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Encyclopedia > Wilhelm Reich

Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897November 3, 1957) was an Austrian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst.[1] March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (84th in leap years). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Psychiatrist redirects here. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ...


Reich was a respected analyst for much of his life, focusing on character structure, rather than on individual neurotic symptoms.[2] He promoted adolescent sexuality, the availability of contraceptives and abortion, and the importance of economic independence to women's psychological health.[3] His biographer Myron Sharaf writes that Reich's work left a deep impression on influential thinkers such as Alexander Lowen, Fritz Perls, Paul Goodman, Saul Bellow, Norman Mailer, and William Burroughs.[4] In modern psychology, the term neurosis, also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, is a general term that refers to any mental imbalance that causes distress, but (unlike a psychosis or personality disorder) does not prevent rational thought or an individuals ability to function in daily life. ... Myron Ruscoll Sharaf (1927 – May 13, 1997) was an American writer and psychotherapist. ... Dr. Alexander Lowen, a student of Wilhelm Reichs in the 1940s and early 1950s in New York, developed the mind-body psychotherapy known as bioenergetic analysis with his then colleague John Pierrakos. ... Friedrich (Frederick) Salomon Perls (July 8 1893, Berlin - March 14, 1970, Chicago), better known as Fritz Perls, was a noted German-born psychiatrist and psychotherapist of Jewish descent. ... There have been multiple well-known individuals named Paul Goodman: Paul Goodman (writer), US author, freethinker, anarchist and Gestalt Therapy contributor (see Paul Goodman page in the Anarchist Encyclopedia) Paul Goodman (sound engineer), winner of multiple Grammy Awards) Paul Alexander Cyril Goodman (United Kingdom politician) Paul Goodman an NHL hockey... Bellow as depicted in his Nobel diploma. ... Norman Mailer, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1948 Norman Kingsley Mailer (born January 31, 1923) is an American novelist, journalist, playwright, screenwriter and film director. ... William S. Burroughs. ...


He was also a controversial figure, particularly in later life, who came to be viewed by the psychoanalytic establishment as having "gone astray"[3] or succumbed to mental illness.[5]


Reich is best known for his studies on the link between human sexuality and emotions; the importance of what he called "orgastic potency"; and for what he said was the discovery of a form of energy that permeated the atmosphere and all living matter, which he called "orgone." He built boxes called "orgone accumulators," which patients could sit inside, and which were intended to harness the energy for what he believed were its health benefits. It was this work, in particular, that cemented the rift between Reich and the psychiatric establishment.[3][6][1] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Orgasm is the conclusion of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, and is experienced by both males and females. ... Orgone energy is a concept of a universal life energy that physician and psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich said he had discovered in the late 1930s. ...


Reich was living in Germany when Adolf Hitler came to power. Labeled a "communist Jew" by the Nazis,[7] he fled to Scandinavia before taking refuge in the United States in 1939. Hitler redirects here. ... National Socialism redirects here. ...


In 1947, following a series of critical articles about orgone in The New Republic and Harper's, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began an investigation into his claims, and, in 1954, won an injunction prohibiting the interstate sale of orgone accumulators. Two years later, Reich was charged with contempt of court for violating the injunction. He insisted on conducting his own defense, which included sending copies of all of his books to the judge. In June 1956, he was sentenced to two years in Federal prison; that August several tons of his publications were burned by agents of the FDA.[6][1] He died of heart failure in prison just over a year later, days before he was due to apply for parole.[8] For other uses, see the New Republic disambiguation page. ... An issue of Harpers Magazine from 1905 Another issue, from November 2004 Harpers Magazine (or simply Harpers) is a monthly general-interest magazine covering literature, politics, culture, finance, and the arts from a progressive, moderate left perspective in a fashion often not found in the ordinary news... The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for regulating food (humans and animal), dietary supplements, drugs (human and animal), cosmetics, medical devices (human and animal) and radiation emitting devices (including non-medical devices), biologics, and... Contempt of court is a court ruling which, in the context of a court trial or hearing, deems an individual as holding contempt for the court, its process, and its invested powers. ... Book burning is the practice of ceremoniously destroying by fire one or more copies of a book or other written material. ...

Contents

Early life

Reich was born in 1897 to Leon Reich, a prosperous farmer, and Cecilia Roniger, in Dobrzanica[9], a village near Peremyshliany, Galicia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, now in Ukraine. Three years after his birth, the couple had a second son, Robert. Peremyshliany (Ukrainian: ) is a city in Lviv Oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... Coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Yiddish: , Turkish: , Romanian: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


His father was by all accounts strict, cold, and jealous. He was Jewish, but Reich was later at pains to point out that his father had moved away from Judaism and had not raised his children as Jews; Reich wasn't allowed to play with Yiddish-speaking Jewish children, [10] and as an adult did not want to be described as Jewish. [11] For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ...


Shortly after his birth, the family moved south to a farm in Jujinetz, near Chernivtsi, Bukovina, where Reich's father took control of a cattle farm owned by his mother's family. Reich attributed his later interest in the study of sex and the biological basis of the emotions to his upbringing on the farm where, as he later put it, the "natural life functions" were never hidden from him. [12] Reich also spoke of sexual encounters he had had with a maid, where he witnessed intercourse between her and her boyfriend, and apparently later asked if he could "play" the part of the lover. He said that, by the time he was four years old, there were no secrets about sex for him. [10] Location Map of Ukraine with Chernivtsi highlighted. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ...

I had read somewhere that lovers get rid of any intruder, so with wild fantasies in my brain I slipped back to my bed, my joy of life shattered, torn apart in my inmost being for my whole life! — Wilhelm Reich. [13]

He was taught at home until he was 12, when his mother committed suicide by drinking a cheap household cleaner after being discovered having an affair with Reich's tutor, who lived with the family. In a report supposedly about a patient, Reich wrote about how deeply the affair had affected him, according to Myron Sharaf. Night after night, he had heard his mother creep to her lover's room, had followed her, and had overheard the couple's lovemaking. He felt ashamed, angry, and jealous; he wondered whether they would kill him if they realized he knew, and briefly had the thought of forcing his mother to have sex with him too, on pain of the father being told of the affair. He wrote that his "joy of life [was] shattered, torn apart from [his] inmost being for the rest of [his] life!" [14]


Torn between the desire to tell his father and the wish to protect his mother from his father's revenge, he later blamed himself for what happened, waking in the night overwhelmed by the idea that he had killed her. Her death was particularly brutal because of the method she chose, which left her in great pain for days before she died. The tutor was sent away, and Reich was left without his mother or his teacher, and with a powerful sense of guilt. [15]


He was sent to the all-male Czernowitz gymnasium, excelling at Latin, Greek, and the natural sciences. It appears to have been during this period that a skin condition developed that plagued Reich for the rest of his life. When it began is unclear, but it was diagnosed as psoriasis, and Sharaf speculates that it may have been triggered by his mother's suicide. Reich was given medication that contained arsenic, now known to make psoriasis worse. A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Atomic mass 74. ...


Reich's father was "completely broken" by his wife's suicide. [16] In or around 1914, he took out a life insurance policy then stood for hours in a cold pond, apparently fishing, but in fact intending to commit slow suicide, according to Reich and his brother Robert. [17] He contracted pneumonia and then tuberculosis, and died in 1914 as a result of his illness; despite his insurance policy, no money was forthcoming. [17] Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the mycobacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis. ...


Reich managed the farm and continued with his studies, graduating in 1915 mit Stimmeneinhelligheit (unanimous approval). In the summer of 1915, the Russians invaded Bukovina and the Reich brothers fled to Vienna, losing everything. In his Passion of Youth, Reich wrote: "I never saw either my homeland or my possessions again. Of a well-to-do past, nothing was left."


Studies

Sigmund Freud and Reich met in 1919 when Reich needed literature for a sexology seminar.
Sigmund Freud and Reich met in 1919 when Reich needed literature for a sexology seminar.

Reich joined the Austrian Army after school, serving from 1915-18, for the last two years as a lieutenant. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1092x1536, 712 KB) Summary Sigmund Freud Published in the U.S. after 1923, but public domain because copyright was not renewed. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1092x1536, 712 KB) Summary Sigmund Freud Published in the U.S. after 1923, but public domain because copyright was not renewed. ... Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Freud) May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939; (IPA: ) was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ...


In 1918, when the war ended, he entered the medical school at the University of Vienna. As an undergraduate, he was drawn to the work of Sigmund Freud; the men first met in 1919 when Reich visited Freud to obtain literature for a seminar on sexology. Freud left a strong impression on Reich. Freud allowed him to start seeing analytic patients as early as late 1919 or early 1920. Reich was accepted as a guest member of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Association in the summer of 1920, and became a regular member in October 1920, at the age of 23. [18] The University of Vienna (German: Universität Wien) in Vienna, Austria is the oldest university in the current Austro-Hungarian domain; it formally opened in 1365. ... Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Freud) May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939; (IPA: ) was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


He was allowed to complete his six-year medical degree in four years because he was a war veteran, and received his M.D. in July 1922. [1] Doctor of Medicine (M.D. or MD, from the Latin Medicinae Doctor meaning teacher of medicine,) is an academic degree for medical doctors. ...


His work

Early career

He worked in internal medicine at University Hospital, Vienna, and studied neuropsychiatry from 1922-24 at the Neurological and Psychiatric Clinic under Professor Wagner-Jauregg, who won the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1927. Julius Wagner-Jauregg Julius Wagner-Jauregg was born on March 7th, 1857, in Wels, Austria. ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ) are awards in physics, chemistry, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. ...


In 1922, he set up private practice as a psychoanalyst, and became first clinical assistant, and later vice-director, at Freud's Psychoanalytic Polyclinic. He joined the faculty of the Psychoanalytic Institute in Vienna in 1924, and conducted research into the social causes of neurosis. It was at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Association that Reich met Annie Pink, a fellow analyst-in-training. They married, and had their first daughter, Eva, in 1924 and a second daughter in 1928. The couple separated in 1933, leaving the children with the mother. In modern psychology, the term neurosis, also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, is a general term that refers to any mental imbalance that causes distress, but (unlike a psychosis or personality disorder) does not prevent rational thought or an individuals ability to function in daily life. ...


Reich developed a theory that the ability to feel sexual love depended on a physical ability to make love with what he called "orgastic potency." He attempted to "measure" the male orgasm, noting that four distinct phases occurred physiologically: first, the psychosexual build-up or tension; second. the tumescence of the penis, with an accompanying "charge," which Reich measured electrically; third, an electrical discharge at the moment of orgasm, and fourth, the relaxation of the penis. He believed the force that he measured was a distinct type of energy present in all life forms and later called it "orgone." [7] Orgasm is the conclusion of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, and is experienced by both males and females. ... Tumescence is the quality or state of being tumescent or swollen. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... Lifeform is the physical entity which encompasses a life. ...


He was a prolific writer for psychoanalytic journals in Europe, and his book Character Analysis brought forth a small revolution[citation needed] in the practice of psychoanalysis itself, and is still used today as a textbook for analytically oriented classes in medical schools.[citation needed] Originally psychoanalysis was focused on the treatment of neurotic symptoms. Character Analysis was a major step in the development of what today would be called ego psychology. In Reich's view a person's entire character (or personality), not only individual symptoms, could be looked at and treated as a neurotic phenomenon. The book also introduced Reich's theory of "body armoring." He argued that unreleased psychosexual energy could produce actual physical blocks within muscles and organs, and that these act as a "body armor," preventing the release of the energy. An orgasm was one way to break through the armor. These ideas developed into a general theory of the importance of a healthy sex life to overall well-being, a theory compatible with Freud's views. This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... In biology, an organ (Latin: organum, instrument, tool) is a group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions. ... This article is about sex acts and practices (i. ...


Reich agreed with Freud that sexual development was the origin of mental disorder. They both believed that most psychological states were dictated by unconscious processes; that infant sexuality develops early but is repressed, and that this has important consequences for mental health. At that time a Marxist, Reich argued that the source of sexual repression was bourgeois morality and the socio-economic structures that produced it. As sexual repression was the cause of the neuroses, the best cure would be to have an active, guilt-free sex life. He argued that such a liberation could come about only through a morality not imposed by a repressive economic structure. [19] In 1928, he joined the Austrian Communist Party and founded the Socialist Association for Sexual Counselling and Research, which organized counselling centers for workers—in contrast to Freud, who was perceived as treating only the bourgeoisie. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mental states redirects here. ... Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ... Bourgeoisie (RP [], GA []) is a classification used in analysing human societies to describe a class of people who are in the upper class, whose status or power comes from employment, education, and wealth as opposed to aristocratic origin. ... In modern psychology, the term neurosis, also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, is a general term that refers to any mental imbalance that causes distress, but (unlike a psychosis or personality disorder) does not prevent rational thought or an individuals ability to function in daily life. ...


Reich employed an unusual therapeutic method. He used touch to accompany the talking cure, taking an active role in sessions, feeling his patients' chests to check their breathing, repositioning their bodies, and sometimes requiring them to remove their clothes, so that men were treated wearing shorts and women in bra and panties. These methods caused a split between Reich and the rest of the psychoanalytic community. [7]


In 1930, he moved his practice to Berlin and joined the Communist Party of Germany. His best-known book, The Sexual Revolution, was published at this time in Vienna. Advocating free contraceptives and abortion on demand, he again set up clinics in working-class areas and taught sex education, but became too outspoken even for the communists, and eventually, after his book The Mass Psychology of Fascism was published, he was expelled from the party in 1933. Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


In this book Reich categorized fascism as a symptom of sexual repression. The book was banned by the Nazis when they came to power. He realized he was in danger and hurriedly left Germany disguised as a tourist on a ski trip to Austria. Reich was expelled from the International Psychological Association in 1934 for political militancy. He spent some years in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, before leaving for the United States in 1939. Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests inferior to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on ethnic, religious, cultural, or racial attributes. ...


The bion experiments

From 1934-37, based for most of the period in Oslo, Reich conducted experiments seeking the origins of life. He examined protozoa, which are single-celled creatures with nuclei. He grew cultured vesicles using grass, beach sand, iron, and animal tissue, boiling them, adding potassium and gelatin. Having heated the materials to incandescence with a heat-torch, he noted bright, glowing, blue vesicles, which, he claimed, could be cultured, and which gave off an observable radiant energy, which he called orgone. He named the vesicles "bions" and believed they were a rudimentary form of life, or halfway between life and non-life. When he poured the cooled mixture onto growth media, bacteria were born. Based on various control experiments Reich dismissed the idea that the bacteria were already present in the air, or in the other materials used. Reich's The Bion Experiments on the Origin of Life was published in Oslo in 1938, leading to attacks in the press that he was a "Jew pornographer" who was daring to meddle with the origins of life. [7] County Oslo NO-03 District Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about: Protozoa Protozoa (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are single-celled eukaryotes (organisms whose cells have nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Natural vegetaton dominated by grasses Grass is a common word that generally describes a monocotyledonous green plant in the family Poaceae. ... Patterns in the sand Sand is a granular material made up of fine rock particles. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 39. ... Gelatin (also gelatine, from French gélatine) is a translucent brittle solid substance, colorless or slightly yellow, nearly tasteless and odorless, which is created by prolonged boiling of connective tissue such as skin, cartilage, and bones obtained from the animal processing industry. ... Molten glassy material glows orange with incandescence in a vitrification experiment. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ...


T-bacilli

In 1936, in Beyond Psychology, Reich wrote that "[s]ince everything is antithetically arranged, there must be two different types of single-celled organisms: (a) life-destroying organisms or organisms that form through organic decay, (b) life-promoting organisms that form from inorganic material that comes to life."


This idea of spontaneous generation led him to believe he had found the cause of cancer. He called the life-destroying organisms "T-bacilli," with the T standing for Tod, German for death. He described in The Cancer Biopathy how he had found them in a culture of rotting cancerous tissue obtained from a local hospital. He wrote that T-bacilli were formed from the disintegration of protein; they were 0.2 to 0.5 micrometre in length, shaped like lancets, and when injected into mice, they caused inflammation and cancer. He concluded that, when orgone energy diminishes in cells through ageing or injury, the cells undergo "bionous degeneration" or death. At some point, the deadly T-bacilli start to form in the cells. Death from cancer, he believed, was caused by an overwhelming growth of the T-bacilli. Abiogenesis, in its most general sense, is the hypothetical generation of life from non-living matter. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...


Orgone accumulators and cloudbusters

Reich built "orgone accumulators" to harness orgone, which he believed was responsible for emotions and sexuality. Wild rumors spread that his "sex boxes" caused uncontrollable erections.
Reich built "orgone accumulators" to harness orgone, which he believed was responsible for emotions and sexuality. Wild rumors spread that his "sex boxes" caused uncontrollable erections.
He designed a "cloudbuster," which he said could manipulate streams of orgone energy to produce rain.
He designed a "cloudbuster," which he said could manipulate streams of orgone energy to produce rain.

In March 1938, Hitler annexed Austria. Reich's ex-wife and daughters had already left for the U.S., and in August 1939, Reich sailed out of Norway on the last boat to leave before the war began. He settled in Forest Hills, Long Island, and in 1946, married Ilse Ollendorf, with whom he had a son, Peter. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ... Forest Hills is the name of some places in the United States of America: Forest Hills, Kentucky Forest Hills, Massachusetts (a suburb of Boston) Forest Hills, Michigan (a census-designated place) Forest Hills, Pennsylvania Forest Hills is also the name of a neighborhood in the borough of Queens in New... Map showing Long Island; to the north is Connecticut and to the west are New York City and New Jersey. ...


It was during this period, according to some researchers, that Reich appeared to suffer a breakdown. They say that he became paranoid and revised parts of his earlier works to remove references to Marxist theory. [1] Reich's defenders say that Reich's revisions were minor, confined only to the English-speaking American period of his work, and were primarily sexological, clinical, or scientific in nature. Reich was one of the first of the European socialists to break ranks completely with the Communist Party; for example, in his book Mass Psychology of Fascism, which he wrote after a trip to Russia, he identified communism as "Red Fascism". His defenders say that the charge of paranoia is intended to discredit Reich's critique of Marxism. American writer Jim Martin alleges that many of those who have attacked Reich's biophysical research—on the orgone accumulator, for example—are themselves leftist and Marxist. [20] For other senses of this word, see paranoia (disambiguation). ...


In 1940, Reich built boxes called orgone accumulators to concentrate atmospheric orgone energy; some were for lab animals, and some were large enough for a human being to sit inside. Reich said orgone was the "primordial cosmic energy", blue in color, which he claimed was omnipresent and responsible for such things as weather, the color of the sky, gravity, the formation of galaxies, and the biological expressions of emotion and sexuality. Composed of alternating layers of ferrous metals and insulators with a high dielectric constant, his orgone accumulators had the appearance of a large, hollow capacitor. He believed that sitting inside the box might provide a treatment for cancer and other illnesses. It was the construction of these boxes that caught the attention of the press, leading to wild rumors that they were "sex boxes" which caused uncontrollable erections. [7] Orgone energy is a concept of a universal life energy that physician and psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich said he had discovered in the late 1930s. ... Omnipresence is the ability to be present in every place at any, and/or every, time; unbounded or universal presence. ... Weather is a term that encompasses phenomena in the atmosphere of a planet. ... A typical daytime sky. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... NGC 4414, a typical spiral galaxy in the constellation Coma Berenices, is about 17,000 parsecs in diameter and approximately 20 million parsecs distant. ... cheese pizzas are those by-productss which include milk and all calcium derivatives. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... Capacitors: SMD ceramic at top left; SMD tantalum at bottom left; through-hole tantalum at top right; through-hole electrolytic at bottom right. ... The erection of the penis, clitoris or a nipple is its enlarged and firm state. ...


Reich also designed a "cloudbuster" with which he said he could manipulate streams of orgone energy in the atmosphere to induce rain by forcing clouds to form and disperse. Based on experiments with the orgone accumulator, he argued that orgone energy was a negatively-entropic force in nature which was responsible for concentrating and organizing matter. During one drought-relief expedition to Arizona, he claimed to have observed UFOs, as well as at Orgonon, Maine, and speculated that orgone might be used for the propulsion of UFOs. Because Reich and his co-workers claimed to have seen clouds appear with the UFOs, they called it DOR (Deadly Orgone).[citation needed] Wilhelm Reich Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897–November 3, 1957) was an Austrian psychoanalyst trained by Sigmund Freud. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq mi (295,254 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... An Unidentified Flying Object, or UFO, refers to any olfaction-perceived phenomenon in the sky which presents the unpleasent aspect of being within the atmosphere (as opposed to being celestial in origin) and which cannot be identified by the observer as a prosaic phenomenon, e. ... Orgonon was the home, laboratory and research center of the Austrian-born psychiatrist Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957). ... Official language(s) None (English de facto; French is also an administrative language) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ...


According to Reich's theory, illness was primarily caused by depletion or blockages of the orgone energy within the body. He conducted clinical tests of the orgone accumulator on people suffering from a variety of illnesses. The patient would sit within the accumulator and absorb the "concentrated orgone energy". He built smaller, more portable accumulator-blankets of the same layered construction for application to parts of the body. The effects observed were claimed to boost the immune system, even to the point of destroying certain types of tumors, though Reich was hesitant to claim this constituted a "cure." The orgone accumulator was also tested on mice with cancer, and on plant-growth, the results convincing Reich that the benefits of orgone therapy could not be attributed to a placebo effect. He had, he believed, developed a grand unified theory of physical and mental health. [21] A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Placebo. ...


Orgone experiment with Einstein

Reich discussed orgone accumulators with Albert Einstein in 1941.
Reich discussed orgone accumulators with Albert Einstein in 1941.

On December 30, 1940, Reich wrote to Albert Einstein saying he had a scientific discovery he wanted to discuss, and on January 13, 1941 went to visit Einstein in Princeton. They talked for five hours, [22] and Einstein agreed to test an orgone accumulator, which Reich had constructed out of a Faraday cage made of galvanized steel and insulated by wood and paper on the outside. Einstein agreed that if, as Reich suggested, an object's temperature could be raised without an apparent heating source, it would be "a bomb" in physics. [23] This heating effect would be an amazing result since it would allow the construction of a perpetual motion machine, [24] which would violate the laws of thermodynamics.[25] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1024, 129 KB) Crop of Image:Albert Einstein 1947. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1024, 129 KB) Crop of Image:Albert Einstein 1947. ... Albert Einstein( ) (March 14, 1879 – April 18, 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who is widely considered to have been one of the greatest physicists of all time. ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Albert Einstein( ) (March 14, 1879 – April 18, 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who is widely considered to have been one of the greatest physicists of all time. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Nassau Street, Princetons main street. ... Entrance to a Faraday room A Faraday cage or Faraday shield is an enclosure formed by conducting material, or by a mesh of such material. ... This article or section should include material from Parallel Path See also Perpetuum mobile as a musical term Perpetual motion machines (the Latin term perpetuum mobile is not uncommon) are a class of hypothetical machines which would produce useful energy in a way science cannot explain (yet). ... The laws of thermodynamics, in principle, describe the specifics for the transport of heat and work in thermodynamic processes. ...


Reich supplied Einstein with a small accumulator during their second meeting, and Einstein performed the experiment in his basement, which involved taking the temperature atop, inside, and near the device. He also stripped the device down to its Faraday cage to compare temperatures. Over the course of a week, in both cases, Einstein observed a rise in temperature, and confirmed Reich's finding. [26] Reich concluded that the heat was the result of a novel form of energy—orgone energy—that had accumulated inside the Faraday cage. However, one of Einstein's colleagues at Princeton interpreted the phenomenon as resulting from thermal convection currents. Einstein concurred that the experiment could be explained by convection. [26] For other Princetons, see Princeton. ... Convection is the internal movement of currents within fluids (i. ...


Reich responded with a 25-page letter to Einstein, expressing concern that "convection from the ceiling" would join "air germs" and "Brownian movement" to explain away new findings, according to Reich's biographer, Myron Sharaf. Sharaf writes that Einstein conducted some more experiments, but then regarded the matter as "completely solved." [26]


The correspondence between Reich and Einstein was published by Reich's press as The Einstein Affair in 1953, possibly without Einstein's permission. [27]


Controversy

The Brady article and the FDA

Reich was investigated by the FBI when he arrived in the U.S. because he was an immigrant with a communist background. The FBI released 789 pages of its files on Reich in 2000; a State Department press release stated: The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States Government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...

This German immigrant described himself as the Associate Professor of Medical Psychology, Director of the Orgone Institute, President and research physician of the Wilhelm Reich Foundation and discoverer of biological or life energy. A 1940 security investigation was begun to determine the extent of Reich's communist commitments. A board of Alien Enemy Hearing judged that Dr. Reich was not a threat to the security of the U.S. In 1947, a security investigation concluded that neither the Orgone Project nor any of its staff were engaged in subversive activities or were in violation of any statute within the jurisdiction of the FBI. [28] In law during wartime, an enemy alien is a person who is a citizen of a country which is a state of war with the land where he or she is found. ... Look up subversion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Myron Sharaf writes that Reich's life in America was relatively peaceful until 1947. There were a few of what Sharaf calls snide articles, and rumors about Reich's sanity, but no organized opposition. Then on May 26, 1947, an article appeared in The New Republic entitled "The Strange Case of Wilhelm Reich" by freelance writer Mildred Edie Brady. The subhead was "The man who blames both neuroses and cancer on unsatisfactory sexual activities has been repudiated by only one scientific journal." [29] May 26 is the 146th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (147th in leap years). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... For other uses, see the New Republic disambiguation page. ...


Sharaf writes that the article consisted of combined truths, half-truths, and lies. Brady wrote:

Orgone, named after the sexual orgasm, is, according to Reich, a cosmic energy. It is, in fact, the cosmic energy. Reich has not only discovered it; he has seen it, demonstrated it and named a town — Orgonon, Maine — after it. Here he builds accumulators of it which are rented out to patients, who presumably derive 'orgastic potency' from it. [29] Orgonon was the home, laboratory and research center of the Austrian-born psychiatrist Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957). ...

Sharaf writes that the implication was clear: the accumulators gave orgastic potency, the lack of which causes cancer. Therefore, the claim for the accumulators was that they cured cancer. Brady argued that the "growing Reich cult" had to be dealt with. [30]


Two months later, on July 23, Dr. J.J. Durrett, director of the Medical Advisory Division of the Federal Trade Commission, wrote to the FDA asking them to look into Reich's claims about the health benefits of orgone. [31] The FDA assigned an investigator named Wood to the case, who learned that Reich had built 250 accumulators; the FDA concluded that they were dealing with a "fraud of the first magnitude." [32] Sharaf writes that the FDA suspected a "sexual racket" of some kind; questions were asked about the women associated with orgonomy and "what was done with them." [33] FTC headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Federal Trade Commission (or FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act. ...

I would like to plead for my right to investigate natural phenomena without having guns pointed at me. I also ask for the right to be wrong without being hanged for it. — Wilhelm Reich. [34]

In November, Reich wrote in Conspiracy. An Emotional Chain Reaction: "I would like to plead for my right to investigate natural phenomena without having guns pointed at me. I also ask for the right to be wrong without being hanged for it ... I am angry because smearing can do anything and truth can do so little to prevail, as it seems at the moment." [35] Sharaf writes that Reich came to believe that Mildred Brady was a Stalinist acting under orders from the Communist Party, a "communist sniper," as Reich called her. [36][37] Joseph Stalin Stalinism is the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ...


On February 10, 1954, the U.S. Attorney for Maine, acting on behalf of the FDA, filed a complaint seeking a permanent injunction under Sections 301 and 302 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, to prevent interstate shipment of orgone-therapy equipment and literature. [2] Reich refused to appear in court, apparently believing that no court was in a position to evaluate his work. In his cover letter for the response he submitted to the court, he wrote to Judge Clifford: February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Executive Office for United States Attorneys be merged into this article or section. ... Look up Injunction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (abbreviated as FFDCA, FDCA, or FD&C), is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics. ...

My factual position in the case as well as in the world of science of today does not permit me to enter the case against the Food and Drug Administration, since such action would, in my mind, imply admission of the authority of this special branch of the government to pass judgment on primordial, pre-atomic cosmic orgone energy.


I, therefore, rest the case in full confidence in your hands.[38]

Because of Reich's failure to appear, Judge Clifford granted the injunction on March 19, 1954. [3] His ruling ordered that all written materials that mentioned "orgone energy" — including papers and pamphlets, and ten of Reich's books — were to be destroyed. It further stated that additional copies of his books, including revised classics like The Mass Psychology of Fascism, could not be published unless all references to "orgone energy" were deleted. March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Imprisonment and death

In May 1956, Reich was arrested for technical violation of the injunction when an associate moved some orgone-therapy equipment across a state line, and Reich was charged with contempt of court. Once again, he refused to arrange a legal defense. He was brought in chains to the courthouse in Portland, Maine. Representing himself, he admitted to having violated the injunction and arranged for the judge to be sent copies of his books. He was sentenced to two years' imprisonment. Contempt of court is a court ruling which, in the context of a court trial or hearing, deems an individual as holding contempt for the court, its process, and its invested powers. ... Nickname: The Forest City Country United States State Maine County Cumberland Settled 1632 Incorporated 1786 Mayor Nicholas Mavodones, Jr Area    - City 136. ... Official language(s) None (English de facto; French is also an administrative language) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ...


Dr. Morton Herskowitz, a fellow psychiatrist and friend of Reich's wrote of the trial: "Because he viewed himself as a historical figure, he was making a historical point, and to make that point he had conducted the trial that way. If I had been in his shoes, I would have wanted to escape jail, I would have wanted to be free, etc. I would have conducted the trial on a strictly legal basis because the lawyers had said, 'We can win this case for you. Their case is so weak, so when you let us do our thing we can get you off.' But he wouldn't do it." [4]


On June 5, 1956, FDA officials traveled to Orgonon, Reich's 200-acre (80-hectare) estate near Rangeley, Maine, where they destroyed the accumulators, and on June 26, burned many of his books. On August 25, 1956 and again on March 17, 1960, [5] the remaining six tons of his books, journals and papers were burned in the 25th Street public incinerator in New York's lower east side (Gansevoort incinerator). In March 1957, he was sent to Danbury Federal Prison, where a psychiatrist examined him, recording: "Paranoia manifested by delusions of grandiosity and persecution and ideas of reference." [7] June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rangeley is a town located in Franklin County, Maine. ... Book burning is the practice of ceremoniously destroying by fire one or more copies of a book or other written material. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Ideas of reference or delusions of reference involve a person having a belief or perception that irrelevant, unrelated or innocuous things in the world are referring to them directly or have special personal significance. ...


Reich died in his sleep of heart failure on November 3, 1957 in the federal penitentiary in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, shortly before he was due to apply for parole. Not one psychiatric or established scientific journal carried an obituary. Time Magazine noted on November 18, 1957: November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lewisburg is a borough in Union County, Pennsylvania, 30 miles (48 km) south by east of Williamsport and 60 miles (97 km) north of Harrisburg. ... Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Obituary for World War I death An obituary is a notice of the death of a person, usually published in a newspaper, written or commissioned by the newspaper, and usually including a short biography. ... November 18 is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Died. Wilhelm Reich, 60, once-famed psychoanalyst, associate, and follower of Sigmund Freud, founder of the Wilhelm Reich Foundation, lately better known for unorthodox sex and energy theories; of a heart attack in Lewisburg Federal Penitentiary, Pa; where he was serving a two-year term for distributing his invention, the "orgone energy accumulator" (in violation of the Food and Drug Act), a telephone-booth-size device which supposedly gathered energy from the atmosphere, and could cure, while the patient sat inside, common colds, cancer and impotence. [6]

Reich was buried in Orgonon. At his own instruction, his granite headstone, adorned with a metal rendering of his face, reads simply:

Wilhelm Reich
Born March 24, 1897
Died November 3, 1957

The burial site looks out over an unobscured view of Rangeley Lake. Next to the grave stands a replica of Reich's invention, the "cloudbuster". The Wilhelm Reich Museum now sits at the top of Orgonon, in the building which housed Reich's laboratory, teaching, and psychiatric treatment facilities. Rangeley Lake is located in Franklin County, Maine in the United States. ...


Status of his work

New research journals devoted to Reich's work began to appear in the 1960s. Physicians and natural scientists with an interest in Reich organized small study groups and institutes, and new research efforts were undertaken. James DeMeo undertook research at the University of Kansas into Reich's atmospheric theories. [39] A later study by DeMeo subjected Reich's sex-economic theory to cross-cultural evaluations. [40], later included in DeMeo's opus magnum Saharasia. [41] The University of Kansas (often referred to as KU) is an institution of higher learning in Lawrence, Kansas. ...


Reich's orgone research has not found an open reception; the mainstream scientific community remains largely uninterested in, and at times hostile to, to his ideas. There is some use of orgone accumulator therapy by psychotherapists in Europe, particularly in Germany.[citation needed] A double-blind, controlled study of the psychological and physical effects of the orgone accumulator was carried out by Stefan Müschenich and Rainer Gebauer at the University of Marburg and appeared to validate some of Reich's claims. [42] The study was later reproduced by Günter Hebenstreit at the University of Vienna. [43] William Steig, Norman Mailer, William S. Burroughs, Jerome D. Salinger and Orson Bean have all undergone Reich's orgone therapy. University of Marburg - Department of Social Sciences and University library The old university The University of Marburg, officially Philipps-Universität Marburg, was founded in 1527 by Landgrave Philipp I of Hesse (usually called the Magnanimous) as the worlds first and oldest Protestant university. ... William Steig (November 14, 1907 – October 3, 2003) was a prolific American cartoonist, sculptor and, later in life, an author of popular childrens literature. ... Norman Mailer, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1948 Norman Kingsley Mailer (born January 31, 1923) is an American novelist, journalist, playwright, screenwriter and film director. ... William Seward Burroughs II (1914 – August 2, 1997), more commonly known as William S. Burroughs, was an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter and spoken word performer. ... Jerome David Salinger (born January 1, 1919) (pronounced ) is an American author best known for The Catcher in the Rye, a classic novel that has enjoyed enduring popularity since its publication in 1951. ... Orson Bean, born Dallas Frederick Burroughs (July 22, 1928 in Burlington, Vermont), is an American film and stage actor. ...


Reich's influence is felt in modern psychotherapy. He was a pioneer of body psychotherapy and several emotions-based psychotherapies, influencing Fritz Perls' Gestalt therapy and Arthur Janov's primal therapy. See also Neo-Reichian massage. His pupil Alexander Lowen, the founder of bioenergetic analysis, Charles Kelley, the founder of Radix therapy, and James DeMeo ensure that his research receives widespread attention. Many practising psychoanalysts give credence to his theory of character, as outlined in his book Character Analysis (1933, enlarged 1949). The American College of Orgonomy, [44] founded by the late Elsworth Baker M.D., and the Institute for Orgonomic Science, [45] led by Dr. Morton Herskowitz, still use Reich's original therapeutic methods. Body Psychotherapy (a. ... Friedrich (Frederick) Salomon Perls (July 8 1893, Berlin - March 14, 1970, Chicago), better known as Fritz Perls, was a noted German-born psychiatrist and psychotherapist of Jewish descent. ... Gestalt Therapy is a psychotherapy which focuses on here-and-now experience and personal responsibility. ... Dr. Arthur Janov is the inventor of Primal therapy and directs a Primal Center in Venice, California, USA. He is a licensed psychologist in that state. ... Primal therapy is a trauma-based psychotherapy developed and popularized by Arthur Janov, Ph. ... System based on theories developed by Wilhelm Reich (see orgone therapy and Reichian Therapy). ... Dr. Alexander Lowen, a student of Wilhelm Reichs in the 1940s and early 1950s in New York, developed the mind-body psychotherapy known as bioenergetic analysis with his then colleague John Pierrakos. ... Bioenergetic Analysis is a body-oriented psychotherapy based on the expression of feelings and the re-establishment of energy flow in the body. ...


Nearly all Reich's publications have been reprinted, apart from his research journals which are available as photocopies from the Wilhelm Reich Museum. The first editions are not available: Reich continuously amended his books throughout his life, and the owners of Reich's intellectual property actively forbid anything other than the latest revised versions to be reprinted. In the late 1960s, Farrar, Straus & Giroux republished Reich's major works. Reich's earlier books, particularly The Mass Psychology of Fascism, are regarded as historically valuable. [46]


Reich in popular culture

The cover of "Cloudbusting" by Kate Bush, released in October 1985. In the video accompanying the single, which is available on YouTube, Kate Bush plays Peter Reich, Reich's son, while Reich is played by Donald Sutherland.
The cover of "Cloudbusting" by Kate Bush, released in October 1985. In the video accompanying the single, which is available on YouTube, Kate Bush plays Peter Reich, Reich's son, while Reich is played by Donald Sutherland.

Reich's life and work continue to influence popular culture, with references to orgone and cloudbusting found in songs by Clutch, Hawkwind, Pop Will Eat Itself, Turbonegro and Patti Smith ("Birdland" on "Horses"). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Cloudbusting was the second single to be released from Hounds of Love by Kate Bush and is a very firm fan favourite. ... Catherine Kate Bush (born 30 July 1958, Bexleyheath, Kent, now part of Greater London), is an English female solo singer and musician. ... YouTube is a popular free video sharing website which lets users upload, view, and share video clips. ... For other persons named Donald Sutherland, see Donald Sutherland (disambiguation). ... Clutch is a musical group from Germantown, Maryland in the United States. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pop Will Eat Itself (also known as PWEI or the Poppies) were an English band formed in Stourbridge, with band members from Birmingham, Coventry and the Black Country. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Patricia Lee (Patti) Smith (born December 30, 1946) is an American musician, singer, and poet. ... Horses is the debut album by Patti Smith released in November 1975, produced by John Cale. ...


Kate Bush's song "Cloudbusting" and video (directed by Julian Doyle, conceived by Terry Gilliam and Kate Bush) describe Reich's arrest and incarceration through the eyes of Reich's son, Peter, who wrote his father's story in A Book of Dreams, published in 1973. Catherine Kate Bush (born 30 July 1958, Bexleyheath, Kent, now part of Greater London), is an English female solo singer and musician. ... Cloudbusting was the second single to be released from Hounds of Love by Kate Bush and is a very firm fan favourite. ... Terry Gilliam at Karlovy Vary 2006. ...


The philosopher and science fiction author Robert Anton Wilson wrote a play, Wilhelm Reich in Hell, based on his life. A film about Reich's teachings called W.R.: Mysteries of the Organism was made in 1971 by Yugoslavian director Dusan Makavejev. Reich appeared in 2000 as the superhero "Orgone Lad", a member of the League of Infinity in Supreme by Alan Moore. Quotes from Wilhelm Reich adorn the liner notes to Generic, an album by the San Francisco punk group Flipper. It has been suggested that Timothy F.X. Finnegan be merged into this article or section. ... Wilhelm Reich in Hell is a play by Robert Anton Wilson. ... Dusan Makavejev (born 1932) is a Serbian film director, born in Belgrade. ... Supreme is a fictional superhero created by Rob Liefeld. ... Alan Moore (born November 18, 1953, in Northampton) is an English writer most famous for his influential work in comics, including the acclaimed graphic novels Watchmen, V for Vendetta and From Hell. ... Look up flipper in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Biography, The Wilhelm Reich Museum, retrieved August 14, 2006.
  2. ^ "Wilhelm Reich," Encyclopaedia Britannica.
  3. ^ a b c Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 4.
  4. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 5.
  5. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 8.
  6. ^ a b c Obituary notice for Wilhelm Reich, Time Magazine, November 18, 1957.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Cantwell, Alan. "Dr. Wilhelm Reich: Scientific Genuis or Medical Madman?", New Dawn, Issue no. 84, May–June 2004, retrieved August 14, 2006.
  8. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 477.
  9. ^ Presently it is spelled Dobryanichi (also Dobrjanici), in Ukrainian: Добряничі; 49ºN34' 24ºE31'. See location at Google Maps.
  10. ^ a b Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 39.
  11. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 463.
  12. ^ Reich, Wilhelm. "Background and scientific development of Wilhelm Reich," Orgone Energy Bulletin V, 1953, p. 6, cited in Sharaf 1994, p. 40 and p. 488, footnote 10.
  13. ^ Reich, Wilhelm. "Ueber einen Fall von Durchbruch der Inzestschranke in der Pubertät," Zeitschrift für Sexualwissenschaft, VII, 1920, 222-223, cited in and translated by Sharaf 1994, p. 43 and p. 448, footnote 12.
  14. ^ Reich, Wilhelm. "Ueber einen Fall von Durchbruch der Inzestschranke in der Pubertät," Zeitschrift für Sexualwissenschaft, VII, 1920, 222-223, cited in and translated by Sharaf 1994, p. 43 and p. 448, footnote 12.
  15. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 42-46.
  16. ^ Reich, Wilhelm. "Ueber einen Fall von Durchbruch der Inzestschranke in der Pubertät," op cit, cited in Sharaf 1994, p. 47 and p. 489, footnote 21.
  17. ^ a b Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 48.
  18. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 58.
  19. ^ D'Aloia, Alessandro. "Marxism and Psychoanalysis: Notes on Wilhelm Reich’s Life and Works", Marxist.com, retrieved August 14, 2006.
  20. ^ Martin, Jim. Wilhelm Reich and the Cold War, Flatland Books, Mendocino, CA, 2000.
  21. ^ Klee, Gerald D. "What ever happened to orgone therapy?", The Maryland Psychiatric Society, Summer 2001; Vol. 28, No. 1; Pg 13-15, retrieved August 14, 2006.
  22. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. De Capo Press, 1994, p. 285.
  23. ^ Brian, Denis. 1996. Einstein: A Life, John Wiley & Sons, New York, p.326.
  24. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) About New Energy Science and Technology", New Energy Foundation, Inc., 2003, retrieved August 14, 2006.
  25. ^ Perpetual Motion Machines at The British Columbia Institute of Technology
  26. ^ a b c Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. De Capo Press, 1994, p. 286.
  27. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. De Capo Press, 1994, p. 288.
  28. ^ "FBI adds new subjects to electronic reading room", U.S. State Department, March 2, 2000.
  29. ^ a b Brady, Mildred. "The Strange case of Wilhelm Reich," The New Republic, May 26, 1947 cited in Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 360.
  30. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 361.
  31. ^ FDA file on Reich, cited in Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 363 and footnote 6, p. 513.
  32. ^ FDA file on Reich, cited in Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 364 and footnote 11, p. 513.
  33. ^ Greenfield, Jerome. Wilhelm Reich Vs. the U.S.A.. W.W. Norton, 1974, p. 69, cited in Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 364 and footnote 13, p. 513.
  34. ^ Reich, Wilhelm. Conspiracy. An Emotional Chain Reaction, item 386A, cited in Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 367 and footnote 14, p. 513.
  35. ^ Reich, Wilhelm. Conspiracy. An Emotional Chain Reaction, item 386A, cited in Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 367 and footnote 14, p. 513.
  36. ^ Sharaf, Myron. Fury on Earth: A Biography of Wilhelm Reich. Da Capo Press, 1994, p. 367.
  37. ^ Jim Martin writes that Michael Straight, a former member of the Cambridge Apostles and friend of some of those involved in the Soviet-Cambridge spy ring, was the publisher of the Brady articles, and that the attack on Reich may have been prompted by Reich's turning his back on Marxism. (Martin, Jim. Wilhelm Reich and the Cold War, Flatland Books, Mendocino, CA, 2000.)
  38. ^ "Wilhelm Reich's Response to FDA's Complaint for Injunction", February 25, 1954, posted on orgone.org.
  39. ^ DeMeo, James. "Preliminary Analysis of Changes in Kansas Weather Coincidental to Experimental Operations with a Reich Cloudbuster," KU Geography-Meteorology Dept, Thesis, 1979.
  40. ^ DeMeo, James. "On the Origins and Diffusion of Patrism: The Saharasian Connection," KU Geography-Meteorology Dept, Dissertation, 1986
  41. ^ DeMeo, James: "Saharasia: The 4000 BCE Origins of Child Abuse, Sex-Repression, Warfare and Social Violence in the Deserts of the Old World. The Revolutionary Discovery of a Geographic Basis to Human Behavior". Greensprings OR, 1986
  42. ^ Müschenich, Stefan & Gebauer, Rainer: Der Reich'sche Orgonakkumulator. Naturwissenschaftliche Diskussion, praktische Anwendung, experimentelle Untersuchung. Frankfurt/Main: Nexus-Verlag 1987
  43. ^ Hebenstreit, Günter: Der Orgonakkumulator nach Wilhelm Reich. Eine experimentelle Untersuchung zur Spannungs-Ladungs-Formel. Univ. Wien, Dipl.-Arbeit, 1995
  44. ^ The American College of Orgonomy
  45. ^ Institute for Orgonomic Science
  46. ^ A good overview of Reich's work is Wilhelm Reich: The evolution of his work by David Boadella. A bibliography on orgonomy gives full citations to university dissertations, and to controlled experiments replicating Reich's work on bions, the orgone accumulator, and the cloudbuster.

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Reich's writings

German-language books
  • Der triebhafte Charakter : Eine psychoanalytische Studie zur Pathologie des Ich, 1925
  • Die Funktion des Orgasmus : Zur Psychopathologie und zur Soziologie des Geschlechtslebens, 1927
  • Dialektischer Materialismus und Psychoanalyse, 1929
  • Geschlechtsreife, Enthaltsamkeit, Ehemoral : Eine Kritik der bürgerlichen Sexualreform, 1930
  • Der Einbruch der Sexualmoral : Zur Geschichte der sexuellen Ökonomie, 1932
  • Charakteranalyse : Technik und Grundlagen für studierende und praktizierende Analytiker, 1933
  • Massenpsychologie des Faschismus, 1933 (original Marxist edition, banned by the Nazis and the Communists)
  • Was ist Klassenbewußtsein? : Über die Neuformierung der Arbeiterbewegung, 1934
  • Psychischer Kontakt und vegetative Strömung, 1935
  • Die Sexualität im Kulturkampf : Zur sozialistischen Umstrukturierung des Menschen, 1936
  • Die Bione : Zur Entstehung des vegetativen Lebens, 1938
English-language books
  • American Odyssey:Letters and Journals 1940-1947 (posthumous)
  • Beyond Psychology:Letters and Journals 1934-1939 (posthumous)
  • The Bioelectrical Investigation of Sexuality and Anxiety
  • The Bion Experiments: On the Origins of Life
  • Function of the Orgasm
  • The Cancer Biopathy (1948)
  • Character Analysis (translation of the enlarged version of Charakteranalyse from 1933)
  • Children of the Future: On the Prevention of Sexual Pathology
  • Contact With Space: Oranur Second Report (1957)
  • Cosmic Superimposition: Man's Orgonotic Roots in Nature (1951)
  • Early Writings
  • Ether, God and Devil (1949)
  • Genitality in the Theory and Therapy of Neuroses (translation of the original, unrevised version of Die Funktion des Orgasmus from 1927)
  • The Invasion of Compulsory Sex-Morality (translation of the revised and enlarged version of Der Eindruch der Sexualmoral from 1932)
  • Listen, Little Man! (1948)
  • Mass Psychology of Fascism (translation of the revised and enlarged version of Massenpsychologie des Faschismus from 1933)
  • The Murder of Christ (1953)
  • The Oranur Experiment
  • The Orgone Energy Accumulator, Its Scientific and Medical Use (1948)
  • Passion of Youth: An Autobiography, 1897-1922 (posthumous)
  • People in Trouble (1953)
  • Record of a Friendship: The Correspondence of Wilhelm Reich and A.S. Neill (1936-1957)
  • Reich Speaks of Freud (Interview by Kurt R. Eissler, letters, documents)
  • Selected Writings: An Introduction to Orgonomy
  • Sexpol. Essays 1929-1934 (ed. Lee Baxandall)
  • The Sexual Revolution (translation of Die Sexualität im Kulturkampf from 1936)
  • The Einstein Affair (1953)

Further reading

The Einstein experiments
  • Aspden, H (2001) "Gravity and its thermal anomaly: was the Reich-Einstein experiment evidence of energy inflow from the aether?", Infinite Energy, 41:61.
  • Bearden, T (2002) "Energy from the vacuum", Cheniere Press, Santa Barbara, CA, pp. 333-337.
  • Brian, Denis. Einstein: A Life, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1996. ISBN 0-471-11459-6 Reich is discussed on pages 325-327, 382, 399.
  • Clark, Ronald W. Einstein: The Life and Times, New York: Avon, 1971, ISBN 0-380-01159-X Reich is on pages 689-90 of the paperback edition.
  • Correa, P & Correa, A (1998, 2001) "The thermal anomaly in ORACs and the Reich-Einstein experiment: implications for blackbody theory", Akronos Publishing, Concord, ON, Canada, ABRI monograph AS2-05.
  • Correa PN & Correa AN (2001) "The reproducible thermal anomaly of the Reich-Einstein experiment under limit conditions", Infinite Energy, 37:12.
  • Mallove, E (2001) "Breaking Through: A Bombshell in Science", Infinite Energy, 37:6.
  • Mallove, E (2001) "Breaking Through: Aether Science and Technology", Infinite Energy, 39:6.

Orson Bean, born Dallas Frederick Burroughs (July 22, 1928 in Burlington, Vermont), is an American film and stage actor. ... Me and the Orgone – The True Story of One Mans Sexual Awakening is an autobiographical account written by American actor and award-winning director Orson Bean about his life-changing experience with the controversial orgone therapy developed by Austrian psychiatrist Wilhelm Reich. ... Robert S. Corrington is an American theologist and author of several books exploring human interpretation of the universe as well as biographies on C.S. Peirce and Wilhelm Reich. ... It has been suggested that Timothy F.X. Finnegan be merged into this article or section. ... Wilhelm Reich in Hell is a play by Robert Anton Wilson. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Wilhelm Reich

  Results from FactBites:
 
Wilhelm Reich - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4950 words)
Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897–November 3, 1957) was an Austrian-American psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, and a member of Sigmund Freud's inner circle.
Reich died in his sleep of heart failure on November 3, 1957 in the federal penitentiary in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, shortly before he was due to apply for parole.
Laska, Bernd A.: Sigmund Freud contra Wilhelm Reich Auszug aus Laska, Bernd A.: Wilhelm Reich.
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