswick-Luneburg, was the seventh child and the only daughter of Emperor Wilhelm II and Empress Augusta Viktoria. ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... Heil dir im Siegerkranz (Hail to the Crown) was from 1871 to 1918 the national anthem of the German Empire. ... Frederick III (Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen) was German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling for 99 days until his death in 1888. ... Victoria of the United Kingdom (born Victoria Adelaide Mary Louise) 21 November 1840 – 5 August 1901) was the eldest child and daughter of Queen Victoria and her consort Albert. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Kaiser is a German title meaning emperor, derived from the Roman title of Caesar, as is the Slavic title of Czar. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

Contents

Family background

William II was born in Berlin to Prince Frederick William of Prussia and his wife, Victoria, Princess of Prussia (born Princess Royal of the United Kingdom), thus making him a grandson of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. He was Queen Victoria's first grandchild. As the son of the Crown Prince of Prussia, William was (from 1861) the second in the line of succession to Prussia, and also, after 1871, to the German Empire, which according to the constitution of the German Empire was ruled by the Prussian King. As with most Victorian era royalty, he was related to many of Europe's royal families. This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Frederick III (Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen) was German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling for 99 days until his death in 1888. ... Princess Victoria Adelaide Mary Louise (21 November 1840 – 5 August 1901) was the eldest daughter of Queen Victoria and her consort Albert. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... Succession is the act or process of pooing or of following in order or sequence. ... The Constitution of the German Empire was the basic law of the German Empire of 1871-1919. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...

William with his father in 1862
William with his father in 1862

Traumatic breech birth left him with a withered left arm due to Erb's Palsy, which he tried with some success to conceal. In many photos he carries a pair of white gloves in his left hand to make the arm seem longer, or has his crippled arm on the hilt of a sword or clutching a cane to give the effect of the limb being posed at a dignified angle. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 446 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (569 × 764 pixel, file size: 125 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 446 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (569 × 764 pixel, file size: 125 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Breech, by W.Smellie, 1792 A breech birth (also known as breech presentation) refers to the position of the baby in the uterus such that it will be delivered buttocks first as opposed to the normal head first position. ... Erbs Palsy, also known as Brachial Plexus Paralysis, is a condition which mainly due to birth trauma can affect 1 or all of the 5 primary nerves that supply the movement and feeling to an arm. ...


Early years

His mother insisted on calling her sons by their Anglicised names—thus "Wilhelm" was known as "William", and her second son "Heinrich" was called "Henry". The future emperor harboured mixed feelings for Britain and the British throughout his life, many of which may be traced to this early stage of his development.[citation needed]


William was educated at Kassel at the Friedrichsgymnasium and the University of Bonn. William was possessed of a quick intelligence, but unfortunately this was often overshadowed by a cantankerous temper. William also took a certain interest in the science and technology of the age, but though he liked to pose, in conversation, as a man of the world, he remained convinced that he belonged to a distinct order of mankind, designated for monarchy by the grace of God. William was accused of megalomania as early as 1892, by Portuguese man of letters Eça de Queiroz, then in 1894 by German pacifist Ludwig Quidde. This article is about the city of Kassel in Hessen, Germany. ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... The University of Bonn (German: Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn) is a public research university located in Bonn, Germany. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... The Divine Right of Kings is a European political and religious doctrine of political absolutism. ... This article is about the psychopathological condition. ... Eça de Queirós José Maria Eça de Queirós or Queiroz (pron. ... Ludwig Quidde Ludwig Quidde (March 23, 1858 – March 4, 1941) was a German pacifist who is mainly remembered today for his acerbic criticism of German Emperor Wilhelm II. Quiddes long career spanned four different eras of German history: that of Bismarck (up to 1890); the Hohenzollern Empire under Wilhelm...

German Empire
House of Hohenzollern
William I (1861–1888)
Children
   Frederick III
   Princess Louise
Frederick III (1888)
Children
   William II
   Princess Charlotte
   Prince Heinrich
   Prince Sigismund
   Princess Viktoria
   Prince Waldemar
   Princess Sophie
   Princess Margaret
Grandchildren
   Prince Waldemar
   Prince Sigismund
   Prince Heinrich
William II (1888–1918)
Children
   Crown Prince Wilhelm
   Prince Eitel Friedrich
   Prince Adalbert
   Prince August Wilhelm
   Prince Oskar
   Prince Joachim
   Princess Viktoria Luise
Grandchildren
   Princess Victoria Marina
   Prince Wilhelm Viktor
   Prince Alexander Ferdinand
   Prince Oskar
   Prince Burchard
   Prince Wilhelm Karl
   Princess Herzelaide
   Prince Karl Franz Joseph

As a scion of the royal house of Hohenzollern, William was also exposed from an early age to the military society of the Prussian aristocracy. This had a major impact on him and in maturity William was seldom to be seen out of uniform. The hyper-masculine military culture of Prussia in this period did much to frame William's political ideals as well as his personal relationships. The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... Frederick III (Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen) was German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling for 99 days until his death in 1888. ... Princess Louise of Prussia (December 3, 1838–April 23, 1923) was the second child and only daughter of Wilhelm I of Germany and Augusta of Saxe-Weimar. ... Frederick III (Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen) was German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling for 99 days until his death in 1888. ... Victoria Elizabeth Augusta Charlotte, Duchess of Saxe-Meiningen (24 July 1860-1 October 1919) was the second child born to Crown Prince Friedrich of Prussia and Princess Victoria. ... Heinrich, Prince of Prussia (1726-1802) Heinrich, Prince of Prussia (1862-1929) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other nobles of the same name, please see Sigismund. ... Her Royal Highness Princess Viktoria of Prussia was the daughter of Frederick III of Germany (1831-1888) and his wife, the former Princess Victoria, Princess Royal (1840-1901) daughter of Queen Victoria. ... Prince Waldemar of Prussia (Joachim Friedrich Ernst Waldemar) (February 10, 1868–March 27, 1879) was the sixth child of Crown Prince Friedrich III (later Emperor Friedrich III), and Victoria, Princess Royal of Great Britain, a daughter of the British Queen Victoria. ... |- | |} Princess Sophie of Prussia (Sophie Dorothea Ulrike Alice; June 14, 1870 – January 13, 1932), was a Queen consort of Greece She was born in Potsdam, Prussia, in 1870 to then Crown Prince Frederick of Prussia and Victoria, Princess Royal of the United Kingdom, herself the eldest daughter of Queen Victoria... Princess Margarete Beatrice Feodora of Prussia (April 22, 1872 - January 22, 1954) was the daughter of the future Frederick III, German Emperor (1831-1888) and his wife, Princess Victoria of the United Kingdom (1840-1901), daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. ... Prince Waldemar of Prussia (Waldemar Wilhelm Ludwig Friedrich Viktor Heinrich) (20 March 1889 at Kiel-2 May 1945 at Tutzing, Bavaria) was the eldest son of Prince Heinrich of Prussia and his wife, Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine. ... Prince Sigismund of Prussia (Wilhelm Viktor Karl August Heinrich Sigismund) (27 November 1896 at Kiel-14 November 1978 at Puntarenas, Costa Rica), was the second son of Prince Heinrich of Prussia and his wife, Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine. ... Crown Prince Wilhelm of Germany and Prussia (6 May 1882 - 20 July 1916), Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor August Ernst Kronprinz von Preussen, was born 6 May 1882 at Marmorpalais, Potsdam, Germany. ... Prince Eitel Friedrich (Wilhelm Eitel Friedrich Christian Karl) (July 7, 1883–December 8, 1942) was a son of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany by his first wife, Duchess Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein. ... Prince Adalbert (July 14, 1884–September 22, 1948) was a son of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany by his first wife, Augusta Viktoria, Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein. ... Prince Augustus Wilhelm (January 29, 1887–March 25, 1949), called Auwi, was the fourth son of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany by his first wife, Augusta Viktoria, Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein. ... Prince Oskar of Prussia (July 27, 1888–January 27, 1958) was the son of Kaiser Wilhelm II and Augusta Viktoria, Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein. ... Prince Joachim Franz Humbert of Prussia (17 December 1890-18 July 1920) was the youngest son of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, by his first wife, Augusta of Schleswig-Holstein-Augustenburg. ... Princess Viktoria Luise (13 September 1892–11 December 1980), Duchess of Brunswick-Luneburg, was the seventh child and the only daughter of Emperor Wilhelm II and Empress Augusta Viktoria. ... This article is on the car division of Toyota. ...


William's relationship with the male members of his family was as interesting as that with his mother. Crown Prince Frederick was viewed by his son with a deeply-felt love and respect. His father's status as a hero of the wars of unification was largely responsible for the young William's attitude, as in the circumstances in which he was raised; close emotional contact between father and son was not encouraged. Later, as he came into contact with the Crown Prince's political opponents, William came to adopt more ambivalent feelings toward his father, given the perceived influence of William's mother over a figure who should have been possessed of masculine independence and strength. William also idolised his grandfather, William I, and he was instrumental in later attempts to foster a cult of the first German Emperor as "William the Great". William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ...


In many ways, William was a victim of his inheritance and of Otto von Bismarck's machinations. Both sides of his family had suffered from mental illness, and this may explain his emotional instability. The Emperor's parents, Frederick and Victoria, were great admirers of the Prince Consort of the United Kingdom, their father-in-law and father, respectively. They planned to rule as consorts, like Albert and Queen Victoria, and they planned to reform the fatal flaws in the executive branch that Bismarck had created for himself. The office of Chancellor responsible to the Emperor would be replaced with a British-style cabinet, with ministers responsible to the Reichstag. Government policy would be based on the consensus of the cabinet. Bismarck redirects here. ... Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Charles Augustus Emanuel, later HRH The Prince Consort; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ...


When William was a teenager, Bismarck separated him from his parents and placed him under his tutelage. Bismarck planned to use William as a weapon against his parents in order to retain his own power. Bismarck drilled William on his perogatives and taught him to be insubordinate to his parents. Consequently, William developed a dysfunctional relationship with his father and especially with his English mother. As it turned out, Bismarck would become the first victim of his own creation.


Next to the throne

The German Emperor William I died in Berlin on March 9, 1888, and Prince William's father was proclaimed Emperor as Frederick III. He was already suffering from an incurable throat cancer and spent all 99 days of his reign fighting the disease before dying. On 15 June of that same year, his 29-year-old son succeeded him as German Emperor and King of Prussia. William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Frederick III (Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen) was German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling for 99 days until his death in 1888. ... Esophageal cancer is malignancy of the esophagus. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although in his youth he had been a great admirer of Otto von Bismarck, William's characteristic impatience soon brought him into conflict with the "Iron Chancellor", the dominant figure in the foundation of his empire. The new Emperor opposed Bismarck's careful foreign policy, preferring vigorous and rapid expansion to protect Germany's "place in the sun." Furthermore, the young Emperor had come to the throne with the determination that he was going to rule as well as reign, unlike his grandfather, who had largely been content to leave day-to-day administration to Bismarck. Bismarck redirects here. ...


Early conflicts between William II and his chancellor soon poisoned the relationship between the two men. Bismarck believed that William was a lightweight who could be dominated, and he showed scant respect for William's policies in the late 1880s. The final split between monarch and statesman occurred soon after an attempt by Bismarck to implement a far-reaching anti-Socialist law in early 1890.


Break with Bismarck

It was during this time that Bismarck, after gaining a favorable absolute majority toward his policies in the Reichstag, decided to make the anti-Socialist laws permanent. His Kartell majority of the amalgamated Conservative Party and the National Liberal Party was favorable to make the laws permanent with one exception: the police power to expel Socialist agitators from their homes, a power used excessively at times against political opponents. Hence, the Kartell split on this issue, with the National Liberal Party unwilling to make the expulsion clause of the law permanent. The Conservatives supported only the entirety of the bill and threatened to and eventually vetoed the entire bill in session because Bismarck wouldn't give his assent to a modified bill. As the debate continued, William became increasingly interested in social problems, especially the treatment of mine workers who went on strike in 1889, and keeping with his active policy in government, routinely interrupted Bismarck in Council to make clear his social policy. Bismarck sharply disagreed with William's policy and worked to circumvent it. Even though William supported the altered anti-socialist bill, Bismarck pushed for his support to veto the bill in its entirety, but when Bismarck's arguments couldn't convince William, he became excited and agitated until uncharacteristically blurting out his motive to see the bill fail: to have the Socialists agitate until a violent clash occurred that could be used as a pretext to crush them. William replied that he wasn't willing to open his reign with a bloody campaign against his subjects. The next day, after realizing his blunder, Bismarck attempted to reach a compromise with William by agreeing to his social policy towards industrial workers, and even suggested a European council to discuss working conditions, presided over by the German Emperor. Image File history File links 1890_Bismarcks_Ruecktritt. ... Image File history File links 1890_Bismarcks_Ruecktritt. ... Dropping the Pilot is a political cartoon by Sir John Tenniel, first published in the British magazine Punch, March 1890. ...

William II, German Emperor
William II, German Emperor

Despite this, a turn of events eventually led to his distance from William. Bismarck, feeling pressured and unappreciated by the Emperor and undermined by ambitious advisors, refused to sign a proclamation regarding the protection of workers along with William, as was required by the German Constitution, to protest William's ever-increasing interference with Bismarck's previously unquestioned authority. Bismarck also worked behind the scenes to break the Continental labor council William held so dear. The final break came as Bismarck searched for a new parliamentary majority, with his Kartell voted from power due to the anti-Socialist bill fiasco. The remaining powers in the Reichstag were the Catholic Centre Party and the Conservative Party. Bismarck wished to form a new bloc with the Centre Party, and invited Ludwig Windthorst, the party's parliamentary leader, to discuss an alliance. This would be Bismarck's last political maneuver. William was furious to hear about Windthorst's visit. In a parliamentary state, the head of government depends on the confidence of the parliamentary majority, and certainly has the right to form coalitions to ensure his policies a majority, but in Germany, the Chancellor depended on the confidence of the Emperor alone, and William believed that the Emperor had the right to be informed before his minister's meeting. After a heated argument in Bismarck's estate over Imperial authority, William stormed out, both parting ways permanently. Bismarck, forced for the first time into a situation he could not use to his advantage, wrote a blistering letter of resignation, decrying William's interference in foreign and domestic policy, which was only published after Bismarck's death. When Bismarck realized that his dismissal was imminent: The factual accuracy of this article is Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... Ludwig Windthorst (1812-1891), German politician, was born on the 17th of January 1812 at Kaldenhof, a country house near Osnabrück. ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ...

All Bismarck’s resources were deployed; he even asked Empress Frederick to use her influence with her son on his behalf. But the wizard had lost his magic; his spells were powerless because they were exerted on people who did not respect them, and he who had so signally disregarded Kant’s command to use people as ends in themselves had too small a stock of loyalty to draw on. As Lord Salisbury told Queen Victoria: 'The very qualities which Bismarck fostered in the Emperor in order to strengthen himself when the Emperor Frederick should come to the throne have been the qualities by which he has been overthrown.' The Empress, with what must have been a mixture of pity and triumph, told him that her influence with her son could not save him for he himself had destroyed it.[1]

Bismarck resigned at William II's insistence in 1890, at age 75, to be succeeded as Chancellor of Germany and Minister-President of Prussia by Leo von Caprivi, who in turn was replaced by Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst in 1894. Georg Leo Graf von Caprivi de Caprara de Montecuccoli (English: Count George Leo of Caprivi, Caprara, and Montecuccoli, born Georg Leo von Caprivi; February 24, 1831 – February 6, 1899) was a German major general and statesman, who succeeded Otto von Bismarck as Chancellor of Germany. ... Chlodwig Karl Victor, Prince of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst (31 March 1819 – 6 July 1901) was a German statesman and Chancellor of Germany. ...


The New Course

Imperial and Royal Styles of
German Emperor William II, King of Prussia
Reference style His Imperial and Royal Majesty
Spoken style Your Imperial and Royal Majesty
Alternative style Sire

In appointing Caprivi and then Hohenlohe, William was embarking upon what is known to history as "the New Course", in which he hoped to exert decisive influence in the government of the empire. There is debate amongst historians as to the precise degree to which William succeeded in implementing "personal rule" in this era, but what is clear is the very different dynamic which existed between the Crown and its chief political servant (the chancellor) in the "Wilhelmine era". These chancellors were senior civil servants and not seasoned politician-statesmen like Bismarck. William wanted to preclude the emergence of another Iron Chancellor, whom he ultimately detested as being "a boorish old killjoy" who had not permitted any minister to see the Emperor except in his presence, keeping a stranglehold on effective political power. Upon his enforced retirement and until his dying day, Bismarck was to become a bitter critic of William's policies, but without the support of the supreme arbiter of all political appointments (the Emperor) there was little chance of Bismarck exerting a decisive influence on policy. A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... His/Her Imperial and Royal Majesty was the style used by King-Emperors and their consorts who reigned simultaneously as King of Hungary, King of Bohemia and Emperor of Austria and also by the Shah of Iran or Persia. ...

Silver 5 mark coin of William II
Silver 5 mark coin of William II

Something which Bismarck was able to effect was the creation of the "Bismarck myth". This was a view—which some would argue was confirmed by subsequent events—that, with the dismissal of the Iron Chancellor, William II effectively destroyed any chance Germany had of stable and effective government. In this view, William's "New Course" was characterised far more as the German ship of state going out of control, eventually leading through a series of crises to the carnage of the First and Second World Wars. Image File history File links WilhelmIISilverCoin. ... Image File history File links WilhelmIISilverCoin. ...


The strong chancellors

Following the dismissal of Hohenlohe in 1900, William appointed the man whom he regarded as "his own Bismarck", Bernhard von Bülow. William hoped that in Bülow, he had found a man who would combine the ability of the Iron Chancellor with the respect for William's wishes which would allow the empire to be governed as he saw fit. Bülow had already been identified by William as possessing this potential, and many historians regard his appointment as chancellor as being merely the conclusion of a long "grooming" process. Over the succeeding decade however, William became disillusioned with his choice, and following Bülow's opposition to the Emperor over the "Daily Telegraph Affair" of 1908 (see below) and the collapse of the liberal-conservative coalition which had supported Bülow in the Reichstag, William dismissed him in favour of Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg in 1909. Prince  , born Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin von Bülow (May 3, 1849 – October 28, 1929) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1900 to 1909. ... Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg (November 29, 1856–January 1, 1921) was a German politician and statesman who served as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1909 to 1917. ...


Bethmann Hollweg was a career bureaucrat, at whose family home William had stayed as a youth. William especially came to show great respect for him, acknowledging his superior foresight in matters of internal governance, though he disagreed with certain of his policies, such as his attempts at the reform of the Prussian electoral laws. However, it was only reluctantly that the Emperor parted ways with Bethmann Hollweg in 1917, after three years of World War I. A voting system is a means of choosing between a number of options, based on the input of a number of voters. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


William's involvement in the domestic sphere was more limited in the early twentieth century than it had been in the first years of his reign. In part, this was due to the appointment of Bülow and Bethmann—arguably both men of greater force of character than William's earlier chancellors—but also because of his increasing interest in foreign affairs.


Foreign affairs

German foreign affairs policy under William II was faced with a number of significant problems. Perhaps the most apparent was that William was an impatient man, subjective in his reactions and affected strongly by sentiment and impulse. He was personally ill-equipped to steer German foreign policy along a rational course. It is now widely recognized that the various spectacular acts which William undertook in the international sphere were often partially encouraged by the German foreign policy elite.[citation needed] There were a number of key exceptions, such as the famous Kruger telegram of 1896 in which William congratulated President Kruger of the Transvaal on the suppression of the Jameson Raid, thus aggravating British public opinion. After the murder of the German ambassador during the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, a regiment of German troops was sent to China. In a speech of 27 July 1900, the Emperor exhorted these troops: The Kruger telegram was a message sent by Germanys Kaiser Wilhelm II to Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger, president of the Transvaal on 3 January 1896. ... Paul Kruger Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger (10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904), better known as Paul Kruger and fondly known as Oom Paul (Afrikaans for Uncle Paul) was a prominent Boer resistance leader against British rule and president of the Transvaal Republic in South Africa. ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... The Jameson Raid (December 29, 1895 - January 2, 1896) was a raid on Paul Krugers Transvaal Republic carried out by Sir Leander Starr Jameson and his Rhodesian and Bechuanaland policemen over the New Year weekend of 1895-96. ... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire French Third Republic United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ...

"Just as the Huns under their king Etzel created for themselves a thousand years ago a name which men still respect, you should give the name of German such cause to be remembered in China for a thousand years ..." [2]

Though its full impact was not felt until many years later, when Entente and American propagandists shamelessly lifted the term Huns out of context, this is another example of his unfortunate propensity for impolitic public utterances. This weakness made him vulnerable to manipulation by interests within the German foreign policy elite, as subsequent events were to prove. William had much disdain for his uncle, King Edward VII of the United Kingdom, who was much more popular as a sovereign in Europe. Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death on 6 May 1910. ...


One of the few times William succeeded in personal "diplomacy" was when with he supported Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria to marry Sophie Chotek in 1900 against the wishes of Emperor Franz Joseph. Deeply in love, Franz Ferdinand refused to consider marrying anyone else. Pope Leo XIII, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, and William all made representations on Franz Ferdinand's behalf to the Emperor Franz Joseph, arguing that the disagreement between Franz Joseph and Franz Ferdinand was undermining the stability of the monarchy.
One "domestic" triumph for William was when his daughter Victoria Louise married the Duke of Brunswick in 1913; this helped heal the rift between the House of Hanover and the House of Hohenzollern after the 1866 annexation of Hanover by Prussia. In 1914 Wilhelm's son Prince Adalbert of Prussia married a daughter of a Prince of the Ducal house of Saxe-Meiningen. However the rifts between the House of Hohenzollern and the two leading Royal dynasties of Europe — the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and House of Romanov — would only get worse. For the Scottish rock band, see Franz Ferdinand (band). ... Sophie, the Duchess of Hohenberg Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, born Sophie Maria Josephine Albina Chotek, Countess of Chotkova and Wognin (March 1, 1868 - June 28, 1914) was the morganatic wife of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. ... Pope Leo XIII Supreme Pontiff (1878-1903) Leo XIII, né Gioacchino Pecci (March 2, 1810 - July 20, 1903) was Pope from 1878 to 1903. ... Nicholas II redirects here. ... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... Prince Adalbert (July 14, 1884–September 22, 1948) was a son of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany by his first wife, Augusta Viktoria, Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The House of Romanov or Romanese (Рома́нов, pronounced ) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. ...


Inconsistency

Following his dismissal of Bismarck, William and his new chancellor Caprivi became aware of the existence of the secret Reinsurance Treaty with the Russian empire, which Bismarck had concluded in 1887. William's refusal to renew this agreement which guaranteed Russian neutrality in the event of an attack by France was seen by many historians as the worst offense committed by William in terms of foreign policy.[citation needed] In reality, the decision to allow the lapse of the treaty was largely the responsibility of Caprivi, though William supported his chancellor's actions. It is important not to overestimate the influence of the Emperor in matters of foreign policy after the dismissal of Bismarck, but it is certain that his erratic meddling contributed to the general lack of coherence and consistency in the policy of the German Empire toward other powers. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Reinsurance Treaty The Reinsurance Treaty (June 18, 1887) was an attempt by Bismarck to continue to ally with Russia after the League of the Three Emperors broke down. ... A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by either of them. ...


In December 1897, William visited Bismarck for the last time. On many occasions, Bismarck had expressed grave concerns about the dangers of improvising government policy based on the intrigues of courtiers and militarists. Bismarck’s last warning to William was:

"Your Majesty, so long as you have this present officer corps, you can do as you please. But when this is no longer the case, it will be very different for you."

Alan Palmer, Bismarck, Charles Scribner’s Sons (1976) p. 267]

Subsequently, just before he died, Bismarck made these dire and accurate predictions:

"Jena came twenty years after the death of Frederick the Great; the crash will come twenty years after my departure if things go on like this" ― a prophecy fulfilled almost to the month. Combatants First French Empire Prussia Commanders Napoleon I Louis Nicolas Davout Duke of Brunswick Prince Hohenlohe Strength 90,000 (Jena); 27,000 (Auerstedt) 38,000 (Jena); 63,000 (Auerstedt) Casualties 5,000 dead and wounded (Jena); 7,000 killed, wounded, or missing (Auerstedt) 25,000 dead, wounded, or captured (Jena... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ...

A.J.P. Taylor, Bismarck, Alfred A Knopf, New York (1969) p. 264] For others named John Taylor, see John Taylor. ...

"One day the great European War will come out of some damned foolish thing in the Balkans." A new plaque commemorating the exact location of the Sarajevo Assassination On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot to death in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip, one of a...

Winston Churchill, The World Crisis, C. Scribner's Sons (1923) p. 195, attributed to Albert Ballin Churchill redirects here. ... Albert Ballin ca. ...

Ironicaly Bismarck had warned in February 1888 of a Balkan Crises turning into a World War-although when the war came about-the Balkan country was Serbia-not Bulgaria and that it was only after World War I that war would turn into the global World War II from Moscow to the Pyrenees: Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

He warned of the imminent possibility that Germany will have to fight on two fronts; he spoke of the desire for peace; then he set forth the Balkan case for war and demonstrates its futility: Bulgaria, that little country between the Danube and the Balkans, is far from being an object of adequate importance… for which to plunge Europe from Moscow to the Pyrenees, and from the North Sea to Palermo, into a war whose issue no man can foresee. At the end of the conflict we should scarcely know why we had fought.

[3]

A cartoon on the Entente cordiale from the German perspective, with John Bull stalking off with the harlot Marianne (in what is supposed to be a Tricolour dress; see tincture), turning his back on Germany. The tip of the scabbard of a cavalry sabre protrudes from beneath Germany's army overcoat, implying a potential resort to force.

A typical example of this was his "love-hate" relationship with the United Kingdom and in particular with his British cousins. He returned to England in January 1901 to be at the bedside of his grandmother, Queen Victoria, and was holding her in his arms at the moment of her death.[4] Open armed conflict with Britain was never what William had in mind—"a most unimaginable thing", as he once quipped—yet he often gave in to the generally anti-British sentiments within the upper echelons of the German government, conforming as they did to his own prejudices toward Britain which arose from his youth. When war came about in 1914 William sincerely believed that he was the victim of a diplomatic conspiracy set up by his late uncle, Edward VII, in which Britain had actively sought to "encircle" Germany through the conclusion of the Entente Cordiale with France in 1904 and a similar arrangement with Russia in 1907. This is indicative of the fact that William had a highly unrealistic belief in the importance of "personal diplomacy" between European monarchs, and could not comprehend that the very different constitutional position of his British cousins made this largely irrelevant. A reading of the Entente Cordiale shows that it was actually a attempt to put aside the ancient rivalries between France and Great Britain rather than an "encirclement" of Germany. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 459 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1088 × 1421 pixel, file size: 477 KB, MIME type: image/gif) A cartoon apparently expressing a rather sour German point of view on the British-French Entente Cordiale of 1904 -- John Bull walks off with the trollop... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 459 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1088 × 1421 pixel, file size: 477 KB, MIME type: image/gif) A cartoon apparently expressing a rather sour German point of view on the British-French Entente Cordiale of 1904 -- John Bull walks off with the trollop... World War I recruiting poster An earlier John Bull in which he is depicted as an actual bull. ... Marianne busts with features of Brigitte Bardot - Catherine Deneuve - Mireille Mathieu Marianne, a national emblem of France, is a personification of Liberty and Reason. ... The national flag of France (known in French as drapeau tricolore, drapeau bleu-blanc-rouge, drapeau français, rarely, le tricolore and, in military parlance, les couleurs) is a tricolour featuring three vertical bands coloured blue (hoist side), white, and red. ... For a list of words relating to with definitions, see the Heraldic tincture category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In heraldry, tinctures are the colours used to blazon a coat of arms. ... French naval officers sabre of the 19th Century From left to right: two bayonets, a short curved infantry or artillery briquet, a straight infantry officers sabre, and a carbine. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death on 6 May 1910. ... The Entente Cordiale (cordial understanding) is a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and France. ... The Entente Cordiale (cordial understanding) is a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and France. ...


Similarly, he believed that his personal relationship with his cousin-in-law Nicholas II of Russia (see The Willy-Nicky Correspondence) was sufficient to prevent war between the two powers. At a private meeting at Björkö in 1905, William concluded an agreement with his cousin which amounted to a treaty of alliance, without first consulting with Bülow. A similar situation confronted Czar Nicholas on his return to St. Petersburg, and the treaty was, as a result, a dead letter. But William believed that Bülow had betrayed him, and this contributed to the growing sense of dissatisfaction he felt towards the man he hoped would be his foremost servant. In broadly similar terms to the "personal diplomacy" at Björkö, his attempts to avoid war with Russia by an exchange of telegrams with Nicholas II in the last days before the outbreak of the First World War came unstuck due to the reality of European power politics. His attempts to woo Russia were also seriously out of step with existing German commitments to Austria-Hungary. In a chivalrous fidelity to the Austro-Hungarian/German alliance, William informed the Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria in 1889 that "the day of Austro-Hungarian mobilisation, for whatever cause, will be the day of German mobilisation too". Given that Austrian mobilisation for war would most likely be against Russia, a policy of alliance with both powers was obviously impossible. Nicholas II redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Townsite of Birka Archaeological excavation at Birka Birka  listen? , also Birca and Bierkø (today named Björkö, literally Birch Island), was an important trading center in the Baltic Sea region from the 8th century, which handled goods from Eastern Europe and the Orient, possibly as far as China, thus covering... Townsite of Birka Archaeological excavation at Birka Birka  listen? , also Birca and Bierkø (today named Björkö, literally Birch Island), was an important trading center in the Baltic Sea region from the 8th century, which handled goods from Eastern Europe and the Orient, possibly as far as China, thus covering... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Franz Joseph I (in Hungarian I. Ferenc József, in English Francis Joseph I) (August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and a German prince (Deutscher Fürst). ...


The Moroccan Crisis

In some cases, William II's diplomatic "blunders" were often part of a wider reaching policy emanating from the German governing élite. One such action sparked the Moroccan Crisis of 1905, when William was persuaded (largely against his wishes) to make a spectacular visit to Tangier, in Morocco. William's presence was seen as an assertion of German interests in Morocco and in a speech he even made certain remarks in favour of Moroccan independence. This led to friction with France, which had expanding colonial interests in Morocco, and led to the Algeciras Conference, which served largely to further isolate Germany in Europe. The First Moroccan Crisis (also known as the Tangier Crisis) refers to the international crisis over the colonial status of Morocco between March 1905 and May 1906. ... For other uses, see Tangier (disambiguation). ... The Algeciras Conference of 1906 took place in Algeciras, Spain, and lasted from January 16 to April 7. ...


Britain and France's alliance fortified as a corollary, namely due to the fact that Britain advocated France's endeavors to colonise Morocco, whereas Emperor William supported Moroccan self-determination: and so, the German Emperor became even more resentful.


Daily Telegraph affair

Perhaps William's most damaging personal blunder in the arena of foreign policy had a far greater impact in Germany than internationally. The Daily Telegraph Affair of 1908 stemmed from the publication of some of William's opinions in edited form in the British daily newspaper of that name. William saw it as an opportunity to promote his views and ideas on Anglo-German friendship, but instead, due to his emotional outbursts during the course of the interview, William ended up further alienating not only the British people, but also the French, Russians, and Japanese all in one fell swoop by implying, inter alia, that the Germans cared nothing for the British; that the French and Russians had attempted to incite Germany to intervene in the Second Boer War; and that the German naval buildup was targeted against the Japanese, not Britain. (One memorable quote from the interview is "You English are mad, mad, mad as March hares."[5]) The effect in Germany was quite significant, with serious calls for his abdication being mentioned in the press. Quite understandably, William kept a very low profile for many months after the Daily Telegraph fiasco, and later exacted his revenge by enforcing the resignation of Prince Bülow, who had abandoned the Emperor to public criticism by publicly accepting some responsibility for not having edited the transcript of the interview before its publication. This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians...


The Daily Telegraph crisis had deeply wounded William's previously unimpaired self-confidence, so much so that he soon suffered a severe bout of depression from which he never really recovered (photographs of William in the post-1908 period show a man with far more haggard features and greying hair), and he in fact lost much of the influence he had previously exercised in terms of both domestic and foreign policy. On the Threshold of Eternity. ...


Naval expansion

Nothing William II did in the international arena was of more influence than his decision to pursue a policy of massive naval construction. In 1895 he opened the Kiel Canal, an event that was captured by British director Birt Acres in his film The Opening of the Kiel Canal. [6] Download high resolution version (812x443, 42 KB)Starboard quarter view of Imperial German Navy battleship SMS Kaiser, from US National Archives. ... Download high resolution version (812x443, 42 KB)Starboard quarter view of Imperial German Navy battleship SMS Kaiser, from US National Archives. ... SMS Kaiser was the name ship of the Kaiser class of battleships of the German Kaiserliche Marine in World War I. She was built at Kiel and was launched on 22 March 1911 and commissioned on 1 August 1912. ... North Sea locks on the Elbe River at Brunsbüttel The Kiel Canal (German: ), until 1948 known as the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Kanal, is a 98 kilometre (61 mile) long canal in the German Bundesland Schleswig-Holstein that links the North Sea at Brunsbüttel to the Baltic Sea at Kiel... Birt Acres (July 23, 1854–1918), born in Richmond, Virginia, USA of English parents was a photographer and film pioneer. ... Opening of the Kiel Canal (also known as Inauguration of the Kiel Canal by Kaiser Wilhelm II) is an 1895 British short black-and-white silent documentary news film directed and produced by Birt Acres. ...


A powerful navy was William's pet project. He had inherited, from his mother, a love of the British Royal Navy, which was at that time the world's largest. He once confided to his uncle, Edward VII, that his dream was to have a "fleet of my own some day". William's frustration over his fleet's poor showing at the Fleet Review at his grandmother Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee celebrations, combined with his inability to exert German influence in South Africa following the dispatch of the Kruger telegram, led to William taking definitive steps toward the construction of a fleet to rival that of his British cousins. William was fortunate to be able to call on the services of the dynamic naval officer Alfred von Tirpitz, whom he appointed to the head of the Reich Naval Office in 1897. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Edward VII King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VII (Albert Edward) (9 November 1841–6 May 1910) was the first British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... British tradition, where the monarch reviews the massed Royal Navy. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... A Diamond Jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 60th anniversary. ... Alfred von Tirpitz Alfred von Tirpitz (March 19, 1849 – March 6, 1930) was a German Admiral, Minister of State and Commander of the Kaiserliche Marine in World War I from 1914 until 1916. ...


The new admiral had conceived of what came to be known as the "Risk theory" or the Tirpitz Plan, by which Germany could force Britain to accede to German demands in the international arena through the threat posed by a powerful battlefleet concentrated in the North Sea. Tirpitz enjoyed William's full support in his advocacy of successive naval bills of 1897 and 1900, by which the German navy was built up to contend with that of the United Kingdom. Naval expansion under the Fleet Acts eventually led to severe financial strains in Germany by 1914, as by 1906 William had committed his navy to construction of the much larger, more expensive Dreadnought type of battleship. The Tirpitz Plan, formulated by Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, was Germanys strategic aim to build the second largest navy in the world after the United Kingdom, thereby advancing itself as a world power. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Alfred von Tirpitz Alfred von Tirpitz (March 19, 1849 – March 6, 1930) was a German Admiral, Minister of State and Commander of the Kaiserliche Marine in World War I from 1914 until 1916. ... The Fleet Acts were four separate laws passed by the German Empire, in 1898, 1900, 1908, and 1912. ... The sixth HMS Dreadnought of the Royal Navy was a revolutionary battleship which entered service in 1906. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ...


World War I

A composite image of William II with German generals. (Note the conflicting lighting of the men's faces, and the different directions of their gazes.)
A composite image of William II with German generals. (Note the conflicting lighting of the men's faces, and the different directions of their gazes.)

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 580 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 743 pixel, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Kaiser Wilhelm II and his generals Source: Library of US Congress File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 580 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 743 pixel, file size: 137 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Kaiser Wilhelm II and his generals Source: Library of US Congress File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev...

The Sarajevo crisis

William was a friend of Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Este, and he was deeply shocked by his assassination on 28 June 1914. William offered to support Austria-Hungary in crushing the Black Hand, the secret organization that had plotted the killing, and even sanctioned the use of force by Austria against the perceived source of the movement—Serbia (this is often called "the blank cheque"). He wanted to remain in Berlin until the crisis was resolved, but his courtiers persuaded him instead to go on his annual cruise of the North Sea on 6 July 1914. It was perhaps realised that William's presence would be more of a hindrance to those elements in the government who wished to use the crisis to increase German prestige, even at the risk of general war — something of which William, for all his bluster, was extremely apprehensive. For the Scottish rock band, see Franz Ferdinand (band). ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Black Hand (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


William made erratic attempts to stay on top of the crisis via telegram, and when the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum was delivered to Serbia, he hurried back to Berlin. He reached Berlin on 28 July, read a copy of the Serbian reply, and wrote on it: The Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum to Serbia or July Ultimatum was an ultimatum or final list of demands delivered to the government of Serbia on July 23, 1914, following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"A brilliant solution—and in barely 48 hours! This is more than could have been expected. A great moral victory for Vienna; but with it every pretext for war falls to the ground, and [the Ambassador] Giesl had better have stayed quietly at Belgrade. On this document, I should never have given orders for mobilisation."[7]

Unknown to the Emperor, Austro-Hungarian ministers and generals had already convinced the 84-year-old Francis Joseph I of Austria to sign a declaration of war against Serbia. Franz Joseph I (in Hungarian I. Ferenc József, in English Francis Joseph I) (August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and a German prince (Deutscher Fürst). ...


July 30–31, 1914

On the night of July 30–31, when handed a document stating that Russia would not cancel its mobilisation, William wrote a lengthy commentary containing the startling observations:

"For I no longer have any doubt that England, Russia and France have agreed among themselves--knowing that our treaty obligations compel us to support Austria--to use the Austro-Serb conflict as a pretext for waging a war of annihilation against us. ... Our dilemma over keeping faith with the old and honorable Emperor has been exploited to create a situation which gives England the excuse she has been seeking to annihilate us with a spurious appearance of justice on the pretext that she is helping France and maintaining the well-known Balance of Power in Europe, i.e. playing off all European States for her own benefit against us."[8]

When it had become clear that the United Kingdom would enter the war if Germany attacked France through Belgium, the panic-stricken William attempted to redirect the main attack against Russia. When Helmuth von Moltke (the younger) told him that this was impossible, William said: "Your uncle would have given me a different answer!!."[9] Helmuth von Moltke Chief of the General Staff Helmuth Johann Ludwig von Moltke (May 25, 1848–June 18, 1916), also known as Moltke the Younger, was a nephew of Field Marshal Count Moltke and served as the Chief of the German General Staff from 1906 to 1914. ... Generalfeldmarschall Helmuth, Graf von Moltke (known as Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke before 1870) (October 26, 1800 – April 24, 1891), was a German Field Marshal, thirty years chief of the staff of the Prussian army, widely regarded as one of the great strategists of the latter half of the 1800s...


William is a controversial issue in historical scholarship and this period of German history. Until the late 1950s he was seen as an important figure in German history during this period. For many years after that, the dominant view was that he had little or no influence on German policy. This has been challenged since the late 1970s, particularly by Professor John C. G. Röhl, who saw William II as the key figure in understanding the recklessness and subsequent downfall of Imperial Germany.[10] This article is about scholarship (noun) and scholarship as a form of financial aid. ... The history of Germany is, in places, extremely complicated and depends much on how one defines Germany. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (in German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is a federal representative democracy. ... John C. G. Röhl (born 1938) is a British historian. ... This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ...


The Great War

French Propaganda Postcard from the World War I era showing a caricature of William II biting into the world. The text reads "The glutton - too hard."
French Propaganda Postcard from the World War I era showing a caricature of William II biting into the world. The text reads "The glutton - too hard."

It is difficult to argue that William actively sought to unleash the First World War. Though he had ambitions for the German Empire to be a world power, it was never William's intention to conjure a large-scale conflict to achieve such ends. As soon as his better judgment dictated that a world war was imminent, he made strenuous efforts to preserve the peace—such as The Willy-Nicky Correspondence mentioned earlier, and his optimistic interpretation of the Austro-Hungarian ultimatum that Austro-Hungarian troops should go no further than Belgrade, thus limiting the conflict. But by then it was far too late, for the eager military officials of Germany and the German Foreign Office were successful in persuading him to sign the mobilisation order and initiate the Schlieffen Plan. The contemporary British reference to the First World War as "the Kaiser's War" in the same way that the Second was "Hitler's War" is not wholly accurate in its suggestion that William was deliberately responsible for unleashing the conflict. "He may not have been 'the father of war' but he was certainly its godfather' (A. Woodcock-Clarke). His own love of the culture and trappings of militarism and push to endorse the German military establishment and industry (most notably the Krupp corporation), which were the key support which enabled his dynasty to rule helped push his empire into an armaments race with competing European powers. Similarly, though on signing the mobilisation order, William is reported as having said "You will regret this, gentlemen", he had encouraged Austria to pursue a hard line with Serbia, was an enthusiastic supporter of the subsequent German actions during the war and revelled in the title of "Supreme War Lord". Image File history File links Download high resolution version (422x642, 38 KB) French Postcard - French Military Humour Propaganda : The Ingordo, too hard - unknown Year, approximately 1915 Carte postale de France - Propagande militaire française humoristique - Lingordo, trop dur - Année 1915 File links The following pages on the English... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (422x642, 38 KB) French Postcard - French Military Humour Propaganda : The Ingordo, too hard - unknown Year, approximately 1915 Carte postale de France - Propagande militaire française humoristique - Lingordo, trop dur - Année 1915 File links The following pages on the English... For the book of comics by Daniel Clowes, see Caricature (Daniel Clowes collection). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Image:AlfredGrafVonSchlieffen. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... The three rings were the symbol for Krupp, based on the radreifen - the seamless railway wheels patented by Alfred Krupp. ...


The Shadow-Kaiser

Hindenburg, William II, and Ludendorff in January 1917

The role of ultimate arbiter of wartime national affairs proved too heavy a burden for William to sustain. As the war progressed, his influence receded and inevitably his lack of ability in military matters led to an ever-increasing reliance upon his generals, so much that after 1916 the Empire had effectively become a military dictatorship under the control of Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff.[citation needed] Increasingly cut-off from reality and the political decision-making process, William vacillated between defeatism and dreams of victory, depending upon the fortunes of "his" armies. He remained a useful figurehead, and he toured the lines and munitions plants, awarded medals and gave encouraging speeches. Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865–December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, Generalquartiermeister during World War I, victor of Liege, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865–December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, Generalquartiermeister during World War I, victor of Liege, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. ...


Nevertheless, William still retained the ultimate authority in matters of political appointment, and it was only after his consent had been gained that major changes to the high command could be effected. William was in favour of the dismissal of Helmuth von Moltke the Younger in September 1914 and his replacement by Erich von Falkenhayn. Similarly, William was instrumental in the policy of inactivity adopted by the High Seas Fleet after the Battle of Jutland in 1916. Likewise, it was largely owing to his sense of grievance at having been pushed into the shadows that William attempted to take a leading role in the crisis of 1918. At least in the end he realised the necessity of capitulation and did not insist that the German nation should bleed to death for a dying cause. Upon hearing that his cousin George V had changed the name of the British royal house to Windsor, William remarked that he planned to see Shakespeare's play The Merry Wives of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Helmuth von Moltke Chief of the General Staff Helmuth Johann Ludwig von Moltke (May 25, 1848–June 18, 1916), also known as Moltke the Younger, was a nephew of Field Marshal Count Moltke and served as the Chief of the German General Staff from 1906 to 1914. ... Erich von Falkenhayn Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn (11 November 1861 - 8 April 1922) was a German soldier and Chief of the General Staff during World War I. Falkenhayn was a career soldier. ... German battlecruiser Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow. ... Combatants Grand Fleet of the Royal Navy High Seas Fleet of the Kaiserliche Marine Commanders Sir John Jellicoe Sir David Beatty Reinhard Scheer Franz von Hipper Strength 28 battleships 9 battlecruisers 8 heavy cruisers 26 light cruisers 78 destroyers 1 minelayer 1 seaplane carrier 16 battleships 5 battlecruisers 6 pre... Front page of the New York Times on Armistice Day, 11 November 1918 The armistice treaty between the Allies and Germany was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on November 11, 1918, and marked the end of the First World War on the Western Front. ... King George V or KGV may refer to: George V the Great of Georgia George V of the United Kingdom (reigned 1910–1936). ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Title page of the 1602 quarto The Merry Wives of Windsor is a comedy by William Shakespeare featuring the fat knight Sir John Falstaff and is Shakespeares only play to deal exclusively with contemporary English life. ...


Support for Lenin

Following the 1917 February Revolution in Russia which saw the overthrow of William's Great War adversary Emperor Nicholas II, William arranged for the exiled Russian Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin to return home from Switzerland via Germany, Sweden and Finland. William hoped that Lenin would create political unrest back in Russia, which would help to end the war on the Eastern front, allowing Germany to concentrate on defeating the Western allies. The Swiss communist Fritz Platten managed to negotiate with the German government for Lenin and his company to travel through Germany by rail, on the so-called "sealed train". Lenin arrived in Petrograd on 16 April 1917, and seized power seven months later in the October Revolution. William's strategy paid off when the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed on 3 March 1918, marking the end of hostilities with Russia. On Lenin's orders, Nicholas II, William's first cousin Empress Alexandra, their five children, and their few servants were executed by firing squad in Yekaterinburg on 17 July 1918. The February Revolution in 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Nicholas II redirects here. ... Lenin redirects here. ... Lenin and Fritz Platten in 1919. ... railroads redirects here. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna of Russia (Russian: ), born Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine (German: ) 6 June 1872 – 17 July 1918, was Empress consort of Nicholas II, the last Tsar of the Russian Empire. ... Yekaterinburg (Russian: , also romanized Ekaterinburg, formerly Sverdlovsk) is a major city in the central part of Russia, the administrative center of Sverdlovsk Oblast. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Abdication and flight

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

William was at the Imperial Army headquarters in Spa, Belgium, when the uprisings in Berlin and other centres took him by surprise in late 1918. Mutiny among the ranks of his beloved Kaiserliche Marine, the imperial navy, profoundly shocked him. After the outbreak of the German Revolution, William could not make up his mind whether or not to abdicate. Up to that point, he was confident that even if he were obliged to vacate the German throne, he would still retain the Prussian kingship. The unreality of this claim was revealed when, for the sake of preserving some form of government in the face of anarchy, William's abdication both as German Emperor and King of Prussia was abruptly announced by the Chancellor, Prince Max of Baden, on November 9, 1918. (Prince Max himself was forced to resign later the same day, when it became clear that only Friedrich Ebert, leader of the SPD could effectively exert control). William consented to the abdication only after Ludendorff's replacement, General Wilhelm Groener, had informed him that the officers and men of the army would march back in good order under Paul von Hindenburg's command, but would certainly not fight for William's throne on the home front. The monarchy's last and strongest support had been broken, and finally even Hindenburg, himself a lifelong royalist, was obliged, with some embarrassment, to advise the Emperor to give up the crown. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Spa is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The Wilhelmshaven mutiny broke out in the German High Seas Fleet on 29 October 1918. ... The Kaiserliche Marine or Imperial Navy was the German Navy created by the formation of the German Empire and existed between 1871 and 1919; it grew out of the Prussian Navy and the Norddeutsche Bundesmarine. ... “November Revolution” redirects here. ... Prince Maximilian of Baden (Max von Baden) (1 July 1867–6 November 1929) was the cousin and heir of Grand Duke Frederick II of Baden, and succeeded Frederick as head of the Grand Ducal House in 1928. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... This is not the Friedrich Ebert involved in the founding of the GDR, but rather his father. ... Social Democratic Party of Germany Spectral Power Density ... General Erich Ludendorff Erich Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as Erich von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865 – December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, noted as a general during World War I. Ludendorff was born in Kruszewnia near Posen, Prussia (now PoznaÅ„, Poland). ... Wilhelm Groener (November 22, 1867 - May 3, 1939) was a German soldier and politician. ... Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German field marshal and statesman. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy. ...


The following day, the now-former German Emperor William II crossed the border by train and went into exile in the Netherlands, which had remained neutral throughout the war. Upon the conclusion of the Treaty of Versailles in early 1919, Article 227 expressly provided for the prosecution of William "for a supreme offence against international morality and the sanctity of treaties", but Queen Wilhelmina refused to extradite him, despite appeals from the Allies. The erstwhile Emperor first settled in Amerongen, and then subsequently purchased a small castle in the municipality of Doorn on 16 August 1919 and moved in 15 May 1920, [11] which was to be his home for the remainder of his life. From this residence, Huis Doorn, William absolved his officers and servants of their oath of loyalty to him; however he himself never formally relinquished his titles, and hoped to return to Germany in the future. The Weimar Republic allowed William to remove twenty-three railway wagons of furniture, twenty-seven containing packages of all sorts one bearing a car and another a boat, from the New Palace at Potsdam.[12] This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... For other uses, see Wilhelmina (disambiguation). ... Amerongen is a municipality and a town in the central Netherlands. ... Gatehouse of castle Doorn The former Kaiser lived here for more than twenty years. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The bust of William II at Huis Doorn Huis Doorn (Doorn House) is a small manor house that lies outside Doorn, a small town near Utrecht, the Netherlands. ... The New Palace in Sanssouci Park The New Palace from the south Front view of the New Palace The New Palace (German: Neues Palais) is a palace situated on the western side of the Sanssouci royal park in Potsdam. ...


October 1918 Telegrams

The telegrams that were exchanged between the General Headquarters of the Imperial High Command, Berlin, and President Woodrow Wilson are discussed in Ferdinand Czernin's Versailles, 1919 (New York: G. P. Putnam's & Sons, 1964). Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856—February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... George Palmer Putnam (1814 - 1872) was a U.S. publisher. ...


The following telegram was sent through the Swiss government and arrived in Washington, D.C., on October 5, 1918 [p. 6]: For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

"The German Government requests the President of the United States of America to take steps for the restoration of peace, to notify all belligerents of this request, and to invite them to delegate positions for the purpose of taking up negotiations. The German Government accepts, as a basis of peace negotiations, the Program laid down by the President of the United States in his message to Congress of January 8, 1918, and his subsequent pronouncements, particularly in his address of September 27, 1918.
In order to avoid further bloodshed the German Government requests to bring about the immediate conclusion of an armistice on land, on water, and in the air.
Max, Prince of Baden, Imperial Chancellor"

In the subsequent two exchanges, Wilson's allusions "failed to convey the idea that the Kaiser's abdication was an essential condition for peace. The leading statesmen of the Reich were not yet ready to contemplate such a monstrous possibility." [p.7] is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


The third German telegram was sent on October 20. Wilson's reply on October 23 contained the following: is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"If the Government of the United States must deal with the military masters and the monarchical autocrats of Germany now, or if it is likely to have to deal with them later in regard to the international obligations of the German Empire, it must demand not peace negotiations but surrender. Nothing can be gained by leaving this essential thing unsaid." [Emil Ludwig, Wilhelm Hohenzollern (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1927), p. 489]

According to Czernin [p. 9]:

"... Prince Hohenlohe, serving as councilor in the German Legation in Berne, Switzerland, cabled the German Foreign Office that 'a confidential informant has informed me that the conclusion of the Wilson note of October 23 refers to nothing less than the abdication of the Kaiser as the only way to a peace which is more or less tolerable."

The abdication of William was necessitated by the popular perceptions that had been created by the Entente propaganda against him, which had been picked and further refined when the U.S. declared war in April 1917. is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


A much bigger obstacle, which contributed to the five-week delay in the signing of the armistice and to the resulting social deterioration in Europe, was the fact that the Entente Powers had no desire to accept the Fourteen Points and Wilson's subsequent promises. As Czernin points out [p. 23]:

"The Allied statesmen were faced with a problem: so far they had considered the 'fourteen commandments' as a piece of clever and effective American propaganda, designed primarily to undermine the fighting spirit of the Central Powers, and to bolster the morale of the lesser Allies. Now, suddenly, the whole peace structure was supposed to be built up on that set of 'vague principles,' most of which seemed to them thoroughly unrealistic, and some of which, if they were to be seriously applied, were simply unacceptable."

United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ...

Life in exile

On 2 December, 1919 William wrote to General August von Mackensen denouncing his abdication as the "deepest, most disgusting shame ever perpetrated by a people in history, the Germans have done to themselves", "egged on and misled by the tribe of Juda...Let no German ever forget this, nor rest until these parasites have been destroyed and exterminated from German soil!"[13] He advocated a "regular international all-worlds pogrom à la Russe" as "the best cure" and further believed that Jews were a "nuisance that humanity must get rid of some way or other. I believe the best would be gas!"[14] Field Marshal August von Mackensen August von Mackensen (December 6, 1849–November 8, 1945), was a German Field Marshal, born August Mackensen in Haus Leipnitz, in the Prussian province of Saxony, to Louis and Marie Louise Mackensen. ... The term Juda may mean the following. ...


In 1922 William published the first volume of his memoirs—a disappointingly slim volume which nevertheless revealed the possession of a remarkable memory (William had no archive on which to draw). In them, he asserted his claim that he was not guilty of initiating the Great War, and defended his conduct throughout his reign, especially in matters of foreign policy. For the remaining twenty years of his life, the aging Emperor regularly entertained guests (often of some standing) and kept himself updated on events in Europe. Much of his time was spent chopping wood (a hobby he discovered upon his arrival at Doorn) and observing the life of a country gentleman.[15] It would seem that his attitude towards Britain and the British finally coalesced in this period into a warm desire to ape British custom. On his arrival from Germany at Amerongen Castle in the Netherlands in 1918, the first thing William said to his host was, "So what do you say, now give me a nice cup of hot, good, real English tea".[16] No longer able to call upon the services of a court barber, and partly out of a desire to disguise his features, William grew a beard and allowed his famous moustache to droop. William even learned the Dutch language.[17]


William developed a penchant for archaeology during his vacations on Corfu, a passion he harboured into his exile. He had bought the former Greek residence of Austrian Empress Elisabeth after her murder in 1898. He also sketched plans for grand buildings and battleships when he was bored, although experts in construction saw his ideas as grandiose and unworkable. One of William's greatest passions was hunting, and he bagged thousands of animals, both beast and bird. During his years in Doorn, he largely deforested his estate, the land only now beginning to recover.[citation needed] For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... This article is about the Greek island Kerkyra known in English as Corfu or Corcyra. ... Elisabeth in a riding habit, from Vanity Fair, 1884. ...

Huis Doorn, The Netherlands

In the early 1930s, William apparently hoped that the successes of the German Nazi Party would stimulate interest in the revival of the monarchy. His second wife, Hermine (see below), actively petitioned the Nazi government on her husband's behalf, but the scorn which Adolf Hitler felt for the man whom he believed contributed to Germany's greatest defeat, and his own desire for power would prevent William's restoration. Though he hosted Hermann Göring at Doorn on at least one occasion, William grew to distrust Hitler. He heard about the Night of the Long Knives of 30 June 1934 by wireless and said of it, "What would people have said if I had done such a thing?"[18] and hearing of the murder of the wife of former Chancellor Schleicher, "We have ceased to live under the rule of law and everyone must be prepared for the possibility that the Nazis will push their way in and put them up against the wall!"[19] William was also appalled at the Kristallnacht of 10-11 November, 1938 saying, "I have just made my views clear to Auwi in the presence of his brothers. He had the nerve to say that he agreed with the Jewish pogroms and understood why they had come about. When I told him that any decent man would describe these actions as gangsterisms, he appeared totally indifferent. He is completely lost to our family ..."[20] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 867 KB) House of Doorn I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 867 KB) House of Doorn I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The bust of William II at Huis Doorn Huis Doorn (Doorn House) is a small manor house that lies outside Doorn, a small town near Utrecht, the Netherlands. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... Hitler redirects here. ...   (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, designated successor to Adolf Hitler, and commander of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force). ... Gatehouse of castle Doorn The former Kaiser lived here for more than twenty years. ... For other uses, see Night of the Long Knives (disambiguation). ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...   (7 April 1882 – 30 June 1934) was a German general and the last Chancellor of Germany during the era of the Weimar Republic. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Reichspogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of the Broken Glass, was a pogrom that occurred throughout Nazi Germany on November 9–November 10, 1938. ...


In the wake of the German victory over Poland in September 1939, William's adjutant, General von Dommes, wrote on his behalf to Hitler, stating that the House of Hohenzollern "remained loyal" and noted that nine Prussian Princes (one son and eight grandchildren) were stationed at the front, concluding "because of the special circumstances that require residence in a neutral foreign country, His Majesty must personally decline to make the aforementioned comment. The Emperor has therefore charged me with making a communication." William stayed in regular contact with Hitler through General von Dommes, who represented the family in Germany.[21] William greatly admired the success which Hitler was able to achieve in the opening months of the Second World War, and personally sent a congratulatory telegram on the fall of Paris stating "Congratulations, you have won using my troops.". Nevertheless, after the Nazi conquest of the Netherlands in 1940, the aging William retired completely from public life. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


During his last year at Doorn, William believed that Germany was the land of monarchy and therefore of Christ and that England was the land of Liberalism and therefore of Satan and the Anti-Christ. He argued that the English ruling classes were "Freemasons thoroughly infected by Juda". William asserted that the "British people must be liberated from Antichrist Juda. We must drive Juda out of England just as he has been chased out of the Continent".[22] He believed the Freemasons and Jews had caused the two world wars, aiming at a world Jewish empire with British and American gold, but that "Juda's plan has been smashed to pieces and they themselves swept out of the European Continent!" Continental Europe was now, William wrote, "consolidating and closing itself off from British influences after the elimination of the British and the Jews!" The end result would be a "U.S. of Europe!"[23] In a letter to his sister Princess Margaret in 1940, William wrote: "The hand of God is creating a new world & working miracles.... We are becoming the U.S. of Europe under German leadership, a united European Continent." He added: "The Jews [are] being thrust out of their nefarious positions in all countries, whom they have driven to hostility for centuries."[24] Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antichrist. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... The United States of Europe (sometimes abbreviated U.S.E. or USE) is a name given to several similar speculative scenarios of the unification of Europe, as a single nation and a single federation of states, similar to the United States of America, both as projected by writers of speculative... Princess Margarete Beatrice Feodora of Prussia (April 22, 1872 - January 22, 1954) was the daughter of the future Frederick III, German Emperor (1831-1888) and his wife, Princess Victoria of the United Kingdom (1840-1901), daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. ...


The entry of the German army into Paris stirred painful, deep-seated emotions within him. In a letter to his daughter Viktoria Luise, the Duchess of Brunswick, he wrote:

"Thus is the pernicious entente cordial of Uncle Edward VII brought to nought."[25]

Concerning Hitler's persecutions of the Jews:

"The Jewish persecutions of 1938 horrified the exile. 'For the first time, I am ashamed to be a German.'"[26]

Death

Tomb of William II in Doorn, The Netherlands

William II died of a pulmonary embolus in Doorn, the Netherlands on June 4, 1941, with German soldiers at the gates of his estate. Hitler, however, was reportedly angry that the former monarch had an honour guard of German troops and nearly fired the general who ordered them there when he found out. Despite his personal animosity toward William, Hitler, ever the canny politician, nonetheless hoped to bring William's body back to Berlin for a State funeral for propaganda purposes. (Hitler felt this would demonstrate to Germans the direct succession of the Third Reich from the old Kaiserreich.)[27] However, William's wishes of never returning to Germany until the restoration of the monarchy were nevertheless respected, and the Nazi occupation authorities granted a small military funeral with a few hundred people present, the mourners at which included the hero of the First World War August von Mackensen, along with a few other military advisors. William's request that the swastika and other Nazi regalia not be displayed at the final rites was ignored, however, and they feature in the photos of the funeral that were taken by a Dutch photographer. [28] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1198 KB) Tomb of Wilhelm II I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 1198 KB) Tomb of Wilhelm II I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Pulmonary embolism (PE) is blockage of the pulmonary artery (or one of its branches) by a blood clot, fat, air or clumped tumor cells. ... Gatehouse of castle Doorn The former Kaiser lived here for more than twenty years. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... Field Marshal August von Mackensen August von Mackensen (December 6, 1849–November 8, 1945), was a German Field Marshal, born August Mackensen in Haus Leipnitz, in the Prussian province of Saxony, to Louis and Marie Louise Mackensen. ... This article is about the symbol. ...



He was buried in a mausoleum in the grounds of Huis Doorn, which has since become a place of pilgrimage for German monarchists. To this day, small but enthusiastic numbers of German monarchists gather at Huis Doorn every year on the anniversary of his death to pay their homage to the last German Emperor. The bust of William II at Huis Doorn Huis Doorn (Doorn House) is a small manor house that lies outside Doorn, a small town near Utrecht, the Netherlands. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy as a form of government in a nation. ...


Marriages and issue

William and his first wife Augusta Viktoria
William and his first wife Augusta Viktoria

William and his first wife, Princess Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein, were married on February 27, 1881. They had seven children: Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

  1. Crown Prince William (1882–1951) married Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (20 September 1886 - 6 May 1954) in Berlin on 6 June 1905. Cecilie was the daughter of Grand Duke Frederick Francis III of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1851-1897) and his wife, Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna of Russia (1860-1922).
  2. Prince Eitel Friedrich (1883–1942). On 27 February 1906 Prince Eitel married Duchess Sophie Charlotte Holstein-Gottorp of Oldenburg (2 February 1879 Oldenburg, Germany - 29 March 1964 Westerstede, Germany) in Berlin, Germany. They were divorced 20 October 1926 and had no children.
  3. Prince Adalbert (1884–1948). He married Princess Adelheid "Adi" Arna Karoline Marie Elisabeth of Saxe-Meiningen (16 August 1891- 25 April 1971) on 3 August 1914 in Wilhelmshaven, Germany.
  4. Prince August Wilhelm (1887–1949). He married Princess Alexandra Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (21 April 1887 Germany - 15 April 1957 France), on 22 October 1908.
  5. Prince Oskar (1888–1958).He was married on 31 July 1914 to Countess Ina-Marie Helene Adele Elise von Bassewitz (27 January 1888 - 17 September 1973). This marriage was morganatic, and so upon marriage Ina-Marie was created Countess von Ruppin. In 1920, she and her children were granted the rank of Prince/ss of Prussia with the style Royal Highness.
  6. Prince Joachim (1890–1920) married Princess Marie-Auguste of Anhalt (10 June 1898 - 22 May 1983), on 11 March 1916. The couple had one son.
  7. Princess Viktoria Luise (1892–1980); married 1913 to Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick {1887-1953}. Victoria Louise and Ernest Augustus had five children.

Augusta, known affectionately as "Dona", was a close and constant companion to William throughout his life, and her death on April 11, 1921 was a devastating blow. It also came less than a year after their son, Joachim, had committed suicide, unable to accept his lot after the abdication of his father, the failure of his own marriage to Princess Marie-Auguste of Anhalt, and the heavy depression felt after his service in the Great War. Friedrich Wilhelm Victor August Ernst (6 May 1882 – 20 July 1951) of the House of Hohenzollern was the last Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Prussia and the German Empire. ... Portrait of Cecilie, German Crown Princess Duchess Cecilie Auguste Marie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (20 September 1886 at Schwerin, Germany–6 May 1954 at Bad Kissingen, Germany) was the wife of German Crown Prince Wilhelm, the son of German Emperor Wilhelm II. She was the daughter of Grand Duke Friedrich Franz... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a Duchy (from 1815 a Grand Duchy) in northeastern Germany, formed by a partition of the Duchy of Mecklenburg. ... Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna of Russia (July 28, 1860 – March 11, 1922) was a daughter of Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich of Russia; she married Grand Duke Friedrich Franz III of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. ... Prince Eitel Friedrich (Wilhelm Eitel Friedrich Christian Karl) (July 7, 1883–December 8, 1942) was a son of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany by his first wife, Duchess Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Oldenburg (Low German: Ollnborg) is an Independent City in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Westerstede is the capital of the Ammerland district, in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Adalbert (July 14, 1884–September 22, 1948) was a son of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany by his first wife, Augusta Viktoria, Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein. ... Prince Augustus Wilhelm (January 29, 1887–March 25, 1949), called Auwi, was the fourth son of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany by his first wife, Augusta Viktoria, Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein. ... Prince Oskar of Prussia (July 27, 1888–January 27, 1958) was the son of Kaiser Wilhelm II and Augusta Viktoria, Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein. ... Prince Joachim Franz Humbert of Prussia (17 December 1890-18 July 1920) was the youngest son of Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, by his first wife, Augusta of Schleswig-Holstein-Augustenburg. ... Princess Viktoria Luise (13 September 1892–11 December 1980), Duchess of Brunswick-Luneburg, was the seventh child and the only daughter of Emperor Wilhelm II and Empress Augusta Viktoria. ... Ernst August, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg Ernest Augustus (German: Ernst August) (17 November 1887, Penzing-30 January 1953, Castle Marienburg near Hanover), reigning Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (2 November 1913-8 November 1918), was a grandson of King George V of Hanover, whom the Prussians deposed in 1866. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Anhalt is a historical region of Germany, which is now included in the state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


Remarriage

The following January, William received a birthday greeting from a son of the deceased Prince Johann George Ludwig Ferdinand August Wilhelm of Schönaich-Carolath (11 September 18737 April 1920). 63-year-old William invited the boy and his widowed mother, Princess Hermine Reuss (17 December 18877 August 1947), to Doorn. Princess Hermine was the daughter of Prince Henry XXII Reuss. William found her very attractive, and greatly enjoyed her company. By early 1922, he was determined to marry the 34-year-old mother of five, and the couple was eventually wed on November 9, 1922, despite grumblings from William's monarchist supporters and the objections of his children. Hermine's daughter, Henriette, eventually married William's grandson, Prince Joachim's son, Karl Franz Josef, (William's stepdaughter and grandson respectively). Hermine remained a constant companion to the aging Emperor until his death. is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Princess Hermine Reuss of Greiz (17 December 1887 Greiz, Germany - 7 August 1947 Brandenburg, Germany) was the second wife of William II, German Emperor (1859 - 1941), and as such was the titular German Empress and Queen of Prussia. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alternate use: Reuss River Reuss is the name of several historical states in todays Thuringia, Germany. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Alleged extramarital affairs

William was implicated in some degree in the scandal over his aide and great friend, Philipp, Prince of Eulenburg-Hertefeld, which revealed homosexual activities (then illegal under German law) within William's inner circle (the Harden-Eulenburg Affair).[citation needed] Bismarck, among others, suggested that there was an inappropriate relationship between William and Eulenburg.[citation needed] There is no conclusive evidence to prove that the Emperor and Eulenburg's relationship went beyond friendship. Philipp, Prince of Eulenburg-Hertefeld (German: Philipp Fürst zu Eulenburg-Hertefeld) was born at Königsberg, Prussia in 1847. ... The Harden-Eulenburg affair, often simply Eulenburg affair, was the controversy surrounding a series of courts-martial and five regular trials regarding accusations of homosexual conduct, and accompanying libel trials, among prominent members of Kaiser Wilhelm IIs cabinet and entourage during 1907-1909. ...


Ancestry

Patrilineal descent

William's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son.


Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations—which means that if William II were to have chosen an historically accurate house name it would have been House of Hohenzollern, as all his male-line ancestors were of that house. Patrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones fathers lineage; it generally involves the inheritance of property, names or titles through the male line as well. ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ...


House of Hohenzollern

  1. Burkhard, Count of Zollern
  2. Frederick I, Count of Zollern, d. 1125
  3. Frederick II of Zollern and Hohenberg, d. 1145
  4. Frederick I, Burgrave of Nuremberg, 1139–1200
  5. Conrad I, Burgrave of Nuremberg, 1186–1261
  6. Frederick III, Burgrave of Nuremberg, 1220–1297
  7. Frederick IV, Burgrave of Nuremberg, 1287–1332
  8. John II, Burgrave of Nuremberg, 1309–1357
  9. Frederick V, Burgrave of Nuremberg, 1333–1398
  10. Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg, 1371–1440
  11. Albert III Achilles, Elector of Brandenburg, 1414–1486
  12. John Cicero, Elector of Brandenburg, 1455–1499
  13. Joachim I Nestor, Elector of Brandenburg, 1484–1535
  14. Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg, 1505–1571
  15. John George, Elector of Brandenburg, 1525–1598
  16. Joachim Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg, 1546–1608
  17. John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, 1572–1619
  18. George William, Elector of Brandenburg, 1595–1640
  19. Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, 1620–1688
  20. Frederick I of Prussia, 1657–1713
  21. Frederick William I of Prussia, 1688–1740
  22. Prince Augustus William of Prussia, 1722–1758
  23. Frederick William II of Prussia, 1744–1797
  24. Frederick William III of Prussia, 1770–1840
  25. William I, German Emperor, 1797–1888
  26. Frederick III, German Emperor, 1831–1888
  27. William II, German Emperor, 1859–1941

Frederick I of Nuremberg (before 1139–after 1 October 1200), the first Burgrave of Nuremberg from the House of Hohenzollern. ... Conrad I of Nuremberg (ca. ... John II of Nuremberg (ca. ... Frederick V of Nuremberg (b. ... Frederick (German: Friedrich) I (1371–1440), Burgrave of Nuremberg as Frederick VI and Margrave of Brandenburg as Frederick I from the House of Hohenzollern. ... Albrecht Achilles Albert III (German Albrecht Achilles), (9 November 1414, Tangermunde–11 March 1486, Frankfurt am Main), Margrave of Brandenburg, given the cognomen Achilles because of his knightly qualities, was the third son of Frederick I of Brandenburg of Hohenzollern, elector of Brandenburg, later Burgrave of Nuremberg. ... John or Johann Cicero Hohenzollern, elector of Brandenburg was born 1455. ... Joachim I Nestor (21 February 1484 – 11 July 1535) was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg (1499-1535). ... Joachim II, nicknamed Hector, was a margrave of Brandenburg and an Imperial Elector from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Johann Georg Hohenzollern (1525–1598) was the Margrave and Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia from 1571 until his death. ... Joachim Friedrich (27 January 1546 in Cölln — 18 July 1608) of the Hohenzollern dynasty succeeded his father John George as margrave and elector of Brandenburg in 1598, and was in turn succeeded at his death by his son John Sigismund. ... John or Johann Sigismund Hohenzollern (1572-1619) succeeded his father Joachim Friedrich as margrave of Brandenburg and duke of Ducal Prussia in 1608. ... George William (German: Georg Wilhelm) (13 November 1595 - December 1, 1640) of the Hohenzollern dynasty was margrave and elector of Brandenburg and duke of Prussia (1619-1640). ... Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg. ... Frederick I of Prussia (German: , July 11, 1657 – February 25, 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III; ) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and the first King in Prussia (1701 – 1713). ... Frederick William I (German: Friedrich Wilhelm I) (August 14, 1688 – May 31, 1740) of the House of Hohenzollern, was the King in Prussia from 1713 until his death. ... Augustus William (German: August Wilhelm; 9 August 1722, Berlin – 12 June 1758, Oranienburg), Prince of Prussia, was the second son of King Frederick William I of Prussia and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover. ... Frederick William II (German: ; September 25, 1744–November 16, 1797) was the fourth King of Prussia, reigning from 1786 until his death. ... Frederick William III (German: , August 3, 1770 – June 7, 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... Frederick III (Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen) was German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling for 99 days until his death in 1888. ...

Titles and styles

William II by Max Koner 1890
William II by Max Koner 1890

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Royal Highness (abbreviation HRH) is a style (His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness); plural Royal Highnesses (abbreviation TRH, Their Royal Highnesses). ... Imperial and Royal Highness (in German:Kaiserliche und königliche Hoheit) is a style possessed by someone who either through birth or marriage holds two individual styles, Imperial Highness and Royal Highness. ... His/Her Imperial and Royal Majesty was the style used by King-Emperors and their consorts who reigned simultaneously as King of Hungary, King of Bohemia and Emperor of Austria and also by the Shah of Iran or Persia. ...

Full title as German Emperor

His Imperial and Royal Majesty William the Second, by the Grace of God, German Emperor and King of Prussia, Margrave of Brandenburg, Burgrave of Nuremberg, Count of Hohenzollern, Duke of Silesia and of the County of Glatz, Grand Duke of the Lower Rhine and of Posen, Duke in Saxony, of Angria, of Westphalia, of Pomerania and of Lunenburg, Duke of Schleswig, of Holstein and of Crossen, Duke of Magdeburg, of Bremen, of Guelderland and of Jülich, Cleves and Berg, Duke of the Wends and the Kashubians, of Lauenburg and of Mecklenburg, Landgrave of Hesse and in Thuringia, Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia, Prince of Orange, of Rugen, of East Friesland, of Paderborn and of Pyrmont, Prince of Halberstadt, of Münster, of Minden, of Osnabrück, of Hildesheim, of Verden, of Kammin, of Fulda, of Nassau and of Moers, Princely Count of Henneberg, Count of the Mark, of Ravensberg, of Hohenstein, of Tecklenburg and of Lingen, Count of Mansfeld, of Sigmaringen and of Veringen, Lord of Frankfurt. [29] His/Her Imperial and Royal Majesty was the style used by King-Emperors and their consorts who reigned simultaneously as King of Hungary, King of Bohemia and Emperor of Austria and also by the Shah of Iran or Persia. ... By the Grace of God, as well as the various equivalent phrases in other languages thus rendered in English, is not a title in its own right, but a common introductory part of the full styles of many Monarchs, preceding the actual princely styles in chief of the specific realm... Kaiser is a German title meaning emperor, derived from the Roman title of Caesar, as is the Slavic title of Czar. ... Margrave (Latin: marchio) is the English and French form (recorded since 1551) of the German title Markgraf (from Mark march and Graf count) and certain equivalent nobiliary (princely) titles in other languages. ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... Burgrave, the Eng. ... Nürnberg redirects here. ... This article is about the style or title of nobility. ... The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of electors, kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania. ... This article is about the nobility title. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lower Silesian Municipal government Rada Miejska w KÅ‚odzku Mayor Roman Lipski Area 25 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 30. ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... The Lower Rhine Province (red}, within the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), within the German Confederation (member states in black)   Capital Koblenz Population  - 1816 est. ... Flag The Grand Duchy was administrated as the Province of Posen, within the Kingdom of Prussia. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Angria, Engria, or Engern (German: ) is a historical region in present-day western German states of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia. ... For other places named Westphalia, see Westphalia (disambiguation). ... Pommern redirects here. ... Lüneburg (English: Lunenburg) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, about 50km southeast of Hamburg. ... The region of Schleswig (former English name: Sleswick, Danish: Sønderjylland or Slesvig, Low German: Sleswig, North Frisian: Slaswik or Sleesweg) covers the area about 60 km north and 70 km south of the border between Germany and Denmark. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... Krosno OdrzaÅ„skie (German: ) is a city in Western Poland with 12,500 inhabitants (2002), situated in the Lubusz Voivodeship (since 1999), previously part of Zielona Góra Voivodeship (1975-1998). ... This article is about the German city. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Geldern is a city in the north-west of the federal state North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Jülich is a medium-size town in the district of Düren, in the federal state of Nordrhein-Westfalen, in Germany. ... Kleve, traditionally known in English and French as Cleves (Dutch: Kleef) is a city in the north-west of North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany, near the Dutch border and the River Rhine, at . ... Map of the duchies of Jülich, Cleves, and Berg circa 1477. ... Vend redirects here. ... Kashubians (Kashubian: ; Polish: ), also called Kassubians or Cassubians, are a West Slavic ethnic group of north-central Poland. ... This article discusses the Lauenburg in Schleswig-Holstein. ... The name Mecklenburg derives from a castle named Mikilenburg (Old German: big castle), located between the cities of Schwerin and Wismar. ... Landgrave (Dutch landgraaf, German Landgraf; French landgrave; Latin comes magnus, comes patriae, comes provinciae, comes terrae, comes principalis, lantgravius) was a title (mostly) used in the Holy Roman Empire and later on by its former territories, comparable to a count, who had feudal duty directly to the Holy Roman Emperor. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE7 Capital Wiesbaden Largest city Frankfurt Minister-President Roland Koch (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 5 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  21,100 km² (8,147 sq mi) Population 6,077,000 (08/2006)[1]  - Density... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice, sometimes called Sorbia, is a historical region between Bóbr-Kwisa rivers and Elbe river in northeastern Germany (states of Saxony and Brandenburg), south-western Poland (voivodship of Lower Silesia and northern Czech... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice, sometimes called Sorbia, is a historical region between Bóbr-Kwisa rivers and Elbe river in northeastern Germany (states of Saxony and Brandenburg), south-western Poland (voivodship of Lower Silesia and northern Czech... Prince of Orange is a title of nobility, originally associated with the principality of Orange in southern France. ... Map of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania highlighting the district Rügen Rügen (Polish: Rugia) is an island located off the coast of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in the Baltic Sea. ... Ostfriesland (literally East Frisia) is a coastal region in the northwest of the German federal state of Lower Saxony. ... Paderborn is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, capital of the Paderborn district. ... Bad Pyrmont is a city in Hamelin-Pyrmont, Lower Saxony, with a population of 22,000 (2003). ... Liebfrauenkirche Halberstadt is a city in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... For other places with the same or similar names, and other uses of the word, see Munster (disambiguation) Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... For other uses, see Minden (disambiguation). ... , Osnabrück (IPA: ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, some 80 km NNE of Dortmund, 45 km NE of Münster, and some 100 km due west of Hanover. ...   is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Verden can refer to: Verden, Germany, a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... KamieÅ„ Pomorski (Kaszubian/Pomeranian: Kamién, German: Kammin or Cammin) is a town in the far northwest of Poland in the West-Pomeranian Voivodship. ... , Fulda (IPA: ) is a city in Hessen, Germany; it is located on the Fulda River and is the administrative seat of the Fulda district (Kreis). ... For other uses, see Nassau (disambiguation). ... Moers (in older texts also Mörs or Meurs) is a city (population about 108,000 in 2003) in western Germany. ... For other uses, see Graf (disambiguation). ... Coat of Arms Henneberg-Schleusingen House of Henneberg: a branch of the Franconian Babenbergs which was very powerful in Franconia and Thuringia particularly in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries // The distant origins of this family are speculative yet seem to originate in the Rhine Valley, east of modern-day... This article is about the style or title of nobility. ... County of Mark in 1477. ... Ravensberg, historical county in eastern Westphalia, Germany. ... Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein was a county between Hesse-Darmstadt and Westphalia. ... Tecklenburg Tecklenburg is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Lingen is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Mansfeld can refer to: Ernst, Graf von Mansfield, a general of the Thirty Years War Mansfelder Land, a district of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sigmaringen Castle, circa 1900 Sigmaringen is a city in southern Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg on the upper Danube, formerly Hohenzollern, capital of the Sigmaringen district. ... Lordship redirects here. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ...


Ancestry

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Frederick William III of Prussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. William I, German Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Frederick III, German Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Augusta of Saxe-Weimar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. William II, German Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Albert of Saxe-Coburg & Gotha
Prince Consort
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Victoria, Princess Royal
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Victoria of the United Kingdom
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Frederick William III (German: , August 3, 1770 – June 7, 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... Louise, Queen of Prussia by Josef Grassi Louise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie (Louisa Augusta Wilhelmina Amelia) (March 10, 1776 - July 19, 1810), Queen of Prussia, was born in Hanover, where her father, Karl of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, was field marshal of the household brigade. ... Frederick III (Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen) was German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling for 99 days until his death in 1888. ... Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (2 February 1783 – 1853) succeeded his famous father Carl August, in 1824. ... Princess Augusta Marie Luise Katharina of Saxe-Weimar, Duchess in Saxony (September 30, 1811–January 7, 1890), later the Queen of Prussia and German Empress was the consort of William I, German Emperor. ... Portrait of Maria Pavlovna, by Vladimir Borovikovsky. ... Ernst I of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Charles Augustus Emanuel, later HRH The Prince Consort; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Luise Dorothea Pauline Charlotte Friederike Auguste von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg, Herzogin von Sachsen, Princess of Gotha and Altenburg (1800-31), was a German Princess. ... Victoria of the United Kingdom (born Victoria Adelaide Mary Louise) 21 November 1840 – 5 August 1901) was the eldest child and daughter of Queen Victoria and her consort Albert. ... HRH The Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn The Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (2 November 1767 – 23 January 1820) was a member of the British Royal Family, the fourth son of King George III and the father of Queen Victoria. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (Mary Louise Victoria; 17 August 1786 – 16 March 1861), later HRH The Duchess of Kent, was the mother of Queen Victoria. ...

Literature

Despite the continuing debate over the precise nature of his impact upon history, William has been the focus of many biographies, of which the first (by Emil Ludwig) is still one of the most accessible.

  • Ludwig, Emil. "Wilhelm Hohenzollern: The Last of the Kaisers", G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1927 (translated by Ethel Colburn Mayne). (1970 edition, Ames Press). ISBN 0-404-04067-5.
  • Röhl, John C. G.. "The Kaiser and His Court: Wilhelm II and the Government of Germany", trans. Terence F. Cole, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-521-40223-9.

References

  1. ^ Michael Balfour, "The Kaiser and his Times," Houghton Mifflin (1964) p. 132
  2. ^ Michael Balfour, "The Kaiser and his Times," Houghton Mifflin (1964) pp. 226–227
  3. ^ Ludwig, 1927 p. 73
  4. ^ St. Aubyn, Giles Queen Victoria p. 598
  5. ^ The interview of the Emperor William II on October 28, 1908 (excerpt), London Daily Telegraph, October 28, 1908
  6. ^ The Opening of the Kiel Canal. Screenonline. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  7. ^ Ludwig (1927), p. 444
  8. ^ Michael Balfour, "The Kaiser and his Times," Houghton Mifflin (1964) pp. 350–51
  9. ^ Emil Ludwig, "Wilhelm Hohenzollern: The Last of the Kaisers," G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York (1927) p. 453
  10. ^ Röhl (1994), p. 10
  11. ^ The Last Kaiser, p.426
  12. ^ ibid, p.425
  13. ^ John Röhl, The Kaiser and His Court: Wilhelm II and the Government of Germany (Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 210.
  14. ^ Rohl, p. 211.
  15. ^ The Last Kaiser by Giles McDonagh, p.457
  16. ^ ibid, p.419
  17. ^ ibid
  18. ^ ibid, p.452
  19. ^ ibid, pp. 452–452
  20. ^ ibid, p.456
  21. ^ Jonathan Petropoulos, Royals and the Reich, Oxford University Press (2006) p. 170
  22. ^ Rohl, p. 211.
  23. ^ Rohl, p. 212.
  24. ^ Jonathan Petropoulos, Royals and the Reich, Oxford University Press (2006) p. 170
  25. ^ Alan Palmer, "The Kaiser: Warlord of the Second Reich," Charles Scribner's Sons (1978), page 226
  26. ^ Michael Balfour, "The Kaiser and his Times," Houghton Mifflin (1964) p. 419
  27. ^ Jack Sweetman, The Unforgotten Crowns: The German Monarchist Movements, 1918-1945 (Emory University dissertation, 1973), 654–655.
  28. ^ ibid, p.459
  29. ^ Titles and styles of William II

This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Michael Balfour, The Kaiser and His Times, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1964.
  • E. F. Benson, The Kaiser and English Relations, London: Longmans, Green, 1936.
  • Lamar Cecil, Wilhelm II: Prince and Emperor, 1859-1900, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.
  • Lamar Cecil, Wilhelm II: Emperor and Exile, 1900-1941, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
  • Isabel V. Hull, The Entourage of Kaiser Wilhelm II, 1888-1918, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
  • Thomas A. Kohut, Wilhelm II and the Germans: A Study in Leadership, New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
  • Giles Macdonogh, The Last Kaiser: William the Impetuous, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2001.
  • Annika Mombauer & Wilhelm Deist (eds), The Kaiser: New Research on Wilhelm II's Role in Imperial Germany, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
  • Alan Palmer, The Kaiser: Warlord of the Second Reich, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1978.
  • James Retallack, Germany in the Age of Kaiser Wilhelm II, Basingstoke: St. Martin's Press, 1996.
  • John C. G. Röhl & Nicholaus Sombart (eds), Kaiser Wilhelm II: New Interpretations − the Corfu Papers, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982 (reprinted 2005).
  • John C. G. Röhl, Young Wilhelm: The Kaiser's Early Life, 1859-1888, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998 (Volume I of Röhl's massive new biography).
  • John C. G. Röhl, The Kaiser's Personal Monarchy, 1888-1900, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004 (Volume II of Röhl's massive new biography).
  • John Van der Kiste, Kaiser Wilhelm II: Germany's Last Emperor, Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1999.
  • Tyler Whittle, The Last Kaiser: A Biography of William II, Emperor of Germany and King of Prussia, London: Heinemann, 1977.
  • William II tried to stop the bombing of Belgrade History of the Last Days before the day of fate, documentary by German Historian Guido Knopp, February 1999, as History of Ultimatum to Serbia repeated.
  • Wilhelm II (WWI Biographical Dictionary).

External links

  • The German Emperor as shown in his public utterances
  • My Memoirs: 1878-1918 by William II, London: Cassell & Co., 1922.
  • The German emperor's speeches: being a selection from the speeches, edicts, letters, and telegrams of the Emperor William II
  • Commemorative Silk Bookmark of William II from 1913
William II, German Emperor
Born: 27 January 1859 Died: 4 June 1941
German nobility
Preceded by
Frederick III
German Emperor
King of Prussia

June 15, 1888November 9, 1918
Monarchy abolished
Political offices
Preceded by
Frederick III
as German Emperor
and King of Prussia
German Head of State
Prussian Head of State

June 15, 1888November 9, 1918
Succeeded by
Friedrich Ebert
as President of Germany
and Prime Minister of Prussia
Titles in pretence
Loss of title
Monarchy abolished
— TITULAR —
German Emperor
King of Prussia

November 9, 1918June 4, 1941
Reason for succession failure:
German Revolution
Succeeded by
Crown Prince William
German Emperors
18 January 18719 November 1918

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Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia This is a list of the rulers of the former German state of Prussia, originally territories on the Baltic Sea which the Teutonic Knights had conquered from of Poland and Lithuania, which later became a duchy under the suzerainty of the Kingdom of Poland... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... This is not the Friedrich Ebert involved in the founding of the GDR, but rather his father. ... The Presidential Palace (Reichspräsidentenpalais) in Berlin. ... 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Friedrich Wilhelm Victor August Ernst (6 May 1882 – 20 July 1951) of the House of Hohenzollern was the last Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Prussia and the German Empire. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Louis the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian or German Ludwig der Deutsche) (804 – August 28, 876), the third son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye, was the king of Bavaria from 817, when his father partitioned the empire... Carloman (830-880) was the eldest son of Louis the German, king of East Francia (Germany), and Emma, daughter of the count Welf. ... For the King of France known as Louis the Younger, see Louis VII of France. ... Romantic portrait of Charles. ... Later romantic portrait of Arnulf. ... 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Joseph I (July 26, 1678 – April 17, 1711), Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduke of Austria, was the elder son of the emperor Leopold I and his third wife, Eleanora, Countess Palatine, daughter of Philip William of Neuburg, Elector Palatine. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI, (German Karl VI; in full Karl Josef Franz)Holy Roman Emperor (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VII Emperor Charles VII Albert (Brussels August 6, 1697 – January 20, 1745 in Munich), a member of the Wittelsbach family, was Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from January 24, 1742 until his death in 1745. ... Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... 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Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia This is a list of the rulers of the former German state of Prussia, originally territories on the Baltic Sea which the Teutonic Knights had conquered from of Poland and Lithuania, which later became a duchy under the suzerainty of the Kingdom of Poland... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... Albert (May 16, 1490 - March 20, 1568), (Albertus in Latin, Margrave Albrecht of Brandenburg in German) Grand Master of the Teutonic Order and first duke of Ducal Prussia, was the third son of Frederick of Hohenzollern, prince of Ansbach and Bayreuth, and Sophia, daughter of Casimir IV Jagiello Grand Duke... Albert Frederick (7 May 1553- 28 August 1618) was duke of Ducal Prussia from 1568 until his death. ... John or Johann Sigismund Hohenzollern (1572-1619) succeeded his father Joachim Friedrich as margrave of Brandenburg and duke of Ducal Prussia in 1608. ... George William (German: Georg Wilhelm) (13 November 1595 - December 1, 1640) of the Hohenzollern dynasty was margrave and elector of Brandenburg and duke of Prussia (1619-1640). ... Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg. ... Frederick I of Prussia (German: , July 11, 1657 – February 25, 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III; ) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and the first King in Prussia (1701 – 1713). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (560x745, 79 KB) großes Wappen des Königs von Preußen (Deutscher Kaiser) nach 1873. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Frederick I of Prussia (German: , July 11, 1657 – February 25, 1713), of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was (as Frederick III; ) Elector of Brandenburg (1688–1713) and the first King in Prussia (1701 – 1713). ... Frederick William I (German: Friedrich Wilhelm I) (August 14, 1688 – May 31, 1740) of the House of Hohenzollern, was the King in Prussia from 1713 until his death. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Frederick William II (German: ; September 25, 1744–November 16, 1797) was the fourth King of Prussia, reigning from 1786 until his death. ... Frederick William III (German: , August 3, 1770 – June 7, 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... Photograph of Frederick King Frederick William IV of Prussia (October 15, 1795 - January 2, 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. ... William I (William Frederick Louis) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888), (German: Wilhelm I., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruled January 18, 1871 – 9 March 1888 as German Emperor and 2 January 1861 – 9 March 1888 as King of Prussia. ... Friedrich III of Germany. ... William II, in German Wilhelm II (born Frederick William Albert Victor [Friedrich Wilhelm Albert Viktor]) (27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Wilhelm II., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen English: German Kaiser and King of Prussia ), ruling both... The Monarchy of Germany and Prussia were abolished in 1918. ... 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William I (1871-1888) · Frederick III (1888) · William II (1888-1918) William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Frederick III (Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen) was German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling for 99 days until his death in 1888. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

See also Line of succession to the German throne
Pretenders to the German
and Prussian thrones since 1918

Emperor William II (1918-1941)
Crown Prince William (1941-1951)
Prince Louis Ferdinand (1951-1994)
Prince Georg Friedrich (1994-) The Monarchy of Germany and Prussia were abolished in 1918. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (777x935, 2178 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Coat of arms of Germany List of Royal Houses ... This article is about pretender as applied to a monarchy. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... “November Revolution” redirects here. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Friedrich Wilhelm Victor August Ernst (6 May 1882 – 20 July 1951) of the House of Hohenzollern was the last Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Prussia and the German Empire. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia (German: Louis Ferdinand Viktor Eduard Albert Michael Hubertus Prinz von Preussen) (November 9, 1907 - September 26, 1994), a member of the Hohenzollern family, was the pretender to the abolished German monarchy, opponent of the National Socialist German Workers Party in Germany, a business man, and... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Georg Friedrich Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia, (German: Georg Friedrich Ferdinand Prinz von Preußen) (born June 10, 1976 in Bremen) is the current head of the royal house of Prussia and the imperial house of Germany. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...

See also House of Hohenzollern
Persondata
NAME William II, German Emperor
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Frederick Wilhelm Albert Victor, William II
SHORT DESCRIPTION German Emperor and King of Prussia
DATE OF BIRTH 27 January 1859
PLACE OF BIRTH Berlin, Germany
DATE OF DEATH 4 June 1941
PLACE OF DEATH Doorn, Netherlands
Hohenzollern redirects here. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Gatehouse of castle Doorn The former Kaiser lived here for more than twenty years. ...

 
 

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