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Encyclopedia > William Carey

William Carey (August 17, 1761June 9, 1834) was an English missionary and Baptist minister, known as the "father of modern missions." Carey was one of the founders of the Baptist Missionary Society. As a missionary in Serampore, India, he translated the Bible into Bengali, Sanskrit, and numerous other languages and dialects. August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location (dark green) within the United Kingdom (light green), with the Republic of Ireland (blue) to its west Languages English Capital London Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population –mid-2004... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... A Baptist is a member of a Baptist church. ... The Baptist Missionary Society (from 2000 BMS World Mission) is a Christian missionary society founded by Baptists from England around 1792AD. The original name of the society was the Particular Baptist Society for the Propagation of the Gospel Amongst the Heathen. ... Serampore, India, is a pre-colonial town on the right bank of the Hoogli River in the Hooghly (Hughli) district of West Bengal. ... The Gutenberg Bible owned by the United States Library of Congress The Bible (Hebrew: תנ״ך tanakh, Greek: η Βίβλος hÄ“ biblos) (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Work of God, The Word, The Good Book or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βίβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, is the name used by Jews and Christians for their... Bangla (বাংলা, IPA: ) or Bengali is an Indo-Aryan language of East South Asia, evolved from Sanskrit and Prakrit. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ...

Contents

Image File history File links William Carey File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Childhood and early adulthood

Carey, the eldest of five children, was born to Edmund and Elizabeth Carey, who were weavers by trade in the village of Paulerspury in Northamptonshire. William was raised in the Church of England; when he was six, his father was appointed the parish clerk and village schoolmaster. As a child he was naturally inquisitive and keenly interested in the natural sciences, particularly botany. He possessed a natural gift for language, teaching himself Latin. Genera Many:see text The Weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. ... Northamptonshire (abbreviated Northants or Nhants) is a landlocked county in central England with a population of 629,676 (2001 census). ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Pinguicula grandiflora Botany is the scientific study of plantlife. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


At the age of 14, Carey’s father apprenticed him to a shoemaker in the nearby village of Hackleton. His master, Clarke Nichols, was a churchman like himself, but another apprentice, John Warr, was a Dissenter. Through his influence Carey would eventually leave the Church of England and join with other Dissenters to form a small Congregational church in Hackleton. While apprenticed to Nichols, he also taught himself Greek with the help of a local villager who had a college education. Shoemaking is a traditional career/craft, mostly superseded by industrial manufacture of footwear. ... The term dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, to disagree), labels one who dissents or disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc. ... Congregationalist church governance, often known as congregationalism, is a system of church governance in which every local congregation is independent. ...

When Nichols died in 1779, Carey went to work for another local shoemaker, Thomas Old; he married Old’s sister-in-law Dorothy Plackett in 1781. Unlike William, Dorothy was illiterate; her signature in the marriage register is a crude cross. William and Dorothy Carey had six children, four sons and two daughters; both girls died in infancy. Olds himself died soon afterward, and Carey took over his business, during which time he taught himself Hebrew, Italian, Dutch, and French, often reading while working on his shoes. Somehow he managed to retain information while working. Image File history File links Careys college at Hackleton File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Hebrew (עִבְרִית ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than seven million people in Israel and Jewish communities around the world. ...


Founding of the Baptist Missionary Society

Carey became involved with a local association of Particular Baptists that had recently formed, where he became acquainted with men such as John Ryland, John Sutcliff, and Andrew Fuller, who would become his close friends in later years. They invited him to preach in their church in the nearby village of Barton every other Sunday. On October 5, 1783, William Carey was baptized by Ryland and committed himself to the Baptist denomination. In the early 17th century, Baptists in England developed along two different theologies. ... Andrew Fuller (1754-1815) was an eminent Baptist minister, born in Cambridgeshire, and settled at Kettering. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in Leap years). ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Baptism in early Christian art. ...


In 1785, Carey was appointed the schoolmaster for the village of Moulton. He was also invited to pastor the local Baptist church. During this time he read Jonathan Edwards' Account of the Life of the Late Rev. David Brainerd and the journals of the explorer James Cook, and became deeply concerned with propagating the Christian Gospel throughout the world. His friend Andrew Fuller had previously written an influential pamphlet in 1781 titled The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation, answering the hyper-Calvinist belief then prevalent in the Baptist churches, that all men were not responsible to believe the Gospel. At a ministers' meeting in 1786, Carey raised the question of whether it was the duty of all Christians to spread the Gospel throughout the world. J. R. Ryland, the father of John Ryland, is said to have retorted: "Young man, sit down; when God pleases to convert the heathen, he will do it without your aid and mine." However, Ryland's son, John Ryland Jr., disputes that his father made this statement. 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Moulton as a place name: In the USA: Moulton, Alabama Moulton, Iowa Moulton, Texas In the United Kingdom Moulton, Northamptonshire Moulton, Cheshire Moulton, Suffolk As an English educational institution: Moulton College, Northamptonshire Moulton is also the name of a bicycle manufacturer named after its inventor Dr Alex Moulton This is... Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703- March 22, 1758) was a colonial American Congregational preacher and theologian. ... David Brainerd,(April 20, 1718 - 1747), American missionary among the Native Americans, was born at Haddam, Connecticut. ... James Cook, portrait by Nathaniel Dance, c. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... Calvinism is a system of Christian theology and an approach to Christian life and thought, articulated by John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and subsequently by successors, associates, followers and admirers of Calvin and his interpretation of Scripture. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1789 Carey became the full-time pastor of a small Baptist church in Leicester. Three years later in 1792 he published his groundbreaking missionary manifesto, An Enquiry into the Obligations of Christians to use Means for the Conversion of the Heathens. This short book consists of five parts. The first part is a theological justification for missionary activity, arguing that the command of Jesus to make disciples of all the world (Matthew 28:18-20) remains binding on Christians. The second part outlines a history of missionary activity, beginning with the early Church and ending with David Brainerd and John Wesley. Part 3 comprises 26 pages of tables, listing area, population, and religion statistics for every country in the world. Carey had compiled these figures during his years as a schoolteacher. The fourth part answers objections to sending missionaries, such as difficulty learning the language or danger to life. Finally, the fifth part calls for the formation by the Baptist denomination of a missionary society and describes the practical means by which it could be supported. Carey's seminal pamphlet outlines his basis for missions: Christian obligation, wise use of available resources, and accurate information. 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Leicester city centre, looking towards clock tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city in the English East Midlands. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally: according to Matthew, Greek: Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον ) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... John Wesley (June 17, 1703–March 2, 1791) was an 18th-century Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ...


Carey later preached a pro-missionary sermon (the so-called Deathless Sermon), using Isaiah 54:2-3 as his text, in which he repeatedly used the epigram which has become his most famous quotation: "Expect great things from God; attempt great things for God." Carey finally overcame the resistance to missionary effort, and the Particular Baptist Society for Propagating the Gospel among the Heathen (now the Baptist Missionary Society) was founded in October 1792, including Carey, Andrew Fuller, John Ryland, and John Sutcliff as charter members. They then concerned themselves with practical matters such as raising funds, as well as deciding where they would direct their efforts. A medical missionary, Dr. John Thomas, had been in Calcutta and was currently in England raising funds; they agreed to support him and that Carey would acompany him to India. The Deathless Sermon A sermon given during the rise of Hyper-Calvinism in England. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ...


Early Indian period

Carey, his eldest son Felix, Thomas and his wife and daughter sailed from London aboard an English ship in April 1793. Dorothy Carey had refused to leave England, being pregnant with their fourth son and having never been more than a few miles from home. En route they were delayed at the Isle of Wight, at which time the captain of the ship received word that he endangered his command if he conveyed the missionaries to Calcutta, as their unauthorized journey violated the trade monopoly of the British East India Company. He decided to sail without them, and they were delayed until June when Thomas found a Danish captain willing to offer them passage. In the meantime, Carey's wife, who had by now given birth, agreed to accompany him provided her sister came as well. They landed at Calcutta in November. 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Isle of Wight is an English island, south of the county of Hampshire off the southern English coast. ... It has been suggested that coercive monopoly be merged into this article or section. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was a joint-stock company which was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intent to favour trade privileges in India. ...


During the first year in Calcutta, the missionaries sought means to support themselves and a place to establish their mission. They also began to learn the Bengali language to communicate with the natives. A friend of Thomas owned two indigo factories and needed managers, so Carey moved with his family north to Mudnabatty. During the six years that Carey managed the indigo plant, he completed the first revision of his Bengali New Testament and began formulating the principles upon which his missionary community would be formed, including communal living, financial self-reliance, and the training of indigenous ministers. His son Peter died of dysentery, causing Dorothy to suffer a nervous breakdown from which she never recovered. Tentmaking is a method of international Christian evangelism in which missionaries support themselves through external work, instead of receiving financial support from a church. ... Indigo dye indigo molecule Indigo dye is an important dyestuff with a distinctive blue color (see indigo). ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... Dysentery is an illness involving severe diarrhea that is often associated with blood in the feces. ...

Meanwhile, the missionary society had begun sending more missionaries to India. The first to arrive was John Fountain, who arrived in Mudnabatty and began teaching school. He was followed by William Ward, a printer; Joshua Marshman, a schoolteacher; David Brunsdon, one of Marshman's students; and William Grant, who died three weeks after his arrival. Because the East India Company was still hostile to missionaries, they settled in the Danish colony at Serampore and were joined there by Carey on January 10, 1800. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (514x626, 88 KB)Joshua Marshman See also Arthur Marshman a relative File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... There have been several people named William Ward, including: William Ward, 2nd Earl of Dudley, sometime Governor-General of Australia William Ward the Serampore missionary (see Joshua Marshman, and William Carey ) for more details William Ward, Lieutenant-Colonel commanding the Georgia Battalion, who was executed at the Goliad Massacre during... The Reverend Dr.Joshua Marshman was born in 1768 in Westbury Leigh, Wiltshire, England and died In Serampore India in 1837. ... Serampore, India, is a pre-colonial town on the right bank of the Hoogli River in the Hooghly (Hughli) district of West Bengal. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1800 (MDCCC) was an common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Late Indian period

Once settled in Serampore, the mission bought a house large enough to accommodate all of their families and a school, which was to be their principal means of support. Ward set up a print shop with a secondhand press Carey had acquired and began the task of printing the Bible in Bengali. In August 1800 Fountain died of dysentery. By the end of that year, the mission had their first convert, a Hindu named Krishna Pal. They had also earned the goodwill of the local Danish government and Richard Wellesley, then Governor-General of India. Serampore, India, is a pre-colonial town on the right bank of the Hoogli River in the Hooghly (Hughli) district of West Bengal. ... Hinduism {Sanskrit - Hindū Dharma, also known as Sanātana (eternal) Dharma and Vaidika (of the Vedas) Dharma} is the religion based on the Vedas as well as other traditional scriptures and beliefs. ... Richard Wellesley ,1st Marquess Wellesley The Most Honourable Richard Colley Wesley, later Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley (20 June 1760 - 26 September 1842), was the eldest son of Garret Wesley, 1st Earl of Mornington, an Irish peer, and brother of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ...


The conversion of Hindus to Christianity posed a new question for the missionaries concerning whether it was appropriate for converts to retain their caste. In 1802, the daughter of Krishna Pal, a Sudra, married a Brahmin. This wedding was a public demonstration that the church repudiated the caste distinctions. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social stratification, such as clans, gentes, or the Indian caste system. ... --69. ... Krishna Pal (born Calcutta 1764- died 1822) was the first Indian convert to Christianity due to the missionary activity of William Carey and co-workers, the founder of the Baptist Missionary Society. ... Shudra, or Sudra, is the fourth caste, or varna, in the traditional four-caste division among Indian castes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Brunsdon and Thomas died in 1801. The same year, the Governor-General founded Fort William, a college intended to educate civil servants. He offered Carey the position of professor of Bengali. Carey's colleagues at the college included pundits, whom he could consult to correct his Bengali testament. He also wrote grammars of Bengali and Sanskrit, and began a translation of the Bible into Sanskrit. He also used his influence with the Governor-General to help put a stop to the practices of infant sacrifice and suttee, after consulting with the pundits and determining that they had no basis in the Hindu sacred writings (although the latter would not be abolished until 1829). The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A pandit or pundit (Devanagari: पन्दित) is a Hindu Brahmin who has memorized a substantial portion of the Vedas, along with the corresponding rhythms and melodies for chanting or singing them. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... Ceremony of Burning a Hindu Widow with the Body of her Late Husband, from Pictorial History of China and India, 1851. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Dorothy Carey died in 1807. She had long since ceased to be a useful member of the mission, and in fact was actually a hindrance to its work. John Marshman wrote how Carey worked away on his studies and translations, "...while an insane wife, frequently wrought up to a state of most distressing excitement, was in the next room....". Carey re-married a year later to Charlotte Rhumohr, a Danish member of his church who, unlike Dorothy, was his intellectual equal. They were married for 13 years until her death. 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


From the printing press at the mission came translations of the Bible in Bengali, Sanskrit, and other major languages and dialects. Many of these languages had never been printed before; William Ward had to create punches for the type by hand. Carey had begun translating literature and sacred writings from the original Sanskrit into English to make them accessible to his own countryman. On March 11, 1812, a fire in the print shop caused £10,000 in damages and lost work. Amongst the losses were many irreplaceable manuscripts, including much of Carey's translation of Sanskrit literature and a polyglot dictionary of Sanskrit and related languages, which would have been a seminal philological work had it been completed. However, the press itself and the punches were saved, and the mission was able to continue printing in six months. In Carey's lifetime, the mission printed and distributed the Bible in whole or part in 44 languages and dialects. March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in Leap year). ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ...


Also, in 1812, Adoniram Judson an American Congregational missionary enroute to India studied the scriptures on baptism in preparation for a meeting with Carey. His studies led him to become a Baptist. Carey's urging of American Baptists to take over support for Judson's mission, led to the foundation in 1814 of the first American Baptist Mission board, the General Misssionary Convention of the Baptist Denomination in the United States of America for Foreign Missions, later commonly known as the Triennial Convention. Most American Baptist denominations of today are directly or indirectly descended from this convention. The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1818, the mission founded Serampore College to train indigenous ministers for the growing church and to provide education in the arts and sciences to anyone regardless of caste or country. The King of Denmark granted a royal charter in 1827 that made the college a degree-granting institution, the first in Asia. 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Serampore College is a Christian Seminary located in India. ... This is a list of Danish monarchs, that is, the Kings and ruling Queen of Denmark, including Regents of the Kalmar Union. ... Naval Battle of Navarino by Carneray 1827 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Carey's second wife, Charlotte, died in 1821, followed by his eldest son Felix. In 1823 he married a third time, to a widow named Grace Hughes. The coronation banquet for George IV 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Internal dissent and resentment was growing within the Missionary Society as its numbers grew, the older missionaries died, and they were replaced by less experienced men. Some new missionaries arrived who were not willing to live in the communal fashion that had developed, one going so far as to demand "a separate house, stable and servants." Unused to the rigorous work ethic of Carey, Ward, and Marshman, the new missionaries thought their seniors - particularly Marshman - to be somewhat dictatorial, assigning them work not to their liking.


Andrew Fuller, who had been secretary of the Society in England, had died in 1815, and his successor, John Dyer, was a bureaucrat who attempted to reorganize the Society along business lines and manage every detail of the Serampore mission from England. Their differences proved to be irreconcilable, and Carey formally severed ties with the missionary society he had founded, leaving the mission property and moving onto the college grounds. He lived a quiet life until his death in 1834, revising his Bengali Bible, preaching, and teaching students. The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1834 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Family neglect

Joshua Marshman was appalled by the neglect with which Carey looked after his four boys when he first met them in 1800. Aged 4, 7, 12 and 15, they were unmannered, undisciplined, and even uneducated. Carey had not spoiled, but rather simply ignored them. The Reverend Dr.Joshua Marshman was born in 1768 in Westbury Leigh, Wiltshire, England and died In Serampore India in 1837. ...


Hannah Marshman wrote, "The good man saw and lamented the evil but was too mild to apply an effectual remedy." However, Hannah and her husband along with their friend the printer William Ward, took the boys in tow. Together they shaped the boys as Carey pampered his botanical specimens, performed his many missionary tasks and journeyed into Calcutta to teach a Fort William College. They offered the boys structure, instruction and companionship. To their credit - and little to Carey's - all four boys went on to other careers. Hannah Marshman (Born May 13, 1767, Bristol - Died March 5, 1847, Serampore, India) was a missionary. ... There have been several people named William Ward, including: William Ward, 2nd Earl of Dudley, sometime Governor-General of Australia William Ward the Serampore missionary (see Joshua Marshman, and William Carey ) for more details William Ward, Lieutenant-Colonel commanding the Georgia Battalion, who was executed at the Goliad Massacre during... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ...


References

  • Carey, William. An Enquiry into the Obligations of Christians to Use Means for the Conversion of the Heathens. Leicester: A. Ireland, 1791.
  • Marshman, Joshua Clark. Life and Times of Carey, Marshman and Ward Embracing the History of the Serampore Mission. 2 vols. London: Longman, 1859.
  • Smith, George. The Life of William Carey: Shoemaker and Missionary. London: Murray, 1887.
  • Walker, F. Deaville. William Carey: Missionary Pioneer and Statesman. Chicago: Moody, 1951.

Leicester city centre, looking towards clock tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city in the English East Midlands. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see London (disambiguation). ... 1859 (MDCCCLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Chicago (officially named the City of Chicago) is the third largest city in the United States (after New York City and Los Angeles), with an official population of 2,896,016, as of the 2000 census. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ...

External links

Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ...

Chronology of Events in Carey's Life

  • 1761 Born at Paulerspury, Northampton. England. August 17.
  • 1777 Apprenticed to the shoemaking trade.
  • 1779 Attended prayer-meeting that changed his life, February 10.
  • 1783 Baptized by Mr. Ryland, October 5.
  • 1786 Called to the ministry at Olney, August 10.
  • 1792 Pamphlet "An Inquiry" published;
    • Baptist Missionary Society in England formed, October 2.
  • 1793 Appointed missionary to India, January 10;
    • Arrived in Calcutta, November 11.
  • 1796 Baptized a Portuguese, his first convert.
  • 1800 Moved to Serampore, January 10;
    • Baptized Krishna Pal, first Bengali convert, December 28;
    • Elected Professor of Sanskrit and Bengali languages at Fort Williams College.
  • 1801 Completed New Testament in Bengali, February 7.
  • 1803 Self-supporting missionary organization founded.
  • 1807 Doctor of Divinity conferred by Brown University of U.S.A.;
    • Member of Bengali Asiatic Society.
  • 1808 New Testament in Sanskrit published.
  • 1809 Completed translation of Bible in Bengali, June 24.
  • 1811 New Testament in Marathi published.
  • 1815 New Testament in Punjabi published.
  • 1818 His father died, June 15.
  • 1818 Old Testament in Sanskrit published.
  • 1820 Founded the Agricultural and Horticultural Society, September 4;
    • Danish King granted charter for college at Serampore;
    • Marathi Old Testament published.
  • 1821 Serampore college opened.
  • 1825 Completed Dictionary of Bengali and English.
  • 1826 Government gave Carey "Grant in Aid" for education.
  • 1829 Sati prohibited through Carey's efforts, December 4.
  • 1834 Died at Serampore, June 9.

 
 

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