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AffinityAttachmentBondingCohabitationCompersion ConcubinageCourtshipDivorceDower/-ryFriendshipFamilyHusbandInfatuationIntimacyJealousyLimerenceLoveMarriageMonogamyNonmonogamyOffice romance PassionPartnerPederastyPlatonic lovePsychology of monogamyRelationship abuseSexualitySeparationWeddingWidowhoodWife Image File history File links KarenWhimseyValentineMain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Attachment in adults deals with the theory of attachment in adult romantic relationships. ... The term human bond, or more generally human bonding, refers to the process or formation of a close personal relationship, as between a parent and child, especially through frequent or constant association. ... “Living in sin” redirects here. ... Compersion is a term used by practitioners of polyamory to describe the experience of taking pleasure when ones partner is with another person. ... Concubinage refers to the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing, quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the record label, see Divorce Records. ... Dower (Lat. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given to the family of the bridegroom by the family of the bride or vice versa at the time of their marriage. ... Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more humans. ... a family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 Family is a Western term used to denote a domestic group of people, or a number of domestic groups linked through descent (demonstrated or stipulated) from a common ancestor, marriage or adoption. ... Husband may refer to: the male spouse in a marriage a husband pillow. ... Infatuation is the state of being completely carried away by unreasoning passion or love; addictive love. ... Definition Intimacy is complex in that its meaning varies from relationship to relationship, and within a given relationship over time. ... Jealousy typically refers to the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that occur when a person believes a valued relationship is being threatened by a rival. ... Limerence, as posited by psychologist Dorothy Tennov, is an involuntary cognitive and emotional state in which a person feels an intense romantic desire for another person (the limerent object). ... Love is any of a number of emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong affection or profound oneness. ... “Spouse” redirects here. ... Faithfulness redirects here. ... Nonmonogamy is a blanket term covering several different types of interpersonal relationship in which some or all participants have multiple marital, sexual, and/or romantic partners. ... An office romance, work romance, or corporate affair is a romance that occurs between two people who work together in the same office, work location, or business. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ... Domestic partner or domestic partnership identifies the personal relationship between individuals who are living together and sharing a common domestic life together but are not joined in any type of legal partnership, marriage or civil union. ... In the past century, the term pederasty has seen a number of different uses. ... Platonic love in its modern popular sense is an affectionate relationship into which the sexual element does not enter, especially in cases where one might easily assume otherwise. ... The psychology of monogamy deals with the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that commonly occur in monogamous relationships. ... Abuser redirects here. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... Legal separation is a possible step towards divorce under United States law. ... Nuptial is the adjective of wedding. It is used for example in zoology to denote plumage, coloration, behavior, etc related to or occurring in the mating season. ... A widow is a woman whose spouse has died. ...

v  d  e

A wife is a female participant in a marriage. A wife is foremost a female participant in a marriage. ... Look up Female in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Spouse” redirects here. ...


Origin and etymology

The term originated from the Middle English wif, from Old English wīf, woman, wife, from Germanic * wībam, woman, related to Modern German Weib (woman, wife),[1] from the Indo-European root ghwībh-; wīb, meaning veiled or clothed, referred to the wedding veils.[2] Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Diverse women. ... Veils as articles of clothing, worn almost exclusively by women, are intended to cover some part of the head or face. ...

Related terminology

Although "wife" seems to be a close term to bride, the latter is the female participant in the wedding ceremony (to her groom), while a wife is the status of a married woman after the wedding, during her marriage. Upon marriage, she or her family may have brought her husband a dowry, or the husband or his family may have needed to pay a bride price to the family of his bride, or both were exchanged between the families; the dowry not only supported the establishment of a household, but also served as a condition that if the husband committed grave offences upon his wife, the dowry had to be returned to the wife or her family; for the time of the marriage, they were made inalienable by the husband.[3] A former wife whose spouse is deceased is a widow, and may be left with a dower (often a third or a half of his estate) to support her as dowager.[4] Bride Bride in formal dress North America. ... Nuptial is the adjective of wedding. It is used for example in zoology to denote plumage, coloration, behavior, etc related to or occurring in the mating season. ... A groom nervously waits for his bride. ... Husband may refer to: the male spouse in a marriage a husband pillow. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given to the family of the bridegroom by the family of the bride or vice versa at the time of their marriage. ... Bride price also known as bride wealth or a dower is an amount of money or property paid to the parents of a woman for the right to marry their daughter. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... A widow is a woman whose spouse has died. ... Dower (Lat. ... Estate is a term used in the common law. ... A dowager is a widow who holds a title or property, or Dower, derived from her deceased husband. ...

Wife refers especially to the institutionalized form in relation to the spouse and offspring, unlike mother, a term that puts a woman into the context of her children. Also compare the similar sounding midwife, a person assisting in childbirth (“Mother midnight” emphasizes to a midwife’s power over life and death).[5] Faces of mother and child; detail of sculpture at Soldier Field, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Female mallard duck and ducklings. ... Midwifery is a blanket term used to describe a number of different types of health practitioners, other than doctors, who provide prenatal care to expecting mothers, attend the birth of the infant and provide postnatal care to the mother and infant. ...

A wife may, in some cultures and times, share the title of her husband, without having gained that title by her own right.[6]

Differences in cultures

The various divisions of the following chapters share the previous terminology in English language, notwithstanding religious and cultural, but also customary differences.

The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Western culture, that is Western Europe and also many of their former colonies, were guided by the Bible in regard to their view on the position of a wife in society as well as her marriage. This image changed considerably in the age of Modernity. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being modern. Since the term modern is used to describe a wide range of periods, modernity must be understood in its context. ...

Historical status

In the Middle Ages and Early Modern history, it was unusual to marry out of love,[7] though it became an ideal in literature.[8] Women were not expected to have any property:[9] they only were given a dowry by their parents to give her husband[10] and inherited only if there were no male offsprings.[11] Unable to procure for herself, a woman was forced to submit to the husband chosen to avoid problems (prostitution, or a criminal career,[12]), which has been dealt with extensively in literature, where the most important reason for the lack of equal rights was the denial of equal education for women.[13] The situation was assessed by the English conservative moralist Sir William Blackstone: “The husband and wife are one, and the husband is the one.”[14] The situation changed only in the Married Women's Property Act 1882. Though the wife was generally expected to support the political faction favoured by the husband, satirists like Joseph Addison suggested ironically that the marriage contract might allow the wives to join the political faction independently in order to suit the expectations of their environment, or their peer group.[15] Until late in the 20th century, women could in some cultures or times sue a man for wreath money when he took her virginity without taking her as his wife.[16] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies, between the Middle Ages and modern society. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given to the family of the bridegroom by the family of the bride or vice versa at the time of their marriage. ... A parent is a father or mother; one who begets or one who gives birth to or nurtures and raises a child; a relative who plays the role of guardian // Mother This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In biology, offspring are the product of reproduction, a new organism produced by one or more parents. ... Whore redirects here. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the United Kingdom anthem is God Save the Queen. ... William Blackstone as illustrated in his Commentaries on the Laws of England. ... Traditionally, a husband and wife were one person in law. As a result, according to Blackstone, the very being or legal existence of [a married] woman [was] suspended during the marriage, or at least [was] incorporated and confolidated into that of the husband: under whose wing, protection, and cover, she... A political faction is presently an informal grouping of individuals, especially within a political organisation, such as a political party, a trade union, or other group with some kind of political purpose (referred to in this article as the “broader organisation”). It may also be referred to as a power... Joseph Addison, the Kit-cat portrait, circa 1703–1712, by Godfrey Kneller. ... A peer group is a group of people of approximately the same age, social status, and interests. ... Wreath money is not a legal term, but the literal translation of German Kranzgeld, is money paid by a man to a woman as a fine on having sexual intercourse with her under the pretence of an offer of marriage which is then withdrawn. ... “Technical virgin” redirects here. ...

If a woman did not want to marry, another option was entering a convent as a nun[17] to become a "bride to Jesus,"[18] a state in which her chastity would be protected[19] and the woman was economically protected as well.[20] Both a wife and a nun wore veils, which proclaimed their state of protection by the rights of marriage.[21] This article is about an abbey as a religious building. ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ...

Contemporary status

In the 20th century, two changes happened to Western marriage; the first was the breakthrough from an “institution to companionate marriage”;[22] for the first time, wives became a legal person, and she was allowed her own property and allowed to sue. Until then, wife and husband were a single legal entity, but only the husband was allowed to exercise this right. The second change was the dissolution of family life, when in the 1960s wives began to work outside their home, and with the social acceptance of divorces the single-parent family, and stepfamily or "blended family" as a more “individualized marriage”.[23] (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... A juristic person is a legal fiction through which the law allows a group of natural persons to act as if it were a single composite individual for certain purposes. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... For the record label, see Divorce Records. ... Traditionally, a stepfamily is the family one acquires when a parent enters a new marriage, whether the parent was widowed or divorced. ... A stepfamily is the family one acquires when a parent marries someone new. ...

Today, a woman may wear a wedding ring in order to show her status as a wife.[24] A wedding ring or wedding band consists of a precious metal ring, in certain countries (UK, USA, Brazil) worn on the base of the left ring finger – the fourth finger (counting from the thumb) of the left hand. ...

In Western countries today, married women may have education, a profession and take time off from their work in a legally procured system of ante-natal care, statutory maternity leave, and they may get maternity pay or a maternity allowance.[25] The status of marriage, as opposed to unmarried pregnant women, allows the spouse to be responsible for the child, and to speak on behalf of his/her wife; a husband is also responsible for the wife’s child in states where he is automatically assumed to be the biological father.[26] Vice versa, a wife has more legal authority in some cases when she speaks on behalf of a spouse than she would have if they were not married, e.g. when her spouse is in a coma after an accident, a wife may have the right of advocacy.[27] If they divorce, she also might receive - or pay - alimony (see Law and divorce around the world). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Parental leave is the right to take time off work, paid or unpaid, to care for your child or make arrangements for your childs welfare. ... Lost, see Maternity Leave (Lost). ... The term spouse refers to either partner in marriage, generally called a husband or wife, depending on gender. ... For the record label, see Divorce Records. ... In many countries alimony, maintenance or spousal support is an obligation established by law that is based on the premise that both spouses have an absolute obligation to support each other during the marriage (or civil union) unless they are legally separated, though in some instances the obligation to support... This article is a general overview of divorce laws around the world. ...


Women in Islam have a range of rights and obligations. Marriage takes place on the basis of a marriage contract, and for a husband to have more than one wife is very rare.[28] Even today, in some Muslim societies the father may decide whose wife his daughter is going to be and force her into the marriage under threat of murder, although this custom is not based on religion but tradition.[29] Beating his wife, however, is defined as a husband’s right in most schools of Islam, but is strongly discouraged by hadiths.[Qur'an 4:34]. Women in general are supposed to wear specific clothes, as stated by the hadith, like the hijab, which may take different sizes depending on the Muslim culture, but they are not obliged to do so.[30] The husband must pay a mahr to the bride, which is similar to the dower.[31] This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ... Islam advocates a harmonious relationship between husband and wife. ... When a couple decides to marry, they draw up a Marriage contract. ... The Hadith (الحديث, pl. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Alcoran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Illustration of an Islamic headscarf “Higab” redirects here. ... A dowry is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to that of the groom to permit their marriage. ... Dower (Lat. ...

Though for wives there seem to be no external signs, other than being allowed to reveal their entire head to her husband, which is not only stated by the Qur’an but known by even older customs.[32] The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al KarÄ«m or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Custom has a number of meanings: A custom is a common practice among a group of people, especially depending on country, culture, time, and religion. ...

A riverside Muslim wedding in India.
A riverside Muslim wedding in India.

The situation of a wife in Muslim society is controversial: Some groups criticize the condition of wives as being "miserable",[33] and propose intolerance to the rule that a husband may beat his wife.[34] Based on the fundamentals of Islam, they emphasize that according to the Scripture, "the Prophet (s) said: "Do not beat your wife" and "Do not strike your wife in the face."[35] Traditionally, the wife has had a high esteem in Islam as a protected, chastise person that manages the household and the family. Progressive Muslims today may also agree on a perfectly equal relationship.[36] The majority, however, is vastly different; not only does sura four, the An-Nisa, allow to beat a wife, but in Germany, a Muslim won a case in Frankfurt when his wife wanted an immediate divorce (additional to the separation already in place, without the one years' respite) due to domestic violence; her request was rejected, based on the argument that it was "custom" and "based on Islamic law". Critics commented the verdict legitimized beating one's wife (see source); in another case, murder of someone for "causing dishonor" ended in sentence of homicide instead, because the person on trial was a Muslim brother killing his sister.[37] Image File history File linksMetadata Muslim_wedding_in_India. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Muslim_wedding_in_India. ... Islamic fundamentalism is a term used to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating literalistic interpretations of the texts of Islam and of Sharia law. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... Surat An-Nisa (The Women) is the 4th sura of the Quran, with 176 ayat. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Separation may refer to a several different subjects: In chemistry, separation refers to the separation process. ... “Domestic disturbance” redirects here. ... In law, a verdict indicates the judgment of a case before a court of law. ... Homicide (Latin homicidium, homo human being + caedere to cut, kill) refers to the act of killing another human being. ...

Muslim women have no apparent distinction from unmarried women similar to a Christian wedding ring to show their status as a wife, though this has been a recent adoption in the past thirty years from the Western culture to wear a ring as a wife.[38] Traditionally and most commonly, the only sign of the marriage is the nikah,[39] the written marriage contract. Nikah or nikkah (Arabic: النكاح ), is the contract between a bride and bridegroom and part of an Islamic marriage, a strong covenant (mithaqun Ghalithun) as expressed in Quran 4:21). ...


In Hindi, wife means a women who shares every thing in this world with her husband and he does the same, including their identity. Decisions are ideally made in mutual consent. A wife usually takes care of anything inside her household, including the family's health, the children's education, a parent's needs. Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is the official language of the Union along with English. ...

In Tamil, a wife is known as a "Manaivee". "Manai" means "house", and "manaivee" "head of a household". The majority of Hindu marriages in South India even now are arranged marriages, which means parents that have a son will search for parents with a daughter, through relatives, neighbourhoods, or even brokers. Once they find a suitable family (family of same caste, culture and financial status), they proceed with discussions directly. In the past decades, a marriage out of love has become a rivalling model to the arranged marriage. Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ...

Indian law has recognised marital rape, sexual, emotional or verbal abuse of a woman by her husband as crimes. The Britannica mentions that "Until quite recently, the only property of which a Hindu woman was the absolute owner was her strīdhana, consisting mainly of wedding gifts and gifts from relatives."[40]

Commonly, a wife wears a red dot on her forehead to show her status as a married woman.

Buddhism and Chinese folk religions

China's family laws were changed by the Communist revolution; and in 1950, the People's Republic of China enacted a comprehensive marriage law including provisions giving the spouses equal rights with regard to ownership and management of marital property.[41] Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


In Japan, before enactment of the Meiji Civil Code of 1898, all of the woman's property such as land or money passed to her husband except for personal clothing and a mirror stand.[42]

See also

Look up wife in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... “Spouse” redirects here. ... Husband may refer to: the male spouse in a marriage a husband pillow. ... A consort is somebodys spouse, usually a royalty. ...


  1. ^ Etymology of "Weib"
  2. ^ American Heritage Dictionary on "wife"
  3. ^ Britannica 2005, dowry
  4. ^ Merriam-Webster, dower
  5. ^ Merriam-Webster on Midwife, and Britannica, midwife
  6. ^ Sharing the husband's title
  7. ^ William C. Horne, Making a heaven of hell: the problem of the companionate ideal in English marriage, poetry, 1650-1800 Athens (Georgia), 1993
  8. ^ Frances Burney, Evelina, Lowndes 1778, and Seeber, English Literary History of the eighteenth century, Weimar 1999
  9. ^ Elizabeth M. Craik, Marriage and property, Aberdeen 1984
  10. ^ Gail MacColl and Carol McD. Wallace, To Marry An English Lord, p166-7, ISBN 0-89480-939-3
  11. ^ Future of the Children
  12. ^ Daniel Defoe, Moll Flanders: theoretical preface
  13. ^ for the 18th and 19th century, which contained much criticism of these facts, see also Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Women, Boston 1792
  14. ^ William Blackstone, Commentaries upon the Laws of England
  15. ^ Joseph Addison, The Spectator, No.81
  16. ^ Brockhaus 2004, Kranzgeld .
  17. ^ Though cloisters' practices were not bound by modern national borders, see sources for Spain, for Italy, and for Britain
  18. ^ (Taking) The White Veil
  19. ^ (Taking) The White Veil
  20. ^ The welfare of the cloister members was ensured by the Catholic Church and the Pope.
  21. ^ Silvia Evangelisti, Wives, Widows, And Brides Of Christ: Marriage And The Convent In The Historiography Of Early Modern Italy, Cambridge 2000
  22. ^ ”Companionship marriage” and “companionate marriage” are synonyms (the latter being the older one), although the term usually refers to a relationship based on equality, it might instead refer to a marriage with mutual interest in their children, [1]
  23. ^ Stepfamily as individualized marriage
  24. ^ Howard, Vicki. "A 'Real Man's Ring': Gender and the Invention of Tradition." Journal of Social History. Summer 2003 pp837-856
  25. ^ Maternity pay and allowance, and work and family guide
  26. ^ Cuckoo’s egg in the nest, Spiegel 07, 2007
  27. ^ The restrictions of her abilities to do this vary immensely even within a legal system, see case NY vs. Fishman, 2000
  28. ^ The New Encyclopedia of Islam(2002), AltaMira Press. ISBN 0-7591-0189-2 p.477
  29. ^ Spiegel 07, 2007
  30. ^ Clothes
  31. ^ Qur’an verse 4;4
  32. ^ Yvonne Haddad and John Esposito. Islam, Gender, and Social Change, Published 1998. Oxford University Press, US. ISBN 0-19-511357-8.
  33. ^ miserable quote
  34. ^ Wives in Islam controversy
  35. ^ Dr. Haddad, Damascus, Responsibilities of a husband
  36. ^ Heba G. Kotb M.D., Sexuality in Islam, PhD Thesis, Maimonides University, 2004
  37. ^ Both cases are described in the main article of Der Spiegel (13), 2007, p.23f, cf. summary
  38. ^ Westernized Muslims
  39. ^ Nikah in marriage
  40. ^ Britannica, Legal limitations on marriage (from family law)
  41. ^ Britannica 2004, Legal limitations on marriage (from family law)
  42. ^ Britannica, Legal limitations on marriage (from family law)

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