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Encyclopedia > Wilderness

Wilderness is generally defined as a natural environment on Earth that has not been modified by human activity. Wilderness areas are considered important for ecological study, conservation, solitude, and recreation. Wilderness is deeply valued for cultural, spiritual, moral and aesthetic reasons as well, some nature writers believe wilderness is vital for the human spirit and creativity. [1] Wilderness may refer to: Wilderness, a natural environment on Earth that has not been modified by human activity The Battle of the Wilderness, a battle in Virginia during the American Civil War Wilderness Territory, a resort in Wisconsin Dells, WI Wilderness (band), a U.S. indie rock band Wilderness (film... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article is about modern humans. ...


The word, "wilderness", derives from the notion of "wildness"; in other words that which is not controllable by humans. The word's etymology is from the Old English wildeornes, which in turn derives from wildeor meaning wild beast (wild + deor = beast, deer) (The Collins English Dictionary, 2000). From this point of view, it is the wildness of a place that makes it a wilderness. The mere presence or activity of people does not disqualify an area from being "wilderness." Many ecosystems that are, or have been, inhabited or influenced by activities of people may still be considered "wild." This way of looking at wilderness includes areas within which natural processes operate without human interference. Not to be confused with Entomology, the scientific study of insects. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Look up beast in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Natural” redirects here. ...

The Daintree Rainforest, a wilderness area in Queensland, Australia.

Contents

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (657x768, 90 KB) Daintree Rainforest. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (657x768, 90 KB) Daintree Rainforest. ... The Daintree Rainforest The rainforest stradles Cape Tribulation The Daintree Rainforest is a coastal rainforest near Daintree, Queensland, on the coast, north of Cairns in tropical far north of Australia. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd...

Conceptions of wilderness

Looked at through the lens of the visual arts, nature and wildness have been important subjects in various epochs of world history. An early tradition of landscape art occurred in the Tang Dynasty (618-907). The tradition of representing nature as it is became one of the aims of Chinese painting and was a significant influence in Asian art. Artists in the tradition of Shan shui (lit. mountain-water-picture), learned to depict mountains and rivers “from the perspective of nature as a whole and on the basis of their understanding of the laws of nature… as if seen through the eyes of a bird.” In the 13th century, Shih Erh Chi recommended avoiding painting "scenes lacking any places made inaccessible by nature.”[2] The Mona Lisa is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the Western world. ... Landscape art depicts scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests. ... Night Shining White, a handscroll attributed to Han Gan (active 742–756). ... Wall scroll painted by Ma Lin in 1246. ... Shan shui (山水, translates as mountain-water), refers to a style of Chinese art , involving the drawing of scenery or natural landscapes with brush and ink. ...


The idea of wilderness having intrinsic value emerged in the Western world in the 1800s. British artists John Constable and JMW Turner turned their attention to capturing the beauty of the natural world in their paintings. Prior to that paintings had been primarily of religious scenes or of human beings. William Wordsworth’s poetry described the wonder of the natural world, which had formerly been viewed as a threatening place. Increasingly the valuing of nature became an aspect of Western culture.[3] For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... A self portrait by John Constable John Constable (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. ... J. M. W. Turner, English landscape painter The fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up, painted 1839. ... William Wordsworth (April 7, 1770 – April 23, 1850) was a major English romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their 1798 joint publication, Lyrical Ballads. ...


Wilderness was traditionally viewed as being a place to fear and avoid. It was the place where monsters and the unknown existed. Over the course of the 19th century wilderness became to be viewed not as a place to fear but a place to enjoy and protect, hence came the conservation movement in the latter half of the 19th century. Rivers were rafted and mountains were climbed solely for the sake of recreation, not to determine their geographical contexture. This was a profound shift in wilderness thought. It reached a pinnacle in the 1960s with the passage of the Wilderness Act of 1964, that allowed for parts of U.S. National Forests to be designated as "wilderness preserves."


The 21st century has seen another slight shift in wilderness thought and theory. It is now understood that simply drawing lines around a piece of land and declaring it a wilderness does not necessarily make it a wilderness. All landscapes are intricately connected and what happens outside a wilderness certainly affects what happens inside it. For example, pollution from L.A. and the California Central Valley smog up Kern Canyon and Seqouia National Park. The national park has miles of "wilderness" but the air is filled with pollution from the valley. This then brings us to the paradox of what a wilderness really is, which is precisely the issue in 21st century wilderness thought.


Criticism

The American concept of wilderness has been criticised by some nature writers. For example, William Cronon writes that what he calls a wilderness ethic or cult may "teach us to be dismissive or even contemptuous of such humble places and experiences", and that "wilderness tends to privilege some parts of nature at the expense of others", using as an example "the mighty canyon more inspiring than the humble marsh."[4] This is most clearly visible with the fact that nearly all U.S. National Parks preserve spectacular canyons and mountains, and it wasn't until the 1940s that a swamp became a national park--the Everglades. In the mid-1900s national parks started to protect biodiversity, not simply attractive scenery. To date, there is no grassland national park in the United States, even though grasslands covered more than a 1/3 of the landscape before the arrival of Europeans. WILLIAM CRONON studies American environmental history and the history of the American West. ...


Cronon also believes the passion to save wilderness "poses a serious threat to responsible environmentalism" and writes that it allows people to "give ourselves permission to evade responsibility for the lives we actually lead....to the extent that we live in an urban-industrial civilization" but at the same time pretend to ourselves that our real home is in the wilderness,"[4]


Michael Pollan has argued that the wilderness ethic leads people to dismiss areas whose wildness is less than absolute. In his book Second Nature, Pollan writes that "once a landscape is no longer 'virgin' it is typically written off as fallen, lost to nature, irredeemable." [5] Another challenge to the conventional notion of wilderness comes from Robert Winkler in his book, Going Wild: Adventures with Birds in the Suburban Wilderness. “On walks in the unpeopled parts of the suburbs," Winkler writes, "I’ve witnessed the same wild creatures, struggles for survival, and natural beauty that we associate with true wilderness.” Michael Pollan (b. ...


History of wilderness preservation

Awareness of wild spaces

For most of human history, the greater part of the Earth's terrain was wilderness, and human attention was concentrated in settled areas. The first known laws to protect parts of nature date back to Babylonian Empire and Chinese Emipre. In the Middle Ages, the Kings of England initiated one of the world’s first conscious efforts to protect natural areas. They were motivated by a desire to be able to hunt wild animals in private hunting preserves rather than a desire to protect wilderness. Nevertheless, in order to have animals to hunt they would have to protect wildlife from subsistence hunting and the land from villagers gathering firewood.[3] Similar measures were introduced in other European countries. History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ...


Early in the 19th century, Wordsworth and other romanticists in the U.K., concerned about "the excesses of industrialization and urbanization," called for a return to natural environments. This movement achieved some gains in protecting sensitive ecosystems, but a more successful form of environmentalism emerged in Germany by the mid 19th century. “Scientific Conservation,” as it was called, advocated "the efficient utilization of natural resources through the application of science and technology." Concepts of forest management based on the German approach were applied in other parts of the world, but with varying degrees of success.[6] Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the European Union. ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a community of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms - also referred as biocenose) together with their environment (or biotope), functioning as a unit. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ...


By the latter 19th century it had become clear that in many countries wild areas had either disappeared or were in danger of disappearing. This realisation gave rise to the conservation movement in the USA, partly through the efforts of writers and activists such as John Burroughs and John Muir, and politicians such as U.S. President Teddy Roosevelt. The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ... John Burroughs (April 3, 1837-March 29, 1921) was an American naturalist and essayist important in the evolution of the U.S. conservation movement. ... For other persons named John Muir, see John Muir (disambiguation). ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ...

Cook Lake in the Bridger Wilderness, Bridger-Teton National Forest, Wyoming, U.S.
Cook Lake in the Bridger Wilderness, Bridger-Teton National Forest, Wyoming, U.S.

Image File history File links Cook_Lake_Bridger_Wilderness. ... Image File history File links Cook_Lake_Bridger_Wilderness. ... Bridger-Teton National Forest is located in western Wyoming, United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ...

National parks

The creation of National Parks, beginning in the 19th century, preserved some especially attractive and notable areas, but the pursuits of commerce, lifestyle, and recreation combined with increases in human population have continued to result in human modification of relatively untouched areas. Such human activity often negatively impacts native flora and fauna. As such, to better protect critical habitats and preserve low-impact recreational opportunities, legal concepts of "wilderness" were established in many countries, beginning with the United States (see below). Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada A national park is a reserve of land, usually, but not always (see National Parks of England and Wales), declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Fun” redirects here. ... The current estimated world human population is 6,427,631,117. ...


The first National Park was Yellowstone, established in 1872. The creation of this and other parks showed a growing appreciation of wild nature, but also an economic reality. The railways wanted to entice people to travel west. Yellowstone National Park is a U.S. National Park located in the states of Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. ...


This U.S. concept of national parks soon caught on in other countries. Canada created Banff National Park in the 1880s, at the same time as the transcontinental Canadian Pacific Railway was being built. Parks such as Banff and Yellowstone gained favor as the railroads advertised travel to "the great wild spaces" of North America. When outdoorsman Teddy Roosevelt became president of the United States, he began to enlarge the U.S. National Parks system, and established the National Forest system.[3] Moraine Lake, and the Valley of the Ten Peaks Banff National Park is Canadas oldest national park, established in 1885, in the Canadian Rockies. ... An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ...


By the 1920s, travel across North America by train to experience the "wilderness" (often viewing it only through windows) had become wildly popular. This led to the commercialization of some of Canada's National Parks with the building of great hotels such as the Banff Springs Hotel and Chateau Lake Louise. The Canadian National Parks system encompasses over forty protected areas, including National Parks, National Park Reserves and National Marine Conservation Areas. ... Banff Springs Hotel, Banff, Alberta. ... Chateau Lake Louise from the Big Beehive Chateau Lake Louise is a Canadian Pacific hotel on the eastern shore of Lake Louise, near Banff, Alberta. ...


Conservation vs. preservation

Two opposing factions had emerged within the environmental movement by the early 20th century: the conservationists and the preservationists. The conservationists (such as Gifford Pinchot) focused on the proper use of nature, whereas the preservationists sought the protection of nature from use.[6] Put another way, conservation sought to regulate human use while preservation sought to eliminate human impact altogether. Gifford Pinchot (August 11, 1865 – October 4, 1946) was the first Chief of the United States Forest Service (1905–1910) and the Republican Governor of Pennsylvania (1923–1927, 1931–1935). ...


The idea of protecting nature for nature's sake began to gain more recognition in the 1930s with American writers like Aldo Leopold, calling for a "land ethic" and urging wilderness protection. It had become increasingly clear that wild spaces were disappearing rapidly and that decisive action was needed to save them. Aldo Leopold (January 11, 1887 - April 21, 1948) was a United States ecologist, forester, and environmentalist. ...


Global conservation became an issue at the time of the dissolution of the British Empire in Africa in the late 1940s. The British established great wildlife preserves there. As before, this interest in conservation had an economic motive: in this case, big game hunting. Nevertheless, this led to growing recognition in the 1950s and the early 1960s of the need to protect large spaces for wildlife conservation worldwide. The World Wildlife Fund (WWF), founded in 1961, grew to be one of the largest conservation organisations in the world.[3] The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A nature reserve is an area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research. ... A big-game hunter is a person engaged in the sport of hunting large animals or game. ... Note: After losing a court case in 2002 on the use of the initials WWF, the organization previously known as the World Wrestling Federation has rebranded itself as World Wrestling Entertainment, or WWE. WWF - The Conservation Organization was formerly known as World Wildlife Fund and Worldwide Fund for Nature. ...


Preservation again came to the fore in the 1960s with the publication of Rachel Carson’s, Silent Spring, in 1962 which was the genesis of the modern environmental movement. Major environmental groups such as the Sierra Club shifted from protesting to working with politicians to influence environmental policy.[6] Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 — April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist and nature writer whose landmark book, Silent Spring, is often credited with having launched the global environmental movement. ... Silent Spring is a book written by Rachel Carson and published by Houghton Mifflin in September 1961. ... The Sierra Club is an American environmental organization founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. ...


Wilderness designations

The United States was the first country to officially designate land as "wilderness" through the Wilderness Act of 1964. Wilderness designation helps preserve the natural state of the land and protect flora and fauna by prohibiting development and providing for non-motorized recreation. Recreation and development in Alaskan wilderness is often less restrictive. President Lyndon Johnson signs the Wilderness Act of 1964 in the White House Rose Garden. ...


Wilderness designations are granted by an Act of Congress for Federal land that retains a "primeval character" and that has no human habitation or development. Approximately 100 million acres (400,000 km²) are designated as wilderness in the United States. This accounts for 4.71% of the total land of the country; however, 54% of wilderness is in Alaska, and only 2.58% of the continental United States is designated as wilderness.


There are 680 separate wilderness designations in the United States, from Florida's Pelican Island at 5 acres to Alaska's Wrangell-Saint Elias at 9,078,675 acres (36,740 km²). Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ...


Current estimates of wilderness

According to a major study, Wilderness: Earth's Last Wild Places, carried out by Conservation International, 46% of the world's land mass is wilderness. For purposes of this report, "wilderness" was defined as an area that "has 70 percent or more of its original vegetation intact, covers at least 10,000 square kilometers (3,861 square miles) and must have fewer than five people per square kilometer."[7] However, an IUCN/UNEP report published in 2003, found that only 10.9% of the world's land mass is currently a Category 1 Protected Area, that is, either a strict nature reserve (5.5%) or protected wilderness (5.4%). [8] Such areas remain relatively untouched by humans. Of course, there are large tracts of lands in National Parks and other protected areas that would also qualify as wilderness. However, many protected areas have some degree of human modification or activity, so a definitive estimate of true wilderness is difficult. Conservation International (CI) is a nonprofit organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., that seeks to protect Earths biodiversity hotspots, high-biodiversity wilderness areas as well as important marine regions around the globe. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Klaus Töpfer, UNEP Exec. ... This article is about national parks. ...


The Wildlife Conservation Society generated a human footprint using a number of indicators, the absence of which indicate wildness: human population density, human access via roads and rivers, human infrastructure for agriculture and settlements and the presence of industrial power (lights visible from space). The society estimates that 26 percent of the earth's land mass falls into the category of "Last of the wild." The wildest regions of the world include the tundra, the taiga, the Amazonian rain forest, the Tibetan Plateau, the Australian outback and deserts such as the Sahara, and the Gobi.[9] The Wildlife Conservation Society, (WCS), endeavours to save wildlife and wild lands though careful use of science, conservation around the world, education and through a system of urban wildlife parks. ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ... Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and Sichuan Province of China lie on the Tibetan Plateau. ... For the restaurant chain, see Outback Steakhouse; for the station wagon, see Subaru Outback. ... The Gobi is a large desert region in northern China and southern Mongolia. ...


It should be noted that the percentage of land area designated "wilderness" does not reflect "quality" of remaining wilderness, part of which is barren areas with low biodiversity. Of the last natural wilderness areas, the taiga — which is mostly wilderness — represents 11 percent of the total land mass in the Northern Hemisphere.[10] Tropical rainforest represent a further 7 percent of the world's land base.[11] Estimates of the earth's remaining wilderness underscore the rate at which these lands are being developed, with dramatic declines in biodiversity as a consequence. Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Tropic wet forests in the World Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ...


See also

Topics

Understanding planetary habitability is partly an extrapolation of the Earths conditions, as it is the only planet currently known to support life. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... Four federal agencies of the United States government administer the U.S. Wilderness Areas, which includes 680 wilderness areas and 105,695,176 acres (427,733 km²). These agencies are: United States Forest Service United States National Park Service United States Bureau of Land Management United States Fish and Wildlife... President Lyndon Johnson signs the Wilderness Act of 1964 in the White House Rose Garden. ... The National Wilderness Preservation System protects federally managed land areas that are of a pristine condition. ... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... Adventure tourism is a type of niche tourism involving exploration or travel to remote areas, where the traveler should expect the unexpected. ... Car camping is camping in a tent, but nearby the car for easier access and for supply storage. ... Environmental education refers to organized efforts to teach about how natural environments function and, particularly, how human beings can manage their behavior and ecosystems in order to live sustainably. ... Outdoor education (also known as adventure education) usually refers to organized learning that takes place in the outdoors. ... The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ...

People

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ernest Callenbach (born April 3, 1929) is an American writer. ... Aldo Leopold (January 11, 1887 - April 21, 1948) was a United States ecologist, forester, and environmentalist. ... Robert Marshall (January 2, 1901 – November 11, 1939), usually known as Bob Marshall, was an American conservationist and visionary for wilderness preservation. ... Bill Mason was an award winning author, commercial artist, painter, filmmaker, and environmentalist, noted primarily for his popular canoeing books, films, and artwork. ... For other persons named John Muir, see John Muir (disambiguation). ... The Sierra Club is an American environmental organization founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. ... Sigurd F. Olson (April 4, 1899 - January 13, 1982) was an American author, environmentalist, and advocate for the protection of wilderness. ... Dr. Ian Player DMS (born 1927, Johannesburg) is an international conservationist and the founder of the WILD Foundation and also the Wilderness Foundations in South Africa and the UK. He established the World Wilderness Congress, which first convened in Johannesburg in 1977. ... Young Gary Snyder, on one of his early book covers Gary Snyder (born May 8, 1930) is an American poet (originally, often associated with the Beat Generation), essayist, lecturer, and environmental activist. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Center for Biological Diversity combines conservation biology with litigation, policy advocacy, and an innovative strategic vision to secure a future for animals and plants hovering on the brink of extinction, for the wilderness they need to survive, and by extension for the spiritual welfare of generations to come. ... David Takayoshi Suzuki, CC, OBC, Ph. ... Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862; born David Henry Thoreau[1]) was an American author, naturalist, transcendentalist, tax resister, development critic, and philosopher who is best known for Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance...

Notes and references

  1. ^ No Man's Garden by Daniel B. Botkin p155-157
  2. ^ Chinese brush painting Asia-art.net Retrieved on: May 20, 2006.
  3. ^ a b c d History of Conservation BC Spaces for Nature. Retrieved: May 20, 2006.
  4. ^ a b The Trouble with Wilderness University of Wisconsin-Madison. Retrieved: January 28, 2007.
  5. ^ Second Nature: A Gardener's Education By Michael Pollan p188
  6. ^ a b c Akamani, K. (nd). "The Wilderness Idea: A Critical Review." A Better Earth.org. Retrieved: June 1, 2006
  7. ^ Conservation International (2002) Global Analysis Finds Nearly Half The Earth Is Still Wilderness. Retrieved on July 28, 2007.
  8. ^ Chape, S., S. Blyth, L. Fish, P. Fox and M. Spalding (compilers) (2003). 2003 United Nations List of Protected Areas. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK and UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. PDF
  9. ^ Wildlife Conservation Society. 2005. State of the Wild 2006: A Global Portrait of Wildlife, Wildlands and Oceans. Washington, D.C. Island Press. pp. 16 &17.
  10. ^ University of Manitoba Taiga Biological Station. 2004. Frequently answered questions. Retrieved: 2006-07-04.
  11. ^ Rainforest Foundation US. 2006. Commonly asked questions. Retrieved: 2006-07-04.

is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... The United Nations Environment Programmes World Conservation Monitoring Centre or UNEP-WCMC is an executive agency of the United Nations Environment Programme, based in Cambridge in the United Kingdom. ...

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