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Encyclopedia > William Butler Yeats
William Butler Yeats, 1933. Unknown photographer. U.S. Library of Congress.
William Butler Yeats, 1933. Unknown photographer. U.S. Library of Congress.

William Butler Yeats (pronounced /ˈjeɪts/; 13 June 1865 - 28 January 1939) was an Irish poet and dramatist, and one of the foremost figures of 20th-century literature. A pillar of both the Irish and English literary establishments, in his later years Yeats served as an Irish Senator for two terms. He was a driving force behind the Irish Literary Revival, and together with Lady Gregory and Edward Martyn founded the Abbey Theatre, and served as its chief during its early years. In 1923, he was awarded a Nobel Prize in Literature for what the Nobel Committee described as "inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation;" he is the first Irishman so honored. [1] Yeats is generally considered one of the few writers whose greatest works were completed after being awarded the Nobel Prize;[2] such works include The Tower (1928) and The Winding Stair and Other Poems (1929). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1190x1536, 128 KB) Date 1933-02-07 Author unknown Permission No known restrictions on publication. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1190x1536, 128 KB) Date 1933-02-07 Author unknown Permission No known restrictions on publication. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881). ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... The Seanad Chamber The Seanad meets in the former picture gallery in Leinster House. ... The Celtic Revival, also known as the Irish Literary Revival, was begun by Lady Gregory, Edward Martyn and William Butler Yeats in Ireland in 1896. ... A photograph of Lady Gregory from her 1913 book Our Irish Theatre Isabella Augusta, Lady Gregory (15 March 1852–22 May 1932), née Isabella Augusta Persse, was an Irish dramatist and folklorist. ... Edward Martyn (1859-1923) of Tullira Castle, Co. ... This article is about the Abbey Theatre, Dublin. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ...


Yeats was educated in Dublin, but spent his childhood in Sligo. He studied poetry in his youth, and from an early age was fascinated by both Irish legends and the occult. These topics feature in the first phase of his work, which lasted roughly until the turn of the century. His earliest volume of verse was published in 1889, and those slowly paced and lyrical poems display debts to Edmund Spenser and Percy Bysshe Shelley, as well as to the lyricism of the Pre-Raphaelite poets. WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference G685354 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Elevation: 13 m Population (2006)  - Town:  - Rural:   17,892 [1]  24,096[1] Website: www. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4, 1792 – July 8, 1822; pronounced ) was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among the finest lyric poets of the English language. ... Persephone, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti. ...


From 1900, Yeats' poetry grew more physical and realistic. He largely renounced the transcendental beliefs of his youth, though he remained preoccupied with physical and spiritual masks, as well as with cyclical theories of life. Over the years Yeats adopted many different ideological positions, including, in the words of the critic Michael Valdez Moses, "those of radical nationalist, classical liberal, reactionary conservative and millenarian nihilist".[3]

Contents

Life

Early years

William Butler Yeats was born in Sandymount, County Dublin.[4] His father, John Butler Yeats, was a descendant of Jervis Yeats, a Williamite soldier and linen merchant who died in 1712. Jervis' grandson Benjamin married Mary Butler, daughter of a landed County Kildare family. At the time of his marriage, John Yeats was studying law, but abandoned his studies to study art at Heatherley’s Art School in London.[5] His mother, Susan Mary Pollexfen, came from a wealthy Anglo-Irish family in County Sligo who owned a prosperous milling and shipping business. Soon after William's birth the family relocated to Sligo to stay with her extended family, and the young poet came to think of the area as his childhood and spiritual home. Its landscape became, over time, both literally and symbolically, his "country of the heart".[6] The Butler Yeats family were highly artistic; his brother Jack went on to be a highly regarded painter, while his sisters Elizabeth and Susan—known to family and friends as Lollie and Lily—became involved in the Arts and Crafts movement.[7] Sandymount (Dumhach Thrá in Irish) is a seaside village/suburb in the district of Dublin 4 in Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Dublin Code: D Area: 921 km² Population (2006) 1,186,821 County Dublin (Irish: Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath), or more correctly today the Dublin Region[1] (Réigiúin Átha Cliath), is the area that contains the city of Dublin, the capital and largest city... John Butler Yeats (Born Tullylish 16 March 1839, died 3 February 1922) was an Irish artist and the father of William Butler Yeats and Jack Butler Yeats. ... William III of England, II of Scotland and III of Orange (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702) was a Dutch aristocrat, the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Naas Code: KE Area: 1,693 km² Population (2006) 186,075 Website: www. ... Anglo-Irish was a term used historically to describe a ruling class inhabitants of Ireland who were the descendants and successors of the Protestant Ascendancy[1], mostly belonging to the Anglican Church of Ireland or to a lesser extent one of the English dissenting churches, such as the Methodist church. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Sligo Code: SO Area: 1,837 km² Population (2006) 60,894[1] Website: www. ... Jack Butler Yeats (1871-1957) was an Irish artist who wrote and illustrated for books and magazines. ... The Dun Emer Press in 1903 with Elizabeth Yeats working the hand press Elizabeth Corbet Yeats (1868 – 1940) was born at 23 Fitzroy Road, London. ... Susan Yeats (1866 – 1949), known as Lily, was born in County Sligo, Ireland. ... Artichoke wallpaper, by John Henry Dearle for William Morris & Co. ...


Yeats grew up in a Protestant Ascendancy at the time undergoing a crisis of identity. While his family was broadly supportive of the changes Ireland was experiencing, the nationalist revival of the late 19th century directly disadvantaged his heritage, and informed his outlook for the remainder of his life. In 1997, his biographer R. F. Foster observed that Napoleon's dictum that to understand the man you have to know what was happening in the world when he was twenty "is manifestly true of W.B.Y."[8] Yeats' childhood and young adulthood were shadowed by the marginalization of the Protestant community. The 1880s saw the rise of Parnell and the Home rule movement, the 1890s the momentum of nationalism, while the Fenians became prominent around the turn of the century. These developments were to have a profound effect on his poetry, and his subsequent explorations of Irish identity had a significant influence on the creation of his country's biography.[9] The Protestant Ascendancy refers to the political, economic, and social domination of Ireland by Anglican landowners, Church of Ireland clergy, and professionals during the 17th, 18th, and 19th century. ... Charles Stewart Parnell, the uncrowned King of Ireland Charles Stewart Parnell[1] (27 June 1846 – 6 October 1891) was an Irish political leader and one of the most important figures in 19th century Ireland and the United Kingdom; William Ewart Gladstone described him as the most remarkable person he had... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... Fenian is a term used since the 1850s for Irish nationalists (who oppose British rule in Ireland). ...


In 1876, the family moved to England to aid their father, John, to further his career as an artist. At first the Yeats children were educated at home. Their mother entertained them with stories and folktales from her county of birth. John provided an erratic education in geography and chemistry, and took William on natural history explorations of the nearby Slough countryside.[10] On 26 January 1877, the young poet entered the Godolphin primary school,[11] which he attended for four years. He did not distinguish himself academically, and an early school report describes his performance as "only fair. Perhaps better in Latin than in any other subject. Very poor in spelling."[12] Though he had difficulty with mathematics and languages, he was fascinated by biology and zoology. For financial reasons, the family returned to Dublin toward the end of 1880, living at first in the city center and later in the suburb of Howth. In October 1881, Yeats resumed his education at Dublin's Erasmus Smith High School.[13] His father's studio was located nearby and William spent a great deal of time there, and met many of the city's artists and writers. It was during this period that he started writing poetry, and in 1885 Yeats' first poems, as well as an essay entitled "The Poetry of Sir Samuel Ferguson", were published in the Dublin University Review. Between 1884 to 1886, William attended the Metropolitan School of Art—now the National College of Art and Design—in Kildare Street.[4] His first known works were written when he was seventeen, and include a poem heavily influenced by Percy Bysshe Shelley which describes a magician who set up his throne in central Asia. Other pieces from this period are a draft of a play involving a Bishop, a monk, and a woman accused of paganism by local shepherds, as well as love-poems and narrative lyrics on medieval German knights. The early works were both conventional and according to the critic Charles Johnson "utterly unIrish", seeming to come out of a "vast murmurous gloom of dreams".[14] Although Yeats' early works drew heavily on Shelley, Edmund Spenser, and on the diction and colouring of pre-Raphaelite verse, he soon turned to Irish myth and folklore and the writings of William Blake. In later life, Yeats paid tribute to Blake by describing him as one of the "great artificers of God who uttered great truths to a little clan".[15] Slough (pronounced ) is a town and unitary authority (Borough of Slough) in England. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A primary school in ÄŒeský Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference O283393 Statistics County: Elevation: sea level Population (2002)  - Town:  - Rural:   8706  n/a Howth (pronounced to rhyme with both; known as Binn Éadair in Irish) is a generally affluent residential area in the Fingal County Council administrative area of County Dublin, Ireland. ... The High School is a co-educational school located in Rathgar, Dublin, Ireland. ... Samuel Ferguson (March 10, 1810 – August 9, 1886) was an Irish poet, barrister, antiquarian, artist and public servant. ... The National College of Art and Design is an art school in Dublin, Ireland. ... Leinster House The former palace of the Duke of Leinster. ... Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4, 1792 – July 8, 1822; pronounced ) was one of the major English Romantic poets and is widely considered to be among the finest lyric poets of the English language. ... Charles Johnson may refer to one of several individuals, including: Charles R. Johnson, contemporary African_American author Charles Johnson, 18th century Democratic_Republican politician from North Carolina Charles Elliott Johnson, contemporary Democratic politician from North Carolina Charles Johnson, Major League Baseball player Charles B. Johnson, chairman of Franklin Resources, Inc. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was a group of English painters, poets and critics, founded in 1848 by John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman Hunt. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ...


Young poet

The family returned to London in 1887. In 1890, Yeats co-founded the Rhymers' Club with Ernest Rhys,[16] a group of London based poets who met regularly in a Fleet Street tavern to recite their verse. The collective later became known as the "Tragic Generation" [17] and published two anthologies: first in 1892 and again in 1894. He collaborated with Edwin Ellis on the first complete edition of William Blake's works, in the process rediscovering a forgotten poem "Vala, or, the Four Zoas."[18] In a late essay on Shelley, Yeats wrote, "I have re-read Prometheus Unbound... and it seems to me to have an even more certain place than I had thought among the sacred books of the world."[19] The Rhymers Club was a group of London-based poets, founded in 1890 by W. B. Yeats and Ernest Rhys. ... Ernest Percival Rhys (July 17, 1859 – May 25, 1946) was an English writer, best known for his role as founding editor of the Everymans Library series of affordable classics. ... Edwin John Ellis (1848 - 1916) was a British poet and illustrator, now remembered mostly for the three-volume edition The works of William Blake, poetic, symbolic and critical (1893) he edited with W. B. Yeats. ... There are two plays named Prometheus Unbound. ...

William Butler Yeats, 1900; portrait by his father John Butler Yeats.
William Butler Yeats, 1900; portrait by his father John Butler Yeats.

Yeats had a life-long interest in mysticism, spiritualism, occultism, and astrology. He read extensively on the subjects throughout his life and was especially influenced by the writings of Emanuel Swedenborg.[20] As early as 1892, he wrote: "If I had not made magic my constant study I could not have written a single word of my Blake book, nor would The Countess Kathleen ever have come to exist. The mystical life is the center of all that I do and all that I think and all that I write."[21] His mystical interests—also inspired by a study of Hinduism, under the Theosophist Mohini Chatterjee, and the occult—formed much of the basis of his late poetry. However, some critics have dismissed these influences as lacking in intellectual credibility. In particular, W. H. Auden criticized this aspect of Yeats' work as the "deplorable spectacle of a grown man occupied with the mumbo-jumbo of magic and the nonsense of India."[22] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... John Butler Yeats (Born Tullylish 16 March 1839, died 3 February 1922) was an Irish artist and the father of William Butler Yeats and Jack Butler Yeats. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the religion. ... For other uses of this term, see occult (disambiguation). ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... Emanuel Swedenborg, 75, holding the manuscript of Apocalypsis Revelata (1766). ... Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) IPA: ;[1], who signed his works W. H. Auden, was an Anglo-American poet, regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century. ...


Yeats's first significant poem was "The Isle of Statues," a fantasy work that took Edmund Spenser for its poetic model. The piece appeared in Dublin University Review, but has not since been republished. His first solo publication was the pamphlet Mosada: A Dramatic Poem (1886), which comprised a print run of 100 copies paid for by his father. This was followed by the collection The Wanderings of Oisin and Other Poems (1889), which arranged a series of verse that dated as far back as the mid-1880s. The long titular poem contains, in the words of his biographer R.F. Foster, "obscure Gaelic names, striking repetitions [and] an unremitting rhythm subtly varied as the poem proceeded through its three sections".[23] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ossian is a legendary warrior bard who appears as the narrator in the Celtic legends of Fionn mac Cumhail. ...

We rode in sorrow, with strong hounds three,
Bran, Sgeolan, and Lomair,
On a morning misty and mild and fair.
The mist-drops hung on the fragrant trees,
And in the blossoms hung the bees.
We rode in sadness above Lough Lean,
For our best were dead on Gavra's green.

"The Wanderings of Oisin" is based on the lyrics of the Fenian Cycle of Irish mythology and displays the influence of both Sir Samuel Ferguson and the Pre-Raphaelite poets.[24] The poem took two years to complete and was one of the few works from this period that he did not disown in his maturity. Oisin introduces what was to become one of his most important themes: the appeal of the life of contemplation over the appeal of the life of action. Following the work, Yeats never again attempted another long poem. His other early poems, which are meditations on the themes of love or mystical and esoteric subjects, include Poems (1895), The Secret Rose (1897), and The Wind Among the Reeds (1899). The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity, but much of it was preserved, shorn of its religious meanings, in medieval Irish literature, which represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. ... The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity, but much of it was preserved, shorn of its religious meanings, in medieval Irish literature, which represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. ... The Secret Rose is a poem written by the W.B. Yeats. ...


During 1885, Yeats was involved in the formation of the Dublin Hermetic Order. The society held its first meeting on 16 June, with Yeats acting as its chairman. The same year, the Dublin Theosophical lodge was opened in conjunction with Brahmin Mohini Chatterjee, who traveled from the Theosophical Society in London to lecture. Yeats attended his first séance the following year. He later became heavily involved with the Theosophical Society and with hermeticism, particularly with the eclectic Rosicrucianism of the Golden Dawn. During séances held from 1912, a spirit calling itself "Leo Africanus" apparently claimed to be Yeats's Daemon or anti-self, inspiring some of the speculations in Per Amica Silentia Lunae.[25] He was admitted into the Golden Dawn in March 1890 and took the magical motto Daemon est Deus inversus—translated as Devil is God inverted or A demon is a god reflected.[26] He was an active recruiter for the sect's Isis-Urania temple, and brought in his uncle George Pollexfen, Maud Gonne, and Florence Farr. Although he reserved a distaste for abstract and dogmatic religions founded around personality cults, he was attracted to the type of people he met at the Golden Dawn.[27] He was involved in the Order's power struggles, both with Farr and Macgregor Mathers, but was most notably involved when Mathers sent Aleister Crowley to repossess Golden Dawn paraphernalia during the "Battle of Blythe Road." After the Golden Dawn ceased and splintered into various offshoots, Yeats remained with the Stella Matutina until 1921.[28] Theosophy is a word and a concept known anciently, commonly understood in the modern era to describe the studies of religious philosophy and metaphysics originating with Helena Petrovna Blavatsky from the 1870s. ... Look up séance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the magical and religious movement stemming from the teachings of Hermes Trismegistus. ... The Temple of the Rose Cross, Teophilus Schweighardt Constantiens, 1618. ... The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (or, more commonly, the Golden Dawn) was a magical order of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, practicing a form of theurgy and spiritual development. ... Leo Africanus was the Christianised name of Hasan bin Muhammed al-Wazzan al-Fasi (Hasan, son of Muhammed, the Weigher from Fez) (Granada 1488? – 1554?). A former inhabitant of Granada, his family left the city sometime after the Christian conquest of the Muslim kingdom in 1492. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (or, more commonly, the Golden Dawn) was a magical order of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, practicing a form of theurgy and spiritual development. ... Magical mottoes are the magical nicknames, noms de plume, or pseudonyms taken by various individuals in a number of magical organizations. ... Florence Farr in 1890 Florence Farr (1860-1917) was a West End leading actress and one time mistress of George Bernard Shaw[1], acting head of a famed magical order, womens rights journalist, divorcee, educator, singer, musician, and author of the novel, She was a friend and collaborator with... Samuel Liddel MacGregor Mathers, in Egyptian costume, performs a ritual of Isis in the rites of the Golden Dawn. ... Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley, (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947, pronounced ) was a British occultist, writer, mountaineer, philosopher, poet, and mystic. ... The Stella Matutina was an initiatory Order dedicated to the dissemination of the traditional teachings of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn through the process of initiation. ...


Maud Gonne

Maud Gonne ca. 1900.
Maud Gonne ca. 1900.

In 1889, Yeats met Maud Gonne, then a twenty-three year old heiress and ardent Nationalist.[29] Gonne was eighteen months younger than Yeats and later claimed she met the poet as a "paint-stained art student."[30] Gonne had admired "The Isle of Statues" and sought out his acquaintance. Yeats developed an obsessive infatuation with her beauty and outspoken manner, and she was to have a significant and lasting effect on his poetry and his life ever after.[31] Looking back in later years, he admitted "it seems to me that she [Gonne] brought into my life those days—for as yet I saw only what lay upon the surface—the middle of the tint, a sound as of a Burmese gong, an over-powering tumult that had yet many pleasant secondary notes."[32] Yeats' love remained unrequited, in part due to his reluctance to participate in her nationalist activism.[33] His only other love affair during this period was with Olivia Shakespeare, whom he had first met in 1896, and parted with one year later. In 1895, he visited Gonne in Ireland and proposed marriage, but was rejected. He later admitted that from that point "the troubling of my life began."[34] Yeats proposed to Gonne three more times: in 1899, 1900 and 1901. She refused each proposal, and in 1903, to his horror, married the Irish nationalist Major John MacBride.[35] Maud Gonne ca. ... Maud Gonne ca. ... Maud Gonne MacBride (Irish: , 21 December 1866 – 27 April 1953) was an English-born Irish revolutionary, feminist and actress, best remembered for her turbulent relationship with William Butler Yeats. ... Major John MacBride (7 May 1865 – 5 May 1916) was an Irish republican who was executed for his leading role in the Easter Rising of 1916. ...

A 1907 engraving of Yeats.

Yeats' friendship with Gonne persisted, and in Paris in 1908 they finally consummated their relationship. "The long years of fidelity rewarded at last" was how another of his lovers described the event. Yeats was less sentimental and later remarked that "the tragedy of sexual intercourse is the perpetual virginity of the soul."[34] The relationship did not develop into a new phase after their night together, and soon afterwards Gonne wrote to the poet indicating that despite the physical consummation, they could not continue as they had been: "I have prayed so hard to have all earthly desire taken from my love for you & dearest, loving you as I do, I have prayed & I am praying still that the bodily desire for me may be taken from you too."[36] By January 1909, Gonne was sending Yeats letters praising the advantage given to artists who abstain from sex. Nearly twenty years later, Yeats recalled the night with Gonne in his poem "A Man Young and Old": William Butler Yeats Source: http://www. ... William Butler Yeats Source: http://www. ...

My arms are like the twisted thorn
And yet there beauty lay;
The first of all the tribe lay there
And did such pleasure take;
She who had brought great Hector down
And put all Troy to wreck.

In 1896, Yeats was introduced to Lady Gregory by their mutual friend Edward Martyn. Gregory encouraged Yeats' nationalism, and convinced him to continue focusing on writing drama. Although he was influenced by French Symbolism, Yeats concentrated on an identifiably Irish content and this inclination was reinforced by his involvement with a new generation of younger and emerging Irish authors. Together with Lady Gregory, Martyn, and other writers including J. M. Synge, Sean O'Casey, and Padraic Colum, Yeats was one of those responsible for the establishment of the "Irish Literary Revival" movement[37] Apart from these creative writers, much of the impetus for the Revival came from the work of scholarly translators who were aiding in the discovery of both the ancient sagas and Ossianic poetry and the more recent folk song tradition in Irish. One of the most significant of these was Douglas Hyde, later the first President of Ireland, whose Love Songs of Connacht was widely admired. A photograph of Lady Gregory from her 1913 book Our Irish Theatre Isabella Augusta, Lady Gregory (15 March 1852–22 May 1932), née Isabella Augusta Persse, was an Irish dramatist and folklorist. ... Edward Martyn (1859-1923) of Tullira Castle, Co. ... Edmund John Millington Synge (IPA: ) (April 16, 1871 – March 24, 1909) was an Irish dramatist, poet, prose writer, and collector of folklore. ... Sean OCasey Sean OCasey (March 30, 1880 - September 18, 1964) was a major Irish dramatist and memorist. ... Padraic Colum, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1959 Padraic Colum (December 8, 1881 - January 11, 1972) was an Irish poet, novelist, dramatist, biographer and collector of folklore. ... The Celtic Revival (c. ... Douglas Hyde (Irish name Dubhghlas de hÍde) (17 January 1860 - 12 July 1949) was an Irish language scholar who served as the first President of Ireland from 1938 to 1945. ...


Abbey Theatre

In 1899, Yeats, Lady Gregory, Martyn, and George Moore established the Irish Literary Theatre for the purpose of performing Celtic and Irish plays.[38] The ideals of the Abbey were derived from the avant-garde French theatre, which sought to express the "ascendancy of the playwright rather than the actor-manager à l'anglais."[39][40] The group's manifesto, which Yeats himself wrote, declared "We hope to find in Ireland an uncorrupted & imaginative audience trained to listen by its passion for oratory... & that freedom to experiment which is not found in the theaters of England, & without which no new movement in art or literature can succeed."[41] A portrait of George Moore by Édouard Manet George Augustus Moore (February 24, 1852 - January 21, 1933) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, poet, art critic, memoirist and dramatist. ... The Irish Literary Theatre was a precursor to the Abbey Theatre. ...


The collective survived for about two years and was not successful. However, working together with two Irish brothers with theatrical experience, William and Frank Fay, Yeats' unpaid-yet-independently wealthy secretary Annie Elizabeth Fredericka Horniman, and the leading West End actress Florence Farr, the group established the Irish National Theatre Society. This group of founders was able, along with J.M. Synge, to acquire property in Dublin and open the Abbey Theatre on 27 December 1904. Yeats's play Cathleen Ní Houlihan and Lady Gregory's Spreading the News were featured on the opening night. Yeats continued to be involved with the Abbey until his death, both as a member of the board and a prolific playwright. In 1902, he helped set up the Dun Emer Press to publish work by writers associated with the Revival. This became the Cuala Press in 1904, and inspired by the Arts and Crafts movement, sought to "find work for Irish hands in the making of beautiful things."[42] From then until its closure in 1946, the press—which was run by the poet's sisters—produced over 70 titles; 48 of them books by Yeats himself. William George (Willie) Fay (November 12, 1872 - October 27, 1947) was an actor and actor and theatre producer who was one of the co-founders of the Abbey Theatre. ... Frank Fay (1870–1931), brother of William Fay, was an actor and co-founder of the Abbey Theatre. ... Annie Elizabeth Fredericka Horniman (1860-1937) was a member of the Horniman Tea family who founded the Abbey Theatre in Dublin. ... Florence Farr in 1890 Florence Farr (1860-1917) was a West End leading actress and one time mistress of George Bernard Shaw[1], acting head of a famed magical order, womens rights journalist, divorcee, educator, singer, musician, and author of the novel, She was a friend and collaborator with... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Scene From Yeats play, Cathleen Ní Houlihan, circa 1912 production Cathleen Ní Houlihan is a one act play written by Irish playwright William Butler Yeats in 1902 and first performed in 1904. ... A photograph of Lady Gregory from her 1913 book Our Irish Theatre Isabella Augusta, Lady Gregory (15 March 1852–22 May 1932), née Isabella Augusta Persse, was an Irish dramatist and folklorist. ... The Dun Emer Press in 1903 with Elizabeth Yeats working the hand press Elizabeth Corbet Yeats (1868 – 1940) was born at 23 Fitzroy Road, London. ... The Cuala Press was set up in 1904 by William Butler Yeats and his sister Elizabeth. ...

W.B. Yeats photographed in Dublin on 24 January 1908.
W.B. Yeats photographed in Dublin on 24 January 1908.

In 1913, Yeats met the young American poet Ezra Pound. Pound had traveled to London at least partly to meet the older man, whom he considered "the only poet worthy of serious study."[43] From that year until 1916, the two men wintered in the Stone Cottage at Ashdown Forest, with Pound nominally acting as Yeats' secretary. The relationship got off to a rocky start when Pound arranged for the publication in the magazine Poetry of some of Yeats's verse with Pound's own unauthorised alterations. These changes reflected Pound's distaste for Victorian prosody. A more indirect influence was the scholarship on Japanese Noh plays that Pound had obtained from Ernest Fenollosa's widow, which provided Yeats with a model for the aristocratic drama he intended to write. The first of his plays modeled on Noh was At the Hawk's Well, the first draft of which he dictated to Pound in January 1916.[44] Download high resolution version (591x760, 53 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (591x760, 53 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ... A gate into Ashdown Forest at sunset Ashdown - a dark and mysterious forest Ashdown Forest in the county of East Sussex, in South East England is a large open area of heathland together with pine, birch and oak woodland in the High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. ... Poetry, published in Chicago, Illinois, is one of the leading monthly poetry journals in the English-speaking world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Title page of Cathay, poems by Ezra Pound, 1915, based on translations by Ernest Fenollosa. ...


In his early work, Yeats' aristocratic pose led to an idealisation of the Irish peasant and a willingness to ignore poverty and suffering. However, the emergence of a revolutionary movement from the ranks of the urban Catholic lower-middle class made him reassess his attitudes. His new direct engagement with politics can be seen in the poem September 1913, with its well-known refrain "Romantic Ireland's dead and gone / It's with O'Leary in the grave." The poem is an attack on the Dublin employers who were involved in the 1913 Dublin Lockout of workers in support of James Larkin's attempts to organise the Irish labour movement. In the refrain of "Easter 1916" ("All changed, changed utterly / A terrible beauty is born"), Yeats faces his own failure to recognise the merits of the leaders of the Easter Rising, due to his attitude towards their humble backgrounds and lives.[45] Statue of James Larkin on OConnell Street (Oisín Kelly 1977) The Dublin Lockout of 1913 was the most severe industrial dispute in the history of Ireland, a general lockout of workers in Dublin meant to contain the expansion of trade unions. ... Statue of James Larkin on OConnell Street, Dublin (Oisín Kelly 1977) James (Big Jim) Larkin (Irish: Séamas Ó Lorcáin)(1874-1947), an Irish trade union leader and socialist activist, was born in Liverpool, England on 28 January 1874, of Irish parents. ... Easter 1916 is a poem by W. B. Yeats describing the events of the Easter Rising staged in Ireland against British rule on Easter Monday, April 24, 1916. ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ...


Marriage to Georgie

By 1916, Yeats was 51 years old and determined to marry and produce an heir. His final proposal to Maud Gonne took place in the summer of 1916.[46] In his view, Gonne's history of rabid revolutionary political activism, as well as a series of personal catastrophes in the previous few years of her life, including chloroform addiction and a troubled marriage to John MacBride—an Irish revolutionary who was later executed by British forces for his role in the 1916 Easter Rising—made her an unsuitable wife.[34] Biographer R.F. Foster has observed that Yeats's last offer was motivated more by a sense of duty than by a genuine desire to marry Gonne. Yeats made his proposal in an indifferent manner, with conditions attached, and both expected and hoped to be turned down. According to Foster "when he duly asked Maud to marry him, and was duly refused, his thoughts shifted with surprising speed to her daughter". Iseult Gonne was Maud's second child with Lucien Millevoye, and at the time was twenty-one years old. She had lived a sad life to this point. Iseult had been conceived as an attempt to reincarnate her short lived brother, and for the first few years of her life was presented as her mother's adopted niece. She was molested by her stepfather when she was eleven,[47] and later worked as a gunrunner for the Irish Republican Army. At fifteen she proposed to Yeats. A few months after the poet's approach to Maude, he proposed to Iseult, but was rejected. Reflecting in later years, Yeats referred to the period as his "second puberty" and asked a friend "who am I, that I should not make a fool of myself".[34] R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... Iseult Gonne (1894 – 1954), Daughter of Maud Gonne and Lucien Millevoye, wife of Francis Stuart. ... This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ...

Yeats photographed in 1923.

That September, Yeats proposed to twenty-four-year-old George (Georgie) Hyde-Lees (1892-1968), whom he had met through occult circles. Despite warning from her friends—"George ... you can't. He must be dead"—Hyde-Lees accepted, and the two were married on October 20.[34] Their marriage was a success, in spite of the age difference, and in spite of Yeats's feelings of remorse and regret during their honeymoon. Around this time George wrote to her husband "When you are dead, people will talk about your love affairs, but I shall say nothing, for I will remember how proud you were". The couple went on to have two children, Anne and Michael. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anne Yeats (Born Dublin 1919, died 2001) was an Irish painter and stage designer. ... Michael Yeats (22 August 1921) is a former Irish Fianna Fáil politician. ...


During the first years of his marriage, he and George engaged in a form of automatic writing, which involved George contacting a variety of spirits and guides, which they termed "Instructors". The spirits communicated a complex and esoteric system of characters and history which they developed during experiments with the circumstances of trance and the exposition of phases, cones, and gyres.[48] Yeats devoted much time to preparing this material for publication as A Vision (1925). In 1924, he wrote to his publisher T. Werner Laurie admitting: "I dare say I delude myself in thinking this book my book of books".[46] For the article about the album by Ataxia, see Automatic Writing (album). ... A gyre is any manner of swirling vortex. ... A Vision is a 1925 collection of poems by the Irish poet William Butler Yeats. ...


Nobel Prize

In December 1923, Yeats was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature, and was determined to make the most of the occasion. He was aware of the symbolic value of an Irish winner so soon after Ireland had gained independence, and sought to highlight the fact at each available opportunity. His reply to the many of the letters of congratulations sent to him contained the words: "I consider that this honor has come to me less as an individual than as a representative of Irish literature, it is part of Europe's welcome to the Free State."[49] Yeats used the occasion of his acceptance lecture at the Royal Academy of Sweden to present himself as a standard-bearer of Irish nationalism and Irish cultural independence. As he remarked, "The theatres of Dublin were empty buildings hired by the English traveling companies, and we wanted Irish plays and Irish players. When we thought of these plays we thought of everything that was romantic and poetical, because the nationalism we had called up—the nationalism every generation had called up in moments of discouragement—was romantic and poetical."[3] The prize led to a significant increase in the sales of his books, as his publishers Macmillan sought to capitalise on the publicity. For the first time he had money, and he was able to repay not only his own debts, but those of his father.[50] Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ...


Old age

Memorial statue of William Butler Yeats located in Sligo, Ireland.
Memorial statue of William Butler Yeats located in Sligo, Ireland.

By the spring of 1925, Yeats had published "A Vision", and his health had stabilised. He had been appointed to the first Irish Senate in 1922, and was re-appointed for a second term in 1925.[51] Early in his tenure a debate on divorce arose, and Yeats viewed the issue as primarily a confrontation between the emerging Catholic ethos and the then Protestant establishment.[52] When the Catholic church weighed in with a blanket refusal to consider their anti position, the Irish Times countered that a measure to outlaw divorce would alienate Protestants and "crystallize" the partition of Northern Ireland. In response, Yeats delivered a series of speeches in which he attacked the "quixotically impressive" ambitions of the government and clergy, likening their campaign tactics to that of "medieval Spain".[53] "Marriage is not to us a Sacrament, but, upon the other hand, the love of a man and woman, and the inseparable physical desire, are sacred. This conviction has come to us through ancient philosophy and modern literature, and it seems to us a most sacrilegious thing to persuade two people who hate each other...to live together, and it is to us no remedy to permit them to part if neither can re-marry."[53] The resulting debate has been described as one of Yeats' "supreme public moments", and began his ideological move away from pluralism towards religious confrontation.[54] His language became more forceful; the Jesuit Father Peter Finlay was described by Yeats as a man of "monstrous discourtesy", and he lamented that "It is one of the glories of the Church in which I was born that we have put our Bishops in their place in discussions requiring legislation.[53] During his time in the senate, Yeats further warned his colleagues: "If you show that this country, southern Ireland, is going to be governed by Roman Catholic ideas and by Catholic ideas alone, you will never get the North...You will put a wedge in the midst of this nation".[55] He memorably said of his fellow Irish Protestants, "we are no petty people". Image File history File links Yeats_sligo. ... Image File history File links Yeats_sligo. ... A Vision is a 1925 collection of poems by the Irish poet William Butler Yeats. ... Type Upper house of Oireachtas Cathaoirleach Pat Moylan, Fianna Fáil since 13 September 2007 Members 60 Political groups Fianna Fáil Fine Gael Labour Party Independents Progressive Democrats Green Party Sinn Féin Last elections 2007 Meeting place Leinster House Web site www. ... The Irish Times is Irelands newspaper of record, launched in the late 1850s. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


In 1924, he chaired a coinage committee charged with selecting a set of designs for the first currency of the Irish Free State. Aware of the symbolic power latent in the imagery a young state's currency, he sought a form that was "elegant, racy of the soil, and utterly unpolitical".[56] When the house finally decided on the artwork of Percy Metcalfe, Yeats was pleased, though he regretted that compromise had lead to "lost muscular tension" in the finally depicted images.[56] He retired from the Senate in 1928 due to ill health. This article is about the prior state. ... Percy Metcalfe (often spelled Metcalf without e) was an English artist. ...


Towards the end of his life—and especially after the Wall Street Crash and Great Depression, which led some to question whether democracy would be able to cope with deep economic difficulty—Yeats seems to have returned to his aristocratic sympathies. During the aftermath of the First World War, he became skeptical about the efficacy of democratic government, and anticipated political reconstruction in Europe through totalitarian rule.[57] His later association with Pound drew him towards Mussolini, for whom he expressed admiration on a number of occasions.[3] He wrote three 'marching songs'—never used—for the Irish General Eoin O'Duffy's 'Blueshirts'. However, when Pablo Neruda invited him to visit Madrid in 1937, Yeats responded with a letter supporting the Republic against Fascism, and he distanced himself from Nazism and Fascism in the last years of his life. For the protest against the Communications Decency Act, see Black World Wide Web protest. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... General Eoin ODuffy (20 October 1892 - 30 November 1944), was in succession a Teachta Dála (TD), the Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army, the second Commissioner of the Garda Síochána, leader of the fascist Blueshirts and then the first leader of Fine Gael (1933... The Army Comrades Association (ACA), later named National Guard and better known by its nickname The Blueshirts, was an Irish political organisation set up by General Eoin ODuffy in 1932. ... Pablo Neruda (July 12, 1904 – September 23, 1973) was the penname and, later, legal name of the Chilean writer and communist politician Ricardo Eliecer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ...

Yeats's gravestone in Drumcliff, County Sligo.
Yeats's gravestone in Drumcliff, County Sligo.

After undergoing the Steinach operation in 1934, when aged 69, he found a new vigour evident from both his poetry and his intimate relations with younger women.[58] During this time Yeats was involved in a number of romantic affairs with, among others, the poet and actress Margot Ruddock, and the novelist, journalist and sexual radicalist Ethel Mannin.[59] As in his earlier life, Yeats found erotic adventure conducive to his creative energy, and despite age and ill-health he remained a prolific writer. In 1936, he undertook editorship of the Oxford Book of Modern Verse, 1892–1935.[35] Having suffered from a variety of illnesses for a number of years, he died at the Hôtel Idéal Séjour, in Menton, France on 28 January 1939.[4] He was buried after a discreet and private funeral at Roquebrune-Cap-Martin. Yeats and George had often discussed his death, and his express wish was to be buried quickly in France with a minimum of fuss. According to George "His actual words were 'If I die bury me up there [at Roquebrune] and then in a year's time when the newspapers have forgotten me, dig me up and plant me in Sligo".[60] In September 1948, Yeats's body was moved to Drumcliffe, County Sligo, on the Irish Naval Service corvette L.E. Macha.[61] His epitaph is taken from the last lines of "Under Ben Bulben", one of his final poems: Dr Eugen Steinach (1861-1944) was a leading Austrian physiologist and pioneer in endocrinology. ... Margaret (Margot) Collis (1907-1951), who used the name Margot Ruddock, was an actress, poet and singer. ... Ethel Edith Mannin (1900 – 1984) was a popular British novelist and travel writer. ... Menton (Occitan: Menton in classical norm or Mentan in Mistralian norm; Italian: Mentone) is a town and commune in the Alpes-Maritimes département of the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur région of France. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Roquebrune-Cap-Martin is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes département in southeastern France. ... Drumcliffe (Droim Chliabh in Irish) is a village in County Sligo, Ireland. ... The Flower class corvettes were a class of 267 corvettes developed by the Royal Navy and Royal Canadian Navy specifically for the protection of shipping convoys during the Battle of the Atlantic (1939-1945) in World War II. They were a stop-gap measure in the war against the German... Under Ben Bulben is a poem written by celebrated Irish poet W. B. Yeats. ...

Cast a cold Eye
On Life, on Death.
Horseman, pass by.

Style

W.B. Yeats is generally considered to be one of the twentieth century's key English-language poets. He can be considered a Symbolist poet in that he used allusive imagery and symbolic structures throughout his career. Yeats chooses words and puts them together so that in addition to a particular meaning they suggest other meanings that seem more significant. His use of symbols is usually something physical which is used both to be itself and to suggest other, perhaps immaterial, timeless qualities. Yet, unlike most modernists who experimented with free verse, Yeats was also a master of the traditional verse forms. The impact of modernism on his work can be seen in the increasing abandonment of the more conventionally poetic diction of his early work in favor of the more austere language and more direct approach to his themes that increasingly characterises the poetry and plays of his middle period, comprising the volumes In the Seven Woods, Responsibilities and The Green Helmet. His later poetry and plays are written in a more personal vein, and the works written in the last twenty years of his life include mention of his son and daughter, as well as meditations on the experience of growing old. In his poem, "The Circus Animals' Desertion", he describes the inspiration for these late works: This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... Free verse (also at times referred to as vers libre) is a term describing various styles of poetry that are not written using strict meter or rhyme, but that still are recognizable as poetry by virtue of complex patterns of one sort or another that readers will perceive to be...

Now that my ladder's gone
I must lie down where all the ladders start
In the foul rag and bone shop of the heart

During 1929, he stayed at Thoor Ballylee, near Gort in County Galway (where Yeats had his summer home since 1919) for the last time. Much of the remainder of his life was lived outside of Ireland, although he did lease Riversdale house in the Dublin suburb of Rathfarnham in 1932. He wrote prolifically through his final years, and published poetry, plays, and prose. In 1938, he attended the Abbey for the final time to see the premier of his play Purgatory. His Autobiographies of William Butler Yeats was published that same year. Gort (Irish: Gort Inse Guaire or An Gort) is a HOLE. Gort takes its name, Gort Inse Guaire, from Guaire Aidhne, the sixth century King of Connacht and patron of St. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Galway Code: G (GY proposed) Area: 6,148 km² Population (2006) 231,035 (including Galway City); 159,052 (without Galway City) Website: www. ... Riversdale was the last home of William Butler Yeats. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference O144289 Statistics Province: Leinster County: Elevation: 54 m Population (2006) 17,333  Website: www. ...


While Yeats's early poetry drew heavily on Irish myth and folklore, his later work was engaged with more contemporary issues, and his style underwent a dramatic transformation. His work can be divided into three general periods. The early poems are lushly pre-Raphaelite in tone, self-consciously ornate, and at times, according to unsympathetic critics, stilted. Yeats began by writing epic poems such as The Isle of Statues and The Wanderings of Oisin. After Oisin, he never attempted another long poem. His other early poems are lyrics on the themes of love or mystical and esoteric subjects. Yeats' middle period saw him abandon the pre-Raphaelite character of his early work and attempt to turn himself into a Landor-style social ironist. Critics who admire his middle work might characterize it as supple and muscular in its rhythms and sometimes harshly modernist, while others find these poems barren and weak in imaginative power. Yeats' later work found new imaginative inspiration in the mystical system he began to work out for himself under the influence of spiritualism. In many ways, this poetry is a return to the vision of his earlier work. The opposition between the worldly-minded man of the sword and the spiritually-minded man of God, the theme of The Wanderings of Oisin, is reproduced in A Dialogue Between Self and Soul. The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity, but much of it was preserved, shorn of its religious meanings, in medieval Irish literature, which represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. ... The Wanderings of Oisin is an epic poem published by William Butler Yeats in 1889. ... Walter Savage Landor (January 30, 1775 - September 17, 1864), English writer, eldest son of Walter Landor and his wife Elizabeth Savage, was born at Warwick. ... This article is about the religion. ...


Some critics claim that Yeats spanned the transition from the nineteenth century into twentieth-century modernism in poetry much as Pablo Picasso did in painting. Others question whether late Yeats really has much in common with modernists of the Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot variety. Modernists read the well-known poem "The Second Coming" as a dirge for the decline of European civilization in the mode of Eliot, but later critics have pointed out that this poem is an expression of Yeats' apocalyptic mystical theories, and thus the expression of a mind shaped by the 1890s. His most important collections of poetry started with The Green Helmet (1910) and Responsibilities (1914). In imagery, Yeats's poetry became sparer, more powerful as he grew older. The Tower (1928), The Winding Stairs (1929), and New Poems (1938) contained some of the most potent images in twentieth-century poetry; his Last Poems are conceded by most to be amongst his best. Picasso redirects here. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ... Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26, 1888 – January 4, 1965), was a poet, dramatist and literary critic. ...


Yeats's mystical inclinations, informed by Hindu Theosophical beliefs and the occult, formed much of the basis of his late poetry, which some critics have judged as lacking in intellectual credibility. W. H. Auden criticizes his late stage as the "deplorable spectacle of a grown man occupied with the mumbo-jumbo of magic and the nonsense of India". The metaphysics of Yeats's late works must be read in relation to his system of esoteric fundamentalities in A Vision (1925).[62] This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Theosophy is a word and a concept known anciently, commonly understood in the modern era to describe the studies of religious philosophy and metaphysics originating with Helena Petrovna Blavatsky from the 1870s. ... For other uses, see Occult (disambiguation). ...


His 1920 poem, "The Second Coming" is one of the most potent sources of imagery about the twentieth century. The Second Coming is a poem by William Butler Yeats first printed in The Dial (November 1920) and afterwards included in his 1921 verse collection Michael Robartes and the Dancer. ...

Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;
Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,
The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere
The ceremony of innocence is drowned.
The best lack all conviction, while the worst
Are full of passionate intensity.

For the anti-democratic Yeats, 'the best' referred to the traditional ruling classes of Europe, who were unable to protect the traditional culture of Europe from materialistic mass movements. The concluding lines refer to Yeats' belief that history was cyclic, and that his age represented the end of the cycle that began with the rise of Christianity.

And what rough beast, its hour come round at last,
Slouches towards Bethlehem to be born?

Notes

  1. ^ The Nobel Prize in Literature 1923. Nobelprize.org. Retrieved on 3 June 2007.
  2. ^ Frenz, Horst (Edit.). The Nobel Prize in Literature 1923. "Nobel Lectures, Literature 1901–1967", 1969. Retrieved on 23 May 2007.
  3. ^ a b c Moses, Michael Valdez. "The Poet As Politician". Reason, February, 2001. Retrieved on 03 June 2007.
  4. ^ a b c Obituary. "W.B. Yeats Dead". The New York Times, 30 January 1939. Retrieved on 21 May 2007.
  5. ^ "John Butler Yeats". Retrieved on 12 October 2007.
  6. ^ The Collected Poems (1994), p. vii.
  7. ^ Gordon Bowe, Nicola. "Two Early Twentieth-Century Irish Arts and Crafts Workshops in Context". Journal of Design History, Vol. 2, No. 2/3 (1989). pp. 193–206.
  8. ^ Foster (1997), p. xxviii.
  9. ^ Foster (1997), p. xxvii.
  10. ^ Foster (1997), p. 24.
  11. ^ Hone (1943), p. 28.
  12. ^ Foster (1997), p. 25.
  13. ^ Hone (1943), p. 33.
  14. ^ Foster (1997), p. 37.
  15. ^ Paulin, Tom. Taylor & Francis, 2004. "The Poems of William Blake". Retrieved on 3 June 2007.
  16. ^ Hone (1943), p. 83.
  17. ^ Alford, Norman. "The Rhymers' Club: Poets of the Tragic Generation". Nineteenth-Century Literature, Vol. 50, No. 4, March 1996. pp. 535-538.
  18. ^ Lancashire, Ian. "William Blake (1757–1827)". Department of English, University of Toronto, 2005. Retrieved on 03 June 2007.
  19. ^ Yeats (1900), p. 65.
  20. ^ Burke, Martin J. "Daidra from Philadelphia: Thomas Holley Chivers and The Sons of Usna". Columbia University, 7 October 2005. Retrieved on 15 July 2007.
  21. ^ Ellmann, Richard (1948). "Yeats: The Man and the Masks". (New York) Macmillan. p. 94.
  22. ^ Mendelson, Edward (Ed.) "W. H. Auden". The Complete Works of W.H. Auden: Prose, Volume II, 1939–1948, 2002. Retrieved on 26 May 2007.
  23. ^ Foster (1997), pp. 82-85.
  24. ^ Alspach, Russell K. "The Use by Yeats and Other Irish Writers of the Folklore of Patrick Kennedy". The Journal of American Folklore, Volume 59, No. 234, December, 1946. pp. 404-412.
  25. ^ Nally, Claire V. "National Identity Formation in W. B. Yeats's 'A Vision'". Irish Studies Review, Volume 14, Issue 1, February 2006. pp. 57–67.
  26. ^ Daemon est Deus inversus is taken from the writings of Madame Blavatsky in which she claims that "...even that divine Homogeneity must contain in itself the essence of both good and evil", and uses the motto as a symbol of the Astral Light.
  27. ^ Foater (1997), p. 103.
  28. ^ Cullingford, Elizabeth. "How Jacques Molay Got Up the Tower: Yeats and the Irish Civil War". ELH, Volume 50, No. 4, 1983. pp. 763-789.
  29. ^ Gonne claimed they first met in London three years earlier. Foster notes how Gonne was "notoriously unreliable on dates and places (1997, p. 57)
  30. ^ Foster (1997), p. 57.
  31. ^ Uddin Khan, Jalal. "Yeats and Maud Gonne: (Auto)biographical and Artistic Intersection". Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics, 2002.
  32. ^ Foster (1997), pp. 86-87.
  33. ^ "William Butler Yeats". BBC Four. Retrieved on 20 June 2007.
  34. ^ a b c d e Cahill, Christopher. "Second Puberty: The Later Years of W. B. Yeats Brought His Best Poetry, along with Personal Melodrama on an Epic Scale". The Atlantic Monthly, December 2003.
  35. ^ a b Ó Corráin, Donnchadh. "William Butler Yeats". University College Cork. Retrieved on 15 July 2007.
  36. ^ Foster (1997), p. 394.
  37. ^ Corcoran, Neil. After Yeats and Joyce: Reading Modern Irish Literature. (Oxford), Oxford University Press, 1997. p. viii
  38. ^ Foster (2003), pp. 486, 662.
  39. ^ Foster (1997), p. 183.
  40. ^ Text reproduced from Yeats' own handwritten draft.
  41. ^ Foster (1997), p. 184.
  42. ^ "Irish Genius': The Yeats Family and The Cuala Press". Trinity College, Dublin, 12 February 2004. Retrieved on 2 June 2007.
  43. ^ Monroe, Harriet (1913). "Poetry". (Chicago) Modern Poetry Association. p. 123.
  44. ^ Sands, Maren. "The Influence of Japanese Noh Theater on Yeats". Colorado State University. Retrieved on 15 July 2007.
  45. ^ Foster (2003), p. 59–66.
  46. ^ a b Mann, Neil. "An Overview of A Vision". "The System of W. B. Yeats’s A Vision". Retrieved on 15 July 2007.
  47. ^ Foster (1997), p. 286.
  48. ^ Foster (2003), pp. 105, 383.
  49. ^ Foster (2003), p. 245.
  50. ^ Foster (2003), pp. 246-247.
  51. ^ Foster (2003), pp. 228–239.
  52. ^ Foster (2003), p. 293.
  53. ^ a b c Foster (2003), p. 294.
  54. ^ Foster (2003), p. 296.
  55. ^ "Seand Resumes: Debate on Divorce Legislation Resumed". Seanad Éireann, Volume 5, 11 June, 1925. Retrieved on 26 May 2007.
  56. ^ a b Foster (2003), p. 333.
  57. ^ Foster (2003), p. 468.
  58. ^ "The Life and Works of William Butler Yeats". National Library of Ireland. Retrieved on 15 July 2007.
  59. ^ Foster (2003), pp. 504, 510-511.
  60. ^ Foster (2003), p. 651.
  61. ^ Foster (2003), p. 656.
  62. ^ Powell, Grosvenor E. "Yeats's Second "Vision": Berkeley, Coleridge, and the Correspondence with Sturge Moore". The Modern Language Review, Vol. 76, No. 2, April, 1981. p. 273.

is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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In metaphysics and esoteric cosmology, a plane of existence (sometimes called simply a plane, dimension, vibrating plane, or an inner, invisible, spiritual, supraphysical world, or egg) is conceived as a subtle region of space (and/or consciousness) beyond, but permeating, the known physical universe (or a portion of the physical... For the BBC radio station, see BBC Radio 4. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... University College Cork - National University of Ireland, Cork - or more commonly University College Cork (UCC) - is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland located in Cork City. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Sources

  • Cleeve, Brian (1972). W.B. Yeats and the Designing of Ireland's Coinage. New York: Dolmen Press. ISBN 0-85-105221-5
  • Foster, R. F. (1997). W. B. Yeats: A Life, Vol. I: The Apprentice Mage. New York: Oxford UP. ISBN 0-19-288085-3.
  • Foster, R. F. (2003). W. B. Yeats: A Life, Vol. II: The Arch-Poet 1915–1939. New York: Oxford UP. ISBN 0-19-818465-4.
  • Igoe, Vivien (1994). A Literary Guide to Dublin. London: Methuen Publishing. ISBN 0-413-69120-9.
  • Hone, Joseph (1943). W.B. Yeats, 1865–1939. New York: Macmillan Publishers. OCLC: 35607726
  • Longenbach, James (1988). Stone Cottage: Pound, Yeats, and Modernism. New York: Oxford UP. ISBN 0-19-506662-6.
  • Ryan, Philip B. (1998). The Lost Theatres of Dublin. Wiltshire: The Badger Press. ISBN 0-9526076-1-1.
  • "The Collected Poems of W.B. Yeats" (1994). (London) Wordsworth Poetry Library. ISBN 978-1-85326-454-2.
  • Yeats, W. B. (1900). "The Philosophy of Shelley's Poetry", in Essays and Introductions, 1961. New York: Macmillan Publishers. OCLC 362823

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Further reading

  • Brown, Terence (2001). The Life of W. B. Yeats. Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-18298-5.
  • Ellmann, Richard (1978). Yeats: The Man and the Masks. W W Norton. ISBN 0-393-07522-2.
  • Jeffares, A Norman ((1984). A New Commentary on the Poems of W. B. Yeats. Stanford UP. ISBN 0-8047-1221-2.
  • Jeffares, A Norman (1949). W B Yeats: Man and Poet. Yale UP. ISBN 0-31-215814-9
  • Jeffares, A Norman (1989). W B Yeats: A New Biography. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-28588-8.
  • King, Francis (1978). The Magical World of Aleister Crowley. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, ISBN 0-69-810884-1
  • King, Francis (1989). Modern Ritual Magic: The Rise of Western Occultism. ISBN 1-85327-032-6.
  • W. J. McCormack (2005). Blood Kindred: The Politics of W. B. Yeats and His Death. Pimilico ISBN 0-712-66514-5.
  • Pritchard, William H. (1972). W. B. Yeats: A Critical Anthology. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-08-0791-8.
  • Menon, Dr.V. K. Narayana, Development of William Butler Yeats
  • Vendler, Helen (2004). Poets Thinking: Pope, Whitman, Dickinson, Yeats, Harvard University Press
  • Vendler, Helen (2007). Our Secret Discipline: Yeats and Lyric Form, Harvard University Press

External links

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Persondata
NAME Yeats, William Butler
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Irish poet
DATE OF BIRTH 13 June 1865
PLACE OF BIRTH Sandymount, County Dublin
DATE OF DEATH 28 January 1939
PLACE OF DEATH Menton, France

Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881). ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Sandymount (Dumhach Thrá in Irish) is a seaside village/suburb in the district of Dublin 4 in Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Dublin Code: D Area: 921 km² Population (2006) 1,186,821 County Dublin (Irish: Contae Bhaile Átha Cliath), or more correctly today the Dublin Region[1] (Réigiúin Átha Cliath), is the area that contains the city of Dublin, the capital and largest city... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Menton (Occitan: Menton in classical norm or Mentan in Mistralian norm; Italian: Mentone) is a town and commune in the Alpes-Maritimes département of the Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur région of France. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
William Butler Yeats - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2442 words)
Yeats' early poetry drew heavily on Irish myth and folklore and drew on the diction and coloring of pre-Raphaelite verse.
Yeats developed an obsession with Gonne, and she was to have a significant effect on his poetry and his life ever after.
Yeats was appointed to the Irish Senate (Seanad Éireann) in 1922 and one of his main achievements as a Senator was to chair the coinage committee that was charged with selecting a set of designs for the first coinage for the Irish Free State (and the costumes of Irish judges!).
William Butler Yeats - definition of William Butler Yeats in Encyclopedia (2656 words)
William Butler Yeats (June 13, 1865–January 28, 1939), often referred to as W.B. Yeats, was an Irish poet, dramatist, mystic and public figure.
The Butler Yeats family were highly artistic; William's brother Jack went on to be a well-known painter and his sisters Elizabeth and Susan were both involved in the Arts and Crafts movement.
Yeats was appointed to Seanad Éireann in 1922 and one of his main achievements as a Senator was to chair the coinage committee that was charged with selecting a set of designs for the first coins issued by the Free State.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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