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Encyclopedia > Wilhelm Furtwängler

Wilhelm Furtwängler ( January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 340 days remaining (341 in leap years). Events 1327 - Edward III becomes King of England. 1494 - Alfonso II becomes King of Naples. 1533 - Henry VIII of England secretly marries his second wife Anne Boleyn. 1554... January 25, 1886 is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. January 29 - Karl Benz patents the first successful gasoline-driven automobile. March 17 - Carrollton Massacre: 20 African Americans are killed... 1886 November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 31 days remaining. Events 1700-1899 1782 - American Revolutionary War: In Paris, representatives from the United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain sign preliminary peace articles (later formalized in the... November 30, 1954 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). Events January events January 14 - The Hudson Motor Car Company merges with Nash-Kelvinator forming the American Motors Corporation January 14 - Marilyn Monroe weds Joe DiMaggio. January 15 - Mau Mau leader Waruhiu Itote is captured in... 1954) was a The Federal Republic of Germany ( German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. Due to its central location, Germany has more neighbours than any other European country: these are Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the... German Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. Orchestras, choirs and other musical ensembles often have conductors. A conductor resident with an orchestra (as opposed to a guest conductor) who has involvement with the policies of an orchestra or opera company is sometimes known... conductor and A composer is a person who writes music. The term refers particularly to someone who writes music in some type of musical notation, thus allowing others to perform the music. This distinguishes the composer from a musician who improvises. However, a person may be called a composer without creating music... composer.

Furtwängler was born in For other uses, see Berlin (disambiguation). Berlin [ bɛrˈliːn ] is the national capital of Germany and its largest city, with 3,387,404 inhabitants (as of September 2004); down from 4.5 million before World War II. Berlin is located on the rivers Spree and... Berlin. His father Adolf was an Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes... archaeologist, his mother a For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. A painter is a person who paints woodwork, walls, etc. for a trade. See: decorator. In the fine arts, a painter is a person who creates paintings—two-dimensional artworks—by applying a coloured emulsion called paint to a flat... painter, and his brother Phillip a mathematician. Most of his childhood was spent in Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich (German: München pronunciation) is the state capital of the German Bundesland of Bavaria. Behind Berlin and Hamburg, Munich is Germanys third largest city with a population of about 1.261 million (as of 2003). It is located on the river Isar... Munich, where his father taught at the university. He was given a musical education from an early age, and developed an early love of Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer of Classical music, the predominant musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest of composers, and his reputation both... Beethoven, a composer he remained closely associated with throughout his life.

By the time of Furtwängler's conducting debut at the age of twenty, he had written several pieces of music. However, they were not well received, and that combined with the financial insecurity a career as a composer would provide led him to concentrate on conducting. At his first concert, he led the Kaim Orchestra at City Hall (Edmonton). An orchestra is a musical ensemble used most often in classical music. A small orchestra is called a chamber orchestra. Full size orchestras may sometimes be called symphony orchestras or philharmonic orchestras; these prefixes do not indicate any difference either to the instrumental content or... Orchestra in Anton Bruckner Anton Bruckner (September 4, 1824 – October 11, 1896) was an Austrian composer. Biography Anton Bruckner was born in Ansfelden to a schoolmaster and organist father with whom he first studied music. He worked for a few years as a teachers assistant, fiddling at village dances at... Anton Bruckner's Ninth A symphony is an extended piece of music for orchestra, especially one in the form of a sonata. The word symphony The word symphony is derived from the Greek syn (together) and phone (sounding), by way of the Latin symphonia. The term was used by the Greeks, firstly to denote... Symphony. He subsequently held posts at Munich, Statistics State: Schleswig-Holstein District: Independent city Area: 214.14 km² Population: 214,338 (2003-12-31) Population density: 1000.92 / km² Elevation: Postal codes: 23552-23570 Area code: 0451 Location: Municipal code: Car designation: HL Arrangement of the city: Website: http://www.luebeck.de Politics Mayor: Bernd... Lübeck, This article is about the German city. For the town in the United States, see Manheim, New York. Location of Mannheim in Germany The Wasserturm (water tower), Mannheims landmark Coat of Arms of Mannheim Watershed of the Neckar River Mannheim is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. With... Mannheim, Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. Situated on the Main river, it has a population of approximately 650,000 (but about 5 million in its metropolitan area). Among English speakers... Frankfurt, and This article is about the city and federal state in Austria. For other places or things called Vienna, see Vienna (disambiguation). Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]) is the capital of Austria, and also one of Austrias nine federal states (Bundesland Wien). Situated on both sides of the river... Vienna, before securing a job at the Berlin Staatskapelle in 1920, and, in 1922, at the The Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra is a German orchestra based in Leipzig. It is named after the concert hall in which it is based, the Gewandhaus (Cloth House). Concerts in Leipzig date back to the early 18th century. They were first held in a private dwelling, and then an inn, before... Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra (where he succeeded Arthur Nikisch (or Nikitsch) ( October 12, 1855 – January 23, 1922) was a Hungarian conductor who performed mainly in Germany. He was considered an outstanding interpreter of the music of Bruckner and Tchaikovsky. Born in Lébényi Szentmiklós, Hungary, Nikisch studied at the Vienna Conservatory... Arthur Nikisch) and concurrently at the prestigious The Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra is one of the worlds leading orchestras. Its current principal conductor is Simon Rattle. It was founded in 1882 by a group of 54 musicians who had broken away from an orchestra directed by Benjamin Bilse. In 1887, Hermann Wolff became its manager, and he... Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. Later he became music director of the The Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra (in German: Wiener Philharmoniker) is the best known orchestra in Austria and one of Europes major ensembles. Its home base is the world-famous Musikverein. The members of the orchestra are chosen from the Orchestra of the Vienna State Opera. Although the orchestra is widely... Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, the The Salzburg Festival is a prominent music festival in the Austrian town of Salzburg, the birthplace of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart The festival was founded in 1877 but was discontinued in 1910. In 1918, at the close of World War I, the festival was revived by Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Richard Strauss... Salzburg Festival and the The annual Bayreuth Festival in Bayreuth, Germany attracts visitors from all over the world. Richard Wagners work are performed in the Festspielhaus, which was especially built for this purpose. Wagner himself masterminded the idea of the Bayreuth Festival, the first annual music festival, and the predecessor to modern music... Bayreuth Festival, which was regarded as the greatest post a conductor could hold in Germany at the time.

Furtwängler was famous for his exceptional inarticulacy. His pupil Sergiu Celibidache (June 28, 1912 - August 14, 1996) was a Romanian conductor. Sergiu Celibidache He studied in Berlin and from 1945 to 1952, he was principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. He later worked with a string of radio orchestras in Stockholm, Stuttgart and Paris. From 1979 until his... Sergiu Celibidache remembered that the best he could say was "Well, just listen" (to the music). Carl Brinitzer from the German BBC service tried to interview him, and thought he had an imbecile before him. A live recording of a rehearsal with a Stockholm orchestra documents hardly anything intelligible, only hums and mumbling. Still, Furtwängler remained highly respected amongst musicians.

Furtwängler's relationship with and attitude towards For other people with the surname Hitler, see Hitler (disambiguation). Adolf Hitler ( 20 April 1889 in Braunau am Inn, Austria-Hungary – 30 April 1945 in Berlin, Germany) was leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (more widely known as the Nazi Party) and Führer und Reichskanzler... Adolf Hitler and the The Nazi swastika symbol The National Socialist German Workers Party ( German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. The term Nazi is a short form of the German word... Nazi Party was a matter of much controversy. When the Nazis came to power in 1933, Furtwängler was highly critical of them. In 1934, he was banned from conducting the premiere of Paul Hindemith (November 16, 1895 – December 28, 1963) was a German classical composer, violist, teacher, theorist and conductor. Biography Born in Hanau, Hindemith was taught the violin as a child, but his parents objected to his musical ambitions, and he left home at the age of eleven as a... Paul Hindemith's This article is about opera as an art form. See Opera (browser) for information on the web browser. The foyer of Charles Garniers Opéra, Paris, opened 1875 Opera is an art form consisting of a dramatic stage performance set to music. The drama is presented using the typical... opera Mathis der Maler, and Furtwängler resigned from his post at the Berlin Opera in protest. In 1936, with Furtwängler becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the regime, he was offered the principal conductor's post at the The New York Philharmonic is an American orchestra based in New York City. It is the oldest and most famous orchestra in the US. As of 2004, it gives most of its concerts at Avery Fisher Hall, and a plan to permanently move to Carnegie Hall was scrapped. The orchestra... New York Philharmonic Orchestra, where he would succeed Arturo Toscanini (March 25, 1867 - January 16, 1957) was considered by many of his contemporaries — critics, fellow musicians, and the public alike — as the greatest conductor of his era. He was renowned for his brilliant intensity, his restless perfectionism, his phenomenal ear for orchestral detail and sonority, and... Arturo Toscanini. There is every possibility that Furtwängler would have accepted the post, but a report from the Berlin branch of the Associated Press logo The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency that claims to be the worlds oldest and largest. The AP is a cooperative owned by its contributing newspapers, who both contribute stories to it and use material written by its staffers. As of 2004, AP... Associated Press, possibly ordered by Hermann Göring Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also spelled Hermann Goering in English) ( January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a prominent and early member of the Nazi party, founder of the Gestapo, and one of the main architects of Nazi Germany. He is often quoted from... Hermann Göring, said that he was willing to take up his post at the Berlin Opera once more. This caused the mood in New York to turn against him; from their point of view, it seemed that Furtwängler was now a full supporter of the Nazi Party. Although it is now widely accepted that this was not the case (Furtwängler always refused to give the Nazi A salute is a gesture or other action used to indicate respect. Salutes are primarily associated with military forces, but other organizations and even general populations use salutes. Civilian Salutes While such gestures as tipping ones hat as one passed others on the street could be considered salutes, the... salute, for instance), it was a view which prevailed until his death.

Furtwängler was treated relatively well by the Nazis; he had a high profile, and was an important cultural figure. His concerts were often broadcast to German troops to raise morale, and he was limited in what he was allowed to perform by the authorites. His attitude towards The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Jews remains controversial today. On the one hand, he often lauded Jewish artists such as Artur Schnabel (April 17, 1882 – August 15, 1951) was a classical pianist, who also composed and taught. Schnabel was renowned for his seriousness as a musician, avoiding anything resembling pure technical bravura. He was said to have tended to disregard his own technical limitations in pursuit of his musical... Artur Schnabel, but on the other he supported boycotts of Jewish goods and was critical of what he saw as Jewish domination of newspapers.

One of Furtwängler's protegés was pianist Karlrobert Kreiten (June 26, 1916 - 1943) was a German pianist. He was seen by Wilhelm Furtwängler and others as one of the most talented young pianists in Germany. Born in Bonn, of Alsatian parentage, his mother was the classical singer Emmy Kreiten-Barido and his father Theo Kreiten, a... Karlrobert Kreiten. He was also an important influence on the pianist/conductor Daniel Barenboim (born November 15, 1942) is an argentinean pianist and conductor. He was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina; his parents were Russian Jews. He is now also an Israeli national. Barenboim first came to fame as a pianist but is now best-known as a conductor. In 2001, he... Daniel Barenboim, of whom Furtwängler's widow, Elisabeth Furtwängler, said, "Er furtwänglere." ("He furtwänglers.") Barenboim recently recorded Furtwängler's 2nd Symphony with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.

Towards the end of the war, under extra pressure from the Nazi Party, Furtwängler fled to The Swiss Confederation or Switzerland is a landlocked federal state in Europe, with neighbours Germany, France, Italy, Austria and Liechtenstein. The country has a strong tradition of political and military neutrality, but also of international co-operation, and is home to many international organisations. Confoederatio Helvetica (CH), the Latin version... Switzerland. He resumed performing and recording following the war and remained a popular conductor in Europe, although he was always under somewhat of a shadow. He died in 1954 in Map of Germany showing Baden_Baden Baden_Baden is a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located on the western foothills of the Black Forest, on the banks of the Oos river, in the region of Karlsruhe. Population: 53,000 (1999). History The springs of Baden-Baden were known to... Baden-Baden.

British playwright Ronald Harwood's play Taking Sides ( 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. It was the first year of the International Decade of the Worlds Indigenous People (1995- 2005): http://www.unesco.org/culture/indigenous/ Events January January 1 Austria, Finland and Sweden enter the European Union Fred West, accused... 1995), set in 1946 in the American zone of occupied For other uses, see Berlin (disambiguation). Berlin [ bɛrˈliːn ] is the national capital of Germany and its largest city, with 3,387,404 inhabitants (as of September 2004); down from 4.5 million before World War II. Berlin is located on the rivers Spree and... Berlin, is about U.S. accusations against Furtwängler of having served the Nazi regime. In 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. By strict interpretation of the Gregorian Calendar, 2001 is also the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd millenium. Popular culture, however, often views the year 2000 as holding this distinction. 2001 is also the year... 2001 the play was made into a motion picture starring Harvey Keitel (born May 13, 1939). The son of a Polish mother and Romanian father, he spent most of his youth on the streets of New York City. At the age of 16, Keitel decided to join the United States Marine Corps, a decision which took him to Lebanon. After... Harvey Keitel and featuring Stellan Skarsgård in the role of Furtwängler.

As part of his closing remarks at his denazification trial, Furtwängler said,

"I knew Germany was in a terrible crisis; I felt responsible for German music, and it was my task to survive this crisis, as much as I could. The concern that my art was misused for propaganda had to yield to the greater concern that German music be preserved, that music be given to the German people by its own musicians. These people, the compatriots of Bach and Beethoven, of Mozart and Schubert, still had to go on living under the control of a regime obsessed with total war. No one who did not live here himself in those days can possibly judge what it was like.
"Does Thomas Mann (June 6, 1875–August 12, 1955) was a German novelist and essayist, lauded principally for a series of highly symbolic and often ironic epic novels and mid-length stories, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and intellectual and an underlying eroticism informed by... Thomas Mann [who was critical of Furtwängler’s actions] really believe that in 'the Germany of Heinrich Himmler Heinrich Himmler (October 7, 1900 - May 23, 1945) was the commander of the German Schutzstaffel and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. As Reichsführer-SS, he led the SS, and all of its combined offices, and was one of the key figures in the... Himmler' one should not be permitted to play Beethoven? Could he not realize, that people never needed more, never yearned more to hear Beethoven and his message of freedom and human love, than precisely these Germans, who had to live under Himmler’s terror? I do not regret having stayed with them."

(quoted from John Ardoin's The Furtwängler record)

Furtwängler is most famous for his performances of Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770 – March 26, 1827) was a German composer of Classical music, the predominant musical figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest of composers, and his reputation both... Beethoven, Anton Bruckner Anton Bruckner (September 4, 1824 – October 11, 1896) was an Austrian composer. Biography Anton Bruckner was born in Ansfelden to a schoolmaster and organist father with whom he first studied music. He worked for a few years as a teachers assistant, fiddling at village dances at... Bruckner, and Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 – February 13, 1883) was an influential German composer, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas. His music is still widely performed, the best known pieces being the Ride of the Valkyries from Die Walküre and the Bridal Chorus... Wagner. However, he was also a champion of modern music, and was known to give performances of thoroughly modern works, such as Béla Bartók's Concerto for Orchestra.

External links

  • Wilhelm Furtwängler Society (France) (http://www.furtwangler.org/)
  • Wilhelm Furtwängler Society of America (http://www.wfsa.org/)
  • Wilhelm Furtwängler at Classicalnotes.net (http://www.classicalnotes.net/features/furtwangler.html)



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