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Encyclopedia > White rhinoceros
White Rhinoceros
White rhinoceros, on the prowl
White rhinoceros, on the prowl
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Perissodactyla
Family: Rhinocerotidae
Genus: Ceratotherium
Species: C. simum
Binomial name
Ceratotherium simum
Burchell, 1817
The White Rhinoceros original range (orange: Northern (C. s. cottoni), green: Southern (C. s. simum)).
The White Rhinoceros original range (orange: Northern (C. s. cottoni), green: Southern (C. s. simum)).
Subspecies

Ceratotherium simum simum
Ceratotherium simum cottoni
Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Trinomial name Ceratotherium simum cottoni (Lydekker, 1908) The Northern White Rhinoceros or Northern Square-lipped rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) is one of the two subspecies of the White Rhinoceros. ... Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Trinomial name Ceratotherium simum simum Burchell, 1817 The Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) is a subspecies of the White Rhinoceros and is the most common subspecies of rhino in the world. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1266 × 844 pixel, file size: 693 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A picture taken by me, Kwh, of a White rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... Near Threatened (NT) is an conservation status assigned to species or lower taxa which may be considered threatened with extinction in the near future, although it does not currently qualify for the threatened status. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families Equidae Tapiridae Rhinocerotidae The odd-toed ungulates or Perissodactyla are large to very large browsing and grazing mammals with relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe. ... Species Ceratotherium simum Dicerorhinus sumatrensis Diceros bicornis Rhinoceros unicornis A rhinoceros is any of five surviving species of odd-toed ungulate in the family Rhinocerotidae. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... William John Burchell (1782 - 1863) was an English explorer and naturalist. ... Image File history File links Mapa_distribuicao_original_white_rhino. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... Trinomial name Ceratotherium simum simum Burchell, 1817 The Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) is a subspecies of the White Rhinoceros and is the most common subspecies of rhino in the world. ... Trinomial name Ceratotherium simum cottoni (Lydekker, 1908) The Northern White Rhinoceros or Northern Square-lipped rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) is one of the two subspecies of the White Rhinoceros. ...

The White Rhinoceros or Square-lipped rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is one of the five species of rhinoceros that still exist and is one of the few megafauna species left. Behind the elephant, it is probably the most massive remaining land animal in the world, along with the Indian Rhinoceros which is of comparable size. It is well known for its wide mouth used for grazing and for being the most social of all rhino species. The White Rhino is the most common of all rhinos and consists of two subspecies, with the northern subspecies being rarer than the southern. The northern subspecies may have as few as 50 remaining world wide. Black Rhino from Howletts Wild Animal Park For other uses, see Rhinoceros (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Charismatic megafauna be merged into this article or section. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Indian Rhinoceros range The Indian Rhinoceros or the Great One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) is a large mammal found in Nepal and in Assam, India. ... This article is about the zoological term. ...

Contents

Taxonomy and naming

Wide lips distinguish the white rhino
Wide lips distinguish the white rhino

The name White Rhino originated in South Africa where the Afrikaans language developed from the Dutch language. The Afrikaans word "wyd" (derived from the Dutch word "wijd"), which means "wide", referred to the width of the Rhinoceros mouth. Early English settlers in South Africa misinterpreted the "wyd" for "white". So the rhino with the wide mouth ended up being called the White Rhino and the other one, with the narrow pointed mouth, was called the Black Rhinoceros. The wide mouth was adapted to cropping large swaths of grass, while the narrow mouth was adapted to eating leaves on bushes. A White Rhino's skin colour is similar to that of the Black Rhino. An alternative common name for the white rhinoceros, more accurate but rarely used, is the square-lipped rhinoceros. The White Rhinoceros' generic name, Ceratotherium, is derived from the Greek terms keras "horn" and therion "beast". The specific epithet, simum, is derived from the Greek term simus, meaning "flat nosed". Image File history File links Breitmaulnashorn_(Ceratotherium_simum). ... Image File history File links Breitmaulnashorn_(Ceratotherium_simum). ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dutch (  ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 23 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Black Rhinoceros range Subspecies Diceros bicornis michaeli Diceros bicornis longipes Diceros bicornis minor Diceros bicornis bicornis The Black Rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis also colloquially Black Rhino is a mammal in the order Perissodactyla, native to the eastern and central areas of Africa including Kenya, Tanzania, Cameroon, South...


Southern white rhinoceros

White Rhinoceros at the Henry Doorly Zoo.
White Rhinoceros at the Henry Doorly Zoo.

There are two subspecies of White Rhinos; as of 2005, South Africa has the most of the first subspecies, The Southern White Rhino (Ceratotherium simum simum). Their population is about 11,600, making them the most abundant subspecies of rhino in the world. Wild-caught southern whites will readily breed in captivity given appropriate amounts of space and food, as well as the presence of other female rhinos of breeding age. For instance, 91 calves have been born at the San Diego Wild Animal Park since 1972. However, for reasons that are not currently understood, the rate of reproduction is extremely low among captive-born southern white females.[2] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2000x1083, 438 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Henry Doorly Zoo White Rhinoceros User:Cburnett ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2000x1083, 438 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Henry Doorly Zoo White Rhinoceros User:Cburnett ... The Henry Doorly Zoo is a zoo in Omaha, Nebraska. ... This article is about the zoological term. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Trinomial name Ceratotherium simum simum Burchell, 1817 The Southern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) is a subspecies of the White Rhinoceros and is the most common subspecies of rhino in the world. ... The San Diego Wild Animal Park is a zoo in the San Pasqual Valley area of San Diego, California. ...


There were also two White Rhinos in Livingstone, Zambia (in the Mosi-o-tunia zoological park). They were both poached during the night of June 6th, 2007. One was shot dead and dehorned not far from the gate and the other received serious bullet wounds.


Northern white rhinoceros

The Northern White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum cottoni), formerly found in several countries in East and Central Africa south of the Sahara, is considered Critically Endangered. Their wild population has been reduced from about 500 in the 1970s to only about four today. [3] Trinomial name Ceratotherium simum cottoni (Lydekker, 1908) The Northern White Rhinoceros or Northern Square-lipped rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) is one of the two subspecies of the White Rhinoceros. ... Trinomial name Ceratotherium simum cottoni (Lydekker, 1908) The Northern White Rhinoceros or Northern Square-lipped rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) is one of the two subspecies of the White Rhinoceros. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ...


According to BBC, there are only thirteen northern white rhinos left in the world as of 2007. [4]


Description

A white rhinoceros, showing the 'wide' lip.
A white rhinoceros, showing the 'wide' lip.

The White Rhino has a massive body and large head, a short neck and broad chest. This rhino can exceed 6000 pounds, have a head-and-body length of 3.35-4.2 m (11-13.9 feet) and a shoulder height of 150-185 cm (60-73 inches). The record-sized White Rhinoceros was about 3600 kg. On its snout it has two horns made of keratin, rather than bone as in deer antlers. The front horn is larger that the other horn and averages 89.9 cm (23.6 inches) in length and can reach 150 cm (59 inches). The White Rhinoceros also has a noticeable hump on the back of its neck which supports its large head. Each of the rhino's four stumpy feet has three toes. The colour of this animal ranges from yellowish brown to slate grey. The only hair on them is on the ear fringes and tail bristles. White Rhinos have the distinctive flat broad mouth which is used for grazing. Image File history File links White_rhino_front. ... Image File history File links White_rhino_front. ... Highland cow, a very old long-horned breed from Scotland. ...

White Rhinos have three distinct toes.
White Rhinos have three distinct toes.

Its ears can move independently to pick up more sounds but it depends most of all on smell. The olfactory passages which are responsible for smell are larger than their entire brain. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1114 KB) Photographie de la patte dun rhinocéros blanc (Ceratotherium simum). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1114 KB) Photographie de la patte dun rhinocéros blanc (Ceratotherium simum). ...


Behaviour and ecology

They are found in grassland and savannah habitat. Herbivores grazers that eats grass, preferring the shortest grains. The White Rhino is one of the largest pure grazers. Regularly it drinks twice a day if water is available, but if conditions get dry it can live four or five days without water. It spends about half of the day eating, one third resting and the rest of the day doing various other things. White Rhinos like all species of rhino love wallowing in mudholes to cool down.

White Rhinos enjoying a wallow in the mud.
White Rhinos enjoying a wallow in the mud.

White rhinos can produce sounds which include a panting contact call, grunts and snorts during courtship, squeals of distress, and deep bellows or growls when threatened. Threat displays (in males mostly) include wiping its horn on the ground and a head-low posture with ears back, combined with snarl threats and shrieking if attacked. The White Rhino is quick and agile and can run 30 mph. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 544 pixelsFull resolution (1122 × 763 pixel, file size: 109 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 544 pixelsFull resolution (1122 × 763 pixel, file size: 109 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...


White Rhinos can live in a crash or herd of up to 14 animals (usually mostly female). Sub-adult males will congregate, often in association with an adult female. Most adult bulls are solitary. Dominant bulls mark their territory with excrement and urine. The dung is laid in well defined piles. It may have 20-30 of these piles to alert passing rhinos that it's his territory. Another way of marking their territory is wiping his horns on bushes or the ground and scrapes with its feet before urine spraying. They do this around 10 times an hour while patrolling territory. The same ritual as urine marking except without spraying is also commonly used. The territorial male will scrape-mark every 30 yards or so around its territory boundary. Subordinate males do not mark territory. The most serious fights break out over mating rights over a female. Female territory is overlapped extensively and they do not defend it. Look up Solitary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Reproduction

Females reach sexually maturity 4-5 years while males reach sexual maturity at a later date which is 10-12 years of age. Courtship is often a difficult affair. The male stays beyond the point were the female acts aggressively and will give out a call when approaching her. The male chases and or blocks the way of the female while squealing or loud-wailing if the female tries to leave his territory. When ready to mate the female curls its tail and gets into a stiff stance during the half hour copulation. Breeding pairs stay together between 5-20 days before they part their separate ways. Gestation occurs around 16-18 months. A single calf is born and weighs between 88 and 143 pounds and are unsteady for their first 2 to 3 days of life. When threatend the baby will run in front of the mother. The mother is very protective of her calf and will fight for her baby vigorously. Weaning starts at 2 months and may continue suckling for over 12 months. The birth interval for the White Rhino is between 2 and 3 years. Before giving birth the mother will chase off her current calf. White Rhinos can live up to 40-50 years old.


Distribution

The northern subspecies is now only found in the Republic of Congo while the southern subspecies or majority of white rhino live in South Africa. 98.5% of white rhino occur in just four countries (S.A, Namibia, Zimbabwe and Kenya). Almost Broken up to the edge of extinction in the early 20th century, they have made a tremendous comeback. In 2001 it was estimated that there were 11,670 white rhinos in the wild with a further 777 detained worldwide, making it the most common Rhino in the world.


Like the Black Rhino, the White Rhino is under threat from habitat loss and poaching, most recently by Janjaweed. The horn is mostly used for traditional medicine although there are no health benefits from the horn,the horn is also used for traditional necklaces. A recent population count in the Republic Congo turned up only 10 rhinos left in the wild, which led conservationists in January 15 2005 to propose airlifting White Rhinos from Garamba into Kenya. Although official approval was initially obtained, resentment of foreign interference within the Congo has prevented the airlift from happening as of the beginning of 2006. On June 12, 2007 poachers shot the last 2 rhinos in Zambia, injuring one and killing the other. They have removed the horn off the dead rhino. A Janjaweed miltiaman mounted The Janjaweed (Arabic: جنجويد; variously transliterated Janjawid, Janjawed, Jingaweit, Jinjaweed, Janjawiid, Janjiwid, Janjaweit, etc. ...


Distribution of Northern White Rhino

The White Rhino (Ceratotherium simum cottoni), formerly ranged over parts of north-western Uganda, southern Chad, south-western Sudan, the eastern part of Central African Republic, and north-eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) [5]. The only confirmed population today occurs in north-eastern DRC.


Poachers reduced their population from 500 to 15 in the 1970s and 1980s. By the early 1990s through mid 2003 the population recovered to more than 32 animals. Surveys in 2000 indicated that the population has started recovering with 30 animals confirmed in 2000 with up to a possible six others [6]. Since mid 2003, poaching has intensified and reduced the wild population to only 5 to 10 animals.[7]


Garamba National Park

The last surviving population of wild Northern white rhinos are all located in Garamba National Park, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Recent civil wars and disruptions have been cause for much concern about the status of this last surviving population.[7] Garamba National Park, located in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Africa, was established in 1938. ...


In January 2005, the Government of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) approved a two-part plan for the translocation of five northern white rhino from Garamba National Park to a wildlife sanctuary in Kenya. The second part commits the Government and its international partners to increase conservation efforts in Garamba, so that the northern white rhinos can be returned when it is safe again.[8] The translocation has not occurred yet.


In August 2005, ground and aerial surveys conducted under the direction of African Parks Foundation and the African Rhino Specialist Group (ARSG) have only found four animals. A solitary adult male and a group of one adult male and two adult females. Efforts to locate further animals continue.[8]


White rhinos in zoos

Most white rhinos in zoos are southern white rhinos. The San Diego Wild Animal Park in San Diego, California, U.S.A. had three Northern White Rhinos [7], all of which were wild-caught. Only a female named Nola, and a male named Angalifu remain after the second female, Nadi, died in late May 2007 from what was believed to be old age. Nola is not fertile, and Nadi was not behaviorally receptive, so this captive population is not breeding. The San Diego Wild Animal Park is a zoo in the San Pasqual Valley area of San Diego, California. ... “San Diego” redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...


Footnotes

  1. ^ African Rhino Specialist Group (2003). Ceratotherium simum. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 11 May 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is near threatened.
  2. ^ Swaisgood, Ron. "Scientific Detective Work in Practice: Trying to Solve the Mystery of Poor Captive-born White Rhinocerous Reproduction", CRES Report, Zoological Society of San Diego, Summer 2006, pp. 1-3. 
  3. ^ International Rhino Foundation. 2002. Rhino Information - Northern White Rhino. Downloaded from [1] at 19 September 2006.
  4. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/6466703.stm
  5. ^ Sydney, J. 1965. The past and present distribution of some African ungulates. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 3:1-397.
  6. ^ Hillman Smith, K. 2001. Status of northern white rhinos and elephants in Garamba National Park, Democratic Republic of the Congo, during the wars. Pachyderm journal of the African Elephant, African Rhino and Asian Rhino Specialist Groups. July-December 2001. 31: 79-81.
  7. ^ a b c International Rhino Foundation. 2002. Rhino Information - Northern White Rhino. Downloaded from [2] at 19 September 2006.
  8. ^ a b IUCN. 2005. Reprieve planned for Garamba's rhinos: extra efforts promised to safeguard their homeland. Gland, Switzerland, 21 January 2005 News Release. Downloaded from [3]

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Emslie, R. and Brooks, M. (1999), African Rhino. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan., IUCN/SSC African Rhino Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, ISBN 2831705029

External links

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White Rhinoceros

  Results from FactBites:
 
White Rhinoceros - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (533 words)
The White Rhinoceros or Square-lipped rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is one of the five species of rhinoceros that still exists and is one of the few megaherbivore species left.
The name White Rhino originated in South Africa where the Afrikaans language developed from the Dutch language.
Like the Black Rhino, the White Rhino is under threat from habitat loss and poaching, most recently by an offshoot of the janjaweed.
Rhinoceros - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (851 words)
A male rhinoceros is called a bull, a female a cow, and the young a calf; a group of rhinoceros is called a "crash".
Rhinoceros horns are used in traditional Asian medicine, and for dagger handles in Yemen and Oman.
None of the five rhinoceros species have secure futures; the White Rhinoceros is perhaps the least endangered, the Javan Rhinoceros survives in only tiny numbers (estimated at 60 animals in 2002) and is one of the two or three most endangered large mammals anywhere in the world.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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