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Encyclopedia > William I, Prince of Orange
William I (William the Silent)
William I (William the Silent)

William (I) of Orange-Nassau (April 24, 1533July 10, 1584), also widely known as William the Silent, was born in the house of Nassau, and became Prince of Orange in 1544. He was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years' War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. Portrait of William of Orange by A.Th. ... Portrait of William of Orange by A.Th. ... The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch Oranje-Nassau), is a family that has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of the Fatherland) organised the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after... For other uses, see Nassau (disambiguation). ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... Events January 25 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne Boleyn, his second Queen consort. ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Nassau was a German state within the Holy Roman Empire. ... // The Principality of Orange The title originally referred to the sovereign principality of Orange in valley of Rhone in southern France, which was a property of the House of Orange (1544 House of Orange-Nassau). ... Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ... The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt from 1568 to 1648 was the secession war between the Netherlands and Spain, as well as subsequent union of Portugal and Spain. ... This article is about the Dutch United Provinces. ... // Events Peace treaty signed at Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War. ...


A wealthy nobleman, William originally served at the court of the Spanish regent. Unhappy with the lack of political power for the local nobility and the Spanish persecution of Dutch Protestants, William joined the Dutch uprising and turned against his former masters. The most influential and politically capable of the rebels, he led the Dutch to several military successes in the fight against the Spanish. Declared an outlaw by the Spanish king in 1580, he was assassinated by Balthasar Gérard (also written as 'Gerardts') in Delft at a time when William's popularity was waning. The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... // High public office A regent, from the Latin regens who reigns is anyone who acts of head of state, especially if not the Monarch (who has higher titles). ... Protestantism is a movement within Christianity, representing a split from the Roman Catholic Church during the mid to late Renaissance in Europe —a period known as the Protestant Reformation. ... Butch Cassidy, a famous Western American outlaw An outlaw, a person living the lifestyle of outlawry, meaning literally outside of the law. ... Events March 1 - Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. ... This is an incomplete list of persons that were assassinated for political and other reasons, and who have individual entries. ... Balthasar Gérard (in Dutch Gerards or Gerardts) (1557-1584) was the assassin of the Dutch independence leader, William the Silent, also known as William I of Orange. ... Delft City Hall (Stadhuis) Flag of Delft Delft is a city in South Holland (Zuid-Holland), the Netherlands, located halfway between Rotterdam and The Hague (Den Haag). ...


There are several explanations for the origin of this nickname "William the Silent". The most common one is that he rarely spoke out clearly on controversial matters at the court or in public, or (by some accounts) even completely avoided speaking about such topics. A nickname is a short, clever, cute, derogatory, or otherwise substitute name for a person or things real name (for example, Nick is short for Nicholas). ...


In the Netherlands, he is also known as the Vader des vaderlands, "Father of the fatherland", and the Dutch national anthem, the Wilhelmus, was written in his honour. A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is formally recognized by a countrys government as their states official national song. ... Wilhelmus van Nassouwe (William of Nassau) is the national anthem of the Netherlands. ...


On April 13, 2005, an online searchable archive of his complete (known) correspondence was made publicly accessible by Het Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis (ING), the Institute for Dutch History. April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...

Contents


Early life

In his years at the court in Brussels, William of Orange was known as the spoilt rich son of a nobleman.
In his years at the court in Brussels, William of Orange was known as the spoilt rich son of a nobleman.

William was born in the castle of Dillenburg in Nassau, present-day Germany. He was the eldest son of William, Count of Nassau and Juliana of Stolberg-Werningerode, and was raised a Lutheran. He had four younger brothers and one sister: John, Louis, Adolf, Henry and Mary. Download high resolution version (600x765, 54 KB)Painting by C Garschagen of William of Orange, made in 1873. ... Download high resolution version (600x765, 54 KB)Painting by C Garschagen of William of Orange, made in 1873. ... Dillenburg (population ca 25,000) is a city in the German district of Lahn-Dill, in the federal state of Hessen. ... Nassau was a German state within the Holy Roman Empire. ... William of Nassau (1487-1559), count of Nassau-Dillenburg, was a nobleman of the house of Nassau. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Count Johan of Nassau (November 22, 1535 – October 8, 1606) was the brother of William I of Orange. ... Louis of Nassau (January 10, 1538 - April 14, 1574) was a brother of William I of Orange. ...


When his cousin, René of Châlon, Prince of Orange, died childless in 1544, the eleven-year-old William inherited all Châlon's property, including the title Prince of Orange. Because of his young age, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V served as the regent of the principality until William was fit to rule. However, Charles V demanded that William receive a Catholic education, and William was sent to Brussels to study under the supervision of Maria of Hungary, sister of Charles V and regent of the Netherlands. In Brussels, he was taught foreign languages and received military and diplomatic education. René of Châlon (February 5, 1519 – July 15, 1544), also known as Renatus of Châlon, was a Prince of the House of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Gelre. ... Charles V Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V (Spanish: Carlos I, Dutch: Karel V, German: Karl V.) (24 February 1500–21 September 1558) is considered (the first) King of Spain though in fact was his son the first who used that title. ... Emblem of the Brussels-Capital Region Flag of The City of Brussels Brussels (Dutch: Brussel, French: Bruxelles, German: Brüssel) is the capital of Belgium and is considered by many to be the headquarters of the European Union, as two of its four main institutions have their headquarters in the... Maria of Austria (1505 – 1558) is also known variously as Mary, Marie or Maria of Hungary (after her marriage) of Austria (due to her country of origin) or of Habsburg acknowledging her powerful grandfather Maximilian I. Born in Brussels, she was promised to the then unborn Louis II of Hungary...


On 6 July 1551, he married Anna van Egmond en Buren, the wealthy heir to the lands of her father, and William earned the titles Lord of Egmond and Count of Buren. They had three children: July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... Events Russia, Reforming Synod of the metropolite Macaire, Orthodoxy: introduction of a calendar of the saints and an ecclesiastical law code ( Stoglav ) Major outbreak of the sweating sickness in England. ...

  1. Maria (1553 – 1554);
  2. Philip-William (1554 – 1618); and
  3. Maria (1556 – 1616).

Later that same year, William was appointed captain in the cavalry. Favored by Charles V, he made quick promotions, and became commander of one of the Emperor's armies at age 22. He was made a member of the Raad van State, the highest political advisory council in the Netherlands1 in 1555, the same year Charles abdicated in favour of his son, Philip II of Spain. Charles had been tolerant of the protestant movement, but his son was a fiercely uncompromising Catholic, and that difference in attitude was to have grave consequences for much of Europe. Philip William, Prince of Orange (° December 19, 1554 - † February 20, 1618). ... Maria of Nassua (1556–1616) was the second daughter of William the Silent by his first wife Anna van Egmond en Buren. ... Captain is both a nautical term and a military rank. ... Italian cavalry officers practice their horsemanship in 1904 outside Rome. ... William I (William the Silent) William I, Prince of Orange, Count of Nassau (April 24, 1533 – July 10, 1584) was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. ... Philip II of Spain (Spanish: Felipe II) - (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598), the first King of Spain understood as the whole peninsula of Hispania (r. ...


His wife Anna died on 24 March 1558, after which William of Orange had a brief relationship with Eva Eliver but the two never married. An illegitimate son, Justines, was born. In 1559, Philip appointed William as the stadtholder (governor) of the provinces Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Burgundy, thereby greatly increasing his political power. March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... Illegitimacy was a term in common usage for the condition of being born of parents who are not validly married to one another; the legal term is bastardy. ... A stadtholder (Dutch: stadhouder meaning representative, a literal translation of the French lieutenant or the Latin locum tenans) was the person who ruled an area in the name of the land owner, in the Netherlands (which includes present-day Belgium) from the 15th to the 18th century. ... Holland is the name of a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands. ... For the South Pacific country, named after the province, see New Zealand; (some notes on how New Zealand got its name are underneath). ... Utrecht is the smallest province of the Netherlands, and is located in the center of the country. ... Coat of arms of the 2nd duchy of JOSH GARLAND Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: Bourgogne) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Pre-Indo-European people, Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic tribes, most importantly the Burgundians and...


From politician to rebel

The Battle of Heiligerlee, fought on 23 May 1568, is usually given as the beginning of the Eighty Years' War.
The Battle of Heiligerlee, fought on 23 May 1568, is usually given as the beginning of the Eighty Years' War.

Although he never directly opposed the Spanish king, William soon became one of the most prominent members of the opposition in the Raad van State, together with Philip de Montmorency, Count of Horn and Lamoral, Count of Egmont. They were mainly seeking for more political power for the Dutch nobility, and complained that too many Spaniards were involved in governing the Netherlands. Download high resolution version (855x641, 246 KB)Battle of Heiligerlee as depicted by Frans Hogenberg (1536-1590) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (855x641, 246 KB)Battle of Heiligerlee as depicted by Frans Hogenberg (1536-1590) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Battle of Heiligerlee in Friesland on 23 May 1568 was part of the Eighty Years War. ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt from 1568 to 1648 was the secession war between the Netherlands and Spain, as well as subsequent union of Portugal and Spain. ... Categories: Stub | Eighty Years War | Admirals ... Count of Egmont Lamoral, Count of Egmont (November 18, 1522 - June 5, 1568) was a general and statesman in Flanders just before the start of the Eighty Years War. ...


William was also dissatisfied with the increasing persecution of Protestants in the Netherlands. Although he was brought up as both a Lutheran and Catholic, William was not a very religious person, and a proponent of freedom of religion. The inquisition policy in the Netherlands, carried out by Cardinal Granvelle, prime minister to the new regent Margaret of Austria (natural half-sister to Philip II), increased opposition to the Spanish rule among the – then mostly Catholic – population of the Netherlands. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Pedro Berruguete. ... Granvelle, portrait by Antonio Moro (1549) Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle (August 20, 1517 _ September 21, 1586) was one of the most influential of the church leaders during the time which immediately followed the appearance of Protestantism in Europe. ... The Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands ruled the Seventeen Provinces, after 1581 only the Southern Netherlands as a representative of the Duke of Burgundy (until 1555), the King of Spain (1555-1706) or the Archduke of Austria (1716-1794), all from the house of Habsburg. ... Margaret of Parma (28 December 1522 - 18 January 1586), duchess of Parma and regent of the Netherlands from 1559 to 1567, was the illegitimate daughter of Charles V. Her mother, Johanna Maria von der Gheest, a servant of Charles de Lalaing, Seigneur de Montigny, was a Fleming. ...


On 25 August 1561, William of Orange married for the second time. His new wife, Anna of Saxony, is described by contemporaries as "ugly and ill-tempered", and it is generally assumed that William married her to gain more influence in Saxony, Hesse and the Palatine. The couple had five children: August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... // Events The Edict of Orleans suspends the persecution of the Huguenots. ... Anna of Saxony (December 23, 1544-December 18, 1577) was the only child and heiress of Maurice, Elector of Saxony, and Agnes of Hesse. ... With an area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ... With an area of 21,110 km² and just over six million inhabitants, Hesse (German: Hessen) is one of Germanys sixteen federal states (Bundesländer). ... See Palatine Hill for geography of Rome. ...

  1. Anna (1562);
  2. Anna (1563 – 1588);
  3. Maurice August Philip (1564 – 1566), Maurice (1567 – 1625); and
  4. Emily (1569 – 1629).

In early 1565, a large group of lesser noblemen, including William's younger brother Louis, formed the Confederacy of Noblemen. On 5 April, they offered a petition to Margaret of Austria, requesting an end to the persecution of Protestants. From August to October 1566, a wave of iconoclasm (known as the Beeldenstorm) spread through the Low Countries. Calvinists, angry with their prosecution by the Spanish and opposed to the Catholic images of saints (which in their eyes conflicted with the Second Commandment), destroyed statues in hundreds of churches and monasteries throughout the Netherlands. Maurice of Nassau (in Dutch Maurits van Nassau) (14 November 1567–23 April 1625), Prince of Orange (1618–1625), son of William the Silent and Princess Anna of Saxony, was born at the castle of Dillenburg. ... Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded April 27 - Cebu City is established becoming the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines. ... Louis of Nassau (January 10, 1538 - April 14, 1574) was a brother of William I of Orange. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... Illustration of the Beeldenstorm during the Dutch reformation Literally, iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons and other sacred images or monuments, usually for religious or political motives. ... Calvinism is a system of Christian theology advanced by John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and further developed by his followers, associates and admirers. ... The Ten Commandments on a monument in the grounds of the Texas State Capitol This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated 1675 decalogue at the Esnoga synagogue of Amsterdam The Ten Commandments, or Decalogue, is a list of religious and moral imperatives which, according to the Bible, was... A church building is a building used in Christian worship. ... Buddhist monastery near Tibet A monastery is the habitation of monks. ...


Following the Beeldenstorm, unrest in the Netherlands grew, and Margaret agreed to grant the wishes of the Confederacy, provided the noblemen would help to restore order. She also allowed more important noblemen, including William of Orange, to assist the Confederacy. In late 1566, and early 1567, it became clear that the regent would not be allowed to fulfill her promises, and when several minor rebellions failed, many Calvinists (the major Protestant denomination) and Lutherans fled the country. Following the announcement that Philip II, unhappy with the situation in the Netherlands, would dispatch his loyal general Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alva (also known as "The Iron Duke") to restore order, William retreated to his native Nassau. He had been (financially) involved with several of the rebels. Calvinism is a system of Christian theology advanced by John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and further developed by his followers, associates and admirers. ... Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alva. ...


After his arrival in August 1567, Alva established the Council of Troubles (known to the people as the Council of Blood) to trial those involved with the rebellion and the iconoclasm. William was one of the 10,000 to be summoned before the Council, but he failed to appear. He was subsequently declared an outlaw, and his properties were confiscated.


As one of the most prominent and popular politicians of the Netherlands, William of Orange emerged as the leader of an armed resistance. He financed the Watergeuzen, refugee Protestants who formed bands of corsairs and raided the coastal cities of the Netherlands (often killing Spanish and Dutch alike). He also raised an army, consisting mostly of German mercenaries to fight Alva on land. Led by his brother Louis, the army invaded the northern Netherlands in 1568. On 23 May, the army won the Battle of Heiligerlee against a Spanish army led by the stadtholder of the northern provinces, Jean de Ligne, Duke of Aremberg. Aremberg was killed in the battle, as was William's brother Adolf. Alva countered by killing a number of convicted noblemen (including the Dukes of Egmont and Hoorn on 6 June), and then by leading an expedition to Groningen. There, he annihilated Louis's forces in the Battle of Jemmingen on 21 July, although Louis managed to escape. These two battles are now considered to be the start of the Eighty Years' War. Corsair can refer to: a pirate who used to operate in the Mediterranean Sea, see Corsair (pirate) a French airline, see: Corsair (airline) several aircraft of the US Navy: the O2U Corsair the F4U Corsair the A-7 Corsair II a kind of fireworks a poem, The Corsair, by Lord... A mercenary is a soldier who fights, or engages in warfare primarily for private gain, usually with little regard for ideological, national or political considerations. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... The Battle of Heiligerlee in Friesland on 23 May 1568 was part of the Eighty Years War. ... Jean de Ligne, Duke of Aremberg (1528 – 1568) was stadtholder of the Dutch provinces of Friesland, Groningen, Drenthe and Overijssel from 1549 until his death. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... Groningen is the northeast province of the Netherlands with a typical dialect (Gronings) with regional nuances. ... After the Battle of Heiligerlee Louis of Nassau failed to capture the city Groningen. ... July 21 is the 202nd day (203rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 163 days remaining. ...


War

The so-called Prinsenvlag (Prince's flag), based on the colours in the coat of arms of William of Orange was used by the Dutch rebels, and forms the basis of the current flag of the Netherlands.
The so-called Prinsenvlag (Prince's flag), based on the colours in the coat of arms of William of Orange was used by the Dutch rebels, and forms the basis of the current flag of the Netherlands.

William responded by leading a large army into Brabant, but Alva carefully avoided a confrontation, expecting the army to fall apart quickly. He proved to be right, as William lacked the money to support the army. He made several more plans to invade in the next few years, but little came of it, lacking support and money. William remained popular with the public, partially through an extensive propaganda campaign through pamphlets. One of his most important claims, with which he attempted to justify his actions, was that he was not fighting the rightful owner of the land, the Spanish king, but only the inadequate rule of the foreign regents in the Netherlands, and the presence of foreign soldiers. The Princes flag of the Netherlands File links The following pages link to this file: Flag of the Netherlands William I of Orange User:Jeronimo/Sandbox Categories: Flag images ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The national flag of the Netherlands, with its three equal horizontal bands coloured red (top), white and blue, was not the countrys first flag. ... Brabant is a former duchy in the Low Countries. ... North Korean propaganda showing a soldier destroying the United States Capitol building. ...


On 1 April 1572 a band of Watergeuzen captured the city of Brielle, which had been left unattended by the Spanish garrison. Contrary to their normal "hit and run" tactics, they occupied the town and claimed it for the prince. This event was followed by other cities in opening their gates for the Watergeuzen, and soon most cities in Holland and Zeeland were in the hands of the rebels, notable exceptions being Amsterdam and Middelburg. The rebel cities then called a meeting of the Staten Generaal (which they were technically unqualified to do), and reinstated William as the stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland. April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... Events January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Brielle, also called Den Briel, (population: 15,948 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Holland is the name of a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands. ... For the South Pacific country, named after the province, see New Zealand; (some notes on how New Zealand got its name are underneath). ... Amsterdam Location Country The Netherlands Province North Holland Population 739,295 (1 January 2005) Coordinates 4°54E - 52°22N Website www. ... This is about the city in the Netherlands. ... The Estates-General (Staten-Generaal) is the parliament of the Netherlands. ...


Concurrently, rebel armies captured cities throughout the entire country, from Deventer to Mons. William himself then advanced with his own army and marched into several cities in the south, including Roermond and Leuven. William had counted on intervention from the French Protestants (Huguenots) as well, but this plan was thwarted after the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre on 24 August, which signalled the start of a wave of violence against the Huguenots. After a successful Spanish attack on his army, William had to flee and he retreated to Enkhuizen, in Holland. The Spanish then organised countermeasures, and sacked several rebel cities, sometimes massacring their inhabitants, such as in Mechelen or Zutphen. They had more trouble with the cities in Holland, where they took Haarlem after seven months and a loss of 8,000 soldiers, and they had to give up their siege of Alkmaar. Deventer is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands in the province of Overijssel on the east bank of the IJssel river. ... The central square and town hall of Mons This article is about the city in Belgium. ... Roermond is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands. ... Leuven in 2004 Leuven (Louvain in French, Löwen in German) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Flemish Brabant, of which it is the capital. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name of Huguenots came to apply to members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France. ... The St. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... Enkuizen Enkhuizen (population: 17,241 in 2004) is a town in the north-western Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ... Mechelen Cathedral Mechelen (English traditionally Mechlin, French Malines, German Mecheln) is a municipality located in Belgium, Flemish region, province of Antwerp. ... Zutphen (old alternate spelling: Zutfen) is a municipality and a town in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands on the right bank of the IJssel at the influx of the Berkel, and a junction station 29 km by rail N.N.E. of Arnhem. ... In the Eighty Years War the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands was put under a bloody siege by a Spanish army that wanted to reclaim the revolted city for Philip II, the Spanish king. ... For the Boston area punk band see Siege (band). ... Alkmaar is a city in the north-western Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. ...


In 1574, William's armies won several minor battles, including several naval encounters. The Spanish, now lead by Don Luis de Zúñiga y Requesens who succeeded Alva in 1573, also had their successes, and their decisive victory in the Battle of Mookerheyde on 14 April cost the lives of two of William's brothers, Louis and Henry. Requesens's armies also besieged the city of Leiden. They broke up their siege when nearby dykes were cut by the Dutch. William was very content with the victory, and established the University of Leiden, the first university in the Northern Provinces. Events April 14 - Battle of Mookerheyde. ... Luís de Zúñiga y Requesens (Barcelona, 1528 — Brussels, March 5, 1576), Spanish governor of the Netherlands, had the misfortune to succeed the duke of Alva and to govern amid hopeless difficulties under the direction of Philip II. During his rule, the Spanish troops mutinied and Spain went bankrupt. ... The Battle of Mookerheyde was a battle of the Eighty Years War fought on 14 April 1574 near the village Mook and the river Spanish army was led by Sancho dAvilla and Mendoza consisted of 5,000 infantry and 800 cavalry. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (105th in leap years). ... Leiden (in English also, but now rarely, Leyden) is a city and municipality in South Holland, The Netherlands. ... Leiden University in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. ...


William married for the third time on 24 April 1575. He had his previous marriage legally disbanded in 1571, on claims of insanity of his wife Anna. Charlotte de Bourbon-Monpensier, a former French nun, was also popular with the public. Together, they had six daughters: April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... Events February 13 - Henry III of France is crowned at Reims February 14 - Henry III of France marries Louise de Lorraine-Vaudémont August 5 - Henry Sidney is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. ... In general, a nun is a female ascetic who chooses to voluntarily leave the world and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent. ...

  1. Louise Juliana (1576 – 1644);
  2. Elisabeth (1577 – 1642);
  3. Catherina Belgica (1578 – 1648);
  4. Charlotte Flandrina (1579 – 1640);
  5. Charlotte Brabantia (1580 – 1631); and
  6. Emilia Antwerpiana (1581 – 1657).

After failed peace negotiations in Breda in 1575, the war lingered on. Things looked bright for the rebels when Don Requesens died unexpectedly in early 1576, and a large group of Spanish soldiers, not having received their salary in months, deserted. While the new regent, Don John of Austria, arrived, William of Orange managed to have most of the provinces and cities sign the Pacification of Ghent, in which they declared to fight for the expulsion of Spanish troops together. However, he failed to achieve unity in matters of religion. Catholic cities and provinces would not allow freedom for Calvinists, and vice versa. Breda is a municipality and a city in the southern part of the Netherlands. ... Don John of Austria (February 24, 1547 - October 1, 1578), also known as Juan De Austria and Don Juan de Austria, was the illegitimate son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. ... The Pacification of Ghent, signed on November 8 of 1576, was an alliance of the provinces of the Netherlands for the purpose of driving the Spanish from the country. ...


When Don John signed the Perpetual Edict in February 1577, promising to comply with the conditions of the Pacification of Ghent, it seemed that the war had been decided in favour of the rebels. However, after Don John took the city of Namur in 1577, the uprising spread throughout the entire Netherlands. Don John attempted to negotiate peace, but the prince intentionally let the negotiations fail. On 24 September 1577, he made his triumphal entry in the capital Brussels. Namur, the Meuse, the Walloon parliament and the citadel. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years). ... Events March 17 - formation of the Cathay Company to send Martin Frobisher back to the New World for more gold May 28 - Publication of the Bergen Book, better known as the Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, one of the Lutheran confessional writings. ...


At the same time, Calvinist revolters grew more radical, and attempted to forbid Catholicism in their areas of control. William was opposed to this both for personal and political reasons. He desired freedom of religion, and he also needed the support of the less radical Protestants and Catholics to reach his political goals. On 6 January 1579, several southern provinces, unhappy with William's radical following, sealed the Treaty of Arras, in which they agreed to accept their regent, Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma (who had succeeded Don John). January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 6 - The Union of Atrecht united the southern Netherlands under the Duke of Parma, governor in the name of king Philip II of Spain. ... Map of the Spanish Netherlands, the Union of Utrecht and the Union of Arras (1579) The Union of Atrecht (French: Arras) was an accord signed on January 6, 1579 in Atrecht (Arras), under which the southern states of the Spanish Netherlands, mostly today in Wallonia and the Nord region in... Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza (1545 - 1592) was the son of Duke Ottavio Farnese, duke of Parma and Margaret, the illegitimate daughter of the Habsburg Emperor Charles V. Thus Alessandro was the nephew of Philip II of Spain and of Don John of Austria. ...


Five northern provinces, later followed by most cities in Brabant and Flanders, then signed the Union of Utrecht on 23 January, confirming their unity. William was initially opposed to the Union, as he still hoped to unite all provinces. Nevertheless, he formally gave his support on 3 May. The Union of Utrecht would later become a de facto constitution, and would remain the only formal connection between the Dutch provinces until 1795. Brabant is a former duchy in the Low Countries. ... Flanders (Flemish, Fleming) (Dutch: Vlaanderen (Vlaams, Vlaming), French: Flandre(s), (flamand, flamand), German: Flandern, (flämisch, Flame) has two main designations: a constituent region of the federal Belgian state trough its social and political organisations, and trough the institutions of the Flemish Community (with its own Flemish government... The Union of Utrecht (Dutch: Unie van Utrecht) is a treaty signed on January 23, 1579 in Utrecht, the Netherlands, unifying the northern provinces of the Netherlands, until then under control of Spain. ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Declaration of independence

The Duke of Anjou, who had been attracted by William as the new sovereign of the Netherlands, was hugely unpopular with the public.

In spite of the renewed union, the Duke of Parma was successful in reconquering most of the southern part of the Netherlands. Because he had agreed to remove the Spanish troops from the provinces under the Treaty of Arras, and because Philip II needed them in Spain's war with Portugal, the Duke of Parma was unable to advance any further until the end of 1581. Image File history File links François, Duke of Anjou, File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links François, Duke of Anjou, File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... François, Duke of Anjou Hercule François, Duke of Anjou and Alençon, (March 18, 1555 - June 19, 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ...


In the mean time, William and his supporters were looking for foreign support. The prince had already sought for French assistance on several occasions, and this time he managed to gain the support of François, Duke of Anjou, brother of king Henry III of France. On 29 September 1580, the Staten Generaal (with the exception of Zeeland and Holland) signed the Treaty of Plessis-les-Tours with the Duke of Anjou. The Duke would gain the title "Protector of the Liberty of the Netherlands" and become the new sovereign. This, however, required that the Staten Generaal and William would let go of their formal support of the King of Spain, which they had maintained officially up to that moment. François, Duke of Anjou Hercule François, Duke of Anjou and Alençon, (March 18, 1555 - June 19, 1584) was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... Henry III (French: Henri III; Polish: Henryk III Walezy; September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589) was King of Poland (1573-1574) and subsequently King of France (1574-1589). ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years). ... Events March 1 - Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. ...


On 22 July 1581, the Staten Generaal declared their decision to no longer recognise Philip II as their king, in the Oath of Abjuration. This formal declaration of independence enabled the Duke of Anjou to come to the aid of the resisters. He did not arrive until 10 February 1582, when he was officially welcomed by William in Flushing. July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... The Oath of Abjuration or Plakkaat van Verlatinghe of July 26, 1581, was the formal declaration of independence of the northern Low Countries from the Spanish king, Philip II. This point meant a climax in the Dutch Revolt, a point of no return, in which the Low Countries asserted they... A declaration of independence is a proclamation of the independence of a newly formed or reformed independent state, usually from a part or the whole of the territory of another nation, or a document containing such a declaration. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 15 - Russia cedes Livonia and Estonia to Poland February 24 - Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. ... Flushing (Dutch Vlissingen) is a municipality and a city in the southwestern Netherlands on the former island of Walcheren. ...


On March 18, the Spaniard Juan Jauréguy attempted to assassinate William in Antwerp. Although William suffered severe injuries, he survived thanks to the care of his wife Charlotte and his sister Mary. While William slowly recovered, the intensive care by Charlotte took its toll, and she died on 5 May. March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... The Cathedral of our Lady (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal, Antwerp) in the Handschoenmarkt, in the old quarter of Antwerp is the largest cathedral in the Low Countries and home to a number of triptychs by Renaissance Belgian painter Rubens. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ...


The Duke of Anjou was not very popular with the population. In their view, the French were enemies, and the Duke of Anjou was not very concerned with the people's religious issues. The Duke was even accused of planning Jauréguy's failed attempt to kill the prince. The provinces of Zeeland and Holland refused to recognise him as their sovereign, and William was widely criticised for what were called his "French politics". When the Anjou's French troops arrived in late 1582, William's plan seemed to pay off, as even the Duke of Parma feared that the Dutch would now gain the upper hand.


However, the Duke of Anjou himself was displeased with his limited power, and decided to take the city of Antwerp by force on 18 January 1583. The citizens, who were warned in time, defended their city in what is known as the "French Fury". The position of Anjou after this attack became impossible to hold, and he eventually left the country in June. His leave also discredited William, who nevertheless maintained his support for Anjou. He stood virtually alone on this issue, and became politically isolated. Holland and Zeeland nevertheless maintained him as their stadtholder, and attempted to declare him count of Holland and Zeeland, thus making him the official sovereign. The Cathedral of our Lady (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal, Antwerp) in the Handschoenmarkt, in the old quarter of Antwerp is the largest cathedral in the Low Countries and home to a number of triptychs by Renaissance Belgian painter Rubens. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1583 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ...


In the middle of all this, William had married for the fourth and final time on 12 April 1583 to Louise de Colligny, a French Huguenot and daughter of Gaspard de Coligny. She would be the mother of Frederick Henry (1584 – 1647), Williams fourth legitimate son. April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1583 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... Gaspard de Coligny (February 16, 1519 – August 24, 1572), Seigneur (Lord) de Châtillon, admiral of France and Protestant leader, came of a noble family of Burgundy. ... Frederick Henry (January 29, 1584–March 14, 1647), Prince of Orange, the youngest child of William the Silent, was born at Delft about six months before his fathers assassination. ...


Assassination

William the Silent was killed at his home by Balthasar Gérard on July 10, 1584.
William the Silent was killed at his home by Balthasar Gérard on July 10, 1584.
A 1984 Dutch postage stamp commemorating the quatercentenary of William's death.
A 1984 Dutch postage stamp commemorating the quatercentenary of William's death.

The Catholic Frenchman Balthasar Gérard (born 1557) was a supporter of Philip II, and in his opinion, William of Orange had betrayed the Spanish king and the Catholic religion. After Philip II declared William an outlaw and promised, which Gérard found out in 1581, he decided to travel to the Netherlands and kill him. He served in the army of the governor of Luxembourg, Peter, Count of Mansfelt for two years, hoping to get close to William when the armies would meet. This never happened, and Gérard left the army in 1584. Download high resolution version (772x608, 68 KB)The murder on William the Silent by Balthazar Gerards. ... Download high resolution version (772x608, 68 KB)The murder on William the Silent by Balthazar Gerards. ... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Dutch stamp depicting William of Orange. ... Dutch stamp depicting William of Orange. ... This 1974 stamp from Japan depicts a Class 8620 steam locomotive. ... An anniversary is a day that commemorates an event that occurred on the same day of the year some time in the past. ... Balthasar Gérard (in Dutch Gerards or Gerardts) (1557-1584) was the assassin of the Dutch independence leader, William the Silent, also known as William I of Orange. ...


He went to the Duke of Parma to present his plans, but the Duke was unimpressed. In May 1584, he presented himself to William as a French nobleman, and gave him the seal of the Count of Mansfelt. This seal would allow for forgeries of message of Mansfelt. William sent Gérard back to France to pass the seal to his French allies.


Gérard returned in July, having bought pistols on his return voyage. On 10 July, he made an appointment with William of Orange in his home in Delft, nowadays known as the Prinsenhof. When he left the dining room and climbed down the stairs, Gérard shot him in the chest from close range, and fled. According to the official account [1], William's last words were (in French): July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... Delft City Hall (Stadhuis) Flag of Delft Delft is a city in South Holland (Zuid-Holland), the Netherlands, located halfway between Rotterdam and The Hague (Den Haag). ...

"Mon Dieu, mon Dieu, ayez pitié de moi et de ton pauvre peuple" (My Lord, My Lord, have pity on me and your poor people)

Members of the Nassau family were traditionally buried in Breda, but as that city was in Spanish hands when William died, he was buried in the New Church (Nieuwe Kerk) in Delft. His grave monument was originally very sober, but it was replaced in 1623 by a new one, made by Hendrik de Keyser and his son Pieter. Since then, all members of the House of Orange, including all Dutch monarchs have been buried in the same church. Breda is a municipality and a city in the southern part of the Netherlands. ... Delft City Hall (Stadhuis) Flag of Delft Delft is a city in South Holland (Zuid-Holland), the Netherlands, located halfway between Rotterdam and The Hague (Den Haag). ... Events August 6 - Pope Urban VIII is elected to the Papacy. ... // The Principality of Orange The title originally referred to the sovereign principality of Orange in valley of Rhone in southern France, which was a property of the House of Orange (1544 House of Orange-Nassau). ... For more background on this topic, see Netherlands. ...


Gérard was caught before he could flee Delft, and imprisoned. He was tortured before his trial on 13 July, where he was sentenced to be brutally—even by the standards of that time—killed. The magistrates sentenced that the right hand of Gérard should be burned off with a red-hot iron, that his flesh should be torn from his bones with pincers in six different places, that he should be quartered and disemboweled alive, that his heart should be torn from his bosom and flung in his face, and that, finally, his head should be taken off. July 13th is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ...


Legacy

A statue of William of Orange in The Hague. His finger originally pointed towards the Binnenhof, but the statue has since been moved. A similar statue stands in Voorhees Mall on Rutgers University

At the suggestion of Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, William's son Maurice succeeded his father as stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland. A strong military leader, he won several victories over the Spanish. Van Oldenbarneveldt managed to sign a very favourable 12-year armistice in 1609, although Maurice was unhappy with this. After the armistice, Maurice's half-brother (and William's youngest son), Frederick Henry, continued the battle against the Spanish. The Netherlands became formally independent after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. Download high resolution version (400x602, 33 KB)Statue of William of Orange. ... Download high resolution version (400x602, 33 KB)Statue of William of Orange. ... Arms of The Hague The Hague (with capital T; Dutch: Den Haag, or officially s-Gravenhage) is the administrative capital of the Netherlands, located in the west of the country, in the province South Holland of which it is also the capital. ... The Binnenhof (Dutch, lit. ... Johan van Oldenbarnevelt (September 14, 1547–May 13, 1619) was a Dutch statesman, who played an important role in the Dutch struggle for independence from Spain. ... Maurice of Nassau (in Dutch Maurits van Nassau) (14 November 1567–23 April 1625), Prince of Orange (1618–1625), son of William the Silent and Princess Anna of Saxony, was born at the castle of Dillenburg. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... Frederick Henry (January 29, 1584–March 14, 1647), Prince of Orange, the youngest child of William the Silent, was born at Delft about six months before his fathers assassination. ... The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) Banquet of the Amsterdam Civic Guard in Celebration of the Peace of Münster by Bartholomeus van der Helst, 1648 Known also as the treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, The Peace of Westphalia is the series... // Events Peace treaty signed at Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War. ...


The son of Frederick Henry, William II of Orange succeeded his father as stadtholder, as did his son, William III of Orange. The latter also became king of England until he died childless in 1702. He appointed his nephew (a great-great-grandson of William of Orange's brother John) Johan Willem Friso as his successor. The first king of the Netherlands, William I was a descendant of Johan Willem Friso. His descendants have been the monarchs of the Netherlands to this day. See House of Orange for a more extensive overview. William II, Prince of Orange (May 27, 1626 - November 6, 1650), stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands (March 14, 1647 - November 6, 1650). ... William III King of England, Scotland and Ireland William III and II (14 November 1650–8 March 1702; also known as William Henry and William of Orange) was Prince of Orange from his birth, King of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scotland from 11 April... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... King William I of the Netherlands was born as Willem Frederik on 25 August 1772 in The Hague, and died December 12, 1843 in Berlin, Germany. ... The Principality of Orange The title originally referred to the sovereign principality of Orange in southern France, which was a property of the House of Orange (from 1702 Orange-Nassau). ...


As the chief financer and political and military leader of the early years of the Dutch revolt, William is considered a national hero in the Netherlands, even though he was born in Germany, and usually spoke French. Many of the Dutch national symbols can be traced back to William of Orange:

  • The flag of the Netherlands (red, white and blue) is derived from the flag of the prince, which was orange, white and blue.
  • The coat of arms of the Netherlands is based on that of William of Orange. Its motto Je maintiendrai (French, "I will maintain") was also used by William of Orange, who based it on the motto of his uncle René of Châlon, who used Je maintiendrai Châlon.
  • The national anthem of the Netherlands, the Wilhelmus was originally a propaganda song for William. It was probably written by Philips van Marnix, lord of Sint-Aldegonde, a supporter of William of Orange.
  • The national colour of the Netherlands is orange, and it is used, among other things, in clothing of Dutch athletes.

Flag ratio: 2:3 The national flag of the Netherlands, with its three equal horizontal bands coloured red (top), white and blue, was not the countrys first flag. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is formally recognized by a countrys government as their states official national song. ... Wilhelmus van Nassouwe (William of Nassau) is the national anthem of the Netherlands. ... Portret by Jacques de Gheyn II Philips van Marnix, lord of St Aldegonde (1538 - December 15, 1598), was a Dutch writer and statesman, and the probable author of the text of the Dutch national anthem, the Wilhelmus. ... The colour orange occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum at a wavelength of about 620–585 nanometres. ...

Notes

1 As of 1549, the Netherlands, also known as the "Seventeen Provinces" was comprised of the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and parts of northern France.


References


October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Preceded by:
René of Châlon
Prince of Orange
15441584
Succeeded by:
Philip William


René of Châlon (February 5, 1519 – July 15, 1544), also known as Renatus of Châlon, was a Prince of the House of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Gelre. ... // The Principality of Orange The title originally referred to the sovereign principality of Orange in valley of Rhone in southern France, which was a property of the House of Orange (1544 House of Orange-Nassau). ... Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Philip William, Prince of Orange (° December 19, 1554 - † February 20, 1618). ...


 
 

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