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Encyclopedia > Wilhelmina of the Netherlands
Wilhelmina
Queen of the Netherlands
Reign November 23, 1890 - 30 April 1948
Born August 30, 1880
The Hague, Netherlands
Died November 28, 1962, aged 82
Buried Delft
Predecessor William III of the Netherlands
Successor Juliana of the Netherlands
Consort Hendrik of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Issue Juliana
Royal House Orange-Nassau
Royal anthem Wilhelmus
Father William III of the Netherlands
Mother Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont
For other uses, see Wilhelmina (disambiguation).

Wilhelmina (Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Marie of Orange-Nassau; August 31, 1880November 28, 1962) was queen regnant of the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1890 to 1948 and Queen Mother (with the title of Princess) from 1948 to 1962. She ruled the Netherlands for fifty years, longer than any other Dutch monarch. Her reign saw many turning points in both Dutch and world history: World War I and World War II, the Great Crisis of 1933, as well as the decline of the Netherlands as a major colonial empire. Outside the Netherlands she is primarily remembered for her role in the Second World War, in which she proved to be a great inspiration to the Dutch resistance, as well as a prominent leader of the Dutch government in exile.[1] The Netherlands has been an independent monarchy since 16 March 1815, and has been governed by members of the House of Orange-Nassau since. ... Download high resolution version (1422x2000, 948 KB)TITLE: Queen of Holland, cameo portrait CALL NUMBER: LC-B2- 733-8[P&P] REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-DIG-ggbain-03534 (digital file from original neg. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 24. ... William III, King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg (William Alexander Paul Frederick Louis of Orange-Nassau) (Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk van Oranje-Nassau, Koning der Nederlanden en Groothertog van Luxemburg in Dutch) (February 19, 1817 – November 23, 1890) was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke... Juliana Queen of the Netherlands Queen Juliana of the Netherlands (Juliana Emma Louise Wilhelmina van Oranje-Nassau) (April 30, 1909 – March 20, 2004), Princess of Orange-Nassau, Duchess of Mecklenburg, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld, was Queen of the Netherlands from her mothers abdication in 1948 to her own abdication... Heinrich, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, (April 19, 1876 - July 3, 1934), was the Prince of the Netherlands as he was the husband of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands. ... Juliana Queen of the Netherlands Queen Juliana of the Netherlands (Juliana Emma Louise Wilhelmina van Oranje-Nassau) (April 30, 1909 – March 20, 2004), Princess of Orange-Nassau, Duchess of Mecklenburg, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld, was Queen of the Netherlands from her mothers abdication in 1948 to her own abdication... The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the German House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands - and at times in Europe - since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of... Het Wilhelmus (The William [viz. ... William III, King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg (William Alexander Paul Frederick Louis of Orange-Nassau) (Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk van Oranje-Nassau, Koning der Nederlanden en Groothertog van Luxemburg in Dutch) (February 19, 1817 – November 23, 1890) was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke... Queen Emma of the Netherlands, born Her Serene Highness Princess Adelheid Emma Wilhelmina Theresia of Waldeck and Pyrmont (August 2, 1858 - March 20, 1934) was Queen consort of William III of the Netherlands of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg. ... Wilhelmina is a female first name originating from the German language. ... The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch Oranje-Nassau), is a family that has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of the Fatherland) organised the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cleopatra is one of the most well-known queens regnant A queen regnant (plural queens regnant) is a female monarch who possesses all the monarchal powers that a king would have without regard to gender. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Mother is a title reserved for a widowed queen consort whose son or daughter from that union is the reigning monarch. ... Princess is the feminine form of prince (from Latin princeps, meaning principal citizen). ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Great Depression was a global economic slump that began in 1929 and bottomed in 1933. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colony. ... The Dutch government in exile was the government of the Netherlands, headed by Queen Wilhelmina, that fled to London after the German invasion of the country at the outset of World War II. Prior to 1940, the Netherlands were a neutral country, generally on good terms with Germany. ...

Contents

Early life

She was the only child of King William III and his second wife, Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont. Her childhood was characterised by a close relationship with her parents, especially with her father, who was already 63 years of age when she was born. William III, King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg (William Alexander Paul Frederick Louis of Orange-Nassau) (Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk van Oranje-Nassau, Koning der Nederlanden en Groothertog van Luxemburg in Dutch) (February 19, 1817 – November 23, 1890) was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke... Queen Emma of the Netherlands, born Her Serene Highness Princess Adelheid Emma Wilhelmina Theresia of Waldeck and Pyrmont (August 2, 1858 - March 20, 1934) was Queen consort of William III of the Netherlands of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg. ...


Since King William already had three sons with his first wife, Queen Sophie, when Wilhelmina was born, there was little chance she would ascend the throne. However, William outlived all of his sons, the last of whom died when Wilhelmina was four. Queen Sophie of the Netherlands Sophia Frederika Mathilde van Württemberg (17 June 1818 – 3 June 1877) was the first wife of King William III of the Netherlands. ...


King William III died on November 23, 1890 and, although Princess Wilhelmina became Queen of the Netherlands instantly, her mother, Emma, was named Regent until her 18th birthday. is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ...


In 1901 she married Hendrik, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Although the marriage was said to be essentially without love, initially Wilhelmina truly cared for Hendrik, and it is likely that those feelings were mutual.[citation needed] Hendrik however, suffered from his role as prince-consort, stating that it was boring to be nothing more than decoration, forced always to walk one step behind his wife.[citation needed] He had no power in the Netherlands, and Wilhelmina made sure this remained so.[citation needed] Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Heinrich, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, (April 19, 1876 - July 3, 1934), was the Prince of the Netherlands as he was the husband of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands. ...


A series of miscarriages also contributed to a crisis in their marriage. Prince Hendrik is reported to have had several illegitimate children.[citation needed] Over time the marriage became less happy.[citation needed] The birth of Juliana, on April 30, 1909, was met with great relief after eight years of childless marriage. [2] Juliana Queen of the Netherlands Queen Juliana of the Netherlands (Juliana Emma Louise Wilhelmina van Oranje-Nassau) (April 30, 1909 – March 20, 2004), Princess of Orange-Nassau, Duchess of Mecklenburg, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld, was Queen of the Netherlands from her mothers abdication in 1948 to her own abdication... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Reign

1912 Dutch coin

Tactful, and careful to operate within the limitations of what was expected by the Dutch people and their elected representatives, the strong-willed Wilhelmina became a forceful personality who spoke and acted her mind. These qualities showed up early on in her reign when, at the age of 20, Queen Wilhelmina ordered a Dutch warship to South Africa to rescue Paul Kruger, the embattled President of the Transvaal. For this, Wilhelmina gained international stature and earned the respect and admiration of people all over the world. Wilhelmina had a stern dislike of Great Britain, which had annexed the republics of Transvaal and Orange Free State in the Boer War. The Boers were descendants of early Dutch colonists, with whom Wilhelmina felt very closely linked. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1420x781, 268 KB) Ten Dutch guilders coin from 1912 (although it cannot be ruled out that it is a reproduction). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1420x781, 268 KB) Ten Dutch guilders coin from 1912 (although it cannot be ruled out that it is a reproduction). ... Paul Kruger Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger (10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904), better known as Paul Kruger and fondly known as Oom Paul (Afrikaans for Uncle Paul) was a prominent Boer resistance leader against British rule and president of the Transvaal Republic in South Africa. ... Flag of Transvaal For the Russian theme park, see Transvaal Park. ... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... Afrikaners are white South Africans of predominantly Calvinist Dutch, German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloon descent who speak Afrikaans. ...


Queen Wilhelmina also had a keen understanding of business matters and her investments made her the world's richest woman, a title retained by her daughter and granddaughter, Beatrix. The Dutch Royal Family is still reputed to be the single largest shareholder of Royal Dutch Shell. Beatrix (born January 31, 1938 as Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard, Prinses der Nederlanden, Prinses van Oranje-Nassau, Prinses van Lippe-Biesterfeld) has been the queen regnant of the Kingdom of the Netherlands since April 30, 1980. ... Royal Dutch Shell PLC is a multinational oil company (oil major) of British and Dutch origins. ...


World War I

Wilhelmina and her daughter Juliana, circa 1914
Wilhelmina and her daughter Juliana, circa 1914

Although the Netherlands remained neutral during World War I, sizeable German investments in the Dutch economy combined with a large trading partnership in goods forced the United Kingdom to blockade the Dutch ports in an attempt to weaken the German Empire. The Dutch government traded with Germany in response. German soldiers were given Edam cheese for their rations before an assault. Wilhemina was a "soldier's queen"; being a woman, she could not be Supreme Commander, but she nevertheless used every opportunity she had to inspect her forces. On many occasions she appeared without prior notice, wishing to see the reality, not a prepared show. She loved her soldiers, but was very unhappy with most of her governments, which used the military as a constant source for budget-cutting. Wilhelmina wanted a small but well trained and equipped army. However, this was far from the reality. In the war, she felt she was a "Queen-On-Guard". She was always wary of a German attack, especially in the beginning. However, violation of Dutch territorial sovereignty came from both Britain and the United States, who, with the blockade, captured many Dutch trade and cargo ships in an attempt to disrupt the German war effort. This led to increased tensions between the Netherlands and the Allied forces. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 346 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (1335 × 2309 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 346 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (1335 × 2309 pixel, file size: 1. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Country of origin The Netherlands Region, town Edam-Volendam, Edam Source of milk Cows Pasteurised Yes Texture Semi-hard Aging time up to 10 months Certification No Edam cheese (Edammer in Dutch) is a Dutch cheese that is traditionally sold as spheres with pale yellow interior and a coat of...


Civil unrest, spurred on by the Bolshevik revolt in Imperial Russia in 1917, gripped the Netherlands after the war. A socialist leader named Troelstra tried to overthrow the government and the Queen. Instead of a violent revolution, he wanted to control the Tweede Kamer, the legislative body of Parliament, and hoped to achieve this by means of elections, convinced that the working class would support him. However, the popularity of the young Queen helped restore confidence in the government. Wilhelmina brought about a mass show of support by riding with her daughter through the mobs in an open carriage. It was very clear that the revolution would not succeed. Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Pieter Jelles Troelstra (1860-1930) was a Dutch politician active in the socialist workers movement. ... The Tweede Kamer (second chamber) is the lower house of the Staten-Generaal, the parliament in the Netherlands. ... The States-General (Staten-Generaal) is the parliament of the Netherlands. ...


Between the wars

During the 1920s and 1930s, the Netherlands began to emerge as an industrial power. Engineers reclaimed vast amounts of land that had been under water by building the Zuiderzee scheme. The death of Wilhelmina's husband, Prince Hendrik, in 1934 brought an end to a difficult year that also saw the passing of her mother Queen Emma. The 32 km long Afsluitdijk separates the IJsselmeer from the North Sea, protecting thousands of km² of land. ... His Grand Ducal and Royal Highness Heinrich, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, (April 19, 1876 - July 3, 1934), Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, was the husband of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Adelheid Emma Wilhelmina Theresia (August 2, 1858 - March 20, 1934) was Queen Consort to William III of the Netherlands from 1879 to 1890, Queen Regent from 1890 to 1898, and Queen Mother from 1890 to 1934 The future Queen Emma of the Netherlands was born in Arolsen (Germany) on 2...


The interbellum, and most notably the economic crisis of the '30s, was also the period in which Wilhelmina's personal power reached its zenith; under the successive governments of a staunch monarchist prime minister, Hendrik Colijn (ARP), Wilhelmina was deeply involved in most questions of state. Hendrikus (Hendrik) Colijn (22 June 1869 – 18 September 1944) was a successful Dutch soldier, businessman and politician. ... The Anti Revolutionary Party (in Dutch: Anti Revolutionaire Partij, ARP) was a Dutch Protestant Christian democratic political party. ...


In 1939 Colijn's fifth and last government was swept away by a vote of no confidence two days after its formation. It is widely accepted that Wilhelmina herself was behind the formation of this last government, which was designed to be an extra-parliamentary or 'royal' cabinet. The Queen was deeply sceptical of the parliamentary system and tried to bypass it covertly more than once.


She also arranged the marriage between her daughter Juliana and Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld, a German prince who had lost most of his possessions after the Great War. Although it was claimed that he was initially a supporter of the Nazi regime, no hard evidence of this has ever been found or publicised. It should be stated, however, that there was never a serious investigation into the matter. Prince Bernhard later became a very popular figure in the Netherlands. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... National Socialism redirects here. ...


World War II

Monarchical Styles of
Queen Wilhelmina
Reference style Her Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Ma'am

On 10 May 1940, Nazi Germany invaded the Netherlands, and Queen Wilhelmina and her family were evacuated on HMS Hereward to the United Kingdom three days later. Queen Wilhelmina had wanted to stay in the Netherlands: she had planned to go to the southern province of Zeeland with her troops in order to coordinate further resistance from the town of Breskens and remain there until help arrived, much as King Albert I of Belgium had done during World War I. She went aboard a British cruiser at The Hague, which was to take her there. However, when she was on board the captain stated that he was forbidden to make contact with the Dutch shore, as Zeeland was under heavy attack from the Luftwaffe and it was too dangerous to return. Wilhelmina then took the decision to go to Britain, planning to return as soon as possible. Wilhelmina also spent time in Canada during the war, staying at the Governor General's residence, Rideau Hall. It was said that while she was there she made a great impact on the household, notably for living relatively simply. The Queen insisted on doing her shopping personally, walking the streets of Ottawa unassisted (though simply raising her hand to stop traffic whenever she wished to cross the road), and travelling to the United States on a regular civilian train.[1] Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_the_Netherlands. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Majesty is an English word rooting in the Latin Maiestas, expressing exalted status. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... HMS Hereward (H93), named after Hereward the Wake, was an H-class destroyer of the Royal Navy laid down by the High Walker Yard of Vickers Armstrong at Newcastle-on-Tyne on 28 February 1935, launched on 10 March 1936 and commissioned on 9 December 1936. ... Coat of Arms of Breskens Breskens is a harbour town on the Westerschelde in the municipality of Sluis in the province of Zeeland, in the south-western Netherlands. ... King Albert I Albert I (April 8, 1875 – February 17, 1934) was the third King of the Belgians. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Rideau Hall is the official residence of the Governor General of Canada, and is the place of residence of the Monarch of Canada when visiting Ottawa. ...


The Dutch armed forces in the Netherlands, apart from those in Zeeland, surrendered on 15 May. In Britain, Queen Wilhelmina took charge of the Dutch government in exile, setting up a chain of command and immediately communicating a message to her people. Capital Middelburg Largest city Terneuzen Queens Commissioner Karla Peijs Religion (1999) Protestant 35% Catholic 23% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   1,788 km² (10th) 1,146 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 380,186 (11th) 213/km² (10th) Anthem Zeeuws volkslied ISO NL-ZE Official website www. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Dutch government in exile was the government of the Netherlands, headed by Queen Wilhelmina, that fled to London after the German invasion of the country at the outset of World War II. Prior to 1940, the Netherlands were a neutral country, generally on good terms with Germany. ...


Relations between the Dutch government and the Queen were tense, with mutual dislike growing as the war progressed. Wilhelmina went on to be the most prominent figure, owing to her experience and knowledge. She was also very popular and respected among the leaders of the world. The government did not have a parliament to back them and had few employees to assist them. A first test of power came about when the Dutch prime minister, Dirk Jan de Geer, intended to open negotiations with the Nazis for a separate peace, as he believed the Allies would not win. Wilhelmina was against this and sought to remove the prime minister from power. With the aid of a minister, Pieter Gerbrandy, she succeeded. Jhr. ... Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy (13 April 1885 – 7 September 1961) Dutch politician, born near Sneek, in The Netherlands. ...

Statue of Wilhelmina in The Hague
Statue of Wilhelmina in The Hague

During the war her photograph was a sign of resistance against the Germans. Like Winston Churchill, Queen Wilhelmina broadcast messages to the Dutch people over Radio Oranje. As always, the Queen pulled no punches, calling Adolf Hitler "the arch-enemy of mankind". Her late-night broadcasts were eagerly awaited by her people, who had to hide in order to listen to them illegally. During the war, the Queen was almost killed by a bomb that took the lives of several of her guards and severely damaged her country home near South Mimms in England. In 1944 Queen Wilhelmina became only the second woman to be inducted into the Order of the Garter. Churchill described her as the only real man among the governments-in-exile in London. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 88 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 88 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. ... Radio Netherlands (RNW, short for Radio Nederland Wereldomroep in Dutch) is a public radio and television network based in Hilversum, producing and transmitting programmes for international audiences outside the Netherlands. ... Hitler redirects here. ... South Mimms is a location in Hertfordshire that was originally part of the traditional county of Middlesex Categories: UK geography stubs | Middlesex | Hertfordshire ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ...


In England she developed ideas about a new political and social life for the Dutch after the liberation. She wanted a strong cabinet formed by people active in the resistance. She dismissed De Geer during the war and installed a prime minister with the approval of other Dutch politicians. The Queen "hated" politicians, instead stating a love for the people. When the Netherlands was liberated in 1945 she was disappointed to see the same political factions taking power as before the war.


Following the end of World War II, Queen Wilhelmina made the decision not to return to her palace but move into a mansion in The Hague, where she lived for eight months, and she travelled through the countryside to motivate people, sometimes using a bicycle instead of a car. However, in 1947, while the country was still recovering from World War II, the revolt in the oil-rich Dutch East Indies saw sharp criticism of the Queen by the Dutch economic elite. Her loss of popularity and the forced departure from the East Indies under international pressure led to her abdication soon after. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Later years

On September 4, 1948, after a reign of 58 years and 50 days, Wilhelmina abdicated in favour of her daughter Juliana. She was thenceforward styled "Her Royal Highness Princess Wilhelmina of the Netherlands". After her reign, the influence of the Dutch monarchy began to decline but the country's love for its royal family continued. No longer queen, Wilhelmina retreated to Het Loo Palace, making few public appearances until the country was devastated by the North Sea flood of 1953. Once again she travelled around the country to encourage and motivate the Dutch people. is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Juliana Queen of the Netherlands Queen Juliana of the Netherlands (Juliana Emma Louise Wilhelmina van Oranje-Nassau) (April 30, 1909 – March 20, 2004), Princess of Orange-Nassau, Duchess of Mecklenburg, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld, was Queen of the Netherlands from her mothers abdication in 1948 to her own abdication... Het Loo and its gardens, more ambitious than they were actually executed, in an early 18th century engraving (watercolor added) The former royal residence Het Loo near Apeldoorn, Netherlands, was built starting in 1684 for the Stadtholder Willem, known to English-language readers as William III of Orange and his... The North Sea flood of 1953 and the associated storm combined to create a major natural disaster which affected the coastlines of the Netherlands and England on the night of 31 January 1953 – 1 February 1953. ...


During her last years she wrote her autobiography entitled Eenzaam, maar niet alleen (Lonely but Not Alone), in which she gave account of the events in her life, and revealed her strong religious feelings and motivations.


Queen Wilhelmina died at the age of 82 on November 28, 1962 and was buried in the Dutch Royal Family crypt in the Nieuwe Kerk in Delft, on 8 December 1962. The funeral was, at her request and contrary to protocol, completely in white to give expression to her belief that earthly death was the beginning of eternal life [2]. is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nieuwe Kerk, Delft Nieuwe Kerk is a landmark church in Delft, the Netherlands. ... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 24. ...


Trivia

  • Prior to the outbreak of the First World War, a young Wilhelmina visited the powerful Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, who boasted to the Queen of a relatively small country, "my guards are seven feet tall and yours are only shoulder-high to them". Wilhelmina smiled politely and replied, "Quite true, Your Majesty, your guards are seven feet tall. But when we open our dikes, the water is ten feet deep!".[citation needed] After the armistice ending World War I, Wilhelm fled to the Netherlands, where he was granted political asylum by the Dutch government, partly owing to the Kaiser's family links with Queen Wilhelmina.

German Emperor Wilhelm (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht, Prince of Prussia 27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (de: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ...

Ancestry

Wilhelmina's ancestors in three generations
Wilhelmina of the Netherlands Father:
William III of the Netherlands
Paternal Grandfather:
William II of the Netherlands
Paternal Great-grandfather:
William I of the Netherlands
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Wilhelmine of Prussia
Paternal Grandmother:
Anna Pavlovna of Russia
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Paul I of Russia
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
Mother:
Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont
Maternal Grandfather:
Georg Viktor, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Maximilian, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Gustava, Countess of Platen-Hallermund
Maternal Grandmother:
Princess Helena Wilhelmina Henrietta of Nassau
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Wilhelm, Duke of Nassau
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Pauline of Württemberg

William III, King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg (William Alexander Paul Frederick Louis of Orange-Nassau) (Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk van Oranje-Nassau, Koning der Nederlanden en Groothertog van Luxemburg in Dutch) (February 19, 1817 – November 23, 1890) was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke... William II, King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg (William Frederick George Louis) (December 6, 1792 – March 17, 1849) ruled from October 7, 1840 until his death. ... King William I of the Netherlands, born William Frederik of Orange-Nassau (The Hague, 24 August 1772 - Berlin, 12 December 1843), was the second King of the Netherlands (the first king was Louis I Napoleon Bonaparte). ... Queen Wilhelmine of the Netherlands at a young age Queen Wilhelmine of the Netherlands, born Princess of Prussia (full names in Dutch: Frederica Louisa Wilhelmina; full names in German: Friederike Luise Wilhelmine) (Potsdam, 18 November 1774 - The Hague, 12 October 1837), was the first wife of King William I of... Portrait of Jan Baptist van der Hulst, 1837. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Roslins portrait of Maria Feodorovna at the age of 18, with the Pavlovsk Palace in the background. ... Queen Emma of the Netherlands, born Her Serene Highness Princess Adelheid Emma Wilhelmina Theresia of Waldeck and Pyrmont (August 2, 1858 - March 20, 1934) was Queen consort of William III of the Netherlands of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg. ... Wilhelm, Duke of Nassau (14 June 1792, Kirchheimbolanden - 20 August/30 August 1839, Bad Kissingen) was the father of Adolphe, Grand Duke of Luxembourg. ...

References

  1. ^ Hubbard, R.H.; Rideau Hall; McGill-Queen’s University Press; Montreal and London; 1977; p. 203
  2. ^ Wilhelmina; Eenzaam maar niet alleen; Uitgeverij W. ten Have; Amsterdam; 1959; p. 251

External links

  • Dutch Royal House website
Preceded by
William III
Queen of the Netherlands Succeeded by
Juliana

 
 

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