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Encyclopedia > William I of England
William I
King of the English (more...)
The Duke of Normandy in the Bayeux Tapestry
The Duke of Normandy in the Bayeux Tapestry
Reign 25 December 10669 September 1087
Coronation 25 December 1066
Predecessor England: Edgar Ætheling (uncrowned), Harold II
Normandy: Robert I the Magnificent
Successor England: William II Rufus
Normandy: Robert II Curthose, Duke of Normandy
Consort Matilda of Flanders
Issue
Robert II, Duke of Normandy
Richard, Duke of Bernay
William II of England
Adela, Countess of Blois
Henry I of England
Titles and styles
King of the English
Duke of the Normans
Father Robert the Magnificent
Mother Herlette of Falaise
Born 1027
Falaise, France
Died 9 September 1087
Convent of St. Gervais, Rouen
Burial Saint-Étienne de Caen, France

William I of England (1027[1]9 September 1087), also known as William the Conqueror (French: Guillaume le Conquérant), was Duke of Normandy from 1035 and King of England from 1066 to his death. The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... Image File history File links William1. ... The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft) long embroidered cloth which depicts the events leading up to the 1066 Norman invasion of England as well as the events of the invasion itself. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the book, see 1066 And All That. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the book, see 1066 And All That. ... Edgar Ætheling[1], also known as Edgar the Outlaw, (c. ... Harold Godwinson (Haraldur Guðinason), or Harold II (c. ... Robert I, called The Magnificent (French, le Magnifique) for his love of finery, and also called The Devil was the son of Duke Richard II of Normandy and Judith, daughter of Conan I, Duke of Brittany. ... William II (c. ... Robert II (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. ... Matilda of Flanders (c. ... Robert II (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. ... William II (c. ... Adela of Blois (c. ... Henry I (c. ... Robert I, called The Magnificent (French, le Magnifique) for his love of finery, and also called The Devil was the son of Duke Richard II of Normandy and Judith, daughter of Conan I, Duke of Brittany. ... Herleva (c. ... Events March 26 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II Holy Roman Emperor. ... Falaise is a commune in the Calvados département, in the Basse-Normandie administrative région, in Normandy, north-western France. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... , Rouen (pronounced in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... The Abbaye-aux-Hommes ( man monastery Saint Étienne) is considered together with the neighbouring woman Mrs. ... Events March 26 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II Holy Roman Emperor. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... Bold textInsert non-formatted text here This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ... The monarch or Sovereign is the head of state of the United Kingdom. ...


To claim the English crown, William invaded England in 1066, leading an army of Normans to victory over the Anglo-Saxon forces of Harold Godwinson (who died in the conflict) at the Battle of Hastings, and suppressed subsequent English revolts in what has become known as the Norman Conquest.[2] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For the book, see 1066 And All That. ... Norman conquests in red. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Harold Godwinson (Haraldur Guðinason), or Harold II (c. ... Belligerents Normans supported by: Bretons (one third of total), Flemings, French Anglo-Saxons, the Þingalið Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson † Strength 7,400-8,400 (maximum 2,200 cavalry, 1,700 archers, 4,500 men-at-arms) 7,500 (2,000 housecarls, 5,500 fyrd) Casualties... Scene from the failed Québecois rebellion against British rule in 1837. ... The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it. ...


His reign, which brought Norman culture to England, had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages. In addition to political changes, his reign also saw changes to English law, a programme of building and fortification, changes to the vocabulary of the English language, and the introduction of continental European feudalism into England. Medieval Britain is a term used to suggest that there is a unity to the history of Great Britain from the 5th century withdrawal of Roman forces from the province of Britannia and the Germanic invasions, until the 16th century Reformations in the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of... English law is a formal term of art that describes the law for the time being in force in England and Wales. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the...


As Duke of Normandy, he is known as William II. He was also, particularly before the conquest, known as William the Bastard.[3] Bold textInsert non-formatted text here This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ...

Contents

Early life

William was born in Falaise, Normandy, the illegitimate and only son of Robert I, Duke of Normandy, who named him as heir to Normandy. His mother, Herleva (among other names), who later had two sons to another father, was the daughter of Fulbert, most probably a local tanner. He also had a sister, Adelaide of Normandy, also through Robert and Herleva. Later in life the enemies of William are said to have commented derisively that William stank like a tanner shop, and the residents of besieged Alençon hung skins from the city walls to taunt him. Falaise is a commune in the Calvados département, in the Basse-Normandie administrative région, in Normandy, north-western France. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... Illegitimacy is the status that was once commonly ascribed to individuals born to parents who were not married. ... Robert I, called The Magnificent (French, le Magnifique) for his love of finery, and also called The Devil was the son of Duke Richard II of Normandy and Judith, daughter of Conan I, Duke of Brittany. ... Herleva (c. ... Herluin, Viscount of Conteville (1001–1087) was a Norman nobleman. ... Tanning is the process of converting putrescible skin into non-putrescible leather, usually with tannin, an acidic chemical compound that prevents decomposition and often imparts color. ... Princess Adelaide of Normandy (c. ... Alençon is a town in Normandy, France, préfecture (capital) of the Orne département. ...


William is believed to have been born in either 1027 or 1028, and more likely in the autumn of the later year.[1] He was born the grandnephew of Queen Emma of Normandy, wife of King Ethelred the Unready and later of King Canute the Great.[4] For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... Queen Emma of Normandy receiving the Encomium Emmae, with her sons Harthacanute and Edward the Confessor in the background. ... Ethelred II (c. ... Canute the Great, or Canute I, also known as Cnut in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den Store, Danish: Knud den Store) (died November 12, 1035) was a Viking king of England and Denmark, and Norway, and of...


Duke of Normandy

By his father's will, William succeeded him as Duke of Normandy at age eight in 1035 and was known as Duke William of Normandy (French: Guillaume, duc de Normandie; Latin: Guglielmus Dux Normanniae). Plots by rival Norman noblemen to usurp his place cost William three guardians, though not Count Alan of Brittany, who was a later guardian. William was supported by King Henry I of France, however. He was knighted by Henry at age 15. By the time William turned 19 he was successfully dealing with threats of rebellion and invasion. With the assistance of Henry, William finally secured control of Normandy by defeating rebel Norman barons at Caen in the Battle of Val-ès-Dunes in 1047, obtaining the Truce of God, which was backed by the Roman Catholic Church. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... This is a family tree of the Dukes of Brittany, from the 9th century, to the annexation by France in 1514. ... Henry I (French: Henri Ier) (May 4, 1008–August 4, 1060) was King of France from 1031 to 1060. ... , Caen (pronounced ) is a commune of northwestern France. ... The Battle of Val-ès-Dunes was fought in 1047 by the combined forces of William, Duke of Normandy and King Henry I of France against the forces of several rebel Norman barons, led by Guy of Burgundy. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ...


Against the wishes of Pope Leo IX, William married Matilda of Flanders in 1053 in the Cathedral of Notre Dame at Eu, Normandy (Seine-Maritime). At the time, William was about 24 years old and Matilda was 22. William is said to have been a faithful and loving husband, and their marriage produced four sons and six daughters. In repentance for what was a consanguine marriage (they were distant cousins), William donated St-Stephen's church (l'Abbaye-aux-Hommes) and Matilda donated Sainte-Trinité church (Abbaye aux Dames). Leo IX, born Bruno of Eguisheim-Dagsburg (June 21, 1002 – April 19, 1054) was Pope from February 12, 1049 to his death. ... Matilda of Flanders (c. ... This article is about the Notre-Dame cathedral in Paris. ... Seine-Maritime is a French département in Normandy. ... The Abbaye-aux-Hommes ( man monastery Saint Étienne) is considered together with the neighbouring woman Mrs. ... William I the Conquerer and his wife Matilda founded both LAbbaye aux Dames and LAbbaye aux Hommes. ...


Feeling threatened by the increase in Norman power resulting from William's noble marriage, Henry I attempted to invade Normandy twice (1054 and 1057), without success. Already a charismatic leader, William attracted strong support within Normandy, including the loyalty of his half-brothers Odo of Bayeux and Robert, Count of Mortain, who played significant roles in his life. Later, he benefitted from the weakening of two competing power centers as a result of the deaths of Henry I and of Geoffrey II of Anjou, in 1060. In 1062 William invaded and took control of the county of Maine, which had been a fief of Anjou.[5] Odo of Bayeux (c. ... Robert, Count of Mortain (c. ... Geoffrey II of Anjou, called Martel (the Hammer), was count of Anjou from 1040 to 1060. ...


English succession

Upon the death of the childless Edward the Confessor, the English throne was fiercely disputed by three claimants -- William, Harold Godwinson, the powerful Earl of Wessex, and the Viking King Harald III of Norway, known as Harald Hadraada. William had a tenuous blood claim, through his great aunt Emma (wife of Ethelred and mother of Edward). William also contended that Edward, who had spent much of his life in exile in Normandy during the Danish occupation of England, had promised William the throne when William visited Edward in London in 1052. Finally, William claimed that Harold had pledged allegiance to him in 1064. William had rescued the shipwrecked Harold from the count of Ponthieu, and together they had defeated Conan II, Count of Brittany. On that occasion, William knighted Harold, and deceived him by having him swear loyalty to William over the concealed bones of a saint.[6] St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ... Harold Godwinson (Haraldur Guðinason), or Harold II (c. ... For the helicopter, see Westland Wessex. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... Queen Emma of Normandy receiving the Encomium Emmae, with her sons Harthacanute and Edward the Confessor in the background. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Ponthieu is a former province of northern France. ... Conan II of Rennes (died 1066) was duke of Brittany, from 1040 to his death. ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ...


In January 1066, however, in accordance with Edward's last will and by vote of the Witenagemot, Harold Godwinson was crowned King by Archbishop Aldred. Immediately the new monarch raised a large fleet of ships and mobilized a force of militia, arranging these around the coasts to anticipate attack from several directions. Harold, after defeating his brother Tostig Godwinson and Harald Hardrada in the north, marched his army 241 miles to meet the invading William in the south. Their forces met at what is now called the Battle of Hastings where it is said that Harold Godwinson was shot through the eye with an arrow and died. Biblical pharaoh depicted as an Anglo-Saxon king with his witan (11th century) The Witenagemot (also called the Witan, more properly the title of its members) was a political institution in Anglo-Saxon England which operated between approximately the 7th century and 11th century. ... Aldred, or Ealdred (d. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... Tostig Godwinson (1026? – September 25, 1066) was an Anglo-Saxon earl of Northumbria and brother of King Harold II of England, the last Anglo-Saxon King of England. ... Belligerents Normans supported by: Bretons (one third of total), Flemings, French Anglo-Saxons, the Þingalið Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson † Strength 7,400-8,400 (maximum 2,200 cavalry, 1,700 archers, 4,500 men-at-arms) 7,500 (2,000 housecarls, 5,500 fyrd) Casualties...


Norman invasion

Meanwhile, William submitted his claim to the English throne to Pope Alexander II, who sent him a consecrated banner in support. Then, William organized a council of war at Lillebonne and openly began assembling an army in Normandy. Offering promises of English lands and titles, he amassed at Saint-Valery-sur-Somme a considerable invasion force of 600 ships and 7,000 men, consisting of Normans, French mercenaries, and numerous foreign knights. Initially, Harold opposed William with a large army on the south coast of England and a fleet of ships guarding the English Channel.[6] Alexander II (died April 21, 1073), born Anselmo da Baggio , Pope from 1061 to 1073, was a native of Milan. ... To consecrate an inaminate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... Lillebonne is a town of France in the département of Seine-Maritime, 3. ... Saint-Valery-sur-Somme is a large village and canton of the Somme département. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ...

Statue of William the Conqueror, holding Domesday Book on the West Front of Lichfield Cathedral.
Statue of William the Conqueror, holding Domesday Book on the West Front of Lichfield Cathedral.

Fortuitously, however, William's crossing was delayed by weeks of unfavourable winds. William managed to keep his army together during the wait, but Harold's was diminished by dwindling supplies and falling morale with the arrival of the harvest season.[7] He also consolidated his ships in London, leaving the English Channel unguarded. Then came the news that Harald III of Norway, allied with Tostig, had landed ten miles from York. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 541 KB)Sculpture of King William I on the exterior of Lichfield Cathedral I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 541 KB)Sculpture of King William I on the exterior of Lichfield Cathedral I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... A line drawing entitled Domesday Book from Andrew Williamss Historic Byways and Highways of Old England. ... The West Front of Lichfield Cathedral Lichfield Cathedral is situated in Lichfield, Staffordshire, England. ... Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... Harald III Sigurdsson (1015 – September 25, 1066), later surnamed Harald Hardråde (Old Norse: Haraldr harðráði, roughly translated as stern counsel or hard ruler) was the king of Norway from 1047[1] until 1066. ... For other uses, see York (disambiguation). ...


Before Harold could return, the wind direction turned and William had crossed, landing his army at Pevensey Bay (Sussex) on September 28. Then he moved to Hastings, a few miles to the east, where he built a prefabricated wooden castle for a base of operations. From there, he ravaged the hinterland and waited for Harold's return from the north.[8] Pevensey is a small village and civil parish (1991 pop. ... This article refers to the historic county in England. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Hastings (disambiguation). ...


Battle of Hastings

On October 13, William received news that the already weakened army led by Harold was approaching from London, and at dawn the next day, William left the castle with his army and advanced towards the enemy. Harold had taken a defensive position atop the Senlac Hill/Senlac ridge, about seven miles from Hastings, at present-day Battle, East Sussex. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


The Battle of Hastings lasted all day. Although the numbers on each side were about equal, William had both cavalry and infantry, including many archers, while Harold had only foot soldiers and few if any archers.[9] Along the ridge's border, formed as a wall of shields, the English soldiers at first stood so effectively that William's army was thrown back with heavy casualties. William rallied his troops, however -- reportedly raising his helmet, as shown in the Bayeux Tapestry, to quell rumors of his death. Meanwhile, many of the English had pursued the fleeing Normans on foot, allowing the Norman cavalry to attack them repeatedly from the rear as his infantry pretended to retreat further.[10] Norman arrows also took their toll, progressively weakening the English wall of shields. A final Norman cavalry attack decided the battle irrevocably, resulting in the deaths of Harold, killed by an arrow in the eye, and two of his brothers, Gyrth and Leofwine Godwinson. At dusk, the English army made their last stand. By that night, the Norman victory was complete and the remaining English soldiers fled in fear.


March to London

For two weeks, William waited for a formal surrender of the English throne, but the Witenagemot proclaimed the quite young Edgar Ætheling instead, without coronation though. Thus, William's next target was London, approaching proudly through the important territories of Kent, via Dover and Canterbury, inspiring fear in the English. However, at London, William's advance was beaten back at London Bridge, and he decided to march westward and to storm London from the northwest. After receiving continental reinforcements, William crossed the Thames at Wallingford, and there he forced the surrender of Archbishop Stigand (one of Edgar's lead supporters), in early December. William reached Berkhamsted a few days later where Ætheling relinquished the English crown personally and the exhausted Saxon noblemen of England surrendered definitively. Although William was acclaimed then as English King, he requested a coronation in London. As William I, he was formally crowned on Christmas day 1066, in Westminster Abbey, by Archbishop Aldred.[6] Biblical pharaoh depicted as an Anglo-Saxon king with his witan (11th century) The Witenagemot (also called the Witan, more properly the title of its members) was a political institution in Anglo-Saxon England which operated between approximately the 7th century and 11th century. ... Edgar Ætheling[1], also known as Edgar the Outlaw, (c. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... , Dover is a major channel port in the English county of Kent. ... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... For other uses, see London Bridge (disambiguation). ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... Map sources for Wallingford at grid reference SU6089 Wallingford is a small town in Oxfordshire in southern England. ... This man should not be confused with Stigand of Selsey, the last bishop of Selsey. ... , Berkhamsted is a historic town of some 19,000 people. ... Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Aldred, or Ealdred (d. ...


English resistance

Although the south of England submitted quickly to Norman rule, resistance in the north continued for six more years until 1072. During the first two years, King William I suffered many revolts throughout England (Dover, western Mercia, Wales, Exeter). Also, in 1068, Harold's illegitimate sons attempted an invasion of the southwestern peninsula, but William defeated them. , Dover is a major channel port in the English county of Kent. ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... This article is about the country. ... The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in the southwest of England, also known as the West Country. ...


For William I, the worst crisis came from Northumbria, which had still not submitted to his realm. In 1068, with Edgar Ætheling, both Mercia and Northumbria revolted. William could suppress these, but Edgar fled to Scotland where Malcolm III of Scotland protected him. Furthermore, Malcolm married Edgar's sister Margaret, with much éclat, stressing the English balance of power against William. Under such circumstances, Northumbria rebelled, besieging York. Then, Edgar resorted also to the Danes, who disembarked with a large fleet at Northumbria, claiming the English crown for their King Sweyn II. Scotland joined the rebellion as well. The rebels easily captured York and its castle. However, William could contain them at Lincoln. After dealing with a new wave of revolts at western Mercia, Exeter, Dorset, and Somerset, William defeated his northern foes decisively at the River Aire, retrieving York, while the Danish army swore to depart. Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... Events Emperor Go-Sanjo ascends the throne of Japan William the Conqueror takes Exeter after a brief siege Births Henry I of England (d. ... Edgar Ætheling[1], also known as Edgar the Outlaw, (c. ... This article is about the country. ... Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... For other uses, see York (disambiguation). ... Coin struck for Sweyn II of Denmark, ca. ... For other uses, see York (disambiguation). ... A view from the outside of the tower York Castle is part of the city of York. ... Lincoln (pronounced //) is a cathedral city and county town of Lincolnshire, England. ... The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in the southwest of England, also known as the West Country. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dÉ”.sÉ™t], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... Gordale Beck flows out of Gordale Scar to join the Aire. ...


William then devastated Northumbria between the Humber and Tees rivers, with his Harrying of the North. This devastation included setting fire to the vegetation, houses and even tools to work the fields. He also burnt crops, killed livestock and sowed the fields and land with salt, to stunt growth. After this cruel treatment the land did not recover for more than 100 years. The region ended up absolutely deprived, losing its traditional autonomy towards England. However it may have stopped future rebellions, scaring the English people in obedience. Then, the Danish king disembarked in person, readying his army to restart the war, but William suppressed such threat with a payment of gold. Subsequently in 1071, William defeated the last rebel focus of the north through an improvised pontoon, subduing the Ely island at which the Danes had gathered. In 1072, he invaded Scotland, defeating Malcolm and gaining a temporary peace. In 1074, Edgar Ætheling submitted definitively to William. River Hull tidal barrier. ... The Tees, a river of England, rises on the eastward slope of Cross Fell in the Pennine Chain, and traverses a valley about 85 miles (137 km) in length to the North Sea. ... The Harrying (or Harrowing) of the North was a series of campaigns waged by William the Conqueror, King of England, in the winter of 1069–1070 in order to subjugate the north of his newfound English kingdom (primarily Northumbria and the Midlands) as part of the Norman Conquest of England. ... The Isle of Ely in Cambridgeshire, England, is a traditional region around the city of Ely. ...


In 1075, during William's absence, the Revolt of the Earls was confronted successfully by Odo. In 1080, William sent his half brothers Odo and Robert, who stormed Northumbria and Scotland, respectively. Eventually, the Pope protested against the excessive mistreatment which had been exerted by the Normans against the English people. Indeed, until overcoming all rebellions, William had conciliated with the English church although he persecuted it ferociously afterward. The Revolt of the Earls in 1075 was a rebellion of three earls against William I of England (William the Conqueror). ...


Reign in England

Events

As was usual for his descendants also William spent much time (11 years, since 1072) at Normandy, ruling the islands through his writs. Nominally still a vassal state, owing its entire loyalty to the French king, Normandy arose suddenly as a powerful region, alarming the other French Dukes which reacted by attacking it persistently. As Duke of Normandy, William was obsessed with conquering Brittany, and the French King Philip I admonished him. Nonetheless, in 1086, William invaded Brittany, forcing the flight of the Duke Alan IV. A peace treaty was signed, and William betrothed Constance (who was poisoned a few years later) to Alan. In law, a writ is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction. ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ... Philip I (23 May 1053 – 29 July 1108) was King of France from 1060 to his death. ... Alan IV of Cornwall (died 1119) was duke of Brittany, from 1084 to 1112. ...


The mischief of William's elder son Robert arose after a prank of his brothers William and Henry, who doused him with filthy water. The situation became a large scale Norman rebellion. Only with King Philip's additional military support William was able to confront Robert, who had based at Flanders. During the battle in 1079, William was unhorsed and wounded by Robert, who lowered his sword only after recognizing him. The embarrassed William returned to Rouen, abandoning the expedition. In 1080, Matilda reconciled both, and William revoked Robert's inheritance. For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ...


Odo caused many troubles to William, and he was imprisoned in 1082, losing his English estate and all royal functions, except the religious ones. In 1083, Matilda died, and William became more tyrannical over his realm.


Reforms

The signatures of William I and Matilda are the first two large crosses on the Accord of Winchester from 1072.
The signatures of William I and Matilda are the first two large crosses on the Accord of Winchester from 1072.

William initiated many major changes. He increased the function of the traditional English shires (autonomous administrative regions), which he brought under central control; he decreased the power of the earls by restricting them to one shire apiece. All administrative functions of his government remained fixed at specific English towns, except the court itself; they would progressively strengthen, and the English institutions became amongst the most sophisticated in Europe. In 1085, in order to ascertain the extent of his new dominions and to improve taxation, William commissioned all his counselors for the compilation of the Domesday Book, which was published in 1086. The book was a survey of England's productive capacity similar to a modern census. accord of winchester signed 1072 by william the conqueror & his wife this elevated canterbury over york as to whose archbishop would be the highest primate in england the large Xs are the signatures of william & matilda, the one under theirs is lanfrancs, and the other bishops are under his... accord of winchester signed 1072 by william the conqueror & his wife this elevated canterbury over york as to whose archbishop would be the highest primate in england the large Xs are the signatures of william & matilda, the one under theirs is lanfrancs, and the other bishops are under his... The signatures of William I and Maud (beside the first two large Xs) on the Accord of Winchester from 1072. ... A shire is an administrative area of Great Britain and Australia. ... For people, see Earl (given name) and Earl (surname). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... April 2 - Emperor Zhezong became emperor of Song Dynasty. ... A line drawing entitled Domesday Book from Andrew Williamss Historic Byways and Highways of Old England. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ...


William also ordered many castles, keeps, and mottes, among them the Tower of London's foundation (the White Tower), which were built throughout England. These ensured effectively that the many rebellions by the English people or his own followers did not succeed. For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Keep (disambiguation). ... A motte-and-bailey is a form of castle. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, on the north bank of the River Thames. ... The White Tower, as seen from the South West, showing the original - but now externally much altered entrance at ground level The White Tower The White Tower is a central tower at the Tower of London. ...


His conquest also led to French (especially, but not only, the Norman French) replacing English as the language of the ruling classes for nearly 300 years.[11][12] Furthermore, the original Anglo-Saxon cultural influence of England became mingled with the Norman one; thus the Anglo-Norman culture came into being. Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain by Germanic settlers and Roman auxiliary troops from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the Northern Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


William is said to have eliminated the native aristocracy in as little as four years. Systematically, he despoiled those English aristocrats who either opposed the Normans or who died without issue. Thus, most English estates and titles of nobility were handed to the Norman noblemen. Many English aristocrats fled to Flanders and Scotland; others may have been sold into slavery overseas. Some escaped to join the Byzantine Empire's Varangian Guard, and went on to fight the Normans in Sicily. By 1070, the indigenous nobility had ceased to be an integral part of the English landscape, and by 1086, it maintained control of just 8% of its original land-holdings.[13] However, to the new Norman noblemen, William handed the English parcels of land piecemeal, dispersing these wide. Thus nobody would try conspiring against him without jeopardizing their own estates within the so unstable England. Effectively, this strengthened William's political stand as a monarch. For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Slave redirects here. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Varangians or Variags were Vikings who travelled eastwards from Sweden and Norway. ...


William also seized and depopulated many miles of land (36 parishes), turning it into the royal New Forest region to support his enthusiastic enjoyment of hunting.[14] “Miles” redirects here. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... For other uses, see New Forest (disambiguation). ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ...


Death, burial, and succession

In 1087 in France, William burned Mantes (50 km west of Paris), besieging the town. However, he fell off his horse, suffering fatal abdominal injuries by the saddle pommel. On his deathbed, William divided his succession for his sons, sparking strife between them. Despite William's reluctance, his combative elder son Robert received the Duchy of Normandy, as Robert II. William Rufus (his third son) was next English king, as William II. William's youngest son Henry received 5,000 silver pounds, which would be earmarked to buy land. He also became King Henry I of England after William II died without issue. While on his deathbed, William pardoned many of his political adversaries, including Odo. Mantes-la-Jolie or Mantes or Mantes-sur-Seine is a commune of northern France, the capital of an arrondissement (sous-préfecture) and the third largest town in the département of Yvelines on the left bank of the Seine, some 30 miles north west of Paris. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Rebellion of 1088 occurred after the death of William the Conqueror and concerned the division of lands in England and Normandy between his two sons William Rufus and Robert Curthose. ... Robert II (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. ... William II (c. ... Henry I (c. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... GBP redirects here. ...


William died at age 59 at the Convent of St Gervais near Rouen, France, on 9 September 1087. William was buried in the Abbaye-aux-Hommes, which he had erected, in Caen, Normandy. , Rouen (pronounced in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Abbaye-aux-Hommes ( man monastery Saint Étienne) is considered together with the neighbouring woman Mrs. ... , Caen (pronounced ) is a commune of northwestern France. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ...


According to some sources, a fire broke out during the funeral; the original owner of the land on which the church was built claimed he had not been paid yet, demanding 60 shillings, which William's son Henry had to pay on the spot; and, in a most unregal postmortem, William's corpulent body would not fit in the stone sarcophagus. The shilling was a British coin first issued in 1548 for Henry VIII, although arguably the testoon issued about 1487 for Henry VII was the first shilling. ... Obesity is a condition in which the natural energy reserve, stored in the fatty tissue of humans and other mammals, is increased to a point where it is associated with certain health conditions or increased mortality. ... The Etruscan Sarcophagus of the Spouses, at the National Etruscan Museum. ...


William's grave is currently marked by a marble slab with a Latin inscription; the slab dates from the early 19th century. The grave was defiled twice, once during the French Wars of Religion, when his bones were scattered across the town of Caen, and again during the French Revolution. Following those events, only William's left femur remains in the tomb. For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... , Caen (pronounced ) is a commune of northwestern France. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Legacy

William's invasion was the last time that England was successfully conquered by a foreign power. Although there would be a number of other attempts over the centuries, the best that could be achieved would be excursions by foreign troops, such as the Raid on the Medway during the Second Anglo-Dutch War, but no actual conquests such as William's. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Second Anglo-Dutch War was fought between England and the United Provinces from 4 March 1665 until 31 July 1667. ...


As Duke of Normandy and King of England he passed the titles on to his descendants. Other territories would be acquired by marriage or conquest and, at their height, these possessions would be known as the Angevin Empire. This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... The term Angevin Empire describes a collection of states ruled by the Angevin Plantagenet dynasty. ...


They included many lands in France, such as Normandy and Aquitaine, but the question of jurisdiction over these territories would be the cause of much conflict and bitter rivalry between England and France, which took up much of the Middle Ages, including the Hundred Years War and, some might argue, continued as far as the Battle of Waterloo of 1815. (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Dordogne Gironde Landes Lot-et-Garonne Pyrénées-Atlantiques Arrondissements 18 Cantons 235 Communes 2,296 Statistics Land area1 41,308 km² Population (Ranked 6th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000...


Physical appearance

No authentic portrait of William has been found. Nonetheless, he was depicted as a man of fair stature with remarkably strong arms, "with which he could shoot a bow at full gallop". William showed a magnificent appearance, possessing a fierce countenance. He enjoyed an excellent health; nevertheless his noticeable corpulence augmented eventually so much that French King Philip I commented that William looked like a pregnant woman.[15] This article is about the projectile weapon bow. ... Obesity is a condition in which the natural energy reserve, stored in the fatty tissue of humans and other mammals, is increased to a point where it is associated with certain health conditions or increased mortality. ... Philip I (23 May 1053 – 29 July 1108) was King of France from 1060 to his death. ...


Ancestors

Richard the Good as part of the Six Dukes of Normandy statue in the town square of Falaise. ... Gunnora or Gunnor (c. ... Robert I, called The Magnificent (French, le Magnifique) for his love of finery, and also called The Devil was the son of Duke Richard II of Normandy and Judith, daughter of Conan I, Duke of Brittany. ... Judicael Berengar[1] was Count of Rennes, son and successor to Berengar of Rennes. ... Conan I of Rennes (927 - June 27 992), was count of Rennes and duke of Brittany, from 990 to his death. ... Gerberge or Gerberga was the name of several queens and noblewomen among the Franks. ... Geoffrey I of Anjou, known as Grisegonelle (Greymantle), was count of Anjou from 958 to 987. ... Ermengarde was a Princess of Anjou who was also successively Duchess of Aquitaine, Duchess of Brittany, and the patron of Fontevraud Abbey. ... Fulbert of Falaise (fl. ... Herleva (c. ...

Descendants

Family tree
Family tree

William is known to have had nine children, though Agatha, a tenth daughter who died a virgin, appears in some sources. Several other unnamed daughters are also mentioned as being betrothed to notable figures of that time. Despite rumours to the contrary (such as claims that William Peverel was a bastard of William)[16] there is no evidence that he had any illegitimate children,[17] Image File history File links Cronological_tree_william_I.svg Genealogy of William the conqueror back up to Rollo. ... Image File history File links Cronological_tree_william_I.svg Genealogy of William the conqueror back up to Rollo. ... William Peverel, c. ...

  1. Robert Curthose (1054–1134), Duke of Normandy, married Sybil of Conversano, daughter of Geoffrey of Conversano.
  2. Richard (c. 1055 – c. 1081), Duke of Bernay, killed by a stag in New Forest.
  3. Adeliza (or Alice) (c. 1055 – c. 1065), reportedly betrothed to Harold II of England.
  4. Cecilia (or Cecily) (c. 1056 – 1126), Abbess of Holy Trinity, Caen.
  5. William "Rufus" (c. 1056 – 1100), King of England.
  6. Agatha (c. 1064 – 1079), betrothed to Alfonso VI of Castile.
  7. Constance (c. 1066 – 1090), married Alan IV Fergent, Duke of Brittany; poisoned, possibly by her own servants.
  8. Adela (c. 1067 – 1137), married Stephen, Count of Blois.
  9. Henry "Beauclerc" (1068–1135), King of England, married Edith of Scotland, daughter of Malcolm III, King of the Scots. His second wife was Adeliza of Leuven.

Robert II (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. ... For other uses, see New Forest (disambiguation). ... Name Harold Godwinson Lived c. ... William II (c. ... Alfonso VI (before June 1040 – July 1, 1109), nicknamed the Brave, was King of León from 1065 to 1109 and King of Castile since 1072 after his brothers death. ... Alan IV of Cornwall (died 1119) was duke of Brittany, from 1084 to 1112. ... Coat of arms of the Dukes of Brittany from 1312; described by one of the few known one-word blazons in existence, simply Ermine. ... Adela of Blois (c. ... Stephen II Henry (c. ... Henry I (c. ... Edith of Scotland, (c. ... Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. ...

Fictional depictions

William I has appeared as a character in only a few stage and screen productions. The one-act play A Choice of Kings by John Mortimer deals with his deception of Harold after the latter's shipwreck. Julian Glover portrayed him in a 1966 TV adaptation of this play in the ITV Play of the Week series. This article is about the writer. ... Julian Wyatt Glover (born March 27, 1935) is an English actor. ... For other uses, see ITV (disambiguation). ...


William has also been portrayed on screen by Thayer Roberts in the film Lady Godiva of Coventry (1955), John Carson in the BBC TV series Hereward the Wake (1965), and Michael Gambon in the TV drama Blood Royal: William the Conqueror (1990). John Carson (born 28 February 1927 in Ceylon) is a British actor noted for his appearances in film and television. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Sir Michael John Gambon, KBE (born October 19, 1940), is an acclaimed Irish-British actor who has worked in television, film and theatre. ...


On a less serious note, he has been portrayed by David Lodge in an episode of the TV comedy series Carry On Laughing entitled "One in the Eye for Harold" (1975), James Fleet in the humorous BBC show The Nearly Complete and Utter History of Everything (1999), and Gavin Abbott in an episode of the British educational TV series Historyonics entitled "1066" (2004). See: David Lodge (actor) for the British character actor. ... Carry on Laughing was a television sitcom produced for ATV which featured several stars of the famous Carry On comedy film series. ... James Fleet is a British actor, most famous for his role as the bumbling and well-meaning Tom in the 1994 film Four Weddings and a Funeral, a 1994 British romantic comedy film directed by Mike Newell. ...


References

  1. ^ a b The official web site of the British Monarchy puts his birth at "around 1028", which may reasonably be taken as definitive.
    The frequently encountered date of 14 October 1024 is likely to be spurious. It was promulgated by Thomas Roscoe in his 1846 biography The life of William the Conqueror. The year 1024 is apparently calculated from the fictive deathbed confession of William recounted by Ordericus Vitalis (who was about twelve when the Conqueror died); in it William allegedly claimed to be about sixty-three or four years of age at his death bed in 1087. The birth day and month are suspiciously the same as those of the Battle of Hastings. This date claim, repeated by other Victorian historians (e.g. Jacob Abbott), has been entered unsourced into the LDS genealogical database, and has found its way thence into countless personal genealogies. Cf. The Conqueror and His Companions by J.R. Planché, Somerset Herald. London: Tinsley Brothers, 1874.
  2. ^ Dr. Mike Ibeji (2001-05-01). 1066 (HTML). BBC. Retrieved on 2007-07-16.
  3. ^ "We must see how one who started with all the disadvantages which are implied in his earlier surname of the Bastard came to win and to deserve his later surnames of the Conqueror and the Great." Edward Augustus Freeman, William the Conqueror (1888), Chapter 1 (p. 7 of the 2004 reprint by Batoche Books.
  4. ^ Powell, John, Magill's Guide to Military History, Salem Press, Inc., 2001, p. 226. ISBN 0893560197.
  5. ^ David Carpenter, The Struggle for Mastery: Britain 1066-1284 (2003).
  6. ^ a b c Clark, George [1971] (1978). "The Norman Conquest", English History: A Survey. Oxford University Press/Book Club Associates. ISBN 0198223390. 
  7. ^ Carpenter, p. 72.
  8. ^ Carpenter, p. 72.
  9. ^ Carpenter, p. 73.
  10. ^ Ibid.
  11. ^ While English emerged as a popular vernacular and literary language within one hundred years of the Conquest, it was only in 1362 that King Edward III abolished the use of French in Parliament
  12. ^ Alexander Herman Schutz and Urban Tigner Holmes, A History of the French Language, Biblo and Tannen Publishers, 1938. pp. 44-45. ISBN 0819601918.
  13. ^ Douglas, David Charles. English Historical Documents, Routledge, 1996, p. 22. ISBN 0415143675.
  14. ^ Based on William of Malmesbury's Historia Anglorum.
    He was of just stature, ordinary corpulence, fierce countenance; his forehead was bare of hair; of such great strength of arm that it was often a matter of surprise, that no one was able to draw his bow, which himself could bend when his horse was in full gallop; he was majestic whether sitting or standing, although the protuberance of his belly deformed his royal person; of excellent health so that he was never confined with any dangerous disorder, except at the last; so given to the pleasures of the chase, that as I have before said, ejecting the inhabitants, he let a space of many miles grow desolate that, when at liberty from other avocations, he might there pursue his pleasures.
    See English Monarch: The House of Normandy.
  15. ^ Spartacus Schoolnet, retrieved 17 July 2007.
  16. ^ The Conqueror and His Companions (J.R Planche 1874)
  17. ^ William "the Conqueror" (Guillaume "le Conquérant").

is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Orderic Vitalis (1075 – c. ... Belligerents Normans supported by: Bretons (one third of total), Flemings, French Anglo-Saxons, the Þingalið Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson † Strength 7,400-8,400 (maximum 2,200 cavalry, 1,700 archers, 4,500 men-at-arms) 7,500 (2,000 housecarls, 5,500 fyrd) Casualties... Jacob Abbott (November 14, 1803 – October 31, 1879) was an American writer of childrens books. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Edward Augustus Freeman (August 2, 1823 - March 16, 1892) was an English historian. ... Sir George Norman Clark (1890-1979, knighted 1953) was a 20th Century British historian. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... This article is about the King of England. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ...

Further reading

  • Bates, David (1989) William the Conqueror, London : George Philip, 198 p. ISBN 978-0-7524-1980-0
  • Douglas, David C. (1999) William the Conqueror; the Norman impact upon England, Yale English monarchs series, London : Yale University Press, 476 p., ISBN 0-300-07884-6
  • Howarth, David (1977) 1066 The Year of the Conquest, London : Collins, 207 p., ISBN 0-00-211845-9
  • Prescott, Hilda F.M. (1932) Son of Dust, reprinted 1978: London : White Lion, 288 p. ISBN 0-85617-239-1
  • Savage, Anne (transl. & coll.) (2002) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, London : Greenwich Editions, 288 p., ISBN 0-86288-440-3

Professor David Bates is a British historian. ... David Howarth (1912 – 1991) was a British historian and author. ... Hilda Francis Margaret Prescott (1896 - 1972) H F M Prescott, FRSL, author, academic and historian, was born Feb 22, 1896, the daughter of Rev James Mulleneux Prescott and Margaret Prescott (nee Warburton). ... Anne Savage, born July 27, 1896 – died March 25, 1971, was a Canadian painter and art teacher. ... The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of (mainly) secondary source documents narrating the history of the Anglo-Saxons and their settlement in Britain. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
William I of England
William I of England
Born: 1028 Died: 9 September 1087
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Edgar Ætheling
King of England
10661087
Succeeded by
William II
French nobility
Preceded by
Robert the Magnificent
Duke of Normandy
10351087
Succeeded by
Robert Curthose
Family information
Richard II of Normandy
House of Norman
Robert II
Duke of Normandy
William I of England
Judith of Brittany
House of Rennes
Fulbert of Falaise Herleva of Falaise
Doda
Notes and references
1. Tompsett, Brian, Directory of Royal Genealogical Data (Hull, UK: University of Hull, 2005).
2. Ross, Kelley L., The Proceedings of the Friesian School (Los Angeles, US: Los Angeles Valley College, 2007).

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The nobility (la noblesse) in France in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period had specific legal and financial rights and prerogatives (the first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI of France after 1440), including exemption from paying the taille (except for non... Robert I, called The Magnificent (French, le Magnifique) for his love of finery, and also called The Devil was the son of Duke Richard II of Normandy and Judith, daughter of Conan I, Duke of Brittany. ... Bold textInsert non-formatted text here This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ... Events Harthacanute becomes king of Denmark. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... Robert II (called Curthose for his short squat appearance) (c. ... Richard the Good as part of the Six Dukes of Normandy statue in the town square of Falaise. ... The Norman dynasty is a series of four monarchs, who ruled England from the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066, until 1154. ... Robert, called The Magnificent (French, le Magnifique) for his love of finery, and also called The Devil was the son of Duke Richard II of Normandy and Judith, daughter of Conan I, Duke of Brittany. ... Originally from Bamberg in Franconia, now northern Bavaria, the Babenbergs or Babenberger ruled Austria as counts of the march and dukes from 976 - 1248, before the rise of the house of Habsburg. ... Fulbert of Falaise (fl. ... Herleva (c. ... For the various rulers of the kingdoms within England prior to its formal unification, during the Heptarchy, see Bretwalda. ... Bretwalda is an Anglo-Saxon term, the first record of which comes from the late ninth-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Northumberland. ... Ælle was king of the South Saxons from 477 to perhaps as late as 514, and was named Bretwalda by Bede, who adds that he was overlord of the English south of the Humber river. ... Ceawlin of Wessex (also spelled Ceaulin or Caelin) is recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as being king of the West Saxons, or Wessex from 560 to 591, and named by Bede in his Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum as the second king to hold imperium over other Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. ... Ethelbert (or Æthelbert, or Aethelberht) (means roughly Magnificent Noble) (c. ... Rædwald, son of Tytila, was King of the East Angles from c 600 AD until his death in c 624 AD. From c 616 he became the most powerful of the English rulers south of the River Humber, and by military action installed a Northumbrian ruler acquiescent to his... Saint Edwin (alternately Eadwine or Æduini) (c. ... Oswald (c. ... Oswiu (612–February 15, 670), also written as Oswio, Oswy, and Osuiu was an Anglo-Saxon Bretwalda. ... Wulfhere (d. ... For the later earl, see Earl Aethelred of Mercia. ... Ethelbald (or Æthelbald) (died 757) was the King of Mercia in England from 716 until his death. ... This article is about Offa of Mercia. ... Coenwulf (or Cenwulf) (died 821) was King of Mercia from 796 to 821. ... Egbert (also Ecgbehrt or Ecgbert, means roughly The shining edge of a blade) (c. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Image File history File links Wyvern. ... For the 10th century Bishop of Sherborne, see Alfred (bishop). ... Edward the Elder (Old English: Ä’adweard se Ieldra) (c. ... Ælfweard (died 2 August 924) was the second known son of Edward the Elder. ... Athelstan redirects here. ... Edmund I (or Eadmund, 921 – May 26, 946), called the Elder, the Deed-Doer, or the Just, was King of England from 939 until his death. ... “Eadred” redirects here. ... Edwy All-Fair or Eadwig (941? – October 1, 959) was the King of England from 955 until his death. ... King Edgar or Eadgar I ( 942 – July 8, 975) was the younger son of King Edmund I of England. ... Not to be confused with Edmund the Martyr. ... Ethelred II (c. ... Sweyn I Forkbeard (actually Svein Otto Haraldsson; in Danish, Svend Tveskæg, originally Svend Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg) (circa 960 - February 3, 1014). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Canute the Great, or Canute I, also known as Cnut in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den Store, Danish: Knud den Store) (died November 12, 1035) was a Viking king of England and Denmark, and Norway, and of... Harold I Harefoot (c. ... Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ... Harold Godwinson (Haraldur Guðinason), or Harold II (c. ... Edgar Ætheling[1], also known as Edgar the Outlaw, (c. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... William II (c. ... Henry I (c. ... Stephen (c. ... Empress Matilda (February 1102 – September 10, 1167; sometimes Maud or Maude), also called Matilda, Countess of Anjou or Matilda, Lady of the English, was the daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... Henry V of England (16 September 1387 – 31 August 1422) was one of the great English warrior kings of the Middle Ages. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... Edward V (4 November 1470 – 1483?) was the King of England from 9 April 1483 until his deposition two months later. ... This article is about King Richard III of England. ... The Tudor Rose: a combination of the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor, was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Edward Tudor redirects here. ... Lady Jane Grey, formally Jane of England (1537 — 12 February 1554), a grand-niece of Henry VIII of England, reigned as uncrowned Queen regnant of the Kingdom of England for nine days[1] in July 1553. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution. ... The English Interregnum was the period of parliamentary and military rule in the land occupied by modern-day England and Wales after the English Civil War. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... James II and VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England, King of Scots,[1] and King of Ireland from 6 February 1685 to 11 December 1688. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702, succeeding William III of England and II of Scotland. ... Not to be confused with United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ... This article is about the year. ... Falaise is a commune in the Calvados département, in the Basse-Normandie administrative région, in Normandy, north-western France. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 9 - The remains of Saint Nicholas were brought to Bari. ... , Rouen (pronounced in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ...


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William I (of England) - MSN Encarta (735 words)
William I (of England), called The Conqueror (1027-1087), first Norman king of England (1066-1087), who has been called one of the first modern kings and is generally regarded as one of the outstanding figures in western European history.
Born in Falaise, France, William was the illegitimate son of Robert I, duke of Normandy, and Arletta, a tanner’s daughter, and is therefore sometimes called William the Bastard.
William met the opposition, which was particularly violent in the north and west, with strong measures; he was responsible for the devastation of great areas of the country, particularly in Yorkshire, where Danish forces had arrived to aid the Saxon rebels.
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