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Encyclopedia > Wicca
The pentagram within a circle, a symbol of faith used by many Wiccans.
The pentagram within a circle, a symbol of faith used by many Wiccans.
Wicca Portal

Wicca IPA: /ˈwɪkə/, is a nature-based religion popularised in 1954 by Gerald Gardner, a retired British civil servant, who at the time called it Witchcraft.[1] He said that the religion, of which he was an initiate, was a modern survival of an old witchcraft religion which had existed in secret for hundreds of years, originating in the pre-Christian paganism of Europe.[1] The veracity of Gardner's statements cannot be independently proven, however, and it is possible that Wiccan theology began to be compiled no earlier than the 1920s.[2] Wicca is a Neopagan religion. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A pentagram A pentagram (sometimes known as a pentalpha or pentangle or, more formally, as a star pentagon) is the shape of a five-pointed star drawn with five straight strokes. ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Portal. ... It has been suggested that New Forest coven be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Initiation (disambiguation). ... Witch redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Various Wiccan traditions have since evolved from that established by Gardner, which came to be called Gardnerian Wicca. These other traditions have distinctive beliefs, rituals, and practices, and some remain secretive and require that members be initiated. Other traditions have also formed independently of Gardnerian lineage, including a growing movement of Eclectic Wiccans who do not believe that any doctrine or traditional initiation is necessary in order to practice Wicca.[3] A tradition is a story or a custom that is memorized and passed down from generation to generation, originally without the need for a writing system. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The term 'Wicca' has somewhat different usage between Britain and North America. In Britain 'Wicca' has traditionally referred only to initiatory witchcraft in the lineage of Gerald Gardner and the New Forest coven (e.g. Gardnerian and Alexandrian Wicca), sometimes referred to as British Traditional Wicca in North America. In North America the term 'Wicca' has become more inclusive and encompasses a number of traditions inspired by but independent of that lineage.[4] The New Forest coven was a witchcraft coven that met in Englands New Forest region. ... Alexandrian Wicca is a tradition of the Neopagan religion of Wicca, founded by Alex Sanders (also known as King of the Witches) who, with his wife Maxine Sanders, established the tradition in the 1960s. ... British Traditional Wicca (abbreviated BTW) is a term used to describe some Wiccan Traditions which have their origins in the New Forest region of England. ...

Contents

Core concepts

Wicca is one variety of pagan witchcraft, with distinctive ritual forms, seasonal observances and religious, magical[5] and ethical precepts. Other forms of witchcraft exist within many cultures, with widely varying practices. Many Wiccans, though not all, call themselves Pagans, though the umbrella term Paganism encompasses many faiths that have nothing to do with Wicca or witchcraft. Wicca has also been described as a Neopagan or a Mesopagan path.[6] Because there is no centralised organisation in Wicca, and no single orthodoxy, the beliefs and practices of Wiccans can vary substantially, both among individuals and among traditions. Typically, the main religious principles, ethics, and ritual structures are shared, since they are key elements of traditional teachings and published works on the subject. Witch redirects here. ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... An umbrella term is a word that provides a superset or grouping of related concepts, also called a hypernym. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ...


As practised by initiates in the lineage of Gerald Gardner, Wicca is a variety of witchcraft founded on religious and magical concepts. As such it is distinguished not only by its beliefs, but by its practice of magic, its ethical philosophy, initiatory system, organisational structure and secrecy.[7] Some of these beliefs and practices have also been adopted by others outside of this lineage, often termed Eclectic Wiccans, who generally discard the institutions of initiation, secrecy and hierarchy, and have more widely varying beliefs. Some Eclectic Wiccans neither perform magic nor identify as witches. Within traditional forms of Wicca there are three degrees of initiation. First degree is required to become a witch and gain membership of a coven; those who aspire to teach may eventually undergo second and third degree initiations, conferring the title of "High Priest" or "High Priestess" and allowing them to establish new covens.[7] At initiation, some Wiccans adopt a craft name to symbolise their spiritual "rebirth", to act as a magical alter-ego, or simply to provide anonymity when appearing as a witch in public (see Acceptance of Wiccans below). Coven or covan was originally a late medieval Scots word (c1500) meaning a gathering of any kind, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. ... A Craft name, also known as a magical (or magickal) name is a secondary religious name often adopted by practitioners of Wicca and other forms of neopagan witchcraft. ...


Beliefs

For most Wiccans, Wicca is a duotheistic religion worshipping a God and a Goddess, who are seen as complementary polarities, and "embodiments of a life-force manifest in nature."[8] They are sometimes symbolised as the Sun and Moon, and from her lunar associations the Goddess becomes a Triple Goddess with aspects of "Maiden", "Mother" and "Crone". Some Wiccans see the Goddess as pre-eminent, since she contains and conceives all; the God is the spark of life and inspiration within her, simultaneously her lover and her child. This is reflected in the traditional structure of the coven.[9] In some traditions, notably feminist Dianic Wicca, the Goddess is seen as complete unto herself, and the God is not worshipped at all. Wicca is essentially an immanent religion, and for some Wiccans, this idea also involves elements of animism. A key belief in Wicca is that the goddesses and gods are able to manifest in personal form, most importantly through the bodies of Priestesses and Priests via the ritual of Drawing down the Moon (or Drawing down the Sun). Triple Goddess symbol of waxing, full and waning moon Wiccan views of divinity coalesce around a Goddess and God, with the Goddess sometimes given primacy. ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... A Triple Goddess symbol (probably originating from Classical Greek lunar symbolism), representing the three aspects of the moon (waxing crescent, full moon, waning crescent) and womankind (maiden, mother, crone). ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Immanence, derived from the Latin in manere to remain within, refers to philosophical and metaphysical theories of the divine as existing and acting within the mind or the world. ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... While most widely known as the title of an influential book by Margot Adler, Drawing Down The Moon is a powerful ritual now most commonly seen in Wiccan practices, although Judica Illes asserts that the ritual itself predates Wicca by centuries. ...


According to Gardner, the gods of Wicca are ancient gods of the British Isles: a Horned God and a Great Mother goddess.[10] Gardner also states that a being higher than any of these tribal gods is recognised by the witches as Prime Mover, but remains unknowable.[11] Patricia Crowther has called this supreme godhead Dryghten,[12] and some link this to ideas of a pantheistic view of God, such as the Hindu Brahman. The Pashupati-like figure on the Gundestrup cauldron The Horned God is a modern syncretic term, invented to link together numerous male nature gods out of such widely-dispersed and historically unconnected mythologies as the Celtic Cernunnos, the Welsh Caerwiden, the English Herne the Hunter, the Hindu Pashupati, the Greek... The Great Mother manifests itself in myth as a host of archaic images. ... The cosmological argument is a metaphysical argument for the existence of God, or a first mover of the cosmos. ... Patricia Crowther is considered influential in the early promotion of the Wicca religion. ... Pantheism literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Brahman (nominative ) is a concept of Hinduism. ...


Some Wiccans have a monotheistic belief in the Goddess and God as One. Many have a duotheistic conception of deity as a Goddess (of Moon, Earth and sea) and a God (of forest, hunting and the animal realm). This concept is often extended into a kind of polytheism by the belief that the gods and goddesses of all cultures are aspects of this pair (or of the Goddess alone). Others hold the various gods and goddesses to be separate and distinct. Still others do not believe in the gods as real personalities, but see them as archetypes or thoughtforms.[13] Janet Farrar and Gavin Bone have observed that Wicca is becoming more polytheistic as it matures, and embracing a more traditional pagan world-view.[14] For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Thought-form be merged into this article or section. ... Farrar, in a photograph taken by her husband, Stewart Farrar, demonstrates the Osiris pose in a 1981 book she co-authored. ... Gavin Bone is an author and lecturer in the fields of magic, witchcraft, Wicca and Neo-Paganism, and an organizer in the Neo-Pagan community. ...


Beliefs in the afterlife vary among Wiccans, though some support reincarnation. Reincarnation is a traditional Wiccan teaching - Raymond Buckland holds that a soul always reincarnates into the same species,[15] though this belief is not universal. Raymond Buckland was the first person in the United States to openly admit to being a practitioner of Wicca. ...


Morality

Wiccan morality is largely based on the Wiccan Rede: An it harm none, do what ye will, which is usually interpreted as a declaration of the freedom to act, along with the necessity of taking responsibility for what follows from one's actions and minimising harm to oneself and others.[16] Another common element of Wiccan morality is the Law of Threefold Return which holds that whatever benevolent or malevolent actions a person performs will return to that person with triple force.[17] The pentagram within a circle, a symbol of faith used by many Wiccans, sometimes called a pentacle. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Wiccan Rede is a saying that was formulated to sum up the ethics of the neo-Pagan religion Wicca. ... The rule of three (or threefold law) is an important tenet in Wicca. ...


Many Wiccans also seek to cultivate a set of eight virtues mentioned in Doreen Valiente's Charge of the Goddess,[18] these being mirth, reverence, honour, humility, strength, beauty, power and compassion. In Valiente's poem, they are ordered in pairs of complementary opposites, reflecting a dualism that is common throughout Wiccan philosophy. Some lineaged Wiccans also observe a set of 161 Wiccan Laws, commonly called the Craft Laws or Ardanes. Valiente, one of Gardner's original high priestesses, argued that these rules were most likely invented by Gardner himself in mock-archaic language as the by-product of inner conflict within his Bricket Wood coven.[19][20] Doreen Valiente (1922 - 1999) was a co-creator of Wicca, together with Gerald Gardner. ... The Charge of the Goddess is a traditional inspirational text sometimes used in Neopaganism and Wicca. ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... The Wiccan Laws, also called the Craft Laws, the Old Laws or simply The Laws are the traditional laws of Wicca from the Book of Shadows. ...


Although Gardner initially demonstrated an aversion to homosexuality, claiming that it brought down "the curse of the goddess",[21] it is now accepted in many traditions of Wicca. Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...

A handfasting ceremony at Avebury in England, which occurred during Beltane of 2005.
A handfasting ceremony at Avebury in England, which occurred during Beltane of 2005.

Download high resolution version (530x700, 179 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (530x700, 179 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the Avebury prehistoric site. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Gaelic holiday. ...

Ritual practices

When practising magic and casting spells, as well as when celebrating various festivals, Wiccans use a variety of rituals. In typical rites, the coven or solitary assembles inside a ritually cast and purified magic circle. Casting the circle may involve the invocation of the "Guardians" of the cardinal points: East (Air), South (Fire), West (Water) and North (Earth). This use of the classical elements is a key feature of the Wiccan world-view. Every manifest force or form is seen to express one or more of the four elements. Some add a fifth or quintessential element called Spirit (also called aether or akasha). The five points of the frequently worn pentagram symbolise, among other things, the four elements with spirit presiding at the top.[22] Once the circle is cast, a seasonal ritual may be performed, prayers to the God and Goddess are said, and spells are sometimes worked. This article is about the magicians organization. ... An invocation (from the Latin verb invocare to call on, invoke) is: A supplication. ... . Bön . Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether . ... . Bön . Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether . ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (水) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Water has been important to all peoples of the earth, and it is rich in spiritual tradition. ... . Bön . Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether . ... Many ancient philosophies used a set of archetypal classical elements to explain patterns in nature. ... Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni/Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Bön Māori According to ancient and medieval science, Aether (Greek αἰθήρ, aithēr[1... Akasha is the Hindi/Sanskrit word meaning aether in both its elemental and mythological senses. ... A pentagram A pentagram (sometimes known as a pentalpha or pentangle or, more formally, as a star pentagon) is the shape of a five-pointed star drawn with five straight strokes. ...

An athame (black handle) and boline.
An athame (black handle) and boline.

Many Wiccans use a special set of magical tools in their rituals. These can include a broom (besom), cauldron, chalice, wand, Book of Shadows, altar cloth, athame, boline, candles, crystals, pentacle and/or incense. An altar is usually present in the circle, on which ritual tools are placed and representations of the God/Goddess may be displayed.[23]. Before entering the circle, some traditions fast for the day, and/or ritually bathe. After a ritual has finished, the God, Goddess and Guardians are thanked and the circle is closed. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Athame Athame, athamé or arthame is what some practitioners of ritual magic call their ceremonial knives. ... Boline is the name given to a knife used by some practitioners of ritual Magick. ... The Magician from the Waite-Smith tarot. ... broom A broom is a cleaning tool consisting of stiff fibres attached to, and roughly parallel to, a cylindrical handle, the broomstick. ... Three-legged iron pots being used to cater for a school-leavers party in Botswana. ... Derrynaflan Chalice, an 8th or 9th Century chalice, found in County Tipperary, Ireland For other uses, see Chalice A chalice (from Latin calix, cup, borrowed from Greek kalyx, shell, husk) is a goblet intended to hold drink. ... The giant Galligantua and the wicked old magician transform the dukes daughter into a white hind. ... The Book of Shadows is a journal or collection of magical and religious texts of Wicca and other Neopagan witchcraft traditions, containing the core rituals, magical practices, ethics and philosophy of a Wiccan or other tradition. ... An altar cloth is used by magicians, Wiccans, Satanic witches, and other practicioners of the occult for one or more of several reasons. ... Athame Athame, athamé or arthame is what some practitioners of ritual magic call their ceremonial knives. ... Boline is the name given to a knife used by some practitioners of ritual Magick. ... For other uses, see Candle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... A pentacle or pantacle is an amulet, generally made of parchment, paper or metal (although it can be of other materials), on which the symbol of a spirit being evoked is drawn. ... Incense is composed of aromatic organic materials. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For the 1934 film, see The Goddess (1934 film). ...


A sensationalised aspect of Wicca, particularly in Gardnerian Wicca, is the traditional practice of working in the nude, also known as skyclad. This practice seemingly derives from a line in Aradia, Charles Leland's supposed record of Italian witchcraft. Skyclad working is mostly the province of Initiatory Wiccans, who are outnumbered by the less strictly observant Eclectics. When they work clothed, Wiccans may wear robes with cords tied around the waist, "Renaissance-faire"-type clothing or normal street clothes. Depiction of nude witches from the 16th century. ... Title page of the original edition of Aradia Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches is an 1899 book by Charles Godfrey Leland. ... Charles Godfrey Leland (1824–1903) was an American humorist and folklorist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and educated at Princeton University, and in Europe. ...


Special occasions

Wiccans hold a wide range of occasions with religious significance. Each full moon, and in some cases a new moon, is marked with a ritual called an Esbat. Wiccans also follow the Wheel of the Year and celebrate its eight festivals known as Sabbats.[24] Four of these, the cross-quarter days, are greater festivals, coinciding with Celtic fire festivals. These are Samhain, Beltane or May Eve, Imbolc, and Lammas or Lughnasadh. The four lesser festivals are the Summer and Winter solstices, and the Spring and Autumn Equinoxes, which are referred to by some groups as Litha, Yule, Ostara and Mabon, respectively. The names of these holidays are often taken from Germanic pagan and Celtic polytheistic holidays. However, the festivals are not reconstructive in nature nor do they often resemble their historical counterparts, instead exhibiting a form of universalism. Ritual observations may display cultural influence from the holidays from which they take their name as well as influence from other unrelated cultures.[25] Wiccans and many other Pagans celebrate the esbats, which are the full moons. ... In Neopaganism, the Wheel of the Year is the natural cycle of the seasons, commemorated by the eight Sabbats. ... A cross-quarter day is a day falling halfway between one of the four main solar events (two solstices and two equinoxes) and the next one. ... Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples:  core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BC  maximal Celtic expansion, by the 3rd century BC  the six Celtic nations which retained significant numbers of Celtic speakers into the Early Modern period  areas where Celtic languages remain widely spoken today Celts (pronounced or , see pronunciation... Look up Samhain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Gaelic holiday. ... Imbolc is one of the four principal festivals of the Irish calendar, celebrated either at the beginning of February or at the first local signs of Spring. ... In English-speaking countries in the Northern Hemisphere, August 1 is Lammas Day (loaf-mass day), the festival of the first wheat harvest of the year. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Midsummer may refer to the period of time centered upon the summer solstice and the diverse celebrations of it around the world, but more often refers to European celebrations that accompany the summer solstice, or to Western festivals that take place in June and are usually related to Saint John... This article is about the astronomical and cultural event of winters solstice, also known as midwinter. ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Equinox (disambiguation). ... Litha, the entire light half of the year, is centered upon Midsummer, with which it is easily identified, so that the summer solstice holiday is often referred to as Litha, especially in the recreated calendar used in the revived Germanic religion of Asatru. ... For other uses, see Yule (disambiguation) and Jul (disambiguation). ... This article is about the solar holiday. ... Mabon is one of the eight solar holidays or sabbats of American Neopaganism. ... ROSIE IS A GERMN LADYGermanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ... Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of ancient Celts until the Christianization of Celtic-speaking lands. ... This article is about Universalism in religion and theology. ...


Handfasting is another celebration held by Wiccans, and is the commonly used term for their weddings. Some Wiccans observe the practice of a trial marriage for a year and a day, which some traditions hold should be contracted on Lammas (Lughnasadh), as this was the traditional time for trial, "Telltown marriages" among the Irish. Infants in Wiccan families may be involved in a ritual called a Wiccaning, which is analogous to a Christening. The purpose of this is to present the infant to the God and Goddess for protection. Despite this, in accordance with the importance put on free will in Wicca, the child is not necessarily expected or required to follow a Pagan path should they not wish to do so when they get older. Handfasting is an ancient Celtic wedding ritual in which the brides and grooms hands are tied together —hence the phrase tying the knot. It was a part of the normal marriage ceremony in the time of the Roman Empire. ... Telltown or Taillten is an outdated place name in County Meath, Ireland. ... == Wiccaning Ritual ==]] Goal: This ritual is for the purpose of formally naming a child, and presenting him or to the universe. ... Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ...


Book of Shadows

In Wicca a private journal or core religious text known as a Book of Shadows is kept by practitioners, similar to a grimoire.[26] In lineaged groups, such as Gardnerian Wicca, the Book's contents are kept secret from anyone but the members of the lineage concerned (i.e., those initiating and initiated by a particular coven). However, several proposed versions of the Book have been published.[27][28] Sections of these published versions, such as the "Wiccan Rede" and the "Charge of the Goddess", as well as other published writings about Wicca, have been adopted by non-initiates, or eclectic Wiccans. For many eclectics, they create their own personal books, whose contents are often only known by themselves. The Book of Shadows is a journal or collection of magical and religious texts of Wicca and other Neopagan witchcraft traditions, containing the core rituals, magical practices, ethics and philosophy of a Wiccan or other tradition. ... This design for an amulet comes from the Black Pullet grimoire. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The Wiccan Rede is a saying that was formulated to sum up the ethics of the neo-Pagan religion Wicca. ... The Charge of the Goddess is a traditional inspirational text sometimes used in Neopaganism and Wicca. ...


Traditions

See also: List of Wiccan organisations and Category:Wiccan traditions

A "tradition" in Wicca usually implies the transfer of a lineage by initiation. There are many such traditions[29][30] and there are also many solitary or Eclectic Wiccans who do not align themselves with any particular lineage, some working alone, some joining in covens. There are also other forms of witchcraft which do not claim origins in Wicca. Traditions within the United States are well described in Margot Adler's Drawing Down the Moon, Starhawk's The Spiral Dance, and Chas S. Clifton's Her Hidden Children: The Rise of Wicca and Paganism in America[31]. This is a list of Neopagan movements and organizations. ... Solitary Practitioners is the term used in the Wiccan community for people who practice without a Coven or group. ... Margot Adler (born 5 November 1946 in Little Rock, Arkansas) is a journalist and correspondent for National Public Radio. ... Drawing Down the Moon by Margot Adler was, perhaps, the first academic examination of Neopaganism. ... Starhawk (born Miriam Simos in St. ... The Spiral Dance: a Rebirth of the Ancient Religion of the Great Goddess is a best-selling book about Pagan belief and practice by Starhawk. ...


The lack of consensus in establishing definitive categories in Wiccan communities has often resulted in confusion between Lineaged Wicca and the emergence of Eclectic traditions. This can be seen in the common description of many Eclectic traditions as traditional/initiatory/lineaged as well. In the United States, where the confusion usually arises, Wiccans in the various linages extending from Gardner may describe themselves as British Traditional Wiccans. British Traditional Wicca (abbreviated BTW) is a term used to describe some Wiccan Traditions which have their origins in the New Forest region of England. ...


Covens and Solitary Wiccans

Lineaged Wicca is organised into covens of initiated priests and priestesses. Covens are autonomous, and are generally headed by a High Priest and a High Priestess working in partnership, being a couple who have each been through their first, second and third degrees of initiation. Occasionally the leaders of a coven are only second-degree initiates, in which case they come under the rule of the parent coven. Initiation and training of new priesthood is most often performed within a coven environment, but this is not a necessity, and a few initiated Wiccans are unaffiliated with any coven.[15]


A commonly quoted Wiccan tradition holds that the ideal number of members for a coven is thirteen, though this is not held as a hard-and-fast rule.[15] Indeed, many U.S. covens are far smaller, though the membership may be augmented by unaffiliated Wiccans at "open" rituals. When covens grow beyond their ideal number of members, they often split (or "hive") into multiple covens, yet remain connected as a group. A grouping of multiple covens is known as a grove in many traditions. 13 (thirteen) is the natural number after 12 and before 14. ...


Initiation into a coven is traditionally preceded by a waiting period of at least a year and a day. A course of study may be set during this period. In some covens a "dedication" ceremony may be performed during this period, some time before the initiation proper, allowing the person to attend certain rituals on a probationary basis. Some solitary Wiccans also choose to study for a year and a day before their self-dedication to the religion.


In contrast, Eclectic Wiccans are more often than not solitary practitioners. Some of these "solitaries" do, however, attend gatherings and other community events, but reserve their spiritual practices (Sabbats, Esbats, spell-casting, worship, magical work, etc.) for when they are alone. Eclectic Wiccans now significantly outnumber lineaged Wiccans, and their beliefs and practices tend to be much more varied.[7] Taken during a Hindu prayer ceremony on the eve of Diwali. ...


History

Main article: History of Wicca

Gerald Gardner, first populariser of Wicca. ...

Origins

The origins of Wicca are much debated. Gerald Gardner brought the religion to public attention in the 1950s. He claimed that after retiring from working in Asia, he encountered the New Forest coven and was initiated into it. Subsequently fearing that the Craft would die out,[32] he worked on his book Witchcraft Today, releasing it in 1954, followed by The Meaning of Witchcraft in 1959. These books gave some details of the rituals and beliefs and attracted many new initiates from the 1960s onwards. Many of Gardner's rites and precepts can be shown to have come from the writings of earlier occultists and other extant sources (such as Aleister Crowley), and the remaining original material is uncohesive and mostly takes the form of substitutions or expansions within unoriginal material. Roger Dearnaley describes it as a patchwork.[33] Gardner claimed that the religion was a survival of matriarchal pagan religions of pre-historic Europe, taught to him by members of the New Forest Coven; their rites were fragmentary, and he had substantially rewritten them. It has been posited by authors such as Aidan Kelly and Francis X. King that Gardner invented the rites in their entirety,[34] incorporating elements from the pan-European witchcraft thesis of Dr. Margaret Murray, incantations from Aradia[35] and practices of ceremonial magic.[36] Philip Heselton concludes that while Gardner may have been mistaken about the ancient origins of the religion, his statements about it were largely made in good faith. It has been suggested that New Forest coven be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The New Forest coven was a witchcraft coven that met in Englands New Forest region. ... Witchcraft Today is a Non-fiction book written by the inventor of the Wicca religion, Gerald Gardner. ... Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley, (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947, pronounced ) was a British occultist, writer, mountaineer, philosopher, poet, and yogi. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... The New Forest coven was a witchcraft coven that met in Englands New Forest region. ... We dont have an article called Aidan kelly Start this article Search for Aidan kelly in. ... Francis X. King (1939–1994) was a British occult writer and editor who wrote about tarot, divination, witchcraft, magic, and holistic medicine. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Title page of the original edition of Aradia Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches is an 1899 book by Charles Godfrey Leland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


Some, such as Isaac Bonewits, have argued that Valiente and Heselton's evidence points to an early 20th century revival pre-dating Gardner, rather than an intact old pagan religion. This argument points to some of Gardner's historical claims which agree with the scholarship of that period but contradict later scholarship. Bonewits writes, "Somewhere between 1920 and 1925 in England some folklorists appear to have gotten together with some Golden Dawn Rosicrucians and a few supposed Fam-Trads to produce the first modern covens in England; grabbing eclectically from any source they could find in order to try and reconstruct the shards of their pagan past."[37] The idea of a supreme Mother Goddess was common in Victorian and Edwardian literature: the concept of a Horned God — especially related to the gods Pan or Faunus — was less common, but still significant.[38] Both of these ideas were widely accepted in academic literature and the popular press at the time.[39] Phillip Emmons Isaac Bonewits (born October 1, 1949) is an influential Neopagan leader and author. ... Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers, in Egyptian costume, performs a ritual of Isis (not a Rite of the Golden Dawn). ... The Temple of the Rose Cross, Teophilus Schweighardt Constantiens, 1618. ... A Cucuteni culture statuette, 4th millennium BC. A mother goddess is a goddess, often portrayed as the Earth Mother, who serves as a general fertility deity, the bountiful embodiment of the earth. ... The Edwardian period or Edwardian era in the United Kingdom is the period 1901 to 1910, the reign of King Edward VII. It succeeded the Victorian period and is sometimes extended to include the period up to the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912, the start of World War... The Pashupati-like figure on the Gundestrup cauldron The Horned God is a modern syncretic term, invented to link together numerous male nature gods out of such widely-dispersed and historically unconnected mythologies as the Celtic Cernunnos, the Welsh Caerwiden, the English Herne the Hunter, the Hindu Pashupati, the Greek... Pan (Greek , genitive ) is the Greek god of shepherds and flocks, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music: paein means to pasture. ...


Later developments

Gardnerian Wicca was an initiatory mystery religion, admission to which was limited to those who were initiated into a pre-existing coven. Wicca was introduced to North America by Raymond Buckland, an expatriate Briton who visited Gardner's Isle of Man coven to gain initiation. Interest in the USA spread quickly, and while many were initiated, many more non-initiates compiled their own rituals based on published sources or their own fancy.[40] Mystery religions, or simply Mysteries, were belief systems of the Graeco-Roman world full admission to which was restricted to those who had gone through certain secret initiation rites. ... Raymond Buckland was the first person in the United States to openly admit to being a practitioner of Wicca. ...


Another significant development was the creation by feminists in the late sixties and seventies of an eclectic movement known as Dianic Wicca, or feminist Dianic Witchcraft. Dianic Wicca has no connection of lineage to traditional Wicca, and creatively interprets published materials on Wicca as a basis for their ritual structure. This specifically feminist, Goddess-oriented faith had no interest in the Horned God, and discarded Gardnerian-style hierarchy and lineage as irrelevant. Rituals were created for self-initiation to allow people to identify with and join the religion without first contacting an existing coven. This contrasts with the Gardnerian belief that only a witch of opposite gender can initiate another witch. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In the United Kingdom, initiates of Gardner had begun to perform their own initiations, and a number of lines of Gardnerian descent began to arise. From one of these (although it was originally claimed to derive from a traditional, non-Gardnerian source) came the line known as Alexandrian Wicca. Increasing popularity on both sides of the Atlantic, and in other countries, along with the increasing availability of published material, meant that many people started to practice a form of Wicca without being part of a coven or having participated in an initiation. In response to this, traditionally initiated Wiccans in North America began to describe their version as British Traditional Wicca. Alexandrian Wicca is a tradition of the Neopagan religion of Wicca, founded by Alex Sanders (also known as King of the Witches) who, with his wife Maxine Sanders, established the tradition in the 1960s. ... British Traditional Wicca (abbreviated BTW) is a term used to describe some Wiccan Traditions which have their origins in the New Forest region of England. ...


Demographics

Isaac Bonewits points out some of the practical problems in establishing the numbers of any neopagan group.[41] Nevertheless some estimates have been attempted. The 2001 American Religious Identification Survey estimated that at least 134,000 adults identified themselves as Wiccans in the United States, compared to 8,000 in 1990.[42] In the UK, census figures do not allow an accurate breakdown of traditions within the Pagan heading, as a campaign by the Pagan Federation before the 2001 Census encouraged Wiccans, Heathens, Druids and others all to use the same write-in term 'Pagan' in order to maximise the numbers reported. For the first time, respondents were able to write in an affiliation not covered by the checklist of common religions, and a total of 42,262 people from England, Scotland and Wales declared themselves to be Pagans by this method. These figures were not immediately analysed by the Office of National Statistics, but were released after an application by the Pagan Federation of Scotland.[43] Adherents.com, an independent website which specialises in collecting estimates of world religions, cites over 30 sources with estimates of numbers of Wiccans (principally from the USA and UK.).[44] Their median estimate for Wiccan numbers is 800,000 worldwide. The Pagan Federation is a voluntary organisation, formed in 1971, which campaigns for the rights of pagans and to educate the public about paganism. ... UK Census 2001 logo A nationwide census, commonly known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001. ... The Office for National Statistics is the UK government agency charged with the collection and publication of government statistics. ... The Pagan Federation is a voluntary organisation, formed in 1971, which campaigns for the rights of pagans and to educate the public about paganism. ... Adherents. ...


Etymology

See also: Witch (etymology)

The spelling Wica first appears in the writings of Gerald Gardner (Witchcraft Today, 1954, and The Meaning of Witchcraft, 1959). He used the word as a mass noun referring to the adherents of his tradition of witchcraft ('the Wica'), rather than the religion itself. He referred to the religion as witchcraft, never Wica. The word seems to be based on the Old English word wicca IPA[ˈwɪtʃɑ]; similarly, wicca and its feminine form wice are the predecessors of the modern English witch. Magic Circle by John William Waterhouse // Main article: Witchcraft According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word witch dates back to Old English where the noun forms were wicca (masc. ... It has been suggested that Count noun be merged into this article or section. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Gardner himself claimed he learned the term from existing members of the group who initiated him into witchcraft in 1939: "I realised I had stumbled on something interesting; but I was half-initiated before the word Wica which they used hit me like a thunderbolt, and I knew where I was, and that the Old Religion still existed."[45][46]


The spelling Wicca was not used by Gardner and the term Wiccan (both as an adjective and a noun) was not used until much later, but it is now the prevalent term to refer to followers of Wicca.[47]


Acceptance of Wiccans

Main article: Religious discrimination against Neopagans

In the United States, a number of legal decisions have improved and validated the status of Wiccans in that country, especially Dettmer v. Landon in 1985. However, there is still hostility from some politicians and Christian organisations.[48][49][50] Religious discrimination against adherents of various neopagan denominations. ... Dettmer v. ...


According to the traditional history of Wicca as given by Gerald Gardner, Wicca is a survival of the European witch-cult that was persecuted during the witch trials (sometimes called the Burning Times). Since then theories of an organised pan-European witch-cult have been largely discredited, but it is still common for Wiccans to feel solidarity with the victims of the witch trials.[51] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A witch-hunt is a search for suspected witches; it is a type of moral panic. ...


There have been assertions made that Wicca is a form of Satanism, despite important differences between these religions.[52] Due to negative connotations associated with witchcraft, many Wiccans continue the traditional practice of secrecy, concealing their faith for fear of persecution. Revealing oneself as Wiccan to family, friends or colleagues is often termed "coming out of the broom-closet".[53] Peter H. Gilmore, High Priest of the Church of Satan. ...


References and footnotes

  1. ^ a b Gardner, Gerald B [1954] (1999). Witchcraft Today. Lake Toxaway, NC: Mercury Publishing. OCLC 44936549. 
  2. ^ Heselton, Philip (November 2001). Wiccan Roots: Gerald Gardner and the Modern Witchcraft Revival. Freshfields, Chieveley, Berkshire: Capall Bann Pub.. ISBN 1861631103. OCLC 46955899. . See also Nevill Drury. "Why Does Aleister Crowley Still Matter?" Richard Metzger, ed. Book of Lies: The Disinformation Guide to Magick and the Occult. Disinformation Books, 2003.
  3. ^ Adler, Margot (1979). Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-worshippers and Other Pagans in America Today. Boston: Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-3237-9. OCLC 6918454. 
  4. ^ Gallagher, Ann-Marie (2005). The Wicca Bible: the Definitive Guide to Magic and the Craft. New York: Sterling Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4027-3008-5. OCLC 61680143. 
  5. ^ The term magic is sometimes spelt magick; this spelling has a specific meaning within the context of Thelema.
  6. ^ "Defining Paganism: Paleo-, Meso-, and Neo-" (Version 2.5.1) 1979, 2007 c.e., Isaac Bonewits
  7. ^ a b c British Traditional Wicca F.A.Q.. New Wiccan Church International. Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
  8. ^ Pearson, Joanne; Roberts, Richard H; Samuel, Geoffrey (December 1998). Nature Religion Today: Paganism in the Modern World. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, p. 6. ISBN 0-748-61057-X. OCLC 39533917. 
  9. ^ Farrar, Janet; and Stewart Farrar (1981). A Witches' Bible: The Complete Witches Handbook. London: Phoenix Publishing, pp. 181-182. ISBN 0919345921. OCLC 62866821. 
  10. ^ Gardner, Gerald B [1959] (1988). The Meaning of Witchcraft. Lakemont, GA: Copple House Books, pp. 260-261. 
  11. ^ Gardner, Gerald B [1959] (1988). The Meaning of Witchcraft. Lakemont, GA: Copple House Books, pp. 26-27. 
  12. ^ Crowther, Patricia (1974). Witch Blood! The Diary of a Witch High Priestess!. New York City: House of Collectibles. ISBN 0876371616. OCLC 1009193. 
  13. ^ Adler, Margot (1979). Drawing Down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-worshippers and Other Pagans in America Today. Boston: Beacon Press, pp. 25, 34-35. ISBN 0-8070-3237-9. OCLC 6918454. 
  14. ^ Farrar, Janet; and Gavin Bone (January 2004). Progressive Witchcraft: Spirituality, Mysteries, and Training in Modern Wicca. Franklin Lakes, NJ: New Age Books. ISBN 1564147193. OCLC 53223741. 
  15. ^ a b c Buckland, Raymond (1986). Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft. Saint Paul: Llewellyn, pp. 17, 18, 53. ISBN 0-87542-050-8. OCLC 14167961. 
  16. ^ Harrow, Judy (Oimelc 1985). "Exegesis on the Rede". Harvest 5 (3). Retrieved on 2007-02-26. 
  17. ^ Lembke, Karl (2002) The Threefold Law.
  18. ^ Farrar, Janet; and Stewart Farrar [1981] (May 1992). Eight Sabbats for Witches. London: Robert Hale Publishing. ISBN 0709047789. OCLC 26673966. 
  19. ^ Valiente, Doreen (1989). The Rebirth of Witchcraft. London: Robert Hale Publishing, pp. 70-71. ISBN 0709037155. OCLC 59694320. 
  20. ^ Hutton, Ronald [1999] (2005-05-24). The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft. New York City: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198207441. OCLC 41452625. 
  21. ^ Gardner, Gerald B (1954). Witchcraft Today. London: Rider and Company, pp. 69, 75. OCLC 1059746. 
  22. ^ Valiente, Doreen [1973] (July 1988). An ABC of Witchcraft Past and Present. Phoenix Publishing, p. 264. ISBN 0-919345-77-8. OCLC 18547421. 
  23. ^ Crowley, Vivianne. Wicca: The Old Religion in the New Age (1989) London: The Aquarian Press. ISBN 0-85030-737-6
  24. ^ Farrar, Janet and Farrar, Stewart. Eight Sabbats for Witches (1981) (published as Part 1 of A Witches' Bible, 1996) Custer, Washington, USA: Phoenix Publishing Inc. ISBN 0-919345-92-1
  25. ^ Crowley, Vivianne. Wicca: The Old Religion in the New Age (1989) London: The Aquarian Press. ISBN 0-85030-737-6 p.23
  26. ^ Crowley, Vivianne. Wicca: The Old Religion in the New Age (1989) London: The Aquarian Press. ISBN 0-85030-737-6, pp 14-15
  27. ^ Farrar, Janet and Farrar, Stewart. A Witches' Bible, (1996) Custer, Washington, USA: Phoenix Publishing Inc. ISBN 0-919345-92-1
  28. ^ Gardner, Gerald. Witchcraft and the Book of Shadows (2004). Edited by Naylor, A.R. Thame, England: I-H-O Books.
  29. ^ Beaufort House Index of English Traditional Witchcraft. Beaufort House Association (1999-01-15). Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
  30. ^ Different types of Witchcraft. Hex Archive. Retrieved on 2007-04-02.
  31. ^ Clifton, Chas. S. Her Hidden Children: The Rise of Wicca and Paganism in America, Lanham, MD: Rowman Altamira, 2006, ISBN 07591020023
  32. ^ Gardner, Gerald B (1954). Witchcraft Today. London: Rider and Company, pp. 18-19. OCLC 1059746. 
  33. ^ Dearnaley, Roger (2000). An Annotated Chronology and Bibliography of the Early Gardnerian Craft. Cyprian.org. Archived from the original on 2006-04-24. Retrieved on 2005-12-09.
  34. ^ Kelly, Aidan (May 1991). Crafting the Art of Magic, Book I: A History of Modern Witchcraft, 1939-1964. St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications, pp. 41-42. ISBN 0875423701. OCLC 22891894. 
  35. ^ Leland, Charles G [1899] (1998). Aradia, or, the Gospel of the Witches. Blaine, WA: Phoenix Publishing. ISBN 0-919345-34-4. OCLC 44483420. 
  36. ^ Aidan Kelly's theories have been critiqued in detail: Frew, Donald Hudson (1991). Crafting the Art of Magic: A Critical Review. WildIdeas.net. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  37. ^ Bonewits, Isaac (1971). A Very Brief History of Witchcraft 1.0. Spiritualitea.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  38. ^ Hutton, Ronald [1999] (2005-05-24). The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft. New York City: Oxford University Press, pp. 33-51. ISBN 0198207441. OCLC 41452625. 
  39. ^ Hutton, Ronald [1999] (2005-05-24). The Triumph of the Moon: A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft. New York City: Oxford University Press, pp. 151-170. ISBN 0198207441. OCLC 41452625. 
  40. ^ Holzer, Hans (1972). The New Pagans. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. OCLC 281240. 
  41. ^ Bonewits, I (2005)[http://www.neopagan.net/HowManyPagans.html How Many "Pagans" Are There?
  42. ^ American Religious Identification Survey. City University of New York. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  43. ^ Pagans and the Scottish Census of 2001 Accessed 18 October 2007
  44. ^ Adherents.com Statistical summary pages: W Accessed 12 December 2007
  45. ^ Gardner, Gerald B (1959). The Meaning of Witchcraft. London: Aquarian Press, p. 11. OCLC 2378484. 
  46. ^ Bracelin, Jack L (1960). Gerald Gardner: Witch. London: Octagon Press, p. 151. OCLC 2792799.  1999 reprint, Thame, Oxfordshire: I-H-O Books.
  47. ^ Definition of "Wiccan". Dictionary.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  48. ^ Free Congress Foundation (1999-06-09). "'Satanic' Army Unworthy of Representing United States". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-07-11.
  49. ^ Silk, Mark (Summer 1999). "Something Wiccan This Way Comes". Religion in the News 2 (2). ISSN 1525-7207. 
  50. ^ "Barr's Witch Project: Lawmaker Wants to Ban Witches from the Military", LawStreet Journal, 1999-11-01. Retrieved on 2007-07-11. 
  51. ^ Buckland, Raymond [1971] (2002-09-01). Witchcraft From The Inside: Origins of the Fastest Growing Religious Movement in America, 3rd edition, St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications. ISBN 1-56718-101-5. OCLC 31781774. 
  52. ^ Davis, Derek; Hankins, Barry (2003). New Religious Movements and Religious Liberty in America, 2nd edition, Waco: Baylor University Press, p. 75. ISBN 0918954924. OCLC 52895492. “Much to the chagrin of practitioners of Wicca, there has been confusion in the minds of many about their religion, which is often linked with Satanism, although there are important differences.” 
  53. ^ 'Bewitched' (2003-12-04). Witch Way. Slate.com. Retrieved on 2008-05-16. “Believe me, coming out of the "broom closet" is a one-way trip.”

It has been suggested that New Forest coven be merged into this article or section. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Philip Heselton (1946 —) is a retired British Conservation Officer, a Wiccan initiate, and a writer on the subjects of Wicca, Paganism and ley lines. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Margot Adler (born 5 November 1946 in Little Rock, Arkansas) is a journalist and correspondent for National Public Radio. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... This article refers to the magical system of Aleister Crowley and Thelema. ... Thelema is the English transliteration of the Ancient Greek noun : will, from the verb θέλω: to will, wish, purpose. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Farrar, in a photograph taken by her husband, Stewart Farrar, demonstrates the Osiris pose in a 1981 book she co-authored. ... Stewart Farrar at home, 1999 Stewart Farrar (June 28, 1916 - February 7, 2000) was a well-known author of books on Alexandrian Wicca. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... It has been suggested that New Forest coven be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that New Forest coven be merged into this article or section. ... Patricia Crowther is considered influential in the early promotion of the Wicca religion. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Margot Adler (born 5 November 1946 in Little Rock, Arkansas) is a journalist and correspondent for National Public Radio. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Farrar, in a photograph taken by her husband, Stewart Farrar, demonstrates the Osiris pose in a 1981 book she co-authored. ... Gavin Bone is an author and lecturer in the fields of magic, witchcraft, Wicca and Neo-Paganism, and an organizer in the Neo-Pagan community. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... For an overview of the Twin Cities metropolitan area, see Minneapolis-Saint Paul. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Imbolc is one of the eight solar holidays, festivals or sabbats of the Neopagan wheel of the year, with some origins in Irish mythology and the pre-Christian Celtic calendar. ... Harvest was an American Neopagan magazine, published eight times a year between 1980 and 1992. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Farrar, in a photograph taken by her husband, Stewart Farrar, demonstrates the Osiris pose in a 1981 book she co-authored. ... Stewart Farrar at home, 1999 Stewart Farrar (June 28, 1916 - February 7, 2000) was a well-known author of books on Alexandrian Wicca. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Doreen Valiente (1922 - 1999) was a co-creator of Wicca, together with Gerald Gardner. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Ronald Hutton is Professor of History at the University of Bristol and is an occasional commentator on British television and radio on the history of paganism in the British Isles. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... It has been suggested that New Forest coven be merged into this article or section. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Doreen Valiente (1922 - 1999) was a co-creator of Wicca, together with Gerald Gardner. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Farrar, in a photograph taken by her husband, Stewart Farrar, demonstrates the Osiris pose in a 1981 book she co-authored. ... Stewart Farrar at home, 1999 Stewart Farrar (June 28, 1916 - February 7, 2000) was a well-known author of books on Alexandrian Wicca. ... Farrar, in a photograph taken by her husband, Stewart Farrar, demonstrates the Osiris pose in a 1981 book she co-authored. ... Stewart Farrar at home, 1999 Stewart Farrar (June 28, 1916 - February 7, 2000) was a well-known author of books on Alexandrian Wicca. ... It has been suggested that New Forest coven be merged into this article or section. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that New Forest coven be merged into this article or section. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... We dont have an article called Aidan kelly Start this article Search for Aidan kelly in. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Charles Godfrey Leland (1824–1903) was an American humorist and folklorist, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and educated at Princeton University, and in Europe. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Phillip Emmons Isaac Bonewits (born October 1, 1949) is an influential Neopagan leader and author. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ronald Hutton is Professor of History at the University of Bristol and is an occasional commentator on British television and radio on the history of paganism in the British Isles. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Ronald Hutton is Professor of History at the University of Bristol and is an occasional commentator on British television and radio on the history of paganism in the British Isles. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Hans Holzer(b. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... It has been suggested that New Forest coven be merged into this article or section. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Raymond Buckland was the first person in the United States to openly admit to being a practitioner of Wicca. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... For the Branch Davidian siege in Waco, Texas, see Waco Siege. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Nikki Bado-Fralick, Coming to the Edge of the Circle: A Wiccan Initiation Ritual (Oxford University Press, 2005).
  • Raymond Buckland, The Witch Book: The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft, Wicca, and Neo-paganism (Detroit: Visible Ink Press, 2002).
  • Helen A. Berger, A Community of Witches: Contemporary Neo-Paganism and Witchcraft in the United States (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1999).
  • Jon P. Bloch, New Spirituality, Self, and Belonging: How New Agers and Neo-Pagans Talk About Themselves (Westport: Praeger, 1998).
  • Anne Carson, Goddesses and Wise Women: The Literature of Feminist Spirituality 1980-1992 An Annotated Bibliography (Freedom, California: Crossing Press, 1992).
  • Chas S. Clifton and Graham Harvey, The Paganism Reader, New York and London: Routledge, 2004.
  • James R. Lewis, Witchcraft Today: An Encyclopedia of Wiccan and Neopagan Traditions (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 1999).
  • Graham Harvey, Contemporary Paganism: Listening People, Speaking Earth (New York: New York University Press, 1997).
  • Lynne Hume, Witchcraft and Paganism in Australia (Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, 1997).
  • James R. Lewis, ed., Magical Religion and Modern Witchcraft (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996).
  • T. M. Luhrmann, Persuasions of the Witch's Craft: Ritual Magic in Contemporary England (London: Picador, 1994).
  • Sabina Magliocco, Witching Culture: Folklore and Neo-Paganism in America (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004)
  • J. Gordon Melton and Isotta Poggi, Magic, Witchcraft, and Paganism in America: A Bibliography, 2nd ed., (New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1992).
  • Sarah M. Pike, Earthly Bodies, Magical Selves: Contemporary Pagans and the Search for Community (Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2001).
  • Shelly Rabinovitch and James R. Lewis, eds., The Encyclopedia of Modern Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism (New York: Kensington Publishing, 2002).
  • Kathryn Rountree, Embracing the witch and the goddess: Feminist Ritual-Makers in New Zealand (London and New York: Routledge, 2004).
  • Jone Salomonsen, Enchanted Feminism: The Reclaiming Witches of San Francisco (London and New York: Routledge, 2002).
  • Allen Scarboro, Nancy Campbell, Shirely Stave, Living Witchcraft: A Contemporary American Coven (Praeger Publishers, 1994). DOI 10.1336/275946886.

External links

Look up wicca in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • The Witches' Voice: Neopagan news and networking site.
  • Covenant of the Goddess (USA)
  • The Pagan Federation - UK, Canada - Organisation whose stated mission is "To Promote and Defend the Pagan Traditions".
  • The Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies - Official site for this scholarly journal; includes online articles from 2004 onward.
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The Pagan Federation is a voluntary organisation, formed in 1971, which campaigns for the rights of pagans and to educate the public about paganism. ... Triple Goddess symbol of waxing, full and waning moon Wiccan views of divinity coalesce around a Goddess and God, with the Goddess sometimes given primacy. ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... The Pashupati-like figure on the Gundestrup cauldron The Horned God is a modern syncretic term, invented to link together numerous male nature gods out of such widely-dispersed and historically unconnected mythologies as the Celtic Cernunnos, the Welsh Caerwiden, the English Herne the Hunter, the Hindu Pashupati, the Greek... A Triple Goddess symbol (probably originating from Classical Greek lunar symbolism), representing the three aspects of the moon (waxing crescent, full moon, waning crescent) and womankind (maiden, mother, crone). ... Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( pan ) = all and θεός ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... Witch redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... In Neopaganism, the Wheel of the Year is the natural cycle of the seasons, commemorated by the eight Sabbats. ... The pentagram within a circle, a symbol of faith used by many Wiccans, sometimes called a pentacle. ... The Wiccan Rede is a saying that was formulated to sum up the ethics of the neo-Pagan religion Wicca. ... The rule of three (or threefold law) is an important tenet in Wicca. ... Coven or covan was originally a late medieval Scots word (c1500) meaning a gathering of any kind, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. ... Gerald Gardner, first populariser of Wicca. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Raymond Buckland was the first person in the United States to openly admit to being a practitioner of Wicca. ... Dorothy Clutterbuck (January 19, 1880–January 12, 1951), also known as Old Dorothy, was a well-to-do woman who lived near Christchurch, England, whom Gerald Gardner claimed had initiated him into witchcraft. ... Occult author Scott Cunningham Scott Douglas Cunningham (June 27, 1956 – March 28, 1993) was the author of dozens of popular books on Wicca and various other alternative religious subjects. ... Dafo is the magical name (an occultists pseudonym) for an otherwise anonymous woman that researchers such as Ronald Hutton and Philip Heselton have come to view as an important contributer to the development of Gardnerian Witchcraft, and therefore Wicca. ... Farrar, in a photograph taken by her husband, Stewart Farrar, demonstrates the Osiris pose in a 1981 book she co-authored. ... Stewart Farrar at home, 1999 Stewart Farrar (June 28, 1916 - February 7, 2000) was a well-known author of books on Alexandrian Wicca. ... It has been suggested that New Forest coven be merged into this article or section. ... Alex Sanders (June 6, 1926 - April 30, 1988), born Orrell Alexander Carter, was the founder of the Alexandrian tradition of Wicca. ... Alex Sanders (June 6, 1926 - April 30, 1988), born Orrell Alexander Carter, was the founder of the Alexandrian tradition of Wicca. ... Starhawk (born Miriam Simos in St. ... Doreen Valiente (1922 - 1999) was a co-creator of Wicca, together with Gerald Gardner. ... British Traditional Wicca (abbreviated BTW) is a term used to describe some Wiccan Traditions which have their origins in the New Forest region of England. ... Alexandrian Wicca is a tradition of the Neopagan religion of Wicca, founded by Alex Sanders (also known as King of the Witches) who, with his wife Maxine Sanders, established the tradition in the 1960s. ... The Algard Tradition is a form of British Traditional Wicca founded in the United States by Mary Nesnick, a priestess in both Gardnerian and Alexandrian Wicca, which deliberately fuses the two traditions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The New Forest coven was a witchcraft coven that met in Englands New Forest region. ... A blue septegram is used as the symbol of the Blue Star tradition. ... Celtic Wicca is a synthesis of Wicca with Celtic traditions. ... Witta is the name of a modern Wiccan tradition described by author Edain McCoy in her book, Witta: An Irish Pagan Tradition. ... Christian Wicca combines Christian and Wiccan beliefs. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Odyssean Tradition of Wicca was founded by Richard and Tamara James in 1979. ... Faery Wicca is any type of Wiccan religion that focuses on the Fae (gnomes, elves, faeries, sprites, etc. ... Wiccans and many other Pagans celebrate the esbats, which are the full moons. ... In wicca, the Great Rite is ritualistic sexual intercourse. ... While most widely known as the title of an influential book by Margot Adler, Drawing Down The Moon is a powerful ritual now most commonly seen in Wiccan practices, although Judica Illes asserts that the ritual itself predates Wicca by centuries. ... The Fivefold Kiss is a ritual greeting that involves kissing five parts of the body. ... Depiction of nude witches from the 16th century. ... == Wiccaning Ritual ==]] Goal: This ritual is for the purpose of formally naming a child, and presenting him or to the universe. ... The Book of Shadows is a journal or collection of magical and religious texts of Wicca and other Neopagan witchcraft traditions, containing the core rituals, magical practices, ethics and philosophy of a Wiccan or other tradition. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wiccan altars take various forms. ... The Magician from the Waite-Smith tarot. ... Besom brooms are the broom traditionally associated with witches and are traditionally made of twigs tied to a larger pole. ... Three-legged iron pots being used to cater for a school-leavers party in Botswana. ... Athame Athame, athamé or arthame is what some practitioners of ritual magic call their ceremonial knives. ... The giant Galligantua and the wicked old magician transform the dukes daughter into a white hind. ... Derrynaflan Chalice, an 8th or 9th Century chalice, found in County Tipperary, Ireland For other uses, see Chalice A chalice (from Latin calix, cup, borrowed from Greek kalyx, shell, husk) is a goblet intended to hold drink. ... A pentacle or pantacle is an amulet, generally made of parchment, paper or metal (although it can be of other materials), on which the symbol of a spirit being evoked is drawn. ... A scourge (from the Italian scoriada, ultimately from the Latin excoriare = to flay and corium = skin) is a whip or lash, especially a multi-tong type used in order to inflict severe corporal punishment or self-mortification on the back. ... A pentagram A pentagram (sometimes known as a pentalpha or pentangle or, more formally, as a star pentagon) is the shape of a five-pointed star drawn with five straight strokes. ... A Craft name, also known as a magical (or magickal) name is a secondary religious name often adopted by practitioners of Wicca and other forms of neopagan witchcraft. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Title page of the original edition of Aradia Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches is an 1899 book by Charles Godfrey Leland. ... The Charge of the Goddess is a traditional inspirational text sometimes used in Neopaganism and Wicca. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Museum of Witchcraft in Boscastle, Cornwall, England is a museum dedicated to witchcraft and has the largest witchcraft and wiccan related artifacts in the world. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ... Ways of the Strega published in 1994, described Raven Grimassis view of Stregheria and popularized Italian-based witchcraft. ... Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ... This is a list of Neopagan movements and organizations. ... The Church of All Worlds (CAW) is a religious group whose stated mission is to evolve a network of information, mythology, and experience that provides a context and stimulus for re-awakening Gaia, and re_uniting her children through tribal community dedicated to responsible stewardship and evolving consciousness. ... The Federation Of Damanhur, often called simply Damanhur, is a commune and spiritual community situated in the Piedmont region of northern Italy about 30 miles north of the city of Turin. ... Feraferia is a Nevada City, California based Neopagan community, practicing Hellenic-inspired Goddess worship. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A group of British druids, congregating to celebrate the summer solstice at stonehenge. ... The Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans (CUUPS) is an Independent Affiliate of the Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA). ... Ways of the Strega published in 1994, described Raven Grimassis view of Stregheria and popularized Italian-based witchcraft. ... British Traditional Wicca (abbreviated BTW) is a term used to describe some Wiccan Traditions which have their origins in the New Forest region of England. ... The Baltic countries were the last part of Europe to be Christianized, and vestiges of paganism blend into a neopaganism movement that is largely independent of Western Asatru. ... A group of Neo-druids from the Sylvan Grove of the OBOD at Stonehenge on the morning of the summer solstice 2005. ... Neo-druidism is an attempt to reconstruct the ancient religion of druidism. ... Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism (CR) is a polytheistic, animistic, religious and cultural movement. ... The Mjolnir is one of the primary symbols of Germanic neopaganism. ... Mjolnir, the hammer of Thor, is one of the major symbols of Ásatrú. This article is about the reconstruction of Norse paganism in particular. ... The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hellenic polytheism. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Kemetism (from , the native name of Ancient Egypt) is a term for neopagan revivals of Ancient Egyptian religion which developed in the United States from the 1970s. ... The flag of Nova Roma, based on the colours and symbols of the Roman Empire. ... Slavic neo-pagans, heathens or reconstructionists are religious groups or individuals who consider themselves to be the legitimate continuation of pre-Christian Slavic religion. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Mjollnir_icon. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Religion and mythology differ, but have overlapping aspects. ... Orthopraxy is a term derived from Greek () meaning correct practice (as orthodoxy means correct teaching), referring to emphasis on religious ritual as opposed to faith or grace etc. ... Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... In psychology and cognitive science, magical thinking is non-scientific causal reasoning (e. ... For other uses of this term, see occult (disambiguation). ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( pan ) = all and θεός ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Folk religion consists of beliefs, superstitions and rituals transmitted from generation to generation of a specific culture. ... Romuva Spring Jorė festival in Kulionys, Lithuania in 2006. ... Christopher Columbus 1492 voyage is seen by many Europeans as the discovery of the Americas, despite the fact that humans first reached it some 12,000 years prior. ... Neo-Tribalism is the ideology that human beings have evolved to live in a tribal, as opposed to a modern, society, and thus cannot achieve genuine happiness until some semblance of tribal lifestyles has been re-created or re-embraced. ... Folketro (Danish, Norwegian) or Folktro (Swedish) is the Scandinavian for folk religion or superstition, referring to Scandinavian folklore in particular. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ... The Traditionalist School of thought, also known as Integral Traditionalism (in the sense of Integralism) or Perennialism (in the sense of perennial philosophy, or Sophia Perennis) is an esoteric movement inspired by the interwar period writings of French metaphysician René Guénon and developed by authors such as German-Swiss... Technopaganism is an umbrella term that characterizes several different beliefs and practices in neopaganism in reference to the place of technology in neopagan practice. ... Neopaganism in the United States is represented by widely different movements and organisations. ... This is a list of events designed for, or largely attended by, members of Neopagan religions. ... Pagan Pride is a movement among the American Neopagan community to provide a positive public image of Neopagans and Neopaganism. ... Reclaiming (formerly known as Reclaiming Collective) is an international community of women and men working to combine earth-based spirituality and political activism. ... Religious discrimination against adherents of various neopagan denominations. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Inner Sanctum of Wicca and Witchcraft (640 words)
WICCA (sometimes called Wicce, Witchcraft, The Craft, or The Old Religion by its practitioners) represents an ancient religion of love for life and nature.
Wicca is easily one of the most irrepressible religions in the world because it stimulates the intellect, promotes a simple, practical way of life and, most importantly, is emotionally satisfying.
With Wicca we invoke, chant, dance, and rite to the sway and ebb of the wheel of the year.
Religious Movements Homepage: Wicca (6247 words)
Wicca, in all its incarnations, is probably one of the longest and most persecuted religions in history.
Despite all the misinformation concerning Wicca in popular culture, it should be obvious that none of it applies to true adherents of the Wiccan craft.
Perhaps another attractive aspect of Wicca is the opportunity for feminists to identify with the persecuted of Europe's Witch-hunt who were victims of the strongly patriarchical structure of Christianity (Neitz, 359).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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