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Encyclopedia > Wielbark Culture
Areas in the first half of the 3rd century: Wielbark culture (red) , Przeworsk culture (green), a Baltic culture (Aesti?, yellow), Dębczyn culture (pink) and the Roman Empire (purple)
Areas in the first half of the 3rd century: Wielbark culture (red) , Przeworsk culture (green), a Baltic culture (Aesti?, yellow), Dębczyn culture (pink) and the Roman Empire (purple)

Wielbark culture (German: Wielbark-Kultur, Polish: Kultura wielbarska, Ukrainian Ukrainian: Вельбарська культура (Vel’bars’ka kul’tura)) was an archaeological culture identified with the Goths which appeared during the first half of the 1st century AD. It replaced the local Oksywie culture which was part of the Przeworsk culture. map based on Image:Europe plain rivers. ... map based on Image:Europe plain rivers. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... The green area is the Przeworsk culture in the first half of the 3rd century. ... The Roman historian Tacitus in his book Germania mentions a Aesti or Aestii people. ... The Roman Empire is the name given to both the imperial domain developed by the city-state of Rome and also the corresponding phase of that civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche portrays the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... The Oksywie Culture was a culture which existed in the area of Oxhoeft (now Oksywie Northern Poland), from the 2nd century BC to the early 1st century AD. It was closely related to the Przeworsk culture and with the arrival of Goths the Wielbark/ Willenberg culture developed in the area. ... The green area is the Przeworsk culture in the first half of the 3rd century. ...


The culture was named after Wielbark, near which a cemetery of over 3000 tombs was discovered. The report of the original excavation was rediscovered in 2004. Wielbark (IPA: ; German: ) is a village in Poland, in the Pomeranian Voivodship, in Malbork County, in Malbork Commune, about 4 km south of Malbork. ...

Contents

Distribution

The (Malbork)-Wielbark culture started out covering the same area as the Oksywie culture, around the present day towns of Gdańsk and Chełmno. Later it reached into the lakelands (Kashubian and Krajenskian lakes) and stretched southwards, into the region around Poznań. The Oksywie Culture was a culture which existed in the area of Oxhoeft (now Oksywie Northern Poland), from the 2nd century BC to the early 1st century AD. It was closely related to the Przeworsk culture and with the arrival of Goths the Wielbark/ Willenberg culture developed in the area. ... GdaÅ„sk (IPA: ; German: , Kashubian: , Latin: ; older English Dantzig also other languages) is the sixth-largest city in Poland, and also its principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. ... CheÅ‚mno (-Polish, German: Kulm) is a town in northern Poland with 22,000 inhabitants (1995) and the historical capital of CheÅ‚mno Land. ... Kashubian is: one of the Kashubians the Kashubian language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... PoznaÅ„ (?· i; full official name: The Capital City of PoznaÅ„, Latin: , German: , Yiddish: פּױזן Poyzn) is a city in west-central Poland with over 578,900 inhabitants (2002). ...


In the first half of the 3rd century AD, the Wielbark culture left settlements by the Baltic Sea, at that time called Mare Suevicum or Mare Germanicum, except for the areas adjacent to the Vistula, and expanded into the area which later (by 1000 AD) became Mazovia and Lesser Poland (Lubelszczyzna) on the eastern side of the Vistula reaching into Ukraine, where they formed the Chernyakhov culture. // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Germans (German: die Deutschen) are defined as an ethnic group, in the sense of sharing a common German culture, speaking the German language as a mother tongue and being of German descent. ... The Vistula (Polish: ) is the longest river in Poland. ... Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital in Warsaw. ... Lesser Poland voivodship since 1999 Lesser Poland (sometimes also referred to as Little Poland, Polish Małopolska, Latin Polonia Minor) is one of the historical regions of Poland. ... Chernyakhov culture is shown in orange, the third-century Wielbark Culture in red. ...


Characteristics

A Scandinavian stela
A Scandinavian stela

Between the Przeworsk culture and the Wielbark culture there was a clear separation and there appears to have been no detectable contacts. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x658, 468 KB) Summary from Swedish wikipedia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x658, 468 KB) Summary from Swedish wikipedia. ...


The people of the Wielbark culture used both inhumation and cremation techniques for burying their dead. Whether they used one or the other varied from site to site and it is believed to have depended on family traditions. By other animals Humans are not the only species to bury their dead. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ...


A characteristic of this culture, which it had in common with southern Scandinavia, was the raising of stone covered mounds, stone circles, solitary stelae and variations of cobble cladding. A minor stone circle in Brändåsen, Hardemo parish, Närke. ... An Iron Age menhir Menhirs continued to be raised in Scandinavia during the Pre-Roman Iron Age and later, over the graves of deceased. ...


There were no weapons nor tools in the Wielbark culture graves, unlike the Przeworsk culture for which it was typical to give the dead such gifts. Instead, the gifts were mostly ornaments and costumes. A few graves have shown spurs, and this would be the only warrior attribute found. A spur is a metal instrument composed of a shank, neck, and prick, rowel (sharp-toothed wheel), or blunted end fastened to the heel of a horseman. ...


Another feature of the Wielbark culture was the use of bronze to make ornaments and accessories. Silver was used seldom and gold rarely. Iron appears to have been used extremely rarely.


The Goths

Wielbark Culture (red) in the first half of the 3rd century, with the island of Gotland (pink) and the traditional extent of Götaland (green)
Wielbark Culture (red) in the first half of the 3rd century, with the island of Gotland (pink) and the traditional extent of Götaland (green)

The Wielbark culture is associated with Jordanes' account of the Goths leaving Scandza (Scandinavia) and their settlement in Gothiscandza. According to Jordanes they pushed away the local Rugians and Vandals when settling in the area. Gothiscandza was located at the mouth of the Vistula, and this area was given as the land of the Gutones (Pliny the Elder) or Gothones (Tacitus): my own map, based on User:Dbachmanns blank map. ... my own map, based on User:Dbachmanns blank map. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first...   is a county and province of Sweden and the largest island in the Baltic Sea. ... Götaland Maps of Swedens historical three lands, and Österland in Finland. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche portrays the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Scandza was the name given to Scandinavia by Jordanes, in his work Getica. ... Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe. ... Gothiscandza was according to the 6th century Goth scholar Jordanes, the first settlement of the Goths after their migration from Scandinavia (Scandza). ... The Rugians (Latin rugii) were an East Germanic tribe whose ultimate origins have been traced to Rogaland in Norway, whose population probably was the Rugii that Jordanes mentioned as a tribe that still remained in Scandza. ... The Vandals sacking Rome, by Heinrich Leutemann (1824-1904) Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... The Vistula (Polish: ) is the longest river in Poland. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19c portrait. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ...

Beyond the Lygians dwell the Gothones, under the rule of a king; and thence held in subjection somewhat stricter than the other German nations, yet not so strict as to extinguish all their liberty. Immediately adjoining are the Rugians and Lemovians upon the coast of the ocean, and of these several nations the characteristics are a round shield, a short sword and kingly government.

The names given by Pliny and Tacitus appear to be identical to *Gutoniz, the reconstructed Proto-Germanic form of Gutans, the Goths' name for themselves. The Lugii, Lygii or Ligii (also Lygians, Lugians) were a tribe of likely Celtic or Germanic origin living in the vicinity of Silesia (modern Poland) north of the Sudetes mountains between Oder and Vistula rivers. ... The Rugians (Latin rugii) were an East Germanic tribe whose ultimate origins have been traced to Rogaland in Norway, whose population probably was the Rugii that Jordanes mentioned as a tribe that still remained in Scandza. ... The Lemovii was an ancient people which was only named by Tacitus. ... Map of the Pre-Roman Iron Age culture(s) associated with Proto-Germanic, ca 500 BC-50 BC. The area south of Scandinavia is the Jastorf culture Proto-Germanic, the proto-language believed by scholars to be the common ancestor of the Germanic languages, includes among its descendants Dutch, Yiddish...


Some have suggested that the three ships of Goths arriving at the Vistula is merely symbolic whereas others have ascribed the ships to the Gepids, the Ostrogoths and the Visigoths. A third interpretion is that the ships only contained the Norse clan of Amal's royal family. The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... Map of Ostrogothic Kingdom The Ostrogoths (Greuthung, Gleaming Goths or Eastern Goths), in distinction from the Visigoths (Noble Goths or Western Goths), were a Germanic tribe that influenced political events of the late Roman Empire. ... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... The Scandinavian clan or Ätt was a social group based on common descent or on the formal acceptance into the group at a Ting. ... Ã…mÃ¥l is a small town in Sweden. ...

Wielbark culture (red) in the early 3rd century, with Chernyakhov culture (orange) in the early 4th century, Götaland (green), Gotland (pink) and the Roman Empire (dark blue)
Wielbark culture (red) in the early 3rd century, with Chernyakhov culture (orange) in the early 4th century, Götaland (green), Gotland (pink) and the Roman Empire (dark blue)

However, archaeologists are wary of ascribing ethnicities to archaeological cultures, and it is considered to be an extremely difficult matter (e.g. Kennewick Man). This is reflected by the names used for the cultures, usually baptised after the towns where remains are found. The latest tendency is to doubt the equation between the Wielbark Culture and the Goths, and it has been established that the Wielbark culture did not appear solely through immigration from Scandinavia. Instead it appears to have evolved from the Oksywie culture and possibly through Scandinavian influence. This theory is based on the fact that the Wielbark culture shared the same geographical extent as the Oksywie culture and even continued to use many of the Oksywie cemeteries. The settlements consisted both of the original inhabitants and of groups of Scandinavians. It is likely that the Goths were the ruling tribe in the area as Jordanes noted that the Goths subjected local inhabitants to their authority. Image File history File links my own map, based on User:Dbachmanns blank map. ... Image File history File links my own map, based on User:Dbachmanns blank map. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Chernyakhov culture is shown in orange, the third-century Wielbark Culture in red. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Götaland Maps of Swedens historical three lands, and Österland in Finland. ...   is a county and province of Sweden and the largest island in the Baltic Sea. ... The Roman Empire is the name given to both the imperial domain developed by the city-state of Rome and also the corresponding phase of that civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... Kennewick Man is the name for the remains of a prehistoric man found on a bank of the Columbia River near Kennewick, Washington, on July 28, 1996. ...


The present view is that the direct settlements of Goths (recorded by Jordanes as well as H. Schedel, see link) at the Mare Germanicum, today Poland, are those characterised by barrow cemeteries by which there are raised stone circles and solitary stelae (Scandinavian burial customs with a concentration in Götaland). This type is found between the Vistula and the Kashubian and Krajenskian lakelands reaching into the Koszalin region. These burial grounds appeared in the second half of the 1st century. Burial of Oleg of Novgorod in a tumulus in 912. ... A minor stone circle in Brändåsen, Hardemo parish, Närke. ... An Iron Age menhir Menhirs continued to be raised in Scandinavia during the Pre-Roman Iron Age and later, over the graves of deceased. ... Götaland Maps of Swedens historical three lands, and Österland in Finland. ... Kashubians (also Kassubians, or Cassubians, in Kashubian: Kaszëbi) are a Slavic ethnic group living in modern-day northwestern Poland. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Wielbark culture seems to have been a mixed society composed of both Goths and Gepids from Scandinavia as well as the previous inhabitants (mainly Vandals and Rugians). In the 3rd century, the Wielbark community left their settlements and reached their new homeland, Oium, in Ukraine, where they would found a new empire. The Vandals sacking Rome, by Heinrich Leutemann (1824-1904) Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... The Rugians (Latin rugii) were an East Germanic tribe whose ultimate origins have been traced to Rogaland in Norway, whose population probably was the Rugii that Jordanes mentioned as a tribe that still remained in Scandza. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Oium (from Aujom, meaning in the waterlands in Gothic) was according to Jordanes, a name for Scythia, where the Goths settled after leaving Gothiscandza. ...


Sources

  • A Polish Archaeology Article by Tadeusz Makiewicz
  • Gothic jewelry, by Tomasz Skorupka, on a Polish museum site


  Results from FactBites:
 
Wielbark Culture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (867 words)
The green area is the Przeworsk culture, the yellow area is a Baltic culture (Aesti?), and the pink area is the Debczyn Culture.
Wielbark Culture or Willenberg Culture was an archaeological culture which appeared during the first half of the 1st century AD, and replaced the local Oksywie Culture, a culture which was part of the Przeworsk culture.
The red area is the extent of the Wielbark Culture in the early 3rd century, and the orange area is the Chernyakhov Culture, in the early 4th century.
Wielbark culture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (877 words)
A characteristic of this culture, which it had in common with southern Scandinavia, was the raising of stone covered mounds, stone circles, solitary stelae and variations of cobble cladding.
Wielbark Culture (red) in the first half of the 3rd century, with the island of Gotland (pink) and the traditional extent of Götaland (green)
Wielbark culture (red) in the early 3rd century, with Chernyakhov culture (orange) in the early 4th century, Götaland (green), Gotland (pink) and the Roman Empire (dark blue)
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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