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Encyclopedia > Wilhelm Wundt
Wilhelm Wundt

Born August 16, 1832(1832-08-16)
Neckarau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Died August 31, 1920 (aged 88) Leipzig, Germany[citation needed]
Residence Germany
Nationality German
Field Psychology, Physiology
Institutions University of Leipzig
Alma mater University of Heidelberg
Notable students   Edward B. Titchener, G. Stanley Hall, Oswald Kulpe, Hugo Munsterberg, Vladimir Bekhterev, James McKeen Cattell, Lightner Witmer[1]
Known for Psychology, Structuralism

Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (August 16, 1832-August 31, 1920) was a German psychologist, physiologist, and professor who is, along with William James, regarded as the father of psychology.[2][3][4] In 1879, Wundt founded the first formal laboratory for psychological research at the University of Leipzig, and the first journal for psychological research in 1881. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Minister-President Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... Edward Bradford Titchener (1876-1927) was an Englishman and a student of Wilhelm Wundt before becoming a professor of psychology and founding the first psychology laboratory in the United States at Cornell University. ... Granville Stanley Hall, circa 1910. ... Oswald Külpe (August 3, 1862–December 30, 1915) was one of the structural psychologists of the late 19th and early 20th century. ... Hugo Münsterberg (1863 - 1916) was a U.S. (German-born, in Danzig) psychologist. ... Vladimir Bekhterev (January 20, 1857 – December 24, 1927) was a Russian neurophysiologist and psychiatrist who noted the role of the hippocampus in memory around 1900. ... James McKeen Cattell (May 25, 1860-January 20, 1944), American psychologist, was the first professor of psychology in the United States. ... Lightner Witmer Lightner Witmer (1867-1956) is regarded as the inventor of the term Clinical Psychology and the co-founder of the worlds first Psychological Clinic in 1896 at the University of Pennsylvania. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhÄ“, spirit, soul; λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The University of Leipzig (German Universität Leipzig), located in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony (former Kingdom of Saxony), Germany, is one of the oldest universities in Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Biography

Formative years

Wundt was born in Neckarau, a town near Mannheim, the son of a Lutheran pastor. As a child, Wundt was quiet and stoic, preferring to spend his time in quiet study. He studied at a boarding school beginning at the age of 13, then moving on to study from 1851 to 1856 at the University of Tübingen, University of Heidelberg, and the University of Berlin. During his last year at Heidelberg, Wundt suffered a nearly fatal illness After graduating in medicine from the university in Heidelberg 1856, Wundt studied briefly with Johannes Peter Müller, before joining the University's staff, becoming an assistant to the physicist and physiologist Hermann von Helmholtz in 1858 until 1864. There he wrote Contributions to the Theory of Sense Perception (1858-62). He married Sophie Mau while at Heidelberg. Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (German: Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen) is a state-supported university located on the Neckar river, in the city of Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... The Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg (German Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; also known as simply University of Heidelberg) was established in the town of Heidelberg in the Rhineland in 1386. ... There is no institution called the University of Berlin, but there are four universities in Berlin, Germany: Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) Technical University of Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin) Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin) Berlin University of the Arts (Universität der... Johannes Peter Müller (July 14, 1801, Koblenz – April 28, 1858, Berlin), was a German physiologist, comparative anatomist, and ichthyologist not only known for his discoveries but also for his ability to synthesize knowledge. ... Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist. ...

Psychology
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RESEARCH Ψ

Abnormal
Biological
Cognitive
Developmental
Emotion
Experimental
Evolutionary
Mathematical
Neuropsychology
Personality
Positive
Psychonomics
Psychophysics
Social
Transpersonal Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Image File history File links Psi2. ... The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. ... Biological psychology, sometimes referred to as psychobiology or biopsychology, is a subfield of psychology. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Mathematical Psychology is an approach to psychological research that is based on mathematical modeling of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes, and on the establishment of law-like rules that relate quantifiable stimulus characteristics with quantifiable behavior. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... Positive psychology is a relatively young branch of psychology that studies the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. ... Psychonomics describes an approach to psychology that aims at discovering the laws (Greek: nomos) that govern the workings of the mind (Greek: psyche). The field is directly related to experimental psychology. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Social psychology is the scientific study of how peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). ... Transpersonal psychology is a school of psychology that studies the transpersonal, the transcendent or spiritual aspects of the human mind. ...

APPLIED Ψ

Clinical
Educational
Forensic
Health
Industrial/Org
Sport The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition, law and clinical medicine. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Industrial and organizational psychology (also known as I/O psychology, work psychology, work and organizational psychology, W-O psychology, occupational psychology, personnel psychology or talent assessment) concerns the application of psychological theories, research methods, and intervention strategies to workplace issues. ...

LISTS

Publications
Topics
Therapies This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ... This page aims to list all topics related to psychology. ... This is an alphabetical List of Psychotherapies. ...

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It was during this period that Wundt offered the first course ever taught in scientific psychology, all the while stressing the use of experimental methods drawn from the natural sciences, emphasizing the physiological relationship of the brain and the mind. His background in physiology would have a great impact on his approach to the new science of psychology. His lectures on psychology were published as Lectures on the Mind of Humans and Animals in 1863. He was promoted to Assistant Professor of Physiology at Heidelberg in 1864.


Wundt applied himself to writing a work that came to be one of the most important in the history of psychology, Principles of Physiological Psychology in 1874. The Principles utilized a system of psychology that sought to investigate the immediate experiences of consciousness, including feelings, emotions, volitions, and ideas, mainly explored through introspection, or the self-examination of conscious experience by objective observation of one's consciousness. This article is about the psychological process of introspecting. ...


Leipzig years

In 1875 he took up a position at the University of Leipzig, and set up the first psychological laboratory in the world four years later. Scholars from all over the world flocked to Wundt's laboratory, including Edward B. Titchener. Wundt's students would eventually found important psychology laboratories at the University of Pennsylvania, Columbia, Yale, Harvard, Cornell, and Stanford. Edward Bradford Titchener (1876-1927) was an Englishman and a student of Wilhelm Wundt before becoming a professor of psychology and founding the first psychology laboratory in the United States at Cornell University. ... The University of Pennsylvania (also known as Penn[3][4]) is a private, coeducational research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... “Cornell” redirects here. ... “Stanford” redirects here. ...


He remained in Leipzig until his death, supervising 186 doctoral dissertations in various disciplines.


In his later years, Wundt focused on social and cultural psychology, and before his death in 1920 he had completed his 10-volume masterwork, Social Psychology.


Of Wundt's enormous corpus of 54,000 pages[5] of books and article entries, some of his notable works include: Lectures on Human and Animal Psychology, Essays, Ethics: An Investigation of the Facts and Laws of the Moral Life, Hypnotismus und Suggestion (1892), and Introduction to Psychology.


Wundt's conception of psychology

Wundt himself was a Structuralist, seeking to understand the human mind by identifying the constituent parts of human consciousness, in the same way that a chemical compound is broken into various elements. Thus, Wundt essentially imagined psychology as a science, much like physics or chemistry, in which consciousness is a collection of identifiable parts. Structuralism, though championed by early advocates such as Titchener, eventually faded with the advent of Functionalism. See also structural analysis and structural functionalism. ... Edward Bradford Titchener (1876-1927) was an Englishman and a student of Wilhelm Wundt before becoming a professor of psychology and founding the first psychology laboratory in the United States at Cornell University. ... Functionalism is a term with several senses: For functionalism in sociology, see Functionalism (sociology). ...


Though Wundt had a scientific and physiological approach to psychology, he often employed the method of introspection, which is today viewed as scientifically unreliable as it does not rely on empirical, duplicatable data. In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ...


Legacy

Wundt is widely recognized as one of the fathers of psychology. Several of his works, including Principles of Physiological Psychology are considered fundamentally important texts in the field of psychology. Though widely recognized as important in the birth and growth of psychology, his influence in psychology today is a subject of debate among experts.


Though Wundt wrote extensively on a variety of subjects, including philosophy, physics, physiology, and of course psychology, the immensity of his collected writings and the 65 year-long duration of his career makes it difficult to identify a single, coherent mode of thought.[6] Doubtlessly, however, Wundt was a devout foundationalist, working tirelessly to understand the intricacies of the areas of knowledge he studied to form a coherent, atomistic understanding of the universe.[7] In recognition of Wundt's work, the American Psychological Association established the "Wilhelm Wundt-William James Award for Exceptional Contributions to Trans-Atlantic Psychology", which recognizes "a significant record of trans-Atlantic research collaboration." [8] ... Concern has been expressed that this article or section is missing information about: discussions of existence of atoms among prominent physicists up to the end of 19th century. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Notes and references

  1. ^ http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/wundtjames.html
  2. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=wfjB9Blnk8kC&pg=PA10-IA2&dq=Wundt+%2B%22Father+of+Psychology%22&sig=gWJeyuPPFuxlyTh0Eg61zM90BFI
  3. ^ http://66.102.1.104/scholar?hl=en&lr=&safe=off&q=cache:626Y91hNCp4J:https://secure.nsta.org/store/download.aspx%3Fl%3D0f4hSoGloTlINwK9v0t1cA%3D%3D+Wundt+%2B%22Father+of+Psychology%22
  4. ^ Wundt is also known as the "father of experimental psychology" or the "father of modern psychology" in some circles.
  5. ^ Bringmann & Balk, 1992
  6. ^ http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/wilhelm-wundt/
  7. ^ http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/wilhelm-wundt/
  8. ^ http://www.apa.org/apf/wundt.html

  Results from FactBites:
 
Wilhelm Max Wundt - LoveToKnow 1911 (355 words)
WILHELM MAX WUNDT (1832-), German physiologist and philosopher, was born on the 16th of August 1832 at Neckarau, in Baden.
The list of Wundt's works is long and comprehensive, including physiology, psychology, logic and ethics.
The metaphysical or ontological part of psychology is in Wundt's view the actual part, and with this the science of nature and the science of mind are to be brought into relation, and thus constituted as far as possible philosophical sciences.
Wilhelm Wundt (329 words)
Wilhelm Max Wundt (August 16, 1832-August 31, 1920), German physiologist and psychologist, is generally acknowledged as the founder of experimental psychology[?].
Wundt subscribed to a "psycho-physical parallelism", which was supposed to stand above both materialism and idealism.
It was during this period that Wundt offered the first course ever taught in scientific psychology, stressing the use of experimental methods drawn from the natural sciences[?].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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