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Encyclopedia > Wilhelm von Humboldt
Wilhelm von Humboldt
Wilhelm von Humboldt

Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand Freiherr von Humboldt (June 22, 1767 - April 8, 1835), government functionary, foreign diplomat, philosopher, founder of Humboldt Universität in Berlin, friend of Goethe and especially of Schiller, is especially remembered as a German linguist who introduced a knowledge of the Basque language to European intellectuals. His younger brother Alexander von Humboldt was equally famous in the natural sciences. Wilhelm von Humboldt source: http://www. ... Freiherr (German for Free Lord) is a title of lower nobility in Germany, the Baltic states and Austria-Hungary, considered equal to the title Baron. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... A philosopher is a person devoted to studying and producing results in philosophy. ... Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin The Humboldt University of Berlin (German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is Berlins oldest university, founded in 1810 as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt whose university model has strongly influenced... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (?) (IPA: ) (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German novelist, dramatist, poet, humanist, scientist, philosopher, and for ten years chief minister of state at Weimar. ... Friedrich Schiller Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (November 10, 1759 – May 9, 1805), usually known as Friedrich Schiller, was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and dramatist. ... The following is a list of linguists, those who study linguistics. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Friedrich Heinrich Alexander, Baron von Humboldt, (September 14, 1769, Berlin–May 6, 1859, Berlin), was a German naturalist and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher, and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt. ...


Humboldt is credited with being the first European linguist to identify human language as a rule-governed system, rather than just a collection of words and phrases paired with meanings. This idea is one of the foundations of Noam Chomsky's theory of language (transformational grammar). Chomsky frequently quotes Humboldt's description of language as a system which "makes infinite use of finite means", meaning that an infinite number of sentences can be created using a finite number of words. Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is the Institute Professor Emeritus of linguistics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ... Transformational grammar is a broad term describing grammars (almost exclusively those of natural languages) which have been developed in a Chomskian tradition. ...


Humboldt died while still working on his greatest work, on the ancient Kawi language of Java, but its introduction The Heterogeneity of Language and its Influence on the Intellectual Development of Mankind was published in 1836. This essay on the philosophy of speech "first clearly laid down that the character and structure of a language expresses the inner life and knowledge of its speakers, and that languages must differ from one another in the same way and to the same degree as those who use them. Sounds do not become words until a meaning has been put into them, and this meaning embodies the thought of a community. What Humboldt terms the inner form of a language is just that mode of denoting the relations between the parts of a sentence which reflects the manner in which a particular body of men regards the world about them. It is the task of the morphology of speech to distinguish the various ways in which languages differ from each other as regards their inner form, and to classify and arrange them accordingly." (1911 Encyclopædia Britannica) Kawi is a language from the islands of Java, Bali and Lombok. ... Map of Java Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... 1836 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ...


Humboldt was also a philosopher of note and published On the Limits of State Action in 1810, the boldest defence of the liberties of the Enlightenment. It anticipated John Stuart Mill's essay On Liberty by which von Humboldt's ideas became known in the English speaking world. As Prussian minister of education, he oversaw the system of Technische Hochschulen and gymnasiums that made Prussia, and subsequently the German Empire, the strongest European power and the scientific and intellectual leader of the world. 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ... In 1851 Mill married Harriet Taylor after 21 years of an at times intense friendship and love affair. ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prūsai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia and... Technische Hochschule (acronym TH) is, what a university of technology (i. ... A gymnasium is a type of school of secondary education in parts of Europe. ... The term German Empire commonly refers to Germany, from its foundation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Emperor Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... This article is about the continent. ...


As a successful diplomat between 1802 and 1819, Humboldt was plenipotentiary Prussian minister at Rome from 1802, ambassador at Vienna from 1812 during the closing struggles of the Napoleonic Wars, at the congress of Prague (1813) where he was instrumental in drawing Austria to ally with Prussia and Russia against France, a signer of the peace treaty at Paris and the treaty between Prussia and defeated Saxony (1815), at Frankfort settling post-Napoleonic Germany, and at the congress at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1818. However, the increasingly reactionary policy of the Prussian government made him give up political life in 1819; and from that time forward he devoted himself solely to literature and study. --69. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The term plenipotentiary (from the Latin, plenus + potens, full + power) refers to, as a noun, a person who has, or as an adjective that confers, full powers. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,823,807 almost 4,000,000 1... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Slovenian: Dunaj, Hungarian: Bécs, Czech: Vídeň, Slovak: Viedeň, Romany Vidnya; Serbian: Beč) is the capital of Austria, and also one of Austrias nine states (Land Wien). ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars fought during Napoleon Bonapartes rule over France. ... Prague (Czech: Praha, see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... With an area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Frankfort is the name of several places: Frankfort, Illinois Frankfort, Indiana Frankfort, Kentucky Frankfort, Michigan Village of Frankfort, New York Town of Frankfort, New York Frankfort, Ohio Frankfort, Wisconsin Frankfort, South Africa Today, Frankfurt, the name of two cities in Germany, is known as that in English. ... Map of Germany showing Aachen Aachen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, on the border with Belgium and the Netherlands, 65 km to the west of Cologne, and the westernmost city in Germany, at 50°46 N, 6°6 E. Population: 256,605 (2003). ... 1818 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet typically applied to conservatism. ...


Humboldt was an adept linguist who translated Pindar and Aeschylus, but as a philologist his work in the Basque language has had the more extended life. The result of his visit to the Basque country was Researches into the Early Inhabitants of Spain by the help of the Basque language of 1821. In this work Humboldt endeavored to show, by an examination of geographical placenames, that a race or races speaking dialects allied to modern Basque once extended throughout Spain, southern France and the Balearic Islands; he identified these people with the "Iberians" of classical writers, and he further surmised that they had been allied with the Berbers of northern Africa. Though it has been superseded in its details by modern linguistics and archaeology, Humboldt's pioneering work is sometimes still uncritically followed even today. Pindar (or Pindarus) (522 BC – 443 BC), objectively the greatest lyric poet of ancient Greece, was born at Cynoscephalae, a village in Thebes. ... Aeschylus (525 BC—456 BC; Greek: Ασχύλος) was a playwright of ancient Greece. ... The Basque Country (Euskal Herria in Basque) straddles the western Pyrenees mountains that define the border between France and Spain, extending down to the coast of the Bay of Biscay. ... 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official languages Catalan and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4 992 km²  1,0% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 14th  916 968  2,2%  183,69/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Catalan  â€“ Spanish Balearic balear balear Statute of Autonomy March 1, 1983 ISO 3166... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... // Etymology World map showing Africa (geographically) The name Africa came into Western use through the Romans, who used the name Africa terra — land of the Afri (plural, or Afer singular) — for the northern part of the continent, as the province of Africa with its capital Carthage, corresponding to modern-day...

Contents


References

Works by von Humboldt

  • Socrates and Plato on the Divine (orig. Sokrates und Platon über die Gottheit). 1787-1790
  • On the Limits of State Action (orig. Ideen zu einem Versuch, die Grenzen der Wirksamkeit des Staates zu bestimmen). 1791.
  • Über den Geschlechtsunterschied. 1794
  • Über männliche und weibliche Form. 1795
  • Outline of a Comparative Anthropology (orig. Plan einer vergleichenden Anthropologie). 1797.
  • The Eighteenth Century (orig. Das achtzehnte Jahrhundert). 1797.
  • Ästhetische Versuche I. - Über Goethe's Hermann und Dorothea. 1799.
  • Latium und Hellas (1806)
  • Geschichte des Verfalls und Untergangs der griechischen Freistaaten. 1807-1808.
  • Pindars "Olympische Oden". Translation from Greek, 1816.
  • Aischylos' "Agamemnon". Translation from Greek, 1816.
  • Über das vergleichende Sprachstudium in Beziehung auf die verschiedenen Epochen der Sprachentwicklung. 1820.
  • Über die Aufgabe des Geschichtsschreibers. 1821.
  • Researches into the Early Inhabitants of Spain with the help of the Basque language (orig. Prüfung der Untersuchungen über die Urbewohner Hispaniens vermittelst der vaskischen Sprache). 1821.
  • Über die Entstehung der grammatischen Formen und ihren Einfluss auf die Ideenentwicklung. 1822.
  • Upon Writing and its Relation to Speech (orig. Über die Buchstabenschrift und ihren Zusammenhang mit dem Sprachbau). 1824.
  • Bhagavad-Gitá. 1826.
  • Über den Dualis. 1827.
  • On the languages of the South Seas (orig. Über die Sprache der Südseeinseln). 1828.
  • On Schiller and the Path of Spiritual Development (orig. Über Schiller und den Gang seiner Geistesentwicklung). 1830.
  • Rezension von Goethes Zweitem römischem Aufenthalt. 1830.
  • The Heterogeneity of Language and its Influence on the Intellectual Development of Mankind (orig. Über die Verschiedenheit des menschlichen Sprachbaus und seinen Einfluss auf die geistige Entwicklung des Menschengeschlechts). 1836.

1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1790 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1791 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1797 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1797 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1822 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... 1826 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1827 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (November 10, 1759 - May 9, 1805), usually known as Friedrich Schiller, was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and dramatist. ... 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1836 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...

Works by other authors

  • Hegel, 1827. On The Episode of the Mahabharata Known by the Name Bhagavad-Gita by Wilhelm Von Humboldt

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ...

See also

This article discusses liberalism as a major political ideology as it developed and stands currently. ... This is an (partial) overview of individuals that contributed to the development of liberal theory on a worldwide scale and therefore are strongly associated with the liberal tradition and instrumental in the exposition of political liberalism as a philosophy. ...

External links

  • "Lives of the Brothers Humboldt" an extensive biography available from the Million Book Project.
  • Humboldt University site: Brief eulogy.
  • Wilhelm v. Humboldt Brief information page from the Acton Institute.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Wilhelm von Humboldt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (735 words)
Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand Freiherr von Humboldt (June 22, 1767 - April 8, 1835), government functionary, foreign diplomat, philosopher, founder of Humboldt Universität in Berlin, friend of Goethe and especially of Schiller, is especially remembered as a German linguist who introduced a knowledge of the Basque language to European intellectuals.
Humboldt died while still working on his greatest work, on the ancient Kawi language of Java, but its introduction The Heterogeneity of Language and its Influence on the Intellectual Development of Mankind was published in 1836.
Humboldt was also a philosopher of note and published On the Limits of State Action in 1810, the boldest defence of the liberties of the Enlightenment.
Alexander von Humboldt - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3585 words)
Friedrich Heinrich Alexander, Baron von Humboldt, (September 14, 1769, Berlin–May 6, 1859, Berlin), was a German naturalist and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher, and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt.
Von Humboldt's father, who was a major in the Prussian army, belonged to a prominent Pomeranian family and was rewarded for his services during the Seven Years War with the post of Royal Chamberlain.
Humboldt may justly be regarded as having in this memorable expedition laid the foundation in their larger bearings of the sciences of physical geography and meteorology.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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