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Encyclopedia > Wildlife
Various species of deer are commonly seen wildlife across the Americas and Eurasia.
Various species of deer are commonly seen wildlife across the Americas and Eurasia.

Wildlife refers to all non-domesticated plants, animals, and other organisms. Domesticated organisms are those that have adapted to survival with the help of (or under the control of) humans, after many generations. Domesticating wild plant and animal species for human benefit has occurred many times all over the planet, and has had a major impact on the environment, both positive and negative. In the Northeast, the white-tailed deer is the primary host for adult blacklegged ticks. ... In the Northeast, the white-tailed deer is the primary host for adult blacklegged ticks. ... “Fawn” redirects here. ... Domesticated animals, plants, and other organisms are those whose collective behavior, life cycle, or physiology has been altered as a result of their breeding and living conditions being under human control for multiple generations. ...


Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems. Deserts, rainforests, plains, and other areas—including the most developed urban sites—all have distinct forms of wildlife. While the term in popular culture usually refers to animals that are untouched by human factors, most scientists agree that wildlife around the world is impacted by human activities. A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... == Headline text == Plains is the name of several places in the [[United usyduisaydashdsdsjdn Plains, North Lanarkshire, Scotland There are also The Plains, Ohio; Plainsboro, New Jersey; and Plainville, Kansas You might also be looking for the geographical feature plain; or the Plains Indians. ... Crowded Shibuya, Tokyo shopping district An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ...


Humans have historically tended to separate civilization from wildlife in a number of ways including the legal, social, and moral sense. This has been a reason for debate throughout recorded history. Religions have often declared certain animals to be sacred, and in modern times concern for the environment has provoked activists to protest the exploitation of wildlife for human benefit or entertainment. Literature has also made use of the traditional human separation from wildlife. Central New York City. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as involvement in action to bring about change, be it social, political, environmental, or other change. ... Demonstrators march in the street while protesting the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on April 16, 2005. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ...

Contents

Wildlife as food

Anthropologists believe that the Stone Age peoples and hunter-gatherers relied on wildlife, both plant and animal, for their food. In fact, some species may have been hunted to extinction by early human hunters. This has decreased with the rise of agriculture and the domestication of some wildlife. However, hunting for game has remained an important part of the diet in many cultures. Today, hunting, fishing, or gathering wildlife is still a significant food source in some parts of the world. In other areas, hunting and non-commercial fishing are mainly seen as a sport or recreation, with the edible meat as mostly a side benefit.[citation needed] Meat sourced from wildlife that is not traditionally regarded as game is known as bushmeat. The increasing demand for wildlife as a source of traditional food in East Asia is decimating populations of sharks, primates, pangolins and other animals, which they believe have aphrodisiac properties. Stone Age fishing hook. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... The Dodo, shown here in a 1651 illustration by Jan Savery, is an often-cited[1] example of modern extinction. ... “Hunter” redirects here. ... Game is any animal hunted for food or not normally domesticated (such as venison). ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... For the 1914 Charlie Chaplin film, see Recreation (film). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Orders Carcharhiniformes Heterodontiformes Hexanchiformes Lamniformes Orectolobiformes Pristiophoriformes Squaliformes Squatiniformes † Symmoriida Sharks (superorder Selachimorpha) are fish with a full cartilaginous skeleton [1] and a streamlined body. ... For the ecclesiastical use of this term, see primate (religion) Families 13, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all lemurs, monkeys, and apes, including humans. ...


Wildlife and religion

Many wildlife species have spiritual significance in different cultures around the world, and they and their products may be used as sacred objects in religious rituals. For example, eagles, hawks and their feathers have great cultural and spiritual value to Native Americans as religious objects. In various religions, sacred (from Latin, sacrum, sacrifice) or holy, objects, places or concepts are believed by followers to be intimately connected with the supernatural, or divinity, and are thus greatly revered. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Genera Several, see below. ... Genera Accipiter Micronisus Melierax Urotriorchis Erythrotriorchis The term hawk refers to birds of prey in any of three senses: Strictly, to mean any of the species in the bird sub-family Accipitrinae in the genera Accipiter, Micronisus, Melierax, Urotriorchis, and Megatriorchis. ... Two feathers Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Look up spiritual in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An independent origin and development of writing is counted among the many achievements and innovations of pre-Columbian American cultures. ...


Wildlife on television

Wildlife has long been a common subject for educational television shows. National Geographic specials appeared on CBS beginning in 1965, later moving to ABC and then PBS. In 1963, NBC debuted Wild Kingdom, a popular program featuring zoologist Marlin Perkins as host. The BBC natural history unit in the UK was a similar pioneer, the first wildlife series LOOK presented by Sir Peter Scott, was a studio-based show, with filmed inserts. It was in this series that David Attenborough first made his appearance which led to the series Zoo Quest during which he and cameraman Charles Lagus went to many exotic places looking for elusive wildlife -- notably the Komodo dragon in Indonesia and lemurs in Madagascar. Since 1984, the Discovery Channel and its spinoff Animal Planet in the USA have dominated the market for shows about wildlife on cable television, while on PBS the NATURE strand made by WNET-13 in New York and NOVA by WGBH in Boston are notable. See also Nature documentary. Wildlife television is now a multi-million dollar industry with specialist documentary film-makers in many countries including UK, USA, New Zealand NHNZ, Australia, Austria, Germany, Japan, and Canada. A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... CBS Broadcasting, Inc. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) operates television and radio networks in the United States and is also shown on basic cable in Canada. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... Mutual of Omahas Wild Kingdom, or simply Wild Kingdom, is an American television show that features wildlife and nature. ... Zoology (Greek zoon = animal and logos = word) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Richard Marlin Perkins (March 28, 1905 – June 14, 1986) was a zoologist, best known as a host of the television program Mutual of Omahas Wild Kingdom. ... The BBC Natural History Unit (NHU) is a department of the BBC dedicated to making TV and radio programmes with a natural history or wildlife theme, especially nature documentaries. ... Categories: People stubs | 1909 births | 1989 deaths | British illustrators | British painters | Ornithologists ... Sir David Frederick Attenborough, OM, CH, CVO, CBE, FRS (born on 8 May 1926 in London, England) is one of the worlds best known broadcasters and naturalists. ... Binomial name Ouwens, 1912 Komodo dragon distribution The Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis), also known as the Komodo Monitor[1], Komodo Island Monitor[1], Ora (to the natives of Komodo[2]), or simply Komodo, is the largest living species of lizard, growing to an average length of 2-3 metres (approximately... Families Cheirogaleidae Lemuridae Megaladapidae Indridae Lemurs are part of a class of primates known as prosimians, and make up the infraorder Lemuriformes. ... Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ... Discovery Channel is a United States-based TV channel founded by John Hendricks. ... Animal Planet, launched in 1996, is a cable and satellite television network co-owned by Discovery Communications, Inc. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... A nature documentary is a documentary film about animals, plants, or other non-human living creatures, usually concentrating on film taken in their natural habitat. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Wildlife tourism & Ecotourism

Fuelled by media coverage and inclusion of conservation education in early school curriculum, Wildlife tourism & Ecotourism has fast become a popular industry generating substantial income for poor nations with rich wildlife specially in Africa and India. This ever growing and ever becoming more popular form of tourism is providing the much needed incentive for poor nations to conserve their rich wildlife heritage and it's habitat. Animals can be viewed in their native or similar environments, from vehicles or on foot. ... Ecotourism means ecological tourism, where ecological has both environmental and social connotations. ... Tourists on Oahu, Hawaii Tourism is travel for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes or the provision of services to support this leisure travel. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Wildlife destruction

Map of early human migrations, according to mitochondrial population genetics. Numbers are millennia before the present.
Map of early human migrations, according to mitochondrial population genetics. Numbers are millennia before the present.

This subsection focuses on anthropogenic forms of wildlife destruction. Image File history File links Map of human races migration, according to the mithocondrial dna. ... Image File history File links Map of human races migration, according to the mithocondrial dna. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries. ... Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Exploitation of wild populations has been a characteristic of modern man since our exodus from Africa 130,000 – 70,000 years ago. The rate of extinctions of entire species of plants and animals across the planet has been so high in the last few hundred years it is widely considered that we are in the sixth great extinction event on this planet; the Holocene Mass Extinction. The term exploitation may carry two distinct meanings: The act of utilizing something for any purpose. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Dodo, shown here in a 1651 illustration by Jan Savery, is an often-cited[1] example of modern extinction. ... The Holocene extinction event is a name customarily given to the widespread, ongoing mass extinction of species during the modern Holocene epoch. ...


Destruction of wildlife does not always lead to an extinction of the species in question, however, the dramatic loss of entire species across Earth dominates any review of wildlife destruction as extinction is the level of damage to a wild population from which there is no return.


The four most general reasons that lead to destruction of wildlife include [1]
1. Overkill
2. Habitat destruction and fragmentation
3. Impact of introduced species
4. Chains of extinction


Overkill


Overkill occurs whenever hunting occurs at rate greater than the reproductive capacity of the population being exploited. The effects of this are often noticed much more dramatically in slow growing populations such as many larger species of fish. Initially when a portion of a wild population is hunted, an increased availability of resources (food, etc) is experienced increasing growth and reproduction as Density dependent inhibition is lowered. Hunting, fishing and so on, has lowered the competition between members of a population. However, if this hunting continues at rate greater than the rate at which new members of the population can reach breeding age and produce more young, the population will begin to decrease in numbers. In population ecology, density-dependent inhibition describes a situation in which population growth is curtailed by crowding. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... Resource depletion is an economic term referring to the exhaustion of raw materials within a region. ...


Populations in confined to islands – whether literal islands or just areas of habitat that are effectively an “island” for the species concerned – have also been observed to be at greater risk of dramatic population declines following unsustainable hunting.Overkill is really very very dangerous to our animals. Unsustainable fishing methods are ways of catching wild fish that are not considered sustainable in the long term. ...

Clearing for Palm oil production in Indonesia destroys vital Orangutan habitat.

Habitat destruction and fragmentation Image File history File linksMetadata Palmoilnursery. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Palmoilnursery. ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block Palm oil is a form of edible vegetable oil obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. ... Type species Simia pygmaeus Linnaeus, 1760 Orangutan distribution Species Pongo pygmaeus Pongo abelii The orangutans are two species of great apes known for their intelligence and their long arms and reddish-brown hair. ...


The habitat of any given species is considered its preferred area or territory. Many processes associated human habitation of an area cause loss of this area and the decrease the carrying capacity of the land for that species. In many cases these changes in land use cause a patchy break-up of the wild landscape. Agricultural land frequently displays this type of extremely fragmented, or relictual, habitat. Farms sprawl across the landscape with patches of uncleared woodland or forest dotted in-between occasional paddocks. Look up habitat in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Examples of habitat destruction include grazing of bushland by farmed animals, changes to natural fire regimes, forest clearing for timber production and wetland draining for city expansion.


Impact of introduced species


Rats, cats, rabbits, dandelions and poison ivy are all examples of species that have become invasive threats to wild species in various parts of the world. Frequently species that are uncommon in their home range become out of control invasions in distant but similar climates. The reasons for this have not always been clear and Charles Darwin felt it was unlikely that exotic species would ever be able to grow abundantly in a place they had not evolved in. The reality is that the vast majority of species exposed to a new habitat do not reproduce successfully. However occasionally some populations do take hold and after a period of acclimation can increase in numbers significantly having destructive effects on many elements of the native environment they have become part of. Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Genera Pentalagus Bunolagus Nesolagus Romerolagus Brachylagus Sylvilagus Oryctolagus Poelagus Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world. ... For other uses, see Dandelion (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze Poison-ivy (Toxicodendron radicans or Rhus toxicodendron), in the family Anacardiaceae, is a woody vine that is well-known for its ability to produce urushiol, a skin irritant which for most people will cause an agonizing, itching rash. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ...


Chains of extinction


This final group is one of secondary effects. All wild populations of living things have many complex intertwining links with other living things around them. Large herbivorous animals such as the hippopotamus have populations of insectivorous birds that feed off the many parasitic insects that grow on the hippo. Should the hippo die out so to will these groups of birds, leading to further destruction as other species dependant on the birds are affected. Also referred to as a Domino effect, this series of chain reactions is by far the most destructive process that can occur in any ecological community. Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758[2] Range map[1] The hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), from the Greek ‘ιπποπόταμος (hippopotamos, hippos meaning horse and potamos meaning river), is a large, mostly plant-eating African mammal, one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae (the other being the Pygmy Hippopotamus). ... Any organism with a diet that consists chiefly of insects and similar small creatures is an insectivore. ... The domino effect refers to a small change which will cause a similar change nearby, which then will cause another similar change, and so on in linear sequence, by analogy to a falling row of dominoes standing on end. ... A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions. ... A biocoenosis (alternatively, biocoenose or biocenose), termed by Karl Möbius in 1877, describes all the interacting organisms living together in a specific habitat (or biotope). ...


Notes

  1. ^ Diamond, J. M. (1989). Overview of recent extinctions. Conservation for the Twenty-first Century. D. Western and M. Pearl. New York, Oxford University Press: 37-41.

See also

Find more information on Wildlife by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... Wildlife management is the process of keeping certain wildlife populations at desirable levels determined by wildlife managers. ... Ex-situ conservation means literally, off-site conservation. It is the process of protecting an endangered species of plant or animal by removing it from an unsafe or threatened habitat and placing it or part of it under the care of humans. ... In-situ conservation means on-site conservation. It is the process of protecting an endangered plant or animal species in its natural habitat, either by protecting or cleaning up the habitat itself, or by defending the species from predators. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Conservation biology, or conservation ecology, is the science of analyzing and protecting Earths biological diversity. ... Some conservation ecologists have been concerned about the Amazon rainforest. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Ornithology (from the Greek ornis = bird and logos = word/science) is the branch of zoology concerned with the scientific study of birds. ... Wildlife gardening is a school of gardening that is aimed at creating an environment that is attractive to various forms of wildlife such as birds, amphibians, reptiles, insects, mammals and so on. ... The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Wildlife - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (725 words)
Wildlife is a very general term for life in ecosystems.
Humans have historically tended to separate civilization from wildlife in a number of ways; besides the obvious difference in vocabulary, there are differing expectations in the legal, social, and moral sense.
In the United States, the religious use of eagle and hawk feathers are governed by the eagle feather law (50 CFR 22), a federal law limiting the possession of eagle feathers to certified and enrolled members of federally recognized Native American tribes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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