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White people (or simply whites) is a term which is usually used to refer to a racial group of human beings, known collectively as the white race and characterized, at least in part, by the light pigmentation of their skin. It can sometimes refer narrowly to people of European ancestry. [1] A broader racial concept uses "white" as a synonym for Caucasian. People from the Middle East, North Africa, Central Asia and northwestern parts of Indian Subcontinent may also be considered "white" under the latter usage. Look up white in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Whites redirects here. ... For other uses, see Race. ... In the last few centuries science has had an important influence on everyday notions of race. ... // Origins of modern humans see also single-origin hypothesis, multiregional hypothesis. ... The historical definition of race was an immutable and distinct type or species, sharing distinct racial characteristics such as constitution, temperament, and mental abilities. ... Race and health research is mostly from the US. It has found both current and historical racial differences in the frequency, treatments, and availability of treatments for several diseases. ... The study of race and intelligence is the controversial study of how human intellectual capacities may vary among the different population groups commonly known as races. ... // Even as the idea of race was becoming a powerful organizing principle in many societies, the shortcomings of the concept were apparent. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... // Main article: Racial demographics of the United States The United States is a diverse country racially. ... Brazil is a racially diverse and multiracial country. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... This is a list of topics related to racism: Affirmative action Afrocentrism Anti-Arabism Anti-Italianism Anti-Japanese sentiment Anti-racism Anti-Semitism Apartheid Aryan Nations[1] Asian pride The Bell Curve Black Hebrew Israelites[2] Black Panther Party Black power Black supremacy Blackface British National Party[3] Bumiputra Caste... For other uses, see Race. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Historical data for native populations collected by R. Biasutti prior to 1940. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For the peoples actually from the Caucasus, see Peoples of the Caucasus. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...


Rather than a straightforward description of skin color, the term white functions as a color terminology for race. The term emerged in a racialized, European historical context that assumed that race was a scientific fact rather than a social construct.[2][3][4][5][6] Various conceptions of whiteness have had implications in terms of national identity, consanguinity, public policy, religion, population statistics, racial segregation, affirmative action, eugenics, racial marginalization and racial quotas. The concept has been applied with varying degrees of formality and internal consistency in disciplines including: sociology, politics, genetics, biology, medicine, biomedicine, language, culture, and law. In some societies, color terminology are or were used in racial classifications. ... Eurocentrism is the practice of viewing the world from a European perspective, with an implied belief, either consciously or subconsciously, in the preeminence of European (and, more generally, of Western) culture. ... For other uses, see Race. ... Consanguinity, literally meaning common blood, describes how close a person is related to another in the sense of a family. ... Public policy is a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a problem. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [10], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... This article is about the sociological concept. ... A quota is a prescribed number or share of something. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... For other uses, see Biology (disambiguation). ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that treat patients. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ...


Raj Bhopal and Liam Donaldson, both M.D.s at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, England, criticize the broad classification of white used by contemporary demographic surveys such as the U.S. Census and British Census. They state that the term white "in practice, refers to people of European origin with pale complexions". They conclude that white people are a sufficiently heterogeneous group that white should be abandoned as a classification for purposes of epidemiology and health research.[7] Newcastle University is a British university located in Newcastle upon Tyne in the north of England. ...

Contents

Physical appearance

There is no universal definition of "whiteness" as a human physical characteristic. The most notable trait describing people who identify as white is light skin,although even this trait is not universal amongst people identifying as white, for example there is an: "influence of social class to the fluidity of color/race identification in Brazil. Wealthier people with darker phenotypes tend to classify themselves and be classified by others in lighter categories".[8][9]


Light skin

Light-skinned Tocharians, with light hair and light eye color. 6th century AD fresco, Qizil, Tarim Basin.
Light-skinned Tocharians, with light hair and light eye color. 6th century AD fresco, Qizil, Tarim Basin.

White people are archetypically distinguished by pale skin. In Jablonski and Chaplin's (2000) study, The evolution of human skin coloration, Europeans have lighter skin (as measured by population average skin reflectance read by spectrophotometer at A685) than any other group that was measured. On the other hand, women have lighter skin than men in all human groups. Southern Europeans (measures taken from Spaniards) show a skin pigmentation in parts of the body not exposed to the sun similar to that of Northern Europeans and, in some cases, even lighter.[10] While all mean values of skin reflectance of non-European populations are lower than Europeans for the groups represented in this study, there is significant overlap between populations.[11] This observation has been noted by the Supreme Court of the United States, which stated in a 1923 lawsuit over whiteness that the "swarthy brunette[s] ... are darker than some of the lighter hued persons of the brown or yellow races".[12] Download high resolution version (776x603, 549 KB)Fresco from Qizil. ... Download high resolution version (776x603, 549 KB)Fresco from Qizil. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... Tocharian donors, with light hair and light eye color, dressed in Sassanian style, 6th century CE fresco, Qizil, Tarim Basin. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... In physics, spectrophotometry is the quantitative study of spectra. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Civil action redirects here. ...


The epidermis of light skinned people is not actually white. The underlying layers of collagen and adipose tissue are white in people of all races. In lightly pigmented people, the epidermis is an almost transparent layer of film. Consequently the epidermis allows the underlying white tissues to become visible.[13] Blood vessels interlaced between the adipose tissue produce the pale pink color associated with light skin. Pigments known as carotenes found in the fat produce a more yellow effect. In darker skinned people the epidermis is filled with melanosomes that obscure the underlying layers.[14][15][16] Most mammals have a thick layer of body hair that protects the skin from the sun's rays and also keeps the body warm at night. Chimpanzees are the closest living relatives to humans. Since they have light skin covered by hair, it is likely that our shared common ancestor would also have lacked pigmentation and been covered by hair.[17] As human brain size increased the increase in its energy requirements would have required finer thermoregulation to avoid overheating.[10] This may be one reason why humans have more sweat glands than other mammals, especially on the face. The additional loss of body hair would have increased the effectiveness of evaporation of sweat, and produced better cooling.[10] Though naked skin is advantageous for thermoregulation, it exposes the epidermis to destructive levels of UV radiation that can cause sunburn, skin cancer and birth defects resulting from the destruction of the essential vitamin B folate.[10] Consequently strong natural selection in Africa favored increased levels of melanin in the skin, and the hairless Hominina ancestors of modern humans lost their light skin.[10] Tropocollagen triple helix. ... Adipose tissue is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of energy in the form of fat, although it also cushions and insulates the body. ... Cross-section of all skin layers Optical coherence tomography tomogram of fingertip, depicting stratum corneum (~500µm thick) with stratum disjunctum on top and stratum lucidum (connection to stratum spinosum) in the middle. ... Adipose tissue is one of the main types of connective tissue. ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... In a biological cell, a melanosome is an organelle containing melanin, the most common light-absorbing pigment found in the animal kingdom. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... Hominina is a subtribe that inludes Homo sapiens, Australopithecus, as well as prehistoric humans. ...


The skin of albinos is similar to European and East Asian people's skin in that it is depigmented relative to other populations. However, in white and East Asian people the enzymes that produce melanin are still active and produce relatively small amounts of melanin to provide some coloration to the skin. With albinos, the enzyme that produces melanin is defective, thus they produce virtually no melanin, which produces the palest skin of all humans.[18] Since melanin protects the skin from UV radiation, albinos have no natural protection and their skin is vulnerable to sunlight that can be tolerated by other light-skinned peoples. Furthermore in the presence of more intense levels of UV radiation from the sun, the skin cells of white and East Asian people are able to produce additional amounts of melanin to tan the skin to a darker complexion, providing extra protection, while albinos lack the ability to tan.[19][20] Albinism is very rare. For example, one person in 17,000 in the United States has some type of albinism.[21] Albinism is a genetic condition resulting in a lack of pigmentation in the eyes, skin and hair. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... A woman sunbathing A suntanned arm showing browner skin where it has been exposed. ...


Origins of light skin

Any mutation that produced lighter skin color would have been a severe disadvantage to those living under the bright African sun.[17] When humans left Africa for less sun intense regions of the world, the selective pressure against lighter skin would have relaxed. This probably explains the greater variety of skin color found outside sub-Saharan Africa.[22] Lighter skin colors may have been advantageous at higher latitudes since they allow greater penetration of the sun's UV radiation, a requirement for vitamin D synthesis. This may have led to selection for lightly pigmented skin.[17] Scientists have identified at least 100 genes associated with pigment processing. Though African populations are relatively dark, according to a recent study they possess a greater diversity in skin complexion than all other populations. It is therefore likely that many of the alleles associated with light pigmentation were already present in an ancestral population in Africa prior to their dispersal. When humans migrated out of Africa, the lighter skin causing alleles may have accumulated in one population, either by genetic drift, natural selection, sexual selection or a combination of these effects. Since their effects are additive it is possible light skin could arise over several generations without any new mutations taking place.[23][24] Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Illustration from The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin showing the Tufted Coquette Lophornis ornatus, female on left, ornamented male on right. ...


According to Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, light skin probably arose in North Africa or both in the north and east.[25] Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (born January 25, 1922) is an Italian population geneticist born in Genoa, who has been a professor at Stanford University since 1970 (now emeritus). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


A 2006 study provides evidence that the light skin pigmentation observed in Europeans and East Asians arose independently. They concluded that light pigmentation in Europeans is at least partially due to the effects of positive directional and/or sexual selection.[26]


Molecular biology of light skin

Skin color is a quantitative trait that varies continuously on a gradient from dark to light, as it is a polygenic trait, under the influence of several genes. Many of these genes have yet to be identified, however two genes are known that do contribute to skin color, they are the MC1R and the SLC24A5 genes.[17] The mutation resulting in the light skin version of the SLC24A5 gene has been estimated to have originated in Europe between 6,000 and 12,000 years ago, indicating that at least one of the genes responsible for pale skin colour in Europeans arose relatively recently.[27] A genetic disorder, or genetic disease is a disease caused, at least in part, by the genes of the person with the disease. ... Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl na Uniprot na Refseq Location na Pubmed search The melanocortin 1 receptor (also known as melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor or Mc1r) is one of the key proteins in regulating hair and skin color. ... SLC24A5 (solute carrier family 24, member 5) is a gene that is thought to be one of many genes that control skin pigmentation in humans, and therefore implicated in defining race. ...


Mixed ancestry people of African-European descent who possess one or two copies of the European allele of the SLC24A5 gene have skin color that is significantly lighter than mixed ancestry people who possess only the African allele. It is estimated, based on this observation, that the SLC24A5 locus "explains between 25-38% of the European-African difference in skin melanin index".[28][24][29][30]


Census and social definitions in different regions

Further information: Whiteness studies

Definitions of white have changed over the years, including the official definitions used in many countries, such as the United States and Brazil.[31] Some defied official regulations through the phenomenon of "passing", many of them becoming white people, either temporarily or permanently. Through the mid- to late 20th century, numerous countries had formal legal standards or procedures defining racial categories (see cleanliness of blood, apartheid in South Africa, hypodescent). However, as critiques of racism and scientific arguments against the existence of race arose, a trend towards self-identification of racial status arose. Below are some census definitions of white, which may differ from the social definition of white within the same country. The social definition has also been added where possible. Whiteness studies (also known as critical whiteness studies) is a controversial arena of academic inquiry focused on the cultural, historical and sociological aspects of people identified as white, and the social construction of whiteness as a social status. ... Portrait of Grey Owl in 1936. ... Limpieza de sangre (in Spanish), Limpeza de sangue (in Portuguese), both meaning cleanliness of blood was a concept of Iberian Modern History. ... A beach, in apartheid South Africa, 1982. ... Hypodescent is the practice of determining the lineage of a child of mixed race ancestry by assigning the child the race of his or her more socially subordinate parent. ...


Australia

Further information: Europeans in Oceania

From 1788, when the first British colony in Australia was founded, until the early 19th century, most immigrants to Australia were British and Irish convicts. These were augmented by small numbers of free settlers from Britain, Ireland and other European countries. However, until the mid-19th century, there were few restrictions on immigration, although members of ethnic minorities tended to be assimilated into the Anglo-Celtic populations. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... // Foundation and growth Governor Lachlan Macquarie In 1770 Captain James Cook sailed along the east coast of Australia, the first European to do so. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... A studio photograph of Tasmanian convict Bill Thompson, showing the convict uniform and the use of leg irons. ... Anglo-Celtic is a macro-cultural term[1] used to collectively describe the cultures native to the British Isles, and the significant diasporas located in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States. ...


People of many nationalties, including many non-white people, emigrated to Australia during the goldrushes of the 1850s. However, the vast majority was still white and the goldrushes inspired the first racist activism and policy, directed mainly at Chinese people. your gay, your gay, im your secret admirer and i like your boobs there nice and smooth. ... The Roll Up banner around which a mob of about 1,000 men rallied and attacked Chinese miners at Lambing Flat in June 1861. ... The term Chinese people may refer to any of the following: A person who resides in and holds citizenship of the Peoples Republic of China (including Hong Kong and Macau) or the Republic of China (Taiwan). ...


From the late 19th century, the Colonial/State and later federal governments of Australia restricted all permanent immigration to the country by non-Europeans. These policies became known as the "White Australia policy", which was consolidated and enabled by the Immigration Restriction Act 1901,[32] but was never universally applied. Immigration inspectors were empowered to ask immigrants to take dictation from any European language as a test for admittance, a test used in practice to exclude people from Asia, Africa, and some European and South American countries, depending on the political climate. The states and territories of Australia make up the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government. ... The Commonwealth of Australia is a federative constitutional monarchy under a parliamentary democracy. ... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time While there was never any specific official policy called the White Australia policy, this is the term used for a collection of historical legislation and policies which either intentionally or unintentionally restricted non-white immigration... The Immigration Restriction Act 1901 was an Act of the Parliament of Australia which limited immigration to Australia and formed the basis of the White Australia policy. ... Most of the many indigenous languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family. ...


Although they were not the prime targets of the policy, it was not until after World War II that large numbers of southern European and eastern European immigrants were admitted for the first time.[33] Following this, the White Australia Policy was relaxed in stages: non-European nationals who could demonstrate European descent were admitted (e.g. descendants of European colonizers and settlers from Latin American or Africa), as were autochthonous inhabitants of various nations from the Middle East, most significantly from Lebanon. In 1973, all immigration restrictions based on race and/or geographic origin were officially terminated. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The southern half of Europe is shown in shades of red. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Argentina

Argentina, along with other areas of new settlement like Canada, Australia or New Zealand, has one of the greatest percentage of white people outside of Europe. White Argentines make up to 95% of Argentina's population, or around 39 million people.[34][35] This article is about the demographics features of the population of Argentina, including distribution, ethnicity, economic status and other. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


White Argentines are mainly descendants of immigrants who came from Europe in the late 19th century. Most of these immigrants came from Spain and Italy, as well as France, the United Kingdom and people from other European countries, among them European Jews. Others counted among the White population of Argentina came from countries of the Middle East, primarily Lebanon and Syria. Censuses are conducted on the basis of self-identification. According to the last census, 95% of Argentines are classified as white. More conservative estimates put this figure as low as 85%.[36] Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... Languages English, Hebrew, Yiddish, Russian Religion Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Hebrew: אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים, pronounced , sing. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...

White Brazilians. Kaká and Brazilian President Lula.
White Brazilians. Kaká and Brazilian President Lula.

This article is about the Brazilian footballer. ... Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (pronounced ), born Luiz Inácio da Silva on 27 October 1945, popularly known as Lula, is the current President of Brazil and a founding member of its Workers Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores). ...

Brazil

Main article: White Brazilian

Brazil's definition of whiteness is premised on racial mixture rather than hypodescent, producing a range of historical categories for race. As a term, white is more broadly applied than in North America. White Brazilians make up 49. ... Hypodescent is the practice of determining the lineage of a child of mixed race ancestry by assigning the child the race of his or her more socially subordinate parent. ...


Recent censuses in Brazil are conducted on the basis of self-identification. In the 2000 census, 53% of Brazilians (approximately 93 million people in 2000; around 100 million as of 2006) were white and 39% pardo or multiracial Brazilians. White is applied as a term to people of European descent (including European Jews), and Middle Easterners of all faiths. The census shows a trend of fewer Brazilians of African descent (blacks and pardos) identifying as white people as their social status increases.[37] In Brazil, the Pardos are a mixture of Europeans, Blacks and Amerindians, varying from light to dark complexion, as used by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in censuses since 1950. ... Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother and a black father The terms multiracial and mixed-race describe people whose parents are not the same race, or the descendants of such mixed people. ...


Canada

In the results of Statistics Canada's 2001 Canadian Census, white is one category in the population groups data variable, derived from data collected in question 19 (the results of this question are also used to derive the visible minority groups variable).[38] Statistics Canada (French: Statistique Canada) is the Canadian federal government department commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... The Census in Canada began with the colonys first census in 1666. ...


In the 1995 Employment Equity Act, '"members of visible minorities" means persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour'. In the 2001 Census, persons who marked-in Chinese, South Asian, African, Filipino, Latin American, Southeast Asian, Arab, West Asian, Middle Eastern, Japanese or Korean were included in the visible minority population.[39] A separate census question on "cultural or ethnic origin" (question 17) does not refer to skin colour.[40] Human skin colour can range from almost black to nearly colorless (appearing pinkish white due to the blood in the skin) in different people. ...


Norway

According to the Norwegian Social Science Data Service, white is a possible answer to ethnic/people group category question. After Norwegians, Sami, Kvens and other Nordics, it is mentioned as white/European. Other categories are Asian, Black/African/Caribbean and "other".[41] The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... KVEN 1450 The Boomer is an oldies station licensed to Ventura, California. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


United Kingdom

In the UK, the Office for National Statistics uses the term white as an ethnic category. The terms White British, White Irish and White Other are used. White British includes Welsh, Northern Ireland, English and Scottish peoples. The category White Other includes all white people not from the British Isles.[42][43] Socially, in the UK white usually refers only to people of native British and European origin.[44] Office for National Statistics logo The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the United Kingdom government executive agency charged with the collection and publication of statistics related to the economy, population and society of the United Kingdom at national and local levels. ... White British is an ethnic classification used in the United Kingdom Census 2001, 92. ... Irish Britons are residents of Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) whose birth place and/or ancestry originates in the island of Ireland. ... White Other is a term used in the UK census to describe white persons of non-British descent. ... This article is about Welsh people who are considered to be an ethnic group and a nation. ... This article is about the constituent country. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... This article is about the Scottish people as an ethnic group. ...


United States

See also: White American and Definitions of whiteness in the United States

The current U.S. Census definition includes white "people having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa.[45] The U.S. Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation describes white people as "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa through racial categories used in the UCR Program adopted from the Statistical Policy Handbook (1978) and published by the Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce.[46] The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... The origins from which white Americans may come. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


The cultural boundaries separating white Americans from other racial or ethnic categories are contested and always changing. According to John Tehranian, among those not considered white at some points in American history have been: the Irish, Germans, Ashkenazi Jews, Italians, Spaniards, Slavs, and Greeks.[47] Studies have found that while current parameters officially encompassed Middle Eastern Americans as part of the White American racial category, a lot of Middle Eastern Americans from places other than Bilad al-Sham feel they are not white and are not perceived as white by American society."[48] The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... Languages English, Hebrew, Yiddish, Russian Religion Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Hebrew: אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים, pronounced , sing. ... The Spanish people or Spaniards are an ethnic group native to Spain, in southwestern Europe, who are primarily descended from the autochthonous pre-Indo-European Euskaldunak, Latin, Visigothic, Celtic and Moorish peoples. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The traditional Arabic term Sham (Arabic: بلاد الشام , also transliterated bilad-ush-sham etc. ...


Professor David R. Roediger of the University of Illinois, suggests that the construction of the white race in the United States was an effort to mentally distance slave owners from slaves.[49] By the 18th century, white had become well established as a racial term. The process of officially being defined as white by law often came about in court disputes over pursuit of citizenship. The Immigration Act of 1790 offered naturalization only to "any alien, being a free white person". In at least 52 cases, people denied the status of white by immigration officials sued in court for status as white people. By 1923, courts had vindicated a "common-knowledge" standard, concluding that "scientific evidence" was incoherent. Legal scholar John Tehranian argues that in reality this was a "performance-based" standard, relating to religious practices, education, intermarriage and a community's role in the United States.[50] David R. Roediger (July 13, 1952) is a professor of history at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). ... A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious campus in the University of Illinois system. ... Citizen redirects here. ... A judge swears in a new citizen. ...


In 1923, the Supreme Court decided in United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind that people of India were not "free white men" entitled to citizenship, despite anthropological evidence that they were Caucasian.[51] The 1970 US Census classified South Asians as white. The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Holding Court membership Chief Justice: William Howard Taft Associate Justices: Joseph McKenna, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. ... For the peoples actually from the Caucasus, see Peoples of the Caucasus. ... Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the United States Census Bureau and the Federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB), is a self-identification data item in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify. ... Map of South Asia South Asia is a subregion of Asia comprising the modern states of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, . It covers about 4,480,000 km², or 10 percent of the continent, and is also known as the Indian subcontinent. ...


Uruguay

Uruguayans and Argentines share closely related demographic ties. Almost half of the population is of Italian origin. As a result, the Spanish spoken in Uruguay is heavily influenced by Italian. Uruguay's population is heavily populated by people of European origin mainly Spaniards, followed closely by Italians, including numbers of French, Germans, Portuguese, British (English or Scots), Swiss, Russians, Poles, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Estonians, Latvians, Dutch, Belgians, Austrians, Croatians, Greeks, Macedonians, Scandinavians, Irish, Lebanese, Israeli, and Armenians which migrated to Uruguay in the late 19th and 20th centuries. For this reason, Uruguay has the most homogeneous population of the western hemisphere. Uruguayans share a Spanish linguistic and cultural background, even though almost a half of the population is of Italian origin and other ethnic groups. ... This article deals with the European people as an ethnic group or ethnic groups. ... Look up Homogeneous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


White Uruguayans make up to 88% of Uruguay's population of 3.4 million. Much like in neighboring Argentina, most of these immigrants came from Spain and Italy. Uruguay also has several settlements of Swiss and British immigrants. [6] Swiss may be: Related to Switzerland: the Swiss Confederation Swiss people Swiss cheese Swiss corporations Switzerland-related topics Named Swiss: Swiss, Missouri Swiss, North Carolina Swiss, West Virginia Swiss, Wisconsin Swiss International Air Lines Swiss Re SWiSS is also used as a disparaging nickname for the Socialist Workers Student Society. ...


Relations with Black people

The one drop rule — that a person with any trace of non-white ancestry (however small or invisible) cannot be considered white — is unique to the United States.[52] The one drop rule created a bifurcated system of either black or white regardless of a person's physical appearance. This contrasts with the more flexible social structures present in Latin America, where there are no clear-cut divisions between various ethnicities.[53] The one-drop theory (or one-drop rule) is the colloquial term for the standard, found throughout the USA, that holds that a person with even one drop of non-white ancestry should be classified as colored, especially for the purposes of laws forbidding inter-racial marriage. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


As a result of centuries of interbreeding with white people, the majority of African Americans have white admixture, and many White people also have African ancestry. Some have suggested that the majority of the descendants of African slaves are white.[54] According to recent studies, white Americans rank non-Americans as socially closer to them than fellow Americans who are black.[55] Writer and editor Debra Dickerson questions the legitimacy of the one drop rule, stating that "easily one-third of blacks have white DNA".[56] She argues that in ignoring their white ancestry, African Americans are denying their fully articulated multi-racial identities. The peculiarity of the one drop rule may be illustrated by the case of Mariah Carey.[57] She was publicly called "another white girl trying to sing black", but in an interview with Larry King, Carey said despite her physical appearance and the fact that she was raised primarily by her white mother, she does not feel that she is white, because of the effects of the one drop rule.[58][59][60] Debra J. Dickerson (born 1959) is an American author and editor. ... Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother, and a black father. ... This article is about the singer. ... This article is about the television host. ...


History of the term

The definition of white people has varied in different time periods and locations. Ancient Greece and Rome used the term white as one description of skin color. Its light appearance was distinguished, for example, in a comparison of white-skinned Persian soldiers from the sun-tanned skin of Greek troops in Xenophon's Agesilaus.[61] One early use of the term appears in the Amherst Papyri, which were scrolls written in ancient Ptolemaic Greek. It contained the use of black and white in reference to human skin color.[62] In an analysis of the rise of the term, classicist James Dee found that, "the Greeks and Romans do not describe themselves as "white people" —or as anything else because they had no regular word in their color vocabulary for themselves—and we can see that the concept of a distinct 'white race' was not present in the ancient world."[63] Assignment of positive and negative connotations of white and black date to the classical period in a number of European languages, but these differences were not applied to skin color per se. Religious conversion was described figuratively as a change in skin color.[64] The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Persia redirects here. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... Blank papyrus. ... Ptolemy, one of Alexander the Greats generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexanders death in 323 BC. In 305 BC he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as Soter (saviour). ... Human skin colour can range from almost black to nearly colorless (appearing pinkish white due to the blood in the skin) in different people. ...


The term "white race" or "white people" entered dictionaries of the major European languages in the 1600s.[64] Winthrop Jordan, author of Black Over White, argues that race emerged with the inherited status of slavery. He says the shift from Christian, free, and English to white happened in approximately 1680.[65] Theodore W. Allen notes in The Invention of the White Race that white identity emerged in the colonies with slavery, and says that "seventeenth-century commentator, Morgan Godwyn, found it necessary to explain to the English at home that, in Barbados, 'white' was 'the general name for Europeans."[66] White quickly became a legal category, encoded in a variety of laws and conferring different status. Winthrop Donaldson Jordan (1931- ) is renowned writer of the racial history of the United States. ... Slave redirects here. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ...


In 1758, Carolus Linnaeus proposed what he considered to be natural taxonomic categories of the human species. He distinguished between Homo sapiens and Homo sapiens europaeus, and he later added four geographical subdivisions of humans: white Europeans, red Americans, yellow Asians and black Africans. Although Linnaeus intended them as objective classifications, he used both taxonomical and cultural data in his subdivision descriptions.[67] Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Taxonomy (from Greek ταξινομία from the words taxis = order and nomos = law) may refer to either a hierarchical classification of things, or the principles underlying the classification. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... This article deals with the European people as an ethnic group or ethnic groups. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ...


In 1775, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach described the white race as "the white color holds the first place, such as it is that most Europeans. The redness of cheeks in this variety is almost peculiar to it: at all events it is but seldom seen in the rest... Color white, Cheeks rosy".[68] He categorized humans into five races, which largely corresponded with Linnaeus' classifications, except for the addition of Oceanians (whom he called Malay).[67] He characterized the racial classification scheme of Metzger as making "two principal varieties as extremes:(1) the white man native of Europe, of the northern parts of Asia, America and Africa.."[69], and the racial classification scheme of John Hunter as having, "seven varieties:... (6) brownish as the southern Europeans, Spaniards &e., Turks, Abyssinians, Samoiedes and Lapps; (7) white, as the remaining Europeans, the Georgians, Mingrelians and Kabardinski"[69]. Blumebach is known for arguing that physical characteristics like skin color, cranial profile, etc., were correlated with group character and aptitude. Craniometry and phrenology would attempt to make physical appearance correspond with racial categories. The fairness and relatively high brows of Caucasians were held to be apt physical expressions of a loftier mentality and a more generous spirit. The epicanthic folds around the eyes of Mongolians and their slightly sallow outer epidermal layer bespoke their supposedly crafty, literal-minded nature. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (May 11, 1752 – January 22, 1840) was a German doctor and physiologist, one of the first to explore the study of mankind as an aspect of natural history, whose teachings in comparative anatomy were applied to classification of human races, of which he determined five. ... For the fictional superstate in George Orwells novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, see Oceania (fiction). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Phrenology (from Greek: φρήν, phrēn, mind; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is a theory which claims to be able to determine character, personality traits and criminality on the basis of the shape of the head (i. ...


Later in life, Blumenbach encountered in Switzerland "eine zum Verlieben schönen Négresse" ("a negro woman so beautiful to fall in love with"). Further anatomical study led him to the conclusion that 'individual Africans differ as much, or even more, from other individual Africans as Europeans differ from Europeans'. Furthermore he concluded that Africans were not inferior to the rest of mankind 'concerning healthy faculties of understanding, excellent natural talents and mental capacities'.[70] These later ideas were far less influential than his earlier assertions with regard to the perceived relative qualities of the different races, which opened the way to secular and scientific racism.[71] Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota...


Immanuel Kant used the term weiß (white) in Von den verschiedenen Rassen der Menschen (Of [About] The Different Races of Humans - 1775) to refer to the "the white one [race] of northern Europe" [69] . Kant redirects here. ...


According to Gregory Jay, an English professor at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (also known as UW-Milwaukee, UWM or Milwaukee) is a public research university located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. ...

Before the age of exploration, group differences were largely based on language, religion, and geography. ...the European had always reacted a bit hysterically to the differences of skin color and facial structure between themselves and the populations encountered in Africa, Asia, and the Americas (see, for example, Shakespeare's dramatization of racial conflict in Othello and The Tempest). Beginning in the 1500s, Europeans began to develop what became known as "scientific racism," the attempt to construct a biological rather than cultural definition of race ... Whiteness, then, emerged as what we now call a "pan-ethnic" category, as a way of merging a variety of European ethnic populations into a single "race"...[6]

See also

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For the peoples actually from the Caucasus, see Peoples of the Caucasus. ... // For other uses, see Cracker. ... Angry White Male (sometimes abbreviated as AWM) is the designation of a voting bloc of white males in the United States, predominantly of working class or lower middle class status, who are angered by actual or perceived favoritism towards non-whites, women, gays, and other minorities in government, business, media... The birth of the first white child was a celebrated occasion across many parts of the Americas and Australia. ... This article deals with the European people as an ethnic group or ethnic groups. ... The diversion of Haplogroup F and its descendants. ... Human skin colour can range from almost black to nearly colorless (appearing pinkish white due to the blood in the skin) in different people. ... White African people are descendants of Europeans who settled on the continent of Africa under colonial rule. ... The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... White Argentines make up 95% of Argentina population, or around 39 million people. ... White Brazilians make up 49. ... Language(s) Spanish Religion(s) Predominantly Roman Catholic with Jewish Protestant Atheist and Agnostic minorities Related ethnic groups Spaniards Italians Portuguese French Andalusians Canarians Galician European White Hispanic White Argentine White Brazilian Jewish Cubans White American . ... This article is about ethnic stereotypes directed against of Caucasian or European descent, or more broadly anyone who appears to be light-skinned. ... White Anglo-Saxon Protestant, commonly abbreviated to the acronym WASP, is a term which originated in the United States. ... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time While there was never any specific official policy called the White Australia policy, this is the term used for a collection of historical legislation and policies which either intentionally or unintentionally restricted non-white immigration... White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racial-minority inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs. ... White guilt refers to a concept of individual or collective guilt felt by some white people for the racist treatment of people of color by whites both historically and presently. ... This article is about U.S. white Hispanic residents. ... This article deals with the white population of Latin America. ... White male is a sociological term used in the United States to describe the demographic that is presumed to dominate the nations elites and to face the least discrimination. ... White Mexicans make up 15% of Mexicos population or around 16. ... White Nationalism (WN) advocates a racial definition (or redefinition) of white national identity, as opposed to multiculturalism. ... White Aryan Resistance member wearing a white pride t-shirt White pride is a slogan used primarily in the United States (though its usage has spread internationally) to promote the glorification of the heritage of persons of White-European racial identity[1]—though generally to the exclusion of homosexuals and... White Privilege is the concept that White people are inherently more deserving of consideration than non-white people. ... White separatism is a political movement that promotes a separate homeland for white people. ... Whiteness studies (also known as critical whiteness studies) is a controversial arena of academic inquiry focused on the cultural, historical and sociological aspects of people identified as white, and the social construction of whiteness as a social status. ... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds the belief that white people are superior to other races. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Cosmic Latte is the color of the universe, according to a team of astronomers from Johns Hopkins University. ... See also List of colors Categories: Stub | Colors ... Ivory is an off-white color that resembles Ivory, the teeth and tusks of animals. ... Magnolia is a color generally considered to be a very pale/foggy purplish-white. ... Old Lace is a very pale yellowish orange that resembles the color of an old lace tablecloth. ... Seashell is an off-white color that resembles the average seashell. ... This article is about the color. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ White, from the Compact Oxford English Dictionary.
  2. ^ "Referring to races by colors, such as White, Black, and Brown, tends to obscure the fact that skin color and racial group are not the same." Frank F. Montalvo, "Surviving Race: Skin Color and the Socialization and Acculturation of Latinas," Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 13:3, 2004.
  3. ^ Rotem Kowner, "Skin as a Metaphor: Early European Racial Views on Japan, 1548–1853," Ethnohistory 51.4 (2004) 751-778.
  4. ^ Christine Ward Gailey Politics, Colonialism and the Mutable Color of South Pacific Peoples," Transforming Anthropology 5.1&2 (1994). On historical antecedents during the European medieval period
  5. ^ James H. Dee, "Black Odysseus, White Caesar: When Did 'White People' Become 'White,'?" The Classical Journal, Vol. 99, No. 2. (Dec., 2003 - Jan., 2004), p. 162ff.
  6. ^ a b Gregory Jay, [Who Invented White People? http://www.uwm.edu/~gjay/Whiteness/Whitenesstalk.html], 1998.
  7. ^ http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1509085&blobtype=pdf
  8. ^ The concept and measurement of race and their relationship to public health: a review focused on Brazil and the United States by Claudia Travassos and David R. Williams. Cad. Saúde Pública (2004) v.20 n.3.
  9. ^ The Perception of “Racial” Traits by Frank W Sweet. Essays on the Color Line and the One-Drop Rule (2004).Backintyme Essays.
  10. ^ a b c d e NG, Chaplin G. 2000 The evolution of skin coloration, p. 19.
  11. ^ American Anthropological Association, "The Human Spectrum", Race: Are we so different? website.
  12. ^ John Tehranian, "Performing Whiteness: Naturalization Litigation and the Construction of Racial Identity in America," The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 109, No. 4. (Jan., 2000), p. 827.
  13. ^ Introduction to Skin Histology
  14. ^ Skin Color Adaptation
  15. ^ Light and the 4 skin color components
  16. ^ The 3 skin layers: epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous fat
  17. ^ a b c d Why humans and their fur parted ways
  18. ^ [1] Skin Care: How to Save Your Skin page 13 ISBN 0766838188
  19. ^ The skin we're in
  20. ^ What controls variation in human skin color? PubMed.com
  21. ^ Albinism
  22. ^ Rana et al (2000). "High Polymorphism at the Human Melanocortin 1 Receptor Locus". Pigment Cell Research 13: 135. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0749.2000.130303.x. 
  23. ^ Human skin color diversity is highest in sub-Saharan African populations
  24. ^ a b Heather L. Norton, Rick A. Kittles, Esteban Parra, Paul McKeigue, Xianyun Mao, Keith Cheng, Victor A. Canfield, Daniel G. Bradley, Brian McEvoy and Mark D. Shriver (December 11, 2006) Genetic Evidence for the Convergent Evolution of Light Skin in Europeans and East Asians Oxford Journals [2]
  25. ^ Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Genes, Peoples and Languages p75, Penguin, 2001, ISBN 0140296026
  26. ^ Heather L. Norton, Rick A. Kittles, Esteban Parra, Paul McKeigue, Xianyun Mao, Keith Cheng, Victor A. Canfield, Daniel G. Bradley, Brian McEvoy and Mark D. Shriver (December 11, 2006) Genetic Evidence for the Convergent Evolution of Light Skin in Europeans and East Asians Oxford Journals [3]
  27. ^ Gibbons A (2007). "American Association of Physical Anthropologists meeting. European skin turned pale only recently, gene suggests". Science 316 (5823): 364. doi:10.1126/science.316.5823.364a. PMID 17446367. 
  28. ^ SLC24A5, a Putative Cation Exchanger, Affects Pigmentation in Zebrafish and Humans
  29. ^ Lamason RL, Mohideen MA, Mest JR, Wong AC, Norton HL, Aros MC, Jurynec MJ, Mao X, Humphreville VR, Humbert JE, Sinha S, Moore JL, Jagadeeswaran P, Zhao W, Ning G, Makalowska I, McKeigue PM, O'donnell D, Kittles R, Parra EJ, Mangini NJ, Grunwald DJ, Shriver MD, Canfield VA, Cheng KC (2005). "SLC24A5, a putative cation exchanger, affects pigmentation in zebrafish and humans". Science 310 (5755): 1782–6. doi:10.1126/science.1116238. PMID 16357253. 
  30. ^ Scientists Find A DNA Change That Accounts For White Skin, Washington Post
  31. ^ Adams, J.Q.; Pearlie Strother-Adams (2001). Dealing with Diversity. Chicago, IL: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. 0-7872-8145-X. 
  32. ^ Immigration Restriction Act 1901 [4]
  33. ^ Stephen Castles, "The Australian Model of Immigration and Multiculturalism: Is It Applicable to Europe?," International Migration Review, Vol. 26, No. 2, Special Issue: The New Europe and International Migration. (Summer, 1992), pp. 549-567.
  34. ^ CIA World Factbook - Argentina
  35. ^ 2001 Argentine National Census
  36. ^ Argentine Demographics
  37. ^ Gregory Rodriguez, "Brazil Separates Into Black and White," LA Times, September 3, 2006. Note that the figures belie the title.
  38. ^ "Groups" in Statistics Canada, Sample 20001 Census form. Statistics Canada, 2001 Census Visible Minority and Population Group User Guide
  39. ^ Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2001 Employment Equity Data Report
  40. ^ Census 2001: 2B (Long Form)
  41. ^ Immigrant population
  42. ^ Identity, Ethnicity and Identity, National Statistics online. Retrieved 3 November 2006.
  43. ^ Census 2001 - Ethnicity and religion in England and Wales, Ethnicity and religion. Retrieved 3 November 2001.
  44. ^ Kissoon, Priya. King's College of London. Asylum Seekers: National Problem or National Solution. 2005. November 7, 2006.
  45. ^ The White Population: 2000, Census 2000 Brief C2KBR/01-4, U.S. Census Bureau, August 2001.
  46. ^ Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook, U.S. Department of Justice. Federal Bureau of Investigation. P. 97 (2004)
  47. ^ John Tehranian, "Performing Whiteness: Naturalization Litigation and the Construction of Racial Identity in America," The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 109, No. 4. (Jan., 2000), pp. 825-827.
  48. ^ Caliber - Sociological Perspectives - 47(4):371 - Abstract
  49. ^ Roediger, Wages of Whiteness, 186; Tony Horwitz, Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches from the Unfinished Civil War (New York, 1998).
  50. ^ John Tehranian, "Performing Whiteness: Naturalization Litigation and the Construction of Racial Identity in America," The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 109, No. 4. (Jan., 2000), pp. 817-848.
  51. ^ Not All Caucasians Are White: The Supreme Court Rejects Citizenship for Asian Indians
  52. ^ One drop of blood
  53. ^ The triumph of the one drop rule
  54. ^ The African ancestry of the white American population
  55. ^ The race myth page 90ISBN 0452286581 American blacks were ranked number 21 in social distance from white Americans out of 30 ethnicities. et
  56. ^ The End of Blackness by Debra Dickerson.
  57. ^ Carey Cites Bi-Racial Family for Insecurities American Renaissance News
  58. ^ Yahoo questions/answers/ Is Mariah Carey white?
  59. ^ Mariah Carey: 'Not another White girl trying to sing Black.'
  60. ^ Larry King interview with Mariah Carey
  61. ^ James H. Dee, "Black Odysseus, White Caesar: When Did 'White People' Become 'White,'?" The Classical Journal, Vol. 99, No. 2. (Dec., 2003 - Jan., 2004), p. 162.
  62. ^ Alan Cameron, Black and White: A Note on Ancient Nicknames, The American Journal of Philology, Vol. 119, No. 1 (Spring, 1998), pp. 113-117
  63. ^ James H. Dee, "Black Odysseus, White Caesar: When Did 'White People' Become 'White,'?" The Classical Journal, Vol. 99, No. 2. (Dec., 2003 - Jan., 2004), p. 163.
  64. ^ a b James H. Dee, "Black Odysseus, White Caesar: When Did 'White People' Become 'White,'?" The Classical Journal, Vol. 99, No. 2. (Dec., 2003 - Jan., 2004), p. 164.
  65. ^ Winthrop D. Jordan, The White Man's Burden, (condensed version of Black Over White), 1974, p. 52.
  66. ^ James Allen (1994). The Invention of the White Race: Racial Oppression and Social Control. Verso. ISBN 086091660X. 
  67. ^ a b Sarah A Tishkoff & Kenneth K Kidd (2004) Implications of biography of human populations for 'race' and medicine Nature Genetics
  68. ^ Painter, Nell Irvin. Yale University. "Why White People are Called Caucasian?" 2003. September 27, 2007. [5]
  69. ^ a b c Blumenbach, Johann. The Anthropological Treatise of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach. London: Longman Green, 1865.
  70. ^ Jack Hitt, “Mighty White of You: Racial Preferences Color America’s Oldest Skulls and Bones,” Harper’s, July 2005, pp. 39-55
  71. ^ Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short History, p.57, Princeton University Press (2002), ISBN 0-691-00899-X

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Bibliography

  • Allen, Theodore, The Invention of the White Race, 2 vols. (London: Verso, 1994)
  • Brodkin, Karen, How Jews Became White Folks and What That Says About Race in America, Rutgers, 1999, ISBN 0-8135-2590-X.
  • Foley, Neil, The White Scourge: Mexicans, Blacks, and Poor Whites in Texas Cotton Culture (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997)
  • Gossett, Thomas F. , Race: The History of an Idea in America, New ed. (New York: Oxford University, 1997)
  • Guglielmo, Thomas A. , White on Arrival: Italians, Race, Color, and Power in Chicago, 1890-1945, 2003, ISBN 0-19-515543-2
  • Hannaford, Ivan, Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1996)
  • Ignatiev, Noel, How the Irish Became White, Routledge, 1996, ISBN 0-415-91825-1.
  • Jackson, F. L. C. (2004). Book chapter: Human genetic variation and health: new assessment approaches based on ethnogenetic layering British Medical Bulletin 2004; 69: 215–235 DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldh012. Retrieved 29 December 2006.
  • Jacobson, Matthew Frye, Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race, Harvard, 1999, ISBN 0-674-95191-3.
  • Oppenheimer, Stephen (2006). The Origins of the British: A Genetic Detective Story. Constable and Robinson Ltd., London. ISBN 978-1-84529-185-7.
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  • Rosenberg NA, Pritchard JK, Weber JL, Cann HM, Kidd KK, et al. (2002) Genetic structure of human populations. Science 298: 2381–2385.Abstract
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is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The American Ethnological Society is the oldest professional anthropological association in the United States. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
White (people) - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article (2223 words)
White (noun, white or whites; adjective, white people) is a color-defined term used as a form of ethno-racial classification.
Also generally associated to white people is European culture, Christianity (whether as a religion or part of their cultural heritage) and Western Civilization.
In America, most of the whites are extremely European and most of the fls are quite African." Among those white people found in Shriver's study to have fl ancestry, they average an admixture of 2.3% fl (of 128 grandparents, 3 are fl and 125 are white).
Who Invented White People? (2943 words)
It was white people who invented the idea of race in the first place, and it is white people who have become obsessed and consumed by it until, like Captain Ahab, they have become entangled so deeply in pursuing its nature that they self-destruct in the process.
White people are fond of pointing out that as individuals they have never practiced discrimination, or that their ancestors never owned slaves.
White people tend to cast the question of race in terms of guilt in part because of the American ideology of individualism, by which I mean our tendency to want to believe that individuals determine their own destinies and responsibilities.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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