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Encyclopedia > William Adams (sailor)
William Adams
(1564-1620)



Names:
Christian name: William Adams
Japanese name: Miura Anjin (三浦按針)
Dates:
Birth: September 24, 1564
Gillingham, Kent, England
Death: May 16, 1620
Hirado, Kyūshū, Japan

William Adams (September 24, 1564May 16, 1620), also known in Japanese as Anjin-sama (anjin, "pilot"; sama, a Japanese social title or honorific more or less equivalent to lord) and Miura Anjin (三浦按針: "the pilot of Miura"), was an English navigator who travelled to Japan and is believed to be the first Briton ever to reach that country. He was the inspiration for the character of John Blackthorne in James Clavell's bestselling novel Shogun. Image File history File links WilliamAdams. ... Christian name is a term more or less synonymous with forename or given name. It can be seen as an archaism due to the increasing secularisation of what were once compulsorily Christian societies, but it continues to be very widely used, and not just by practising Christians. ... Yamada Tarō (), a typical Japanese name (male), equivalent to John Smith in English. ... Gillingham is a town in Kent, England, forming part of the Medway conurbation; it is a constituent of Medway unitary authority. ... coat of Arms of Kent For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... Categories: Cities in Nagasaki Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... KyÅ«shÅ« region of Japan and the current prefectures on KyÅ«shÅ« island KyÅ«shÅ« ), literally Nine Provinces, is the third largest island of Japan and most southerly and westerly of the four main islands. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (137th in leap years). ... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... A title is a prefix or suffix added to a persons name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. ... An honorific is a word or expression that conveys esteem or respect and is used in addressing or referring to a person. ... A Lord (Laird in some Scottish contexts) is a male who has power and authority. ... Categories: Stub ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... A navigator is the person onboard a ship responsible for the navigation of the vessel. ... Languages Cornish, Dgèrnésiais, English, French, Irish, Jèrriais, Manx, Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh Religions Anglican, Presbyterianism, Roman Catholicism Related ethnic groups Americans, Australians, Belongers, Canadians, Channel Islanders, Cornish, English, Irish, Manx, New Zealanders, Scottish, Welsh British people, or Britons,[7] are inhabitants of Great Britain[8][9] or... John Blackthorne is the hero of James Clavells 1975 novel Shogun, and is loosely based on the life of the 17th century British trader William Adams, who was the first Briton to visit Japan. ... James Clavell in 1986 James Clavell (10 October 1924 – 7 September 1994) was a novelist, screenwriter, and World War II POW, who was famous for books such as Shogun, and such films as The Great Escape and To Sir, with Love. ... This page is about the James Clavell novel. ...


Soon after Adams' arrival in Japan, he became a key advisor to the shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu and built for him Japan's first Western-style ships. Adams was later the key protagonist in the establishment of trading factories by the Netherlands and England. He was also highly involved in Japan's Red Seal Asian trade, chartering and captaining several sailboats to Southeast Asia. He died in Japan at age 56, and is recognized to this day as one of the most influential foreigners during Japan's first period of opening to the West. Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu The Tokugawa clan crest This is a Japanese name; the family name is Tokugawa Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu) January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... A 1634 Japanese Red seal ship, incorporating Western-style square and lateen sails, rudder and aft designs. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The term Western world or the West (also on rare occasions called the Occident) can have multiple meanings depending on its context (i. ...

Contents

Early life

Adams was born in Gillingham, Kent, England. After losing his father at the age of twelve, he was apprenticed to shipyard owner Master Nicholas Diggins at Limehouse for the seafaring life. He spent the next twelve years learning shipbuilding, astronomy, and navigation before entering the Royal Navy. Gillingham is a town in Kent, England, forming part of the Medway conurbation; it is a constituent of Medway unitary authority. ... coat of Arms of Kent For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... Limehouse Town Hall Limehouse is a place in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. ... Men from Francisco de Orellanas expedition building a small brigantine, the San Pedro, to be used in the search for food Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy is the science of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as auroras and cosmic background radiation). ... Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ...


Adams served in the Royal Navy under Sir Francis Drake and saw naval service against the Spanish Armada in 1588 as master of the Richarde Dyffylde, a resupply ship. Sir Francis Drake, Vice Admiral, (c. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Charles Howard Francis Drake Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured, 4 merchant ships sunk or captured The Spanish Armada (Old...


Adams then became a pilot for the Barbary Company. During this service, according to Jesuit sources, he took part in an expedition to the Arctic that lasted about two years, in search of a Northeast Passage along the coast of Siberia to the Far East. The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ... The Northern Sea Route (Russian Северный морской путь) is a shipping lane from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean along the Siberian coast of Russia. ... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) arctic northeast Siberia Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the Euro-Asian Steppe. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ...

…I am a Kentish man, born in a town called Gillingham, two English miles from Rochester, one mile from Chattam, where the King's ships do lie: from the age of twelve years old, I was brought up in Limehouse near London, being Apprentice twelve years to Master Nicholas Diggins; and myself have served for Master and Pilot in her Majesty's ships; and about eleven or twelve years have served the Worshipfull Company of the Barbary Merchants, until the Indish traffic from Holland began, in which Indish traffic I was desirous to make a little experience of the small knowledge which God had given me. So, in the year of our Lord 1598, I was hired for Pilot Major of a fleet of five sails, which was made ready by the Dutch Indish Company…. (1611 Letter, William Adams) coat of Arms of Kent For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Gillingham is a town in Kent, England, forming part of the Medway conurbation; it is a constituent of Medway unitary authority. ... Rochester is a small town in Kent, at the lowest bridging point of the River Medway about 30 miles (50 km) from London. ... Chatham is a large English town that developed around an important naval dockyard on the east bank of the River Medway to the south-east of London in the county of Kent. ... Limehouse Town Hall Limehouse is a place in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands with 6. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...

Expedition to the Far East

Attracted by the Dutch trade with India, Adams, then 34 years old, shipped as pilot major with a five ship fleet dispatched from the isle of Texel to the Far East in 1598 by a company of Rotterdam merchants (a voorcompagnie, anterior to the Dutch East India Company). This article is about the Dutch island Texel. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province South Holland Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - City 319 km²  (123. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...

From left to right: "Blijde Bootschap", "Trouwe", "'t Gelooue", "Liefde" and "Hoope". 17th century engraving.

He set sail from Rotterdam in June 1598 on the Hoop and joined up with the rest of the fleet on June 24. The fleet consisted of: ImageMetadata File history File links LiefdeShip. ... ImageMetadata File history File links LiefdeShip. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 190 days remaining. ...

  • the Hoop ("Hope"), under Jacques Mahu (†1598), expedition leader, succeeded by Simon de Cordes (†1599), and finally, Jan Huidekoper,
  • the Liefde ("Love" or "Charity"), under Simon de Cordes, 2nd in command, succeeded by Gerrit van Beuningen and finally under Jacob Kwakernaak,
  • the Geloof ("Faith"), under Gerrit van Beuningen, and in the end: Sebald de Weert,
  • the Trouw ("Loyalty"), under Jurriaan van Boekhout (†1599), and finally, Baltazar de Cordes,
  • the Blijde Boodschap ("Good Tiding" or "The Gospel"), under Sebald de Weert, and later, Dirck Gerritz.

Originally, the fleet's mission was to sail for the west coast of South America, where they would sell their cargo for silver, and to head for Japan only if the first mission failed. In that case, they were supposed to obtain silver in Japan to buy spices in the Moluccas, before heading back to Europe.[1] Jacob Quaeckernaeck was a Dutch seaman and Captain of the Liefde, the ship which transported William Adams to Japan in 1600. ... Sebald de Weert (born 15??, Netherlands, died 1602 in Ceylon) was a Dutch captain employed by the Dutch East India Company (known in Dutch as Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, or by the anacronym VOC). ... Baltazar de Cordes (15??-16??), the brother of Simon de Cordez, was a Dutch corsair who fought against the Spanish during the early 17th Century. ... Dirck Gerritszoon Pomp, alias Dirck China (1544-1608) was a Dutch sailor of the 16th-17th century, and the first known Dutchman to visit Japan. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


The vessels, boats ranging from seventy-five to 250 tons and crowded with men, were driven to the coast of Guinea (West-Africa) where the adventurers attacked the island of Annabon for supplies, and then moved on for the Straits of Magellan. Scattered by stress of weather and after several disasters in the South Atlantic, only three ships out of five made it through the Magellan Straits. (The Blijde Boodschap was adrift after being disabled in bad weather and was captured by the Spanish, whereas the Geloof returned to Rotterdam in July 1600 with 36 of the original 109 crew. Annobón is an island south of São Tomé Island (São Tomé and Príncipe), belonging to Equatorial Guinea. ... The Strait of Magellan, near Punta Arenas The Strait of Magellan is a navigable route immediately south of mainland South America. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ...


During the voyage, Adams had changed ships to the Liefde (originally Erasmus and adorned by a wooden Erasmus on her stern [2]. The Liefde waited for the other ships at Santa Maria Island off the Chilean coast. However, only the Hoop had arrived by the spring of 1599 and the captains of both vessels, together with Adams's brother Thomas and twenty other men, lost their lives in an encounter with the natives. The Trouw later turned up in Tidore (Indonesia) where the crew was eliminated by the Portuguese in January 1601). Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (sometimes known as Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... The island of Santa Maria (Portuguese for Saint Mary) is an island located in the southeastern part of the Azores and is the southernmost island in the Azores Islands. ... A Hupa man. ... Tidore is an island and town in the Maluku Islands of eastern Indonesia, just west of the larger island of Halmahera. ...


In fear of the Spaniards, the remaining crews determined to sail across the Pacific. It was late November 1599 when the two ships sailed westwardly for Japan. On their way, the two ships made landfall in "certain islands" (possibly the islands of Hawaii) where eight sailors deserted the ships. Later during the voyage, a typhoon claimed the Hoop with all souls, in late February 1600. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004. ...


Arrival in Japan

The Liefde, on the monument to Jan Joosten, in the Yaesu district, Nihonbashi, Tokyo.

In April 1600, after more than nineteen months at sea, the Liefde with a crew of about twenty sick and dying men (out of an initial crew of about 100) was brought to anchor off the island of Kyūshū, Japan. Its cargo consisted of eleven chests of coarse woollen cloth, glass beads, mirrors, spectacles, nails, iron, hammers, nineteen bronze cannon, 5,000 cannonballs, 500 muskets, 300 chain-shot and three chests filled with coats of mail. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1241x1178, 421 KB) Summary The Liefde, on the monument to Jan Joosten, in Tokyo Nihonbashi, Yaesu district. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1241x1178, 421 KB) Summary The Liefde, on the monument to Jan Joosten, in Tokyo Nihonbashi, Yaesu district. ... Sculpture of Jan Joosten, Yaesu district, Tokyo. ... Nihonbashi (the bridge) Marker from which distances are measured Bank of Japan For the place in Osaka written with the same kanji in Japanese, see Nipponbashi. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... KyÅ«shÅ« region of Japan and the current prefectures on KyÅ«shÅ« island KyÅ«shÅ« ), literally Nine Provinces, is the third largest island of Japan and most southerly and westerly of the four main islands. ... In artillery, chain-shot is a type of ammunition formed of two balls, or half-balls, chained together. ...


When the nine crew members strong enough to stand made landfall on April 19 off Bungo (present-day Usuki, Ōita Prefecture), they were met by locals and Portuguese Jesuit priests claiming that Adams' ship was a pirate vessel and that the crew should be crucified as pirates. The ship was seized and the sickly crew was imprisoned at Osaka Castle on orders by Tokugawa Ieyasu, the daimyo of Mikawa and future Shogun. The nineteen bronze cannon of the Liefde were unloaded and according to Spanish accounts later employed at the decisive Battle of Sekigahara on October 21, 1600. April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... Map showing location of Usuki in Oita Prefecture (as of 2006). ... ÅŒita Prefecture ) is located on KyÅ«shÅ« Island, Japan. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Osaka Castle Osaka Castle (大坂城・大阪城; ÅŒsaka-jō) is a castle in Chuo-ku, Osaka, Japan. ... Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu The Tokugawa clan crest This is a Japanese name; the family name is Tokugawa Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu) January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... The article incorporates text from OpenHistory. ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Combatants Forces loyal to Toyotomi Hideyori Forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu Commanders Ishida Mitsunari, Mōri Terumoto, others Tokugawa Ieyasu, others Strength 81,890[] 88,888[] Casualties At least 40,000 dead Unknown; but moderate The Battle of Sekigahara ), popularly known as the Realm Divide ), was a decisive battle on October... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Adams met Ieyasu in Osaka three times between May and June 1600. He was questioned by Ieyasu, then a guardian of the young son of the Taikō, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the ruler who had just died. Adams' knowledge of ships, shipbuilding and nautical smattering of mathematics appealed to Ieyasu. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of Japanese Imperial Advisers. ... Toyotomi Hideyoshi (Shinjitai (modern Japanese) writing: ; KyÅ«jitai (historical) writing: 豐臣秀吉; born Hiyoshi-maru ; coming of age (Genpuku) as Kinoshita Tōkichirō and later made Hashiba and martial nobility in the style of Hashiba Chikuzen no Kami Hideyoshi ;February 2, 1536 or March 26, 1537 – September 18, 1598), was a Sengoku...

William Adams meets Tokugawa Ieyasu, in an idealised depiction of 1707.

Coming before the king, he viewed me well, and seemed to be wonderfuly favorable. He made many signs unto me, some of which I understood, and some I did not. In the end, there came one that could speak Portuguese. By him, the king demanded of me, of what land I was, and what moved us to come to his land, being so far off. I showed unto him the name of our country, and that our land had long sought out the East Indies, and desired friendship with all kinds and potentates in way of merchandise, having in our land diverse commodities, which these lands had not … Then he asked whether our country had wars? I answered him yea, with the Spaniards and Portugals, being in peace with all other nations. Further, he asked me, in what I did believe? I said, in God, that made heaven and earth. He asked me diverse other questions of things of religion, and many other things: as what way we came to the country. Having a chart of the whole world, I showed him, through the Strait of Magellan. At which he wondered, and thought me to lie. Thus, from one thing to another, I abode with him till midnight. (William Adams's letter to his wife) Image File history File links William_adams_vanderaa. ... Image File history File links William_adams_vanderaa. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and... A true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite image, the entire Strait is visible A map of the Strait of Magellan The Strait of Magellan is a navigable route immediately south of mainland Chile, South America and north of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. ...

Adams further explained that Ieyasu finally denied the Jesuit's request for punishment on the ground that:

we as yet had not done to him nor to none of his land any harm or damage; therefore against Reason or Justice to put us to death. If our country had wars the one with the other, that was no cause that he should put us to death; with which they were out of heart that their cruel pretence failed them. For which God be forever praised. (William Adams's letter to his wife)

Ieyasu ordered the crew to sail the Liefde from Bungo to Edo where, rotten and beyond repair, she sank. Edo (Japanese: , literally: bay-door, estuary, pronounced //), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ...


Japan's first western-style sailing ships

One of William Adams' shipmates and fellow adventurer in Japan, Jan Joosten.

In 1604, Ieyasu ordered Adams and his companions to help Mukai Shogen, who was commander in chief of the navy of Uraga, build Japan's first Western-style ship. The sailship was built at the harbour of Ito on the east coast of the Izu Peninsula, with carpenters from the harbour supplying the manpower for the construction. An eighty-ton vessel was completed which was employed to survey the Japanese coast. The Shogun then ordered a larger ship, 120 tons, to be built the following year (both were slightly smaller than the Liefde, which was 150 tons). According to Adams, Ieyasu "came aboard to see it, and the sight whereof gave him great content". In 1610, the 120-ton ship (later named San Buena Ventura) was lent to shipwrecked Spanish sailors, who sailed back to Mexico with it, accompanied by a mission of twenty-two Japanese led by Tanaka Shosuke. Image File history File linksMetadata JanJoosten. ... Image File history File linksMetadata JanJoosten. ... Sculpture of Jan Joosten, Yaesu district, Tokyo. ... The residence of Mukai Shogen in Edo, 17th century screen. ... Map of Tokyo Bay, 1917 The Uraga Channel (浦賀水道 Uraga-suido) is a waterway connecting Tokyo Bay to the Sagami Gulf. ... Itō (伊東市; -shi) is a city located on the eastern shore of the Izu Peninsula in Shizuoka, Japan. ... Location. ... San Buena Ventura was a 120 ton ship built by the English navigator and adventurer William Adams for the Japanese shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu. ... Tanaka Shosuke (田中勝助, Tanaka Shōsuke, also Tanaka Shousuke) was an important Japanese technician and trader in metals from Kyoto during the beginning of the 17th century, who is the first recorded Japanese to have travelled to the Americas in 1610. ...


Following the construction, Ieyasu invited Adams to visit his palace whenever he liked and "that always I must come in his presence" (Letters).


Other survivors of the Liefde were also rewarded with favours and even allowed to pursue foreign trade. Most of the original crew were able to leave Japan in 1605 with the help of the daimyo of Hirado. Although Adams did not himself receive permission to leave Japan until 1613, Melchior van Santvoort, together with another crewman, Jan Joosten van Lodensteijn, engaged in trade between Japan and Southeast Asia and reportedly made a fortune. Both of them were reported by Dutch traders in Ayutthaya, onboard richly cargoed junks, in early 1613. Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... Categories: Cities in Nagasaki Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... Melchior van Santvoort was a Dutch seaman and surviving crew of the Liefde, the ship which transported William Adams to Japan in 1600. ... Jan Joosten van Lodensteijn (c. ... Ayutthaya (also spelled Ayudhya or Ayuthia) refers to The old capital of Thailand, see Ayutthaya (city) The province around the city, Ayutthaya province The ruins of the old palace, see Ayutthaya historical park Ayutthaya kingdom as the period of Thai history (1365-1768) in which Ayutthaya was capital This is...


Around 1608 Adams contacted the interim governor of the Philippines, Rodrigo de Vivero y Velasco on behalf of Tokugawa Ieyasu, who wished to establish direct trade contacts with New Spain. Friendly letters were exchanged, officially starting relations between Japan and New Spain. Rodrigo de Vivero y Velasco (1564-1636) was a Spanish colonial officer from New Spain, and interim governor of the Philippines from June 15, 1608 to April 1609. ... Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu The Tokugawa clan crest This is a Japanese name; the family name is Tokugawa Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu) January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Adams is also recorded as having chartered Red Seal Ships during his later travels to Southeast Asia (the Ikoku Tokai Goshuinjō has a reference to Miura Anjin receiving a shuinjō, a document bearing a red Shogunal seal authorizing the holder to engage in foreign trade, in 1614). A 1634 Japanese Red seal ship, incorporating Western-style square and lateen sails, rudder and aft designs. ... William Adams (September 24, 1564 – May 16, 1620), also known as Miura Anjin (三浦按針 Miura Anjin), was an English navigator who went to Japan. ...


The first foreign samurai

The shogun took a liking to Adams and made him a revered diplomatic and trade adviser and bestowed great privileges upon him. Ultimately, Adams became his personal advisor on all things related to Western powers and civilization and, after a few years, Adams replaced the Jesuit Padre João Rodrigues as the Shogun's official interpreter. Padre Valentim Carvalho wrote: "After he had learned the language, he had access to Ieyasu and entered the palace at any time"; he also described him as "a great engineer and mathematician". João Rodrigues (1561–1634, or perhaps 1558–1633) was a Portuguese member of the Society of Jesus (a Jesuit) who carried out missionary work in Japan. ... Tokugawa Ieyasu Tokugawa Ieyasu (also (archaic) Iyeyasu; 徳川 家康 Tokugawa Ieyasu January 31, 1543–June 1, 1616) was the founder of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, and is commonly known as one of the three great unifiers of feudal Japan (the other two are Oda Nobunaga and...

1707 map of Japan, with a cartouche representing the audience of William Adams with the Shogun. From Naaukeurige Versameling der Gedenk-Waardigste Zee en Land-Reysen (a series of accounts of famous voyages). Thought to be by Pieter van der Aa.

Adams had a wife and children in England but Ieyasu had forbidden the Englishman to leave Japan. He was presented with two swords representing the authority of a Samurai. The Shogun decreed that William Adams the pilot was dead and that Miura Anjin (三浦按針), a samurai, was born. This made Adams's wife in England in effect a widow (although Adams managed to send regular support payments to her after 1613 via the English and Dutch companies) and "freed" Adams to serve the Shogunate on a permanent basis. Adams also received the title of hatamoto (bannerman), a high-prestige position as a direct retainer in the Shogun's court. Image File history File links AdamsJapanMap. ... Image File history File links AdamsJapanMap. ... In Egyptian hieroglyphs, a cartouche is an oblong enclosure with a vertical line at one end, indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name, coming into use during the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty under Pharaoh Sneferu. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Japanese samurai in armour, 1860s. ... A hatamoto (旗本: Lit. ...


He was provided with generous revenues: "For the services that I have done and do daily, being employed in the Emperor's service, the emperor has given me a living" (Letters). He was granted a fief in Hemi (Jpn: 逸見) within the boundaries of present-day Yokosuka City, "with eighty or ninety husbandmen, that be my slaves or servants" (Letters). His estate was valued at 250 koku (measure of the income of the land in rice equal to about five bushels). He finally wrote "God hath provided for me after my great misery" (Letters) by which he meant the disaster-ridden voyage that had initially brought him to Japan. Categories: Cities in Kanagawa Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... A koku ) is a unit of volume in Japan, equal to ten cubic shaku. ... A bushel is a unit of volume, used (with somewhat different definitions) in the systems of Imperial units and U.S. customary units. ...


Adams's estate was located next to the harbour of Uraga, the traditional point of entrance to Edo Bay where he is recorded to have dealt with the cargoes of foreign ships. John Saris related that when he visited Edo in 1613, Adams was in possession of the reselling rights for the cargo of a Spanish ship at anchor in Uraga Bay. Map of Tokyo Bay, 1917 The Uraga Channel (浦賀水道 Uraga-suido) is a waterway connecting Tokyo Bay to the Sagami Gulf. ... Tokyo Bay from space Tokyo Bay ) is a bay in the southern Kantō region of Japan. ... John Saris (c. ...


Adams' position gave him the means to marry Oyuki (お雪), the daughter of Magome Kageyu, a highway official who was in charge of a packhorse exchange on one of the grand imperial roads that led out of Edo (roughly present day Tokyo). Although Magome was important, he was not of noble birth, nor high social standing and so it was likely that Adams married out of true affection rather than for social reasons. Adams and Oyuki had a son called Joseph and a daughter named Susanna. Adams however found it hard to rest his feet and was constantly on the road. Initially, it was in the vain attempt to organize an expedition in search of the Arctic passage that had eluded him previously. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border Satellite image of the Arctic surface The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic region around the South Pole. ...


Adams had a high regard for Japan, its people, and its civilization:

The people of this Land of Japan are good of nature, curteous above measure, and valiant in war: their justice is severely executed without any partiality upon transgressors of the law. They are governed in great civility. I mean, not a land better governed in the world by civil policy. The people be very superstitious in their religion, and are of diverse opinions. (William Adams's letter to Bantam, 1612)

Establishment of the Dutch East India Company in Japan

The trade pass negotiated by William Adams for the Dutch, and issued by Tokugawa Ieyasu to Jacob Groenewegen, August 24, 1609. It says: "Dutch ships are allowed to travel to Japan, and they can disembark on any coast, without any reserve. From now on this regulation must be observed, and the Dutch left free to sail where they want throughout Japan. No offenses to them will be allowed, such as on previous occasions. 25th day of the 7th month of the 14th year of Keicho. Tokugawa Ieyasu".

The Liefde's captain, Jacob Quaeckernaeck, and the treasurer, Melchior van Santvoort, were also sent by Ieyasu in 1604 on a shogun-licensed Red Seal Ship to Patani in Southeast Asia to contact the Dutch East India Company trading factory which had just been established there in 1602, to bring more western trade to Japan and break the Portuguese monopoly on Japan's external trade. In 1605, Adams obtained a letter from Ieyasu formally inviting the Dutch to trade with Japan. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The trade pass negotiated by William Adams for the Dutch, and issued by Tokugawa Ieyasu to Jacob Groenewegen, August 24, 1609. ... Jacob Quaeckernaeck was a Dutch seaman and Captain of the Liefde, the ship which transported William Adams to Japan in 1600. ... Melchior van Santvoort was a Dutch seaman and surviving crew of the Liefde, the ship which transported William Adams to Japan in 1600. ... A 1634 Japanese Red seal ship, incorporating Western-style square and lateen sails, rudder and aft designs. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Hampered by conflicts with the Portuguese and limited resources in Asia, the Dutch were not able to send ships until 1609. Two Dutch ships, commanded by Jacob Groenewegen, De Griffioen (the "Griffin", 19 cannons) and Roode Leeuw met Pijlen (the "Red lion with arrows", 400 tons, 26 cannons), were finally sent from Holland and arrived in Japan on July 2nd, 1609. They were assisted by one of Adams's shipmate Melchior van Santvoort for their preparations to establish a trading factory in Hirado, who also accompanied two Dutch delegates by the names of Puyck and van den Broek, bearing a letter from Prince Maurice of Nassau, to the court of Edo. Adams negotiated on their behalf with the Shogun and obtained free trading rights throughout Japan (in contrast, the Portuguese were only allowed to sell their goods in Nagasaki at fixed, negotiated prices) and to establish a trading factory there: The trade pass negotiated by William Adams for the Dutch, and issued by Tokugawa Ieyasu to Jacob Groenewegen, August 24, 1609. ... Melchior van Santvoort was a Dutch seaman and surviving crew of the Liefde, the ship which transported William Adams to Japan in 1600. ... Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange - portrait by Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt Maurice of Nassau (Dutch Maurits van Nassau) (14 November 1567 – 23 April 1625), Prince of Orange (1618–1625), son of William the Silent and Princess Anna of Saxony, was born at the castle of Dillenburg. ...

The Dutch VOC trading factory in Hirado (depicted here) was said to have been much larger than the English one. 17th century engraving.

The Hollandes be now settled (in Japan) and I have got them that privilege as the Spaniards and Portingals could never get in this 50 or 60 years in Japan. (William Adams letter to Bantam). Image File history File links HiradoVOCfactory(montanus-1669). ... Image File history File links HiradoVOCfactory(montanus-1669). ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...

After obtaining this trading right through an edict of Tokugawa Ieyasu on August 24th, 1609, the Dutch inaugurated a trading factory in Hirado on September 20th, 1609. The "trade pass" (Dutch: "Handelspas") was kept preciously by the Dutch in Hirado and then Dejima as a guarantee of their trading rights, during the following two centuries of their presence in Japan. Dejima, also Deshima (出島, literally protruding island) in modern Japanese, Desjima in Dutch, often latinised as Decima, was a fan-shaped artificial island in the bay of Nagasaki that was a Dutch trading post during Japans self-imposed isolation (sakoku) of the Edo period, from 1641 until 1853. ...


Establishment of an English trading factory

In 1611, news came to Adams of an English settlement in Bantam, Indonesia, and he sent a letter asking them to give news of him to his family and friends in England and enticing them to engage in trade with Japan which "the Hollanders have here an Indies of money" (Adams's letter to Bantam). The city of Bantam near the western end of Java was a strategically important site and formerly a major trading city, with a secure harbor on the Malacca Strait through which all ocean-going traffic passed, at the mouth of a river (Cibantam River) that provided a navigable passage for...

The castle of the Daimyo of Hirado, 17th century engraving.

In 1613, the English Captain John Saris arrived at Hirado in the ship Clove with the intent of establishing a trading factory for the British East India Company (Hirado was already a trading post for the Dutch East India Company (the VOC)). Image File history File links Hirado_castle. ... Image File history File links Hirado_castle. ... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... Categories: Cities in Nagasaki Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... John Saris (c. ... Categories: Cities in Nagasaki Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


Adams met with Saris's ire over his praise of Japan and adoption of Japanese customs:

He persists in giving "admirable and affectionated commendations of Japan. It is generally thought amongst us that he is a naturalized Japaner." (John Saris)

In Hirado, Adams refused to stay in English quarters and instead resided with a local Japanese magistrate. It was also commented that he was wearing Japanese dress and spoke Japanese fluently. Adams estimated the cargo of the Clove was of little value, essentially broadcloth, tin and cloves (acquired in the Spice Islands), saying that "such things as he had brought were not very vendible". This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 118. ... Binomial name Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... Spice Islands most commonly refers to the Maluku Islands (formerly the Moluccas), which lie on the equator, between Sulawesi (Celebes) and New Guinea in what is now Indonesia. ...


Adams travelled with Saris to Shizuoka where they met with Ieyasu at his principal residence in September and then continued to Kamakura where they visited the famous Buddha (the 1252 Daibutsu on which the sailors etched their names) before moving on to Edo where they met Ieyasu's son Hidetada who was now nominally Shogun even though Ieyasu retained most of the actual decisionmaking powers. During that meeting, Hidetada gave Saris two varnished suits of armor for King James I, today housed in the Tower of London. Shizuoka Prefecture ) is located in the Chūbu region on Honshū island, Japan. ... Crowds of visitors in Kamakura (Tsurugaoka Hachiman Shrine) Kamakura (Japanese: 鎌倉市; -shi) is a city located in Kanagawa, Japan, about 50 km south-south-west of Tokyo (to which it is linked by the railway line to Yokosuka). ... Amida Buddha, Kotokuin The Great Buddha (大仏, daibutsu) is a monumental outdoor bronze statue of Amida Buddha in the Kotokuin Temple in Kamakura, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. ... Shogun Tokugawa Hidetada Tokugawa Hidetada May 2, 1579—March 14, 1632) was the second shogun of the Tokugawa dynasty, who ruled from 1605 until his abdication in 1623. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ...

The 1613 letter of King James I remitted to Tokugawa Ieyasu (Preserved in the Tokyo University archives).

On their way back, they visited again Tokugawa, who conferred trading privileges to the English through a red-seal permit (Japanese: 朱印状) giving them "free license to abide, buy, sell and barter" in Japan.[3] The English party headed back to Hirado on October 9, 1613. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... The Yasuda Auditorium on the University of Tokyos Hongo Campus. ...


On this occasion, Adams asked for and obtained Tokugawa's authorization to return to his home country. However, he ultimately declined Saris' offer to bring him back to England: "I answered him I had spent in this country many years, through which I was poor... [and] desirous to get something before my return". His true reasons seem to lie rather with his profound antipathy for Saris: "The reason I would not go with him was for diverse injuries done against me, the which were things to me very strange and unlooked for." (William Adams letters)

Excerpt from a letter written by William Adams at Hirado in Japan to the East India Company in London, 1 December 1613. British Library.

He accepted employment with the newly founded Hirado trading factory, signing a contract on November 24, 1613, becoming an employee of the East India Company for the yearly salary of 100 English Pounds, more than double the regular salary of 40 Pounds earned by the other factors at Hirado. Adams was to take a leading part, under Richard Cocks and together with six other compatriots (Tempest Peacock, Richard Wickham, William Eaton, Walter Carwarden, Edmund Sayers and William Nealson), in the organization of this new English settlement. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 563 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (626 × 667 pixel, file size: 805 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Excerpt from a letter written by William Adams at Hirado in Japan to the East India Company in London, 1 December 1613. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 563 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (626 × 667 pixel, file size: 805 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Excerpt from a letter written by William Adams at Hirado in Japan to the East India Company in London, 1 December 1613. ... British Library Ossulston St entrance, with distinctive red logo. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Richard Cocks was the head of the English East India Company factory (trading post) in Hirado, Japan, between 1613 to 1623, from its creation to its closure due to bankruptcy. ...


Adams had actually advised against the choice of Hirado which was small and far away from the major markets in Osaka and Edo and instead had recommend to Saris, in vain, that they should select Uraga near Edo. Map of Tokyo Bay, 1917 The Uraga Channel (浦賀水道 Uraga-suido) is a waterway connecting Tokyo Bay to the Sagami Gulf. ...


During the ten year activity of the company between 1613 and 1623, apart from the first ship (the Clove in 1613), only three other English ships brought cargoes directly from London to Japan, invariably described as poor value on the Japanese market. The only trade which helped support the factory was that organized between Japan and South-East Asia and mainly undertaken by Adams selling Chinese goods for Japanese silver:

Were it not for hope of trade into China, or procuring some benefit from Siam, Pattania and Cochin China, it were no staying in Japon, yet it is certen here is silver enough & may be carried out at pleasure, but then we must bring them commodities to their liking. (Richard Cocks Diary, 1617)

Religious rivalries

Adams, a Protestant, was seen as a rival by the Portuguese and other Catholic religious orders in Japan. When he and his crew arrived on the Liefde, the Jesuits settled in Nagasaki became very anxious as they had informed the Japanese, inaccurately in fact, but not necessarily in their belief, that all Europe was united under a single, undisputed church. Because of the fear that Adams would shed light on the truth, the Jesuits conspired against him, asking forcefully for his crucifixion at first, then having him imprisoned when Ieyasu refused to kill Adams for no reason. Later, after Adams' power had grown, the Jesuits attempted first to convert him, then offered to secretly bear him away from Japan on a Portuguese ship. The fact that the Jesuits were willing to disobey the orders set down by Ieyasu—that Adams might not leave Japan—betray the degree to which they feared his influence—for good reason. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  , long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ...


Catholic priests insisted that he was using his influence on Ieyasu to discredit them:

In his character of heretic, he constantly endeavoured to discredit our church as well as its ministers".. He and others "by false accusation ... have rendered our preachers such objects of suspicion that Ieyasu fears and readily believes that they are rather spies than sowers of the Holy Faith in his kingdoms. (Padre Valentim Carvalho).

Ieyasu, influenced by Adams' counsels and social trouble caused by the numerous Catholic converts, expelled the Jesuits from Japan in 1614 and demanded the Japanese Catholics abandon their faith.


Adams also apparently warned Ieyasu against Spanish approaches explaining that they typically tried to establish Catholic converts and strongholds as a prelude to the arrival of conquistadores and full invasion of the country as they had done in the Philippines, Mexico and Peru in the previous hundred years.


Character

After fifteen years spent in Japan, Adams' relations with his compatriots were not the easiest. He initially shunned the company of the newly arrived English sailors in 1613 and could not get on good terms with Saris.


However, Cocks, the head of the Hirado factory, progressively came to appreciate Adams' character and distinctively Japanese self-control. In a letter to the East India Company:

"I find the man tractable and willing to do your worships the best service he may... I am persuaded I could live with him seven years before any extraordinary speeches should happen between us." (Cocks' Diary)

Participation in Asian trade

Adams later engaged in various exploratory and commercial ventures. He tried to organize the exploration of the Northern Passage from the East which would have greatly reduced the traveling distance between Japan and Europe. Ieyasu asked him if "our countrimen could not find the northwest passage" and Adams contacted the East India Company to organize manpower and supplies. The project however never materialized.


The latter part of his life was spent in the service of the English trading company. He undertook a number of voyages to Siam in 1616 and Cochin China in 1617 and 1618, sometimes for the English East India Company, sometimes for his own account. He is recorded in Japanese sources as the owner of a Red Seal Ship of 500 tons. For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ... Cochin China (also known as Cochinchina or in French, Cochinchine) was the southernmost part of Vietnam beside Cambodia. ... A 1634 Japanese Red seal ship, incorporating Western-style square and lateen sails, rudder and aft designs. ...


Given the small number of ships coming from England (four ships in ten years: the Clove in 1613, the Hosiander in 1615, the Thomas and the Advice in 1616) and the poor value of their cargoes (broadcloth, knives, looking glasses, Indian cotton, etc.), William Adams played a key role in having the company participate in the Red Seal system by obtaining trading certificates from the Shogun. Altogether, seven junk voyages were made to Southeast Asia with mixed results, including four of them headed by William Adams himself as Captain. Adams acknowledged God as his personal Provider before all people by renaming the ship, which he had acquired, with the phrase "Gift of God", the ship that he used for his expedition to Cochinchina. Cochinchina, from Cochin China (see note below) (known locally as Nam Kỳ, meaning southern region), in French: Cochinchine) is a name for the southernmost part of Vietnam, lying southeast of Cambodia. ...


1614 Siam expedition

A 1634 Japanese Red seal ship used for Asian trade. Tokyo Naval Science Museum.

In 1614, Adams wished to organize a trade expedition to Siam in hope of bolstering the factory's activities and cash situation. He bought for the factory and upgraded a 200-ton Japanese junk, renamed her the Sea Adventure, hired about 120 Japanese sailors and merchants as well as several Chinese traders, an Italian and a Castillan trader and the heavily laden ship left on November 1614, during the typhoon season. The merchants Richard Wickham and Edmund Sayers of the English factory's staff also participated to the voyage. 1634 painting of a Red seal ship. ... 1634 painting of a Red seal ship. ... A 1634 Japanese Red seal ship, incorporating Western-style square and lateen sails, rudder and aft designs. ... For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ... The Junk is a Chinese sailing vessel. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004. ...


The ship was to purchase raw silk, Chinese goods, sappan wood, deer skins and ray skins (the latter used for the handles of Japanese swords), essentially carrying only silver (£1250) and £175 of merchandise (Indian cottons, Japanese weapons and lacquerware).


The ship met with a typhoon near the Ryukyu Islands (modern Okinawa) and had to stop there to repair from 27 December 1614 until May 1615 before returning to Japan in June 1615 without having been able to complete any trade. Location of Ryukyu Islands The Ryukyu Islands, in Japanese called the Nansei Islands ) are a chain of Japanese islands in the western Pacific Ocean at the eastern limit of the East China Sea. ... This article is about the prefecture. ...


1615 Siam expedition

Adams again left Hirado in November 1615 for Ayutthaya in Siam on the refit Sea Adventure intent on bringing sappanwood for resale in Japan. Like the previous year, the cargo consisted mainly of silver (£600) and also the Japanese and Indian goods unsold from the previous voyage. Ayutthaya (also spelled Ayudhya or Ayuthia) refers to The old capital of Thailand, see Ayutthaya (city) The province around the city, Ayutthaya province The ruins of the old palace, see Ayutthaya historical park Ayutthaya kingdom as the period of Thai history (1365-1768) in which Ayutthaya was capital This is... Redwood is a name used for several species of trees with red or reddish coloured wood; see each species for individual details. ...


He managed to buy vast quantities of the profitable products, even buying two additional ships in Siam to transport everything. Adams sailed the Sea Adventure back to Japan with 143 tonnes of sappanwood and 3700 deer skins, returning to Hirado in 47 days, (the whole trip lasting between 5 June and 22 July 1616). Sayers, on a hired Chinese junk, reached Hirado in October 1616 with 44 tons of sappanwood. The third ship, a Japanese junk, brought 4,560 deer skins to Nagasaki in June 1617 after having missed the monsoon. Monsoon in the Vindhya mountain range, central India A monsoon is a heavy rainy season which lasts for several months and has lasting climatic effects. ...


Adams returned to Japan less than a week after the death of Ieyasu and accompanied Cocks and Eaton to court to offer presents to the new ruler Hidetada. Although the death of Ieyasu in 1616 seems to have weakened Adams' political influence, Hidetada agreed to maintain the trading privileges of the English and issued a new Red Seal permit (Shuinjō) to Adams allowing him to continue trade activities overseas under the Shogun's protection. His position as hatamoto was also renewed. Tokugawa Hidetada (徳川 秀忠, 1579–1632) was the 2nd shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate who reigned from 1605 to 1623 during the early Edo period of Japan. ... A hatamoto (旗本: Lit. ...


On this occasion, Adams and Cocks also visited the Japanese Admiral Mukai Shogen Tadakatsu who lived near Adams' estate and they discussed plans about a possible invasion of the Catholic Philippines. The residence of Mukai Shogen in Edo, 17th century screen. ...


1617 Cochinchina expedition

In March 1617, Adams set sail for Cochinchina having purchased the junk Sayers had brought from Siam and renamed it the Gift of God. He intended to find two English factors that had left Hirado two years before to explore commercial opportunities (the first voyage to South East Asia by the Hirado English Factory). He returned to Japan with the knowledge that both had been killed and robbed of their silver.


The ship also sold a small cargo of broadcloth, Indian piece goods and ivory for the modest amount of £351.


1618 Cochinchina expedition

In 1618, Adams is recorded as having organized his last Red Seal trade expedition to Cochinchina and Tonkin (modern Vietnam), the last expedition of the English Hirado Factory to Southeast Asia. The ship, a chartered Chinese junk, left Hirado on 11 March 1618 but met with bad weather that forced it to stop at Ōshima in the northern Ryukyus. The ship sailed back to Hirado in May. Tonkin, also spelled Tongkin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Chinas Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, east of northern Laos, and west of the Gulf of Tonkin. ... Amami ÅŒshima is one of the Ryukyu Islands (also known as Nansei Islands). ... Location of Ryukyu Islands The Ryukyu Islands, in Japanese called the Nansei Islands ) are a chain of Japanese islands in the western Pacific Ocean at the eastern limit of the East China Sea. ...


Those expeditions to Southeast Asia helped the English factory survive for some time (During that period, sappanwood resold in Japan with a 200% profit) until the factory fell into bankruptcy due to high expenditures.


Adams's legacy

Grave of Miura Anjin, Hirado, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan

Adams died at Hirado, north of Nagasaki, on May 16, 1620, aged 56 and was buried in Nagasaki-ken where his grave marker may still be seen to this day, alongside a memorial to Saint Francis Xavier. The English factory was dissolved three years later due to its unprofitability. Grave of Anjin Miura (William Adams) This grave is in Hirado, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan. ... Grave of Anjin Miura (William Adams) This grave is in Hirado, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan. ... Categories: Cities in Nagasaki Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... Oranda-zaka (Dutch Slope) in Nagasaki Castle in Shimabara The island of Hirado boasts a fine castle Nagasaki Prefecture (長崎県; Nagasaki-ken) is located on Kyushu island, Japan. ... Categories: Cities in Nagasaki Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  , long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (137th in leap years). ... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In his will, he left his townhouse in Edo, his fief in Hemi, and 500 British pounds to be divided evenly between his family in England and his family in Japan.


Cocks wrote: "I cannot but be sorrowfull for the loss of such a man as Capt William Adams, he having been in such favour with two Emperors of Japan as never any Christian in these part of the world" (Cocks's Diary)


Cocks remained in contact with Adams' family sending gifts and in March 1622, offering silks for Joseph and Susanna. He handed to Joseph his father's sword and dagger on the Christmas following Adams' death. Cocks also records that Hidetada transferred the lordship from William Adams to his son Joseph Adams with the attendant rights to the estate at Hemi:

He (Hidetada) has confirmed the lordship to his son, which the other emperor (Ieyasu) gave to the father (Cocks's Dairy)

Cocks was also in charge of using Adams' trading rights (the shuinjō) for the benefit of Adams' children, Joseph and Susanna, a task he performed conscientiously and which was handled by the Dutch after 1623. A 1634 Japanese Red seal ship, incorporating Western-style square and lateen sails, rudder and aft designs. ...


By 1629, only two of Adams's shipmates were still surviving, living privately in Nagasaki: Melchior van Santvoort and Vincent Romeyn.[4] Melchior van Santvoort was a Dutch seaman and surviving crew of the Liefde, the ship which transported William Adams to Japan in 1600. ...

The monument to William Adams at the location of his former Tokyo townhouse, in Anjin-chō, today Nihonbashi Muromachi 1-10-8, Tokyo.

Adams' son also kept the title of Miura Anjin and was a successful trader until the closure of the country in 1635 when he disappeared from historical records. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (706x1507, 318 KB) Summary Monument to William Adams, on the emplacement of his former Tokyo townhouse, in Anji-Cho, today Nihonbashi, Murocho 1-10-8, Tokyo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (706x1507, 318 KB) Summary Monument to William Adams, on the emplacement of his former Tokyo townhouse, in Anji-Cho, today Nihonbashi, Murocho 1-10-8, Tokyo. ... Nihonbashi (the bridge) Marker from which distances are measured Bank of Japan For the place in Osaka written with the same kanji in Japanese, see Nipponbashi. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Adams's memory is preserved in the naming of a town in Edo (modern Tokyo), Anjin-chō (in modern-day Nihonbashi), where he had a house and by an annual celebration on June 15 in his honour. Edo (Japanese: , literally: bay-door, estuary, pronounced //), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ...


A village in his fiefdom, Anjinzuka (安針塚, "Burial mound of the Pilot"), in modern Yokosuka, bears his name.


Also, in the city of Itō, Shizuoka, the Miura Anjin Festival is held all day on August 10. Itō (伊東市; -shi) is a city located on the eastern shore of the Izu Peninsula in Shizuoka, Japan. ... Shizuoka Prefecture ) is located in the ChÅ«bu region on HonshÅ« island, Japan. ...


Today, both Itō and Yokosuka are sister cities of Adams' birth town of Gillingham.


The life of William Adams also inspired James Clavell's Shogun, which was a best-selling novel and then a celebrated TV miniseries. The fictional heroics of John Blackthorne were loosely based on Adams' adventures in the first few years after his arrival in Japan. James Clavell in 1986 James Clavell (10 October 1924 – 7 September 1994) was a novelist, screenwriter, and World War II POW, who was famous for books such as Shogun, and such films as The Great Escape and To Sir, with Love. ... This page is about the James Clavell novel. ...


Famous quotes

Altogether, four letters of William Adams are known, among which the letter to his wife and the letter to the English trading post at Bantam are the most informative. Some other famous quotes: The city of Bantam near the western end of Java was a strategically important site and formerly a major trading city, with a secure harbor on the Malacca Strait through which all ocean-going traffic passed, at the mouth of a river (Cibantam River) that provided a navigable passage for...

  • "Most of us are just about as happy as we make up our minds to be."
  • "Faith is a continuation of reason."
  • "As a nation of free men, we must live through all time, or die by suicide."

Trivia

  • Although William Adams was probably the first Briton to reach Japan, he is not quite the first instance of Anglo-Japanese relations, as two Japanese, only known through their Christian names Christopher and Cosmas, are recorded to have reached England in 1588 onboard Thomas Cavendish's ship Desire, and to have stayed in Great Britain for about three years, before leaving with Cavendish for his fateful Southern Atlantic expedition.
  • Adams makes a brief appearance in Harry Turtledove's alternate history novel, Ruled Britannia.

This page describes the history of the relationship between the United Kingdom and Japan. ... Christopher and Cosmas were two Japanese men, only known by their Christian names, who are recorded to have travelled across the Pacific on a Spanish galleon in 1587, and later accompanied the English navigator Thomas Cavendish to England, Brazil and the Southern Atlantic, where they disappeared with the sinking of... Thomas Cavendish (1555-1592) was born in Trimley St. ... Harry Norman Turtledove (born June 14, 1949) is an American historian and prolific novelist who has written historical fiction, fantasy, and science fiction works. ... Alternative history or alternate history can be: A History told from an alternative viewpoint, rather than from the view of imperialist, conqueror, or explorer. ... Ruled Britannia is an alternate history novel by Harry Turtledove, published in 2002. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "Recollections of Japan", Hendrik Doeff
  2. ^ The statue has survived and is preserved in a Buddhist temple in Sano-shi, Tochigi-ken. An image can be found here: http://www.maphist.nl/ill/1998629.htm
  3. ^ The Red seal permit was re-discovered in 1985 by Professor Hayashi Nozomu, in the Oxford Bodleian Library. Reference
  4. ^ Hendrik Doeff "Recollections of Japan", p27

Hendrik Doeff (1764-1837). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Tochigi Prefecture ) is a prefecture located in the Kantō region on the island of Honshū, Japan. ... Entrance to the Library, with the coats-of-arms of several Oxford colleges The Bodleian Library, the main research library of the University of Oxford, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe, and in England is second in size only to the British Library. ...

References

  • England's Earliest Intercourse with Japan, by C. VV. Hillary (1905)
  • Letters written by the English Residents in Japan, ed. by N. Murakami (1900, containing Adams's Letters reprinted from Memorials of the Empire of Japan, ed. by T. Rundall, Hakluyt Society, 1850)
  • Diary of Richard Cocks, with preface by N. Murakami (1899, reprinted from the Hakluyt Society ed. 1883)
  • R. Hildreth's Japan (1855)
  • J. Harris's Navigantium atque Itinerantium Bibliotheca (1764), i. 856
  • Voyage of John Saris, edited by Sir Ernest M. Satow (Hakluyt Society, 1900)
  • Asiatic Society of Japan Transactions, xxvi. (sec. 1898) pp. I and 194, where four more hitherto unpublished letters of Adams are given;
  • Collection of State Papers; East Indies, China and Japan. The MS. of his logs written during his voyages to Siam and China is in the Bodleian Library at Oxford.
  • Samurai William: The Adventurer Who Unlocked Japan; Giles Milton (UK 2002: ISBN 0-340-79468-2)
  • William Adams and Early English Enterprise in Japan, by Anthony Farrington and Derek Massarella [1]
  • Adams the Pilot: The Life and Times of Captain William Adams: 1564-1620, by William Corr, Curzon Press,1995 ISBN 1-873410-44-1
  • The English Factory in Japan 1613-1623, ed. by Anthony Farrington, British Library, 1991. (Prints all of William Adams' extant letters, as well as his will.)
  • A World Elsewhere. Europe’s Encounter with Japan in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, by Derek Massarella, Yale University Press, 1990.
  • Recollections of Japan, Hendrik Doeff, ISBN 1-55395-849-7

Giles Milton is a British writer and journalist. ... Hendrik Doeff (1764-1837). ...

See also

This page describes the history of the relationship between the United Kingdom and Japan. ... Sir Ernest Mason Satow, G.C.M.G., P.C. (1843-1929), a British scholar-diplomat born to an ethnically German father (Hans David Christoph Satow, born in Swedish-occupied Wismar, naturalised British in 1846) and an English mother (Margaret, nee Mason) in Clapton, North London, and educated at Mill...

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