FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > William Godwin
William Godwin

Born 3 March 1756(1756-03-03)
Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, England
Died 7 April 1836 (aged 80)
London, England
Occupation Journalist, Political philosopher, novelist

William Godwin (3 March 17567 April 1836) was an English journalist, political philosopher and novelist. He is considered one of the first exponents of utilitarianism, and one of the first modern proponents of philosophical anarchism.[1] Godwin is most famous for two books that he published within the space of a year: An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice, an attack on political institutions, and Things as They Are or The Adventures of Caleb Williams, which attacks aristocratic privilege, but also is virtually the first mystery novel. Based on the success of both, Godwin featured prominently in the radical circles of London in the 1790s. In the ensuing conservative reaction to British radicalism, Godwin was attacked, in part because of his marriage to the pioneering feminist writer Mary Wollstonecraft in 1797 and his candid biography of her after her death; their child, Mary Godwin (later Mary Shelley) would go on to author Frankenstein and marry the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley. Godwin wrote prolifically in the genres of novels, history and demography throughout his life time. With his second wife, Mary Jane Clairmont, he wrote children's primers on Biblical and classical history, which he published along with such works as Charles and Mary Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare. He also has had considerable influence on British literature and literary culture. William Godwin. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... OS Grid Reference: TF460098 Lat/Lon: Population: 20,200 (2001 Census) Dwellings: 9,145 (2001 Census) Formal status: Town Administration County: Cambridgeshire Region: East of England Nation: England Post Office and Telephone Post town: Wisbech Postcode: PE13, PE14 Dialling Code: 01945 Wisbech (IPA: ) is a market town and inland port... Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs) is a county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the northeast, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about work. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Philosophical anarchism is a form of anarchistic thought which contends that the State lacks moral legitimacy. ... Political Institution is a web of relationships lasting over time, and an established structure of power. ... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ... Detective fiction is a branch of crime fiction that centres upon the investigation of a crime, usually murder, by a detective, either professional or amateur. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Conservative may refer to: Conservatism, political philosophy A member of a Conservative Party Conservative extension, premise of deductive logic Conservativity theorem, mathematical proof of conservative extension Conservative Judaism britney spears Category: ... The term Radical (latin radix meaning root) was used from the late 18th century for proponents of the Radical Movement and has since been used as a label in political science for those favouring or trying to produce thoroughgoing political reforms which can include changes to the social order to... Mary Wollstonecraft (circa 1797) by John Opie Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was a British writer, philosopher and feminist. ... Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin) (30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English romantic/gothic novelist and the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... This article is about the 1818 novel. ... Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4, 1792 – July 8, 1822; pronounced ) was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among the finest lyric poets of the English language. ... For other uses, see History (disambiguation). ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of all populations. ... Charles Lamb (1775-1834) Charles Lamb (10 February 1775 –- 27 December 1834) was an English essayist, best known for his Essays of Elia and for the childrens book Tales from Shakespeare, which he produced along with his sister, Mary Lamb (1764–1847). ... fart out of the bum in my pants. ...

Contents

Early life and education:

Godwin was born in Wisbech in Cambridgeshire to John and Anne Godwin. Godwin's family on both sides were middle-class. It was probably only as a joke that Godwin, a stern political reformer and philosophical radical, attempted to trace his pedigree to a time before the Norman Conquest to the great earl, Godwine. Godwin's parents adhered to a strict form of Calvinism. His father, a Nonconformist minister in Guestwick in Norfolk, died young, and never inspired love or much regret in his son; but in spite of wide differences of opinion, tender affection always subsisted between William Godwin and his mother, until her death at an advanced age. OS Grid Reference: TF460098 Lat/Lon: Population: 20,200 (2001 Census) Dwellings: 9,145 (2001 Census) Formal status: Town Administration County: Cambridgeshire Region: East of England Nation: England Post Office and Telephone Post town: Wisbech Postcode: PE13, PE14 Dialling Code: 01945 Wisbech (IPA: ) is a market town and inland port... Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs) is a county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the northeast, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. ... This article is about the socio-economic class from a global vantage point. ... ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... For people, see Earl (given name) and Earl (surname). ... Godwin (sometimes Godwine) (c. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism... A nonconformist is an English or Welsh Protestant of any non-Anglican denomination, chiefly advocating religious liberty. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other types of... North Norfolk Norfolk in England Guestwick is a village in North Norfolk, Norfolk in eastern England. ... Norfolk (pronounced ) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ...


William Godwin was educated for his father's profession at Hoxton Academy, where he studied under Andrew Kippis the biographer and Dr Abraham Rees of the Cyclopaedia. He was at first more Calvinistic than his teachers, becoming a Sandemanian, or follower of John Glas, whom he describes as a celebrated north-country apostle who, after Calvin had "damned ninety-nine in a hundred of mankind, has contrived a scheme for damning ninety-nine in a hundred of the followers of Calvin." Andrew Kippis (March 28, 1725 - October 8, 1795), was an English nonconformist clergyman and biographer. ... For other uses, see Biography (disambiguation). ... Abraham Rees (1743–1825), compiler of Reess Cyclopaedia (45 vols. ... 1913 advertisement for Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Glasites, or Sandemanians, were a Christian sect, founded in Scotland by John Glas. ... John Glas (October 5, 1695 - 1773), was a Scottish clergyman. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ...


He then acted as a minister at Ware, Stowmarket and Beaconsfield. At Stowmarket the teachings of the French philosophers were brought before him by a friend, Joseph Fawcet, who held strong republican opinions. Godwin came to London in 1782, still nominally as a minister, to regenerate society with his pen — a real enthusiast, who shrank theoretically from no conclusions from the premises which he laid down. He adopted the principles of the Encyclopaedists, and his own aim was the complete overthrow of all existing institutions, political, social and religious. He believed, however, that calm discussion was the only thing needful to carry every change, and from the beginning to the end of his career he deprecated every approach to violence. He was a philosophic radical in the strictest sense of the term. For other uses, see Ware (disambiguation). ... For the former Parliamentary constituency, see Stowmarket (UK Parliament constituency). ... For other uses, see Beaconsfield (disambiguation). ... The British republican movement is a movement in the United Kingdom which seeks to remove the British monarchy and replace it with a republic with an elected head of state. ...


Early writing

His first published work was an anonymous Life of Lord Chatham (1783). He published under his own name Sketches of History (1784), consisting of six sermons on the characters of Aaron, Hazael and Jesus, in which, though writing in the character of an orthodox Calvinist, he enunciates the proposition "God Himself has no right to be a tyrant." Introduced by Andrew Kippis, he began to write in 1785 for the New Annual Register and other periodicals, producing also three novels now forgotten. His main contributions for the "Annual Register" were the Sketches of English History he wrote annually, which were yearly summaries of domestic and foreign political affairs. He joined a club called the "Revolutionists," and associated much with Lord Stanhope, Horne Tooke and Holcroft. The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Aaron (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), or Aaron the Levite (flourished about 1200 B.C.), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... Hazael (Hebrew Hazael, meaning God has seen) was a court official and later an Aramean king who appeared in the Bible. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl Stanhope (August 3, 1753 – December 15, 1816) was a British statesman and scientist. ... John Horne Tooke (June 25, 1736 - March 18, 1812), was an English politician and philologist. ... Thomas Holcroft (December 10, 1745 - March 23, 1809) was an English dramatist and miscellaneous writer. ...


Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and Caleb Williams

In 1793, while the French Revolution was in full swing, Godwin published his great work on political science, Enquiry concerning Political Justice, and its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness. The first part of this book was largely a recap of Edmund Burke's A Vindication of Natural Society - an anarchist critique of the state. Godwin acknowledged the influence of Burke for this portion. The rest of the book is Godwin's positive vision of how an anarchist (or minarchist) society might work. Political Justice was extremely influential in its time: after Burke and Paine, Godwin's was the most popular written response to the French Revolution. Godwin's work was seen by many as illuminating a middle way between the fiery extremes of both Burke and Paine. Prime Minister William Pitt famously said that there was no need to censor it, because at over £1 it was too costly for the average Englishman to buy. However, as was the practice at the time, numerous "corresponding societies" took up Political Justice, either sharing it or having it read to the illiterate members. Eventually, it sold over 4000 copies and brought literary fame to Godwin. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ... William Pitt the Younger (28 May 1759 – 23 January 1806) was a British politician of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ...


Godwin augmented the influence of the Political Justice with his publication of an equally popular novel, Things as They Are or The Adventures of Caleb Williams, which tells the story of a servant who finds out a dark secret about Falkland, his aristocratic master, and is forced to flee because of his knowledge. Caleb Williams is essentially the first thriller:[2] Godwin wryly remarked that some readers were consuming in a night what took him over a year to write. Not the least of its merits is a portrait of the English justice system at the time and a prescient picture of domestic espionage. Yet Godwin's strenuous Calvinism still obtains, if in secular form. At the conclusion of the novel, when Caleb Williams finally confronts Falkland, the encounter fatally wounds the Lord, who immediately admits the justness of Williams' cause. Far from feeling release or happiness, Williams only sees the destruction of someone who remains for him a noble, if fallen person. Implicitly, Caleb Williams ratifies Godwin's assertion that society must be reformed in order for individual behaviour to be reformed, an emphasis that allies him more with Marxism and anarchism than liberalism. His literary method, as he described it in the introduction to the novel, also was influential: Godwin began with the conclusion of Caleb being chased through England and Ireland and developed the plot backwards. Dickens and Poe both commented on Godwin's ingenuity in doing this.


Political writing

The Utilitarianism series,
part of the Politics series
Portal:Politics

In response to a treason trial of some of his fellow English Jacobins, among them Thomas Holcroft, Godwin wrote Cursory Strictures on the Charge Delivered by Lord Chief Justice Eyre to the Grand Jury, October 2, 1794 where he forcefully argued that that the prosecution's concept of "constructive treason" allowed a judge to construe any behaviour as treasonous. It paved the way for a major, but mostly moral, victory for the Jacobins, as they were acquitted. This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... This is an incomplete list of advocates of utilitarianism. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (26 February [O.S. 15 February 15] 1748) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Henry Sidgwick Henry Sidgwick (May 31, 1838–August 28, 1900) was an English philosopher. ... For other persons named Peter Singer, see Peter Singer (disambiguation). ... Preference utilitarianism is a particular variant of utilitarianism which defines utility in terms of preference satisfaction. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Act Utilitarianism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Rule Utilitarianism. ... R. M. Hare Two-level utilitarianism is a utilitarian theory of ethics originated by R. M. Hare. ... Total Utilitarianism is a method of applying utilitarianism to a group to work out what the best set of outcomes would be[1]. It assumes that the target utility is the maximum utility across the population based on adding all the separate utilities of each individual together. ... Average Utilitarianism is a method of applying utilitarianism to a group to work out what the best set of outcomes would be. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals, especially those under human care, should not suffer. ... Abolitionism is a bioethical school and movement which proposes the use of biotechnology to maximize happiness and minimize suffering while working towards the abolition of involuntary suffering. ... This article does not cite any sources. ... Enlightened self-interest is a philosophy in ethics which states that persons who act to further the interests of others (or the interests of the group or groups to which they belong), ultimately serve their own self-interest. ... Epicure redirects here. ... For other persons named David Hume, see David Hume (disambiguation). ... Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Suffering, or pain in this sense,[1] is a basic affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm in an individual. ... Look up Pleasure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Utility (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Consequentialism refers to those moral theories which hold that the consequences of a particular action form the basis for any valid moral judgment about that action. ... The felicific calculus was an algorithm formulated by Jeremy Bentham for calculating the degree or amount of happiness that a specific action is likely to cause, and hence its degree of moral rightness. ... The mere addition paradox is a problem in ethics, due to Derek Parfit, and first appearing in his book, Reasons and Persons. ... The paradox of hedonism, also called the pleasure paradox, is the idea in the study of ethics which points out on that pleasure and happiness are strange phenomena that do not obey normal principles. ... The utility monster is a thought experiment in the study of ethics. ... Rational choice theory assumes human behavior is guided by instrumental reason. ... For other uses, see Game theory (disambiguation) and Game (disambiguation). ... Social choice theory studies how individual preferences are aggregated to form a collective choice, such as, for example in voting systems. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Thomas Hardys account of the trials (second edition) The 1794 Treason Trials, arranged by the administration of William Pitt, were intended to cripple the British radical movement of the 1790s. ...


However, Godwin's own reputation was eventually besmirched after 1798 by the conservative press, in part because he chose to write a candid biography of his dead wife, Mary Wollstonecraft, including accounts of her two suicide attempts and her affair with Gilbert Imlay, which resulted in the birth of Fanny Imlay. Frances Fanny Imlay (legally Fanny Wollstonecraft; also known as Fanny Godwin) (14 May 1794 – 9 October 1816) was the illegitimate daughter of the British feminist Mary Wollstonecraft and the American commercial speculator Gilbert Imlay. ...


Godwin, consistent in his theory and stubborn in his practice, practically lived in secret for 30 years because of his reputation. However, in its influence, on writers like Shelley, Kropotkin, and others, Political Justice takes its place with Milton's Areopagitica, Locke's Some Thoughts Concerning Education and Rousseau's Émile as an anarchist and libertarian text. For other persons named John Milton, see John Milton (disambiguation). ... First page of the 1644 edition of Areopagitica Areopagitica: A speech of Mr John Milton for the liberty of unlicensed printing to the Parliament of England is a prose tract or polemic by John Milton, published November 23, 1644, at the height of the English Civil War. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... Some Thoughts Concerning Education is a 1693 treatise on education written by the English philosopher John Locke. ... Rousseau redirects here. ...


Interpretation of political justice

By the words "political justice" the author meant "the adoption of any principle of morality and truth into the practice of a community," and the work was therefore an inquiry into the principles of society, of government and of morals. For many years Godwin had been "satisfied that monarchy was a species of government unavoidably corrupt," and from desiring a government of the simplest construction, he gradually came to consider that "government by its very nature counteracts the improvement of original mind," demonstrating anti-statist beliefs that would later be considered Anarchist. Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... Anti-statism refers to all philosophies that in some degree reject or oppose the establishment of a state, or territorial national governments. ... Anarchist redirects here. ...


Believing in the perfectibility of the race, that there are no innate principles, and therefore no original propensity to evil, he considered that "our virtues and our vices may be traced to the incidents which make the history of our lives, and if these incidents could be divested of every improper tendency, vice would be extirpated from the world." All control of man by man was more or less intolerable, and the day would come when each man, doing what seems right in his own eyes, would also be doing what is in fact best for the community, because all will be guided by principles of pure reason. For other uses, see Evil (disambiguation). ...


Such optimism combined with a strong empiricism to support Godwin's belief that the evil actions of men were solely reliant on the corrupting influence of social conditions, and that changing these conditions could remove the evil in man. This is similar to the ideas of his wife, Mary Wollstonecraft, concerning the shortcomings of women being down to their discouraging upbringings. “Positive Attitude” redirects here. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Mary Wollstonecraft (circa 1797) by John Opie Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was a British writer, philosopher and feminist. ...


Godwin did not believe that all coercion and violence was immoral per se, as Bakunin and Tolstoy did, but rather recognized the need for government in the short term and hoped that the time would come when it would be unnecessary. Thus, he was a gradualist anarchist rather than a revolutionary anarchist; Godwin supported the ideology behind the French Revolution but certainly not its means. Neither was he as extreme an egalitarian as most anarchists are, but he simply thought that discrimination on grounds other than ability was immoral. His utilitarian case for saving the Archbishop of Canterbury before his mother from a burning house is seen as abhorrent even by many egalitarians. Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian — Михаил Александрович Бакунин), (May 30, 1814–June 13, 1876) was a well-known Russian anarchist contemporaneous to Karl Marx. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , Russian pronunciation:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo (Lyof, Lyoff) Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Attack by (and upon) Malthus

As part of the British conservative reaction that was precipitated by Napoleon's campaign in the Alps in 1798, Thomas Robert Malthus wrote his An Essay on the Principle of Population in which Godwin's views on the "perfectibility of society" plays a predominant role as a target. (Malthus had previously been a member of the same radical circles as Godwin, and pitched his attack on British radicalism as that of a disillusioned disciple.) Unlike Godwin, Malthus, using what has come to be considered rather specious statistics, predicted impending doom because of a geometrically rising world-wide population and arithmetically increasing food supply. While Godwin’s Political Justice acknowledged that an increase in the standard of living via his proposals could cause population pressures, he saw an obvious solution to avoiding such a crisis: “project a change in the structure of human action, if not of human nature, specifically the eclipsing of the desire for sex by the development of intellectual pleasures”.[3] Indeed it was this “principle of population” that provoked Malthus’s Essay on the Principle of Population in 1798. The Rev. ... An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously in 1798. ...


Godwin did not officially respond to Malthus for over twenty years. In 1820, Godwin published Of Population: An Enquiry Concerning the Power of Increase in the Numbers of Mankind, as a rebuttal to Malthus’s attack on Political Justice. Godwin refers to Malthus’s theory as a “house of cards” that Malthus “neither proves nor attempts to prove”.[3] Godwin’s main objection was Malthus’s sweeping ascription of the rate of population growth in America as a worldwide phenomenon. Godwin finds that such a proposition must be accepted solely as a matter of faith on the part of Malthus’s reader. On the contrary, Godwin attested to the verifiable fact that much of the Old World was at a stand in population growth. Furthermore, Godwin believed that the abundance of uncultivated land and continued technological advances made fears of overpopulation even more unjustifiable.


In an era where many children did not survive to maturity, Godwin believed that for population to double every twenty-five years as Malthus asserted would require every married couple to have at least eight children. Although Godwin himself was one of thirteen children, he did not observe the majority of couples having eight children. Godwin concludes his rebuttal with the following challenge: "In reality, if I had not taken up the pen with the express purpose of confuting all the errors of Mr Malthus’s book, and of endeavouring to introduce other principles, more cheering, more favourable to the best interests of mankind, and better prepared to resist the inroads of vice and misery, I might close my argument here, and lay down the pen with this brief remark, that, when this author shall have produced from any country, the United States of North America not excepted, a register of marriages and births, from which it shall appear that there are on an average eight births to a marriage, then, and not till then, can I have any just reason to admit his doctrine of the geometrical ratio."[3].


This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Based on the entry from 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... (Redirected from 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica) The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ...


See also

  • Godwin-Shelley family tree

Major works

  • Enquiry concerning Political Justice, and its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness (1793)
  • Things as They Are or The Adventures of Caleb Williams (1794)
  • The Enquirer (1797)
  • Memoirs of the Author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1798)
  • St. Leon (1799)
  • Fleetwood (1805)
  • Mandeville (1817)
  • History of the Commonwealth (1824-28)

Title page from the revised second edition of Memoirs Memoirs of the Author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman is William Godwins biography of his wife Mary Wollstonecraft. ...

Notes

  1. ^ William Godwin entry at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy by Mark Philip, 2006-05-20
  2. ^ Marshall, Peter (1992). Demanding the Impossible. Harper Collins, 196. 
  3. ^ a b c Medema , Steven G., and Warren J. Samuels. 2003. The History of Economic Thought: A Reader. New York: Routledge.

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (hereafter SEP) is a free online encyclopedia of philosophy run and maintained by Stanford University. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Marshall, P.,William Godwin, London & New Haven (1984): Yale University Press ISBN 0300 031750
  • Marshall, P. (ed.) The Anarchist Writings of William Godwin, London (1986): Freedom Press ISBN 978 0900384295
  • Mukherjee, S. & Ramaswamy S. William Godwin: His Thoughts and Works New Delhi (2002): Deep & Deep Publications ISBN 978 8171007547

External links

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
William Godwin
Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... The Anarchy Archives project is a self-described online research center on the history and theory of Anarchism. ... The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (hereafter SEP) is a free online encyclopedia of philosophy run and maintained by Stanford University. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... This article is a list connected to the template History of economic thought. ... Ancient economic thought refers to economics ideas from people before the Middle Ages. ... Islamic economics in practice. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ... Merchant capitalism is a term used by economic historians to refer to the earliest phase in the development of capitalism as an economy and social system. ... The Physiocrats were a group of economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from agriculture. ... Classical economics is widely regarded as the first modern school of economic thought. ... The English historical school of economics, although not nearly as famous as its German counterpart, sought a return of inductive methods in economics, following the triumph of the deductive approach of David Ricardo in the early 19th century. ... The Historical school of economics was a mainly German school of economic thought which held that a study of history was the key source of knowledge about human actions and economic matters, since economics would be culture-specific and not generalizable over space and time. ... Socialist economics is a broad, and sometimes controversial, term. ... Neoclassical economics refers to a general approach (a metatheory) to economics based on supply and demand which depends on individuals (or any economic agent) operating rationally, each seeking to maximize their individual utility or profit by making choices based on available information. ... --Duk 06:58, 18 August 2005 (UTC) Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Institutional economics focuses on understanding the role of human-made institutions in shaping economic behavior. ... The Stockholm School, or Stockholmsskolan, is a school of economic thought. ... Keynesian economics (pronounced kainzian, IPA ), also called Keynesianism, or Keynesian Theory, is an economic theory based on the ideas of the 20th-century British economist John Maynard Keynes. ... The Chicago school of economics is a school of thought favoring free-market economics practiced at and disseminated from the University of Chicago in the middle of the 20th century. ... Gandhian economics is a school of economic thought based on the socio-economic principles expounded by Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi. ... This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Microfinance is a term for the practice of providing financial services, such as microcredit, microsavings or microinsurance to poor people. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... It has been suggested that Economic schools of thought be merged into this article or section. ... Mary Wollstonecraft (circa 1797) by John Opie Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was a British writer, philosopher and feminist. ... Fuseli talking to Johann Jakob Bodmer, 1778-1781. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Only known portrait of Joseph Johnson by William Sharp (after Moses Haughton)[1] Joseph Johnson (15 November 1738 – 20 December 1809) was an influential eighteenth-century London bookseller, often called the father of the book trade in England. ... Frances Fanny Imlay (legally Fanny Wollstonecraft; also known as Fanny Godwin) (14 May 1794 – 9 October 1816) was the illegitimate daughter of the British feminist Mary Wollstonecraft and the American commercial speculator Gilbert Imlay. ... Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin) (30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English romantic/gothic novelist and the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... Title page from the revised second edition of Memoirs Memoirs of the Author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman is William Godwins biography of his wife Mary Wollstonecraft. ... Mary Wollstonecraft by John Opie (c. ... Image File history File links Marywollstonecraft. ... Thoughts of the education of daughters: with reflections on female conduct, in the more important duties of life (1787) is Mary Wollstonecrafts first published work. ... Prospectus for the Analytical Review (1788) The Analytical Review was a periodical begun in 1788 by Joseph Johnson and Thomas Christie. ... Original Stories from Real Life with Conversations calculated to Regulate the Affections, and Form the Mind to Truth and Goodness, published in 1788, is the only work of childrens fiction by Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797). ... Title page from the second edition of A Vindication of the Rights of Men, the first to carry Wollstonecrafts name A Vindication of the Rights of Men, in a Letter to the Right Honourable Edmund Burke; Occasioned by His Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) is a political... Mary Wollstonecraft. ... Title page from the first edition of Letters (1796) Letters Written During a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark (1796) is a deeply personal travel narrative by the eighteenth-century British feminist Mary Wollstonecraft. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
William Godwin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1435 words)
William Godwin (3 March 1756 7 April 1836) was an English political and miscellaneous writer, considered one of the important precursors of both utilitarian and liberal anarchist thought.
William Godwin was educated for his father's profession at Hoxton Academy, where he studied under Andrew Kippis the biographer and Dr Abraham Rees of the Cyclopaedia.
Godwin did not believe that all coercion and violence was immoral per se, as Bakunin and Tolstoy did, but rather recognised the need for government in the short term and hoped that the time would come when it would be unnecessary.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m