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Encyclopedia > White flight
Part of a series of articles on
Racial segregation


White Australia policy
South African Apartheid
Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People, Leland, Mississippi, June 1937 Racial segregation is characterized by separation of people of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time The White Australia policy is a generic term used to describe a collection of historical legislation and policies, intended to restrict non-white immigration to Australia, and to promote European immigration, from 1901 to 1973. ... For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ...


Segregation in the US
Black Codes
Jim Crow laws
Redlining
Gentrification
White flight
Black flight
Sundown towns
Proposition 14
Indian Appropriations
Immigration Act of 1924
Separate but equal
Racial segregation in the United States is the history of racial segregation of facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines. ... The Black Codes were laws passed on the state and local level in the United States to restrict the civil rights and civil liberties of Black People, particularly former slaves. ... The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Black flight is the term for the sociological trend of lower class, middle class, and upper midle-class African-Americans moving away from predominately black or mixed culture inner city areas to suburban areas and outlying edge cities of new home construction. ... A sundown town is a community in the United States where non-Caucasians— especially African Americans— are systematically excluded from living in or passing through after the sun went down. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section. ... Separate but equal was a policy enacted into law throughout the U.S. Southern states during the period of segregation, in which African Americans and Americans of European descent would receive the same services (schools, hospitals, water fountains, bathrooms, etc. ...

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White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racial-minority inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs.[1][2] The phenomenon was first named in the United States, but has occurred in other countries as well. Some scholars have noted the impact of red-lining, lending discrimination, and racially restrictive covenants on white flight: these factors denied or increased the cost of services, such as banking and insurance, to residents in minority inner-city neighborhoods.[3][4] Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... This article is about the socio-economic class from a global vantage point. ... “Whites” redirects here. ... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... Commuters waiting for the morning train in Maplewood, New Jersey to travel to New York City A commuter town, is an urban community that is primarily residential, from which most of the workforce commute to a nearby metropolis to earn their livelihood. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... An inner city is the central area of a major city. ...


Today, a new phenomenon is occuring in many of America's largest cities, black flight, which is very similar to the concept of white flight. Black flight is the term for the sociological trend of lower class, middle class, and upper midle-class African-Americans moving away from predominately black or mixed culture inner city areas to suburban areas and outlying edge cities of new home construction. ...


In some of the largest cities in the United States, the trend started to reverse itself in the 1990s. (See gentrification). The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...

Contents

White flight in the United States

White flight has taken place in nearly every major American city,[5] especially since the end of World-War II and the ensuing economic and baby booms. A variety of factors during this period allowed for the explosive growth of suburbs and demographic change in cities, including the creation of high-speed highways and suburban parkways, which greatly reduced the travel time between suburbs and downtowns and bypassed some city neighborhoods. This is a list of the cities, towns, and villages of the United States. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... As is often the case with a big war, after the end of World War II many countries around the globe, notably those of Europe, Asia, North America, and Australasia experienced a baby boom. ...


The effects of the phenomenon have been significant, particularly in the cities of Atlanta, Philadelphia, Detroit, Memphis, Miami, Cleveland, Houston, St. Louis, Milwaukee, Newark and New Orleans, all of which lost more than half of their white populations; but it has affected every metropolitan area in the United States.[citation needed] This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... “Detroit” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location in Miami-Dade County and the state of Florida Coordinates: , Country State County Miami-Dade Incorporated July 28, 1896 Government  - Type Mayor-Commissioner Plan  - Mayor Manny Diaz (I)  - City Manager Pedro G. Hernandez  - City Attorney Jorge L. Fernandez  - City Clerk Priscilla Thompson Area  - City  55. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... “Houston” redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... This article is about Milwaukee in Wisconsin. ... Nickname: Map of Newark in Essex County County Essex Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Government  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]  - City 67. ... NOLA redirects here. ... In the United States, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has produced a formal definition of metropolitan areas. ...


History

In the years after World War II, many white Americans began to move away from inner cities to newer suburban communities. Major cities had experienced tight housing markets during the war years along with an influx of blacks seeking war work. White people with the means to leave sometimes did so to escape increasing crime. In other cases, whites left simply because they thought that suburban communities, with their new housing stock and schools and their open spaces, were more desirable places to live, and due to economic conditions or racial discrimination, blacks were frequently unable to follow. The term white American (often used interchangeably with Caucasian American[3] and within the United States simply white[4]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European, Middle Eastern, and North African descent residing in the United States. ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ...


Discriminatory practices, especially those intended to "preserve" white neighborhoods, restricted the ability of non-whites to move from inner-cities to suburbs, even when they were economically able to afford it. In contrast to this, the same period in history marked a massive suburban expansion available primarily to whites of both wealthy and working class backgrounds, facilitated through highway construction and the availability of federally subsidized home mortgages (VA, FHA, HOLC) which made it easier for families to buy new homes in the suburbs — but not to rent apartments in cities.[6] White flight was made easier by state and federal governments paying for highways to carry suburbanites to work in cities where the jobs remained (the National Defense and Interstate Highway Act and its successors). The creation of these highways in some cases divided and isolated black neighborhoods from goods and services, many times within industrial corridors.[citation needed]


Blockbusting

Main article: Blockbusting

Another important aspect of this migration was the phenomenon of "blockbusting." Real estate agents would facilitate the sale of a house in a white neighborhood to a black family by subterfuge, often buying the house themselves, or using a white proxy and reselling, perhaps at a reduced price, to the black family. A panic, fanned by the real estate agents and the media, would then ensue among some white homeowners, who feared that their property values would drop — which of course they did as soon as they began selling in large numbers, generating large commissions for the agents. The real estate agents would then sell at higher prices to the incoming black families, reaping the profits of the price difference as well as the sales commissions. It was not uncommon for the racial makeup of a neighborhood to be completely changed in the space of a few years by this process.[7] This article needs to be expanded. ...


Urban decay

Main article: Urban decay

As the wealthier white residents abandoned inner-city neighborhoods, they left behind increasingly poor non-white populations whose neighborhoods deteriorated in the 1950s and especially in the 1960s.[citation needed] Suburban transplants took their tax and investment dollars and related services, such as grocery stores, and clothing retail outlets, with them. The 1967 12th Street Riot in Detroit is an example of a worst-case reaction to these events.[citation needed] With few local jobs or businesses, the neighborhoods disintegrated and ultimately degenerated into poverty-stricken and crime-ridden slums with failing public schools. Urban decay and renewal in Cincinnati Urban decay is the popular term for both the physical and social degeneration of cities and large towns. ... The riot featured on the cover of the August 4, 1967 edition of Time magazine. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Other trends

Several poorer predominantly white communities also face conditions similar to those of areas that have experienced white flight. The cities of Buffalo and Niagara Falls in New York serve as prime examples. The 1960s saw significant white flight from the inner city of Columbus and smaller Ohio metropolitan areas, such as Dayton and Springfield. In these areas, manufacturing jobs were once dominant but have now largely disappeared, resulting in urban decay. Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “NY” redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State Counties Franklin, Delaware, and Fairfield Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City  212. ... : Gem City : Birthplace of Aviation United States Ohio Montgomery 56. ... Springfield is the county seat of Clark County in the State of Ohio. ...


Governmental aspects of white flight

Due to the nature of American local governmental structure, white flight enabled people who moved into the suburbs to create new municipalities outside the jurisdiction of the original city, without any legacy costs of maintaining existing infrastructure. By the enactment of restrictive zoning, these new entities could ensure that few poor (or in some cases middle-class) emigrants could afford to move into their enclaves. Such municipalities were incorporated by the hundreds on the peripheries of cities. The details, of course, varied according to state statutes and local politics. Milwaukee, for example, was able to annex parts of surrounding towns, including the former Town of Granville and thus expand to a greater extent than many landlocked cities (Then-Mayor Frank P. Zeidler famously inveighed against the destructive effect of the "Iron Ring" of new municipalities incorporated in the post-World War II decade.[8]). Legacy costs is a term formed by analogy with the computer industrys legacy systems. ... A typical zoning map; this one identifies the zones, or development districts, in the city of Ontario, California Zoning is a North American term for a system of land-use regulation. ... The definitions of the political subdivisions of the Wisconsin differ from those in certain other countries or even various other U.S. states, leading to misunderstandings regarding the governmental nature of an area. ... Granville was a town located in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin. ... Frank P. Zeidler (born 1912) was a socialist mayor of Milwaukee, Wisconsin from 1948 to 1960. ...


Schools and busing

Main article: Desegregation busing

White flight has also affected education. The landmark 1954 Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education ordered the desegregation of schools. American cities affected by white flight also witnessed growing disparities in the quality of education. The Supreme Court subsequently mandated in the 1971 decision of Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education the institution of busing of black students to mainly formerly all-white schools in the suburbs, and vice versa. Starting in the mid-1970s, some minority students (especially blacks) were transported miles from poorer core cities to newer affluent suburbs. As Justice William Douglas observed in his dissent in Milliken v. Bradley (1974), "The inner core of Detroit is now rather solidly black; and the blacks, we know, in many instances are likely to be poorer…" A similar 1977 Federal decision, Penick v The Columbus Board of Education, accelerated white flight from Columbus, Ohio to its suburbs. According to sociologist Cardell K. Jacobson, opposition to integration was strongest among people who did not themselves have children in public schools, and in particular among those who already had children in parochial schools.[9][10] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries  Atlas  Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym... Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... Holding Busing students to promote integration is constitutional. ... Forced busing is the concept of achieving racial or economic integration in United States public schools by transporting schoolchildren to schools outside their area of residence. ... William Orville Douglas (October 16, 1898 - January 19, 1980) was a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice. ... Milliken v. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State Counties Franklin, Delaware, and Fairfield Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City  212. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ...


Busing and desegregation orders in education had also in some cases led to a further, non-geographical white flight: out of the public school systems, which are subject to desegregation orders, and into private schools, which are not. For instance, in 1970, when a federal court ordered desegregation of the public schools of the Pasadena Unified School District (in Pasadena, California), the proportion of white students in those schools reflected the proportion of whites in the community, 54 percent and 53 percent, respectively. After desegregation began, a large number of whites in the upper and middle classes could afford private schooling and so pulled their children from mixed public schools. As a result, by 2004 Pasadena was home to sixty-three private schools, which educated one-third of all school-aged children in the city, and the proportion of white students in the public schools had fallen to 16 percent. The superintendent of Pasadena USD characterized them as being to whites "like the bogey-man" [1] and mounted policy changes and a publicity drive to induce affluent whites to put their children back into the public schools. Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The U.S. District Court for the Central District of California (commonly referred to as the CDCA or CACD) is the U.S. district court serving some 17 million people in southern and central California, making it the largest federal judicial district by population. ... The Pasadena Unified School District is responsible for the schools of Pasadena, California. ... Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


White flight in recent decades

White flight continues today, but it has taken on a new aspect as some of the older suburbs have been experiencing urban decay similar to their parent cities—for example, in some of the "inner-ring" southern and western suburbs of Chicago, such as Harvey and Maywood. East St. Louis and many of the neighboring communities on the Illinois side of the St. Louis metropolitan area have also long suffered from urban decay with the decline of the manufacturing industries that had once powered the economies of the region. Suburban areas of numerous cities including Prince Georges County, Maryland in the Washington D.C. area, Randallstown near Baltimore, DeKalb County, Georgia in the Atlanta area, and portions of the Chicago Southland region such as Matteson have become majority-black including many affluent professionals. Harvey is a city located in Cook County, Illinois. ... Maywood is a village in Cook County, Illinois, United States. ... East St. ... Prince Georges County is a suburban county located in the state of Maryland immediately east of Washington, D.C.. It is notable as the wealthiest majority-African-American county in the country. ... Randallstown is an unincorporated community and a census-designated place in Baltimore County, Maryland, United States. ... DeKalb County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. ... The Chicago Southland is the suburban region south and southwest of Chicago, comprised of approximately 61 Chicagoland communities. ... Matteson is a village in Cook County, Illinois, United States. ...


Many low-income whites in East Coast cities have moved to close-in, working-class suburbs or other, more heavily white neighborhoods within the same city. This often leaves senior citizens (especially "empty nesters") who have often lived in a particular community for a very long time as the only white residents in neighborhoods that have otherwise seen complete "white flight". Usually, when these seniors die or move to retirement communities, the process is complete. Old age consists of ages nearing the average lifespan of human beings, and thus the end of the human life cycle. ... Empty nest syndrome is a general feeling of depression and loneliness that parents feel when one or more of their children leave home. ...


It should also be noted that affluent and professional whites sometimes remain in specific parts of a city that have otherwise been affected by white flight. For example, well-off whites continue to live in St. Louis neighborhoods around Forest Park and the Central West End even as the surrounding neighborhoods have been transformed by the white flight that has been occurring there since the 1950s. Many whites, some working at the University of Chicago, populate nearby neighborhoods Kenwood and Hyde Park on the south side, surrounded by 98%+ black neighborhoods. For the park in New York see Forest Park (Queens) McDonnell Planetarium Jewel Box in Forest Park Old Footbridge in Forest Park Forest Park in St. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... Hyde Park is a neighborhood on the south side of Chicago, located seven miles south of the Loop; it is home to the Museum of Science and Industry and the University of Chicago. ...


In New Orleans, there is a concentrated white population in the Garden District south of St. Charles Avenue and in the Lakeview neighborhood east of City Park and North of Robert E. Lee Boulevard. There is also a large artsy and bohemian white population in the French Quarter, Warehouse District, and in the Faubourg Marigny neighborhood. In general, whites who remain in such locations do not have children or, if they do, their children attend private schools, which is also a common characteristic of New Orleans. It must also be noted that the city's Catholic population is high compared to other large cities in the nation. The immediate aftermath of Hurricane Katrina further complicated this situation as more whites have returned to the city, than blacks, mainly to the west bank (with the recent gentrification of Algiers and the west bank) The Garden District is a residential area of New Orleans, Louisiana. ... French Quarter: upper Chartres street looking down towards Jackson Square and the spires of St. ... Now a hot night spot for twenty-somethings and urban professionals, Cleveland’s Warehouse District was once in serious disrepair after the businesses of its namesake had moved on. ... Faubourg Marigny or simply Marigny is a neighborhood in the downtown section of New Orleans, Louisiana, just down river from the famous French Quarter. ... Private schools, in the United States, Australia, Scotland, and other English-speaking countries, are schools not administered by local or national government, which retain the right to select their student body and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students tuition rather than with public funds. ...


Even though the demographic makeup of New York City has been dramatically altered due to white flight from the outer boroughs, parts of Manhattan have actually become more white during the past 20 years due to gentrification (see below). Some southern sections of Harlem that border the Upper East Side and Upper West Side of Manhattan now have as high as a 20% white population, whereas as recently as the early 1990s these enclaves had non-white population percentages in the high 90s. The population decline of some Midwestern, Northeastern, and Western cities has slowed down or has even reversed (such as in parts of Chicago and St. Louis), while other areas remain economically devastated due to seemingly-permanent economic shifts and job losses (such as in Detroit, Cleveland, Milwaukee, and Buffalo). For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... For other uses, see Harlem (disambiguation). ... The Upper East Side at Sunset The Upper East Side is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, USA, between Central Park and the East River. ... The Upper West Side is a neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City that lies between Central Park and the Hudson River above West 59th Street. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Regional definitions vary The Northeastern United States is a region of the United States defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. ... As defined by the Census Bureau, the western United States includes 13 states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington lincoln, and Wyoming. ... “Detroit” redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Progress & Prosperity Location in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State County Cuyahoga Founded 1796 Incorporated 1814 (village)   1836 (city) Government  - Mayor Frank G. Jackson (D) Area [1]  - City  82. ... For other places with the same name, see Milwaukee (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ...


A recent trend has been white flight due to large-scale immigration of Hispanics and sometimes other groups, such as East Asians, South and Southeast Asians, Middle Easterners, and North Africans. Hispanic, as used in the United States, is one of several terms used to categorize US citizens, permanent residents and temporary immigrants, whose background hail either from the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America or relating to a Spanish-speaking culture. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... This is a region of the continent of Asia that can have the following interpretations: The Indian Subcontinent and nearby islands in the Indian Ocean; see South Asia India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Maldives, Sri Lanka All of Asia that is considered to be Southwest, South and Southeast Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ...


This trend has been most pronounced in New York City, northern New Jersey, and southern California, where most of these groups have settled. From Queens, white residents first moved from the northern areas of New York, then from the central and southern areas, largely choosing Nassau and Suffolk Counties on Long Island. While both Brooklyn and Queens are still home to a sizable number of white residents, their overall percentage has dwindled. Neighborhoods in Queens dramatically affected by white flight to the point of total change include Flushing and the surrounding areas, Long Island City, College Point, Jackson Heights, Elmhurst, and Corona. Neighborhoods currently being affected by a more casual white flight in which children move away (largely to Long Island) include Ozone Park, Rosedale, and Briarwood. This form of white flight rarely involves a drop in income, but involves more ethnic change, and the community is usually not affected negatively, as this is a slower and more casual process of migration. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... “NJ” redirects here. ... For the urban complex straddling the United States-Mexico border, see Bajalta California. ... For other uses, see Queens (disambiguation) and Queen. ... Nassau County is a suburban city county in the New York Metropolitan Area east of New York City in the U.S. state of New York. ... Suffolk County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Several landmarks from two New York Worlds Fairs still stand in Flushing Meadows, including the US Steel Unisphere Flushing is a neighborhood within the borough of Queens in New York City, New York. ... Industrial Long Island City, Manhattan Skyline behind. ... College Point is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Queens. ... A typical residential street in Jackson Heights. ... Queens Boulvard in Elmhurst, Queens NY. Macys and Queens Center Mall can be seen in the background. ... Corona, Queens, (zip code 11368) is a neighborhood in the former Township of Flushing in the New York City borough of Queens surrounded by Flushing, Jackson Heights, and Elmhurst. ... Ozone Park is a New York City neighborhood located in the southwestern part of the borough of Queens bordering Woodhaven, Richmond Hill, Howard Beach, and the borough of Brooklyn, about 8 miles east, southeast of Midtown Manhattan. ... Rosedale is a neighborhood in southeastern Queens in New York City. ... Briarwood is a neighborhood in the borough of Queens in New York City. ...


Some parts of the New York and Los Angeles metropolitan areas with emerging Hispanic populations are actually experiencing a new phenomenon where "white flight" neighborhoods that became mostly black in population are now experiencing a black flight by blacks as Hispanics move in.[11][12] A few noted parts of the New York City area experiencing this are much of the Bronx and some sections of the 3 cities on its northern border (Yonkers, Mount Vernon, and New Rochelle), urban areas in Union County, New Jersey such as Elizabeth, and (though only on the periphery of the area), parts of Norwalk and Bridgeport in Connecticut. “NY” redirects here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Black flight is the term for the sociological trend of lower class, middle class, and upper midle-class African-Americans moving away from predominately black or mixed culture inner city areas to suburban areas and outlying edge cities of new home construction. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see The Bronx (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Motto: The city of homes Coordinates: Counties Westchester County Government  - Mayor Ernest D. Davis (Dem) Area  - City 11. ... New Rochelle City Hall New Roc City New Rochelle (French: Nouvelle-Rochelle) is a city in the southeast portion of the U.S. state of New York in Westchester County, 16 miles (26 km) from Grand Central Terminal in New York City and 2 miles north of the border with... Union County is a county located in the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... Union County Court House Elizabeth is a city in Union County, New Jersey, in the United States. ... Motto: The Right Place, The Right Time Location in Fairfield County, Connecticut Coordinates: NECTA Bridgeport-Stamford Region South Western Region Incorporated 1651 Consolidated 1913 Government type Mayor-council Mayor Dick Moccia Area    - City 36. ... Nickname: Location in Connecticut Coordinates: , NECTA Bridgeport-Stamford Region Greater Bridgeport Incorporated (town) 1821 Incorporated (city) 1836 Government  - Type Mayor-council  - Mayor John M. Fabrizi Area  - City 19. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Largest metro area Hartford Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[2] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ...


Central New Jersey has recently become a perfect example of the newer white flight. Towns such as West Windsor, Plainsboro, Edison, East Brunswick, South Brunswick, North Brunswick, Highland Park and Woodbridge, mostly Middlesex County towns, populations have shifted between 15-47 percent less white due to a modern wave of Asian immigrants in just one decade. In these cases, the economic status of the region has not become economically disadvantaged, but has stayed the same and in many of these cases has become economically better off. All of these towns are former suburban pride of New Jersey, and while their home values have generally increased sevenfold over the past decade, the majority of white and black families avoid buying in these areas. Exemplifications of this white flight, and in this case now black and Hispanic flight can be seen in the public schools of these areas where in a matter of 2-5 years can see a drop of over 10% in the white population.[citation needed] West Windsor Township highlighted in Mercer County. ... Plainsboro Township is a Township located in Middlesex County, New Jersey. ... Map of Edison Township in Middlesex County Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex County Settled 1651 Incorporated March 17, 1870 (as Raritan Township) Government  - Type Faulkner Act Mayor-Council  - Mayor Jun Choi Area  - Township  30. ... Location of New Brunswick in Middlesex County Country United States of America State New Jersey County Middlesex Incorporated February 28, 1860 Government  - Type Faulkner Act  - Mayor William P. Neary (D) Area  - Township  22. ... yeah SB! Actually this city sucks ass nothing ever happens. ... North Brunswick Township is a Township in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. ... Highland Park highlighted in Middlesex County Highland Park is a Borough in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. ... Woodbridge Township is a Township in Melissas Ass, New Jersey, United States. ... Middlesex County is a county located in the U.S. state of New Jersey. ...


In southern California, eastern Los Angeles County, the eastern San Fernando Valley, sections of the San Gabriel Valley, sections of the Antelope Valley and sections of Orange County and the Inland Empire have been affected by white flight due to Hispanic immigration. In Florida and Texas, as in California, the immigrant influx is creating a Democratic future. Because the white people leaving California have tended to be politically conservative[13] and the Democratic Party is considered to be in a far stronger position among Hispanic and Asian immigrants, the large-scale immigration and white flight have helped to transform California into a stronghold of the Democratic Party.[14][15] Los Angeles County is a county in California and is the most populous county in the United States. ... San Fernando Valley from its southwestern edge. ... San Gabriel Valley within Southern California The San Gabriel Valley is one of the principal valleys of southern California. ... A truck passes eastbound along the busy Highway 58 through the Antelope Valley. ... Cities in Orange County Orange County is a county in Southern California, United States. ... The Inland Empire and its regions within The Inland Empire refers to the region in Southern California located in Riverside and San Bernardino Counties in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... European American is a term for an American of European descent, who are usually referred as White or Caucasian. ... The following is a list of political parties whose names (in English) include the word Democrat(s) or Democratic. For the phrase, see: Democrat Party Category: ... Hispanics in the United States, or Hispanic Americans, are American citizens or residents of Hispanic ethnicity who identify themselves as having Hispanic Cultural heritage. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic...


White flight in Southern California

The forces and groups involved in white flight in Southern California are distinct from those in other areas due to the region's demography and history.


Many whites once lived in urban neighborhoods in Los Angeles before departing the city in large numbers after the 1965 Watts Riots. This trend actually began before the riots but it accelerated in their wake. The major 12th Street Riot in Detroit in 1967 and during the following year, after the assassination of civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., contributed to white flight in that city. Now, the city of Detroit is over 80% black whereas a majority of its neighboring suburbs, such as Livonia, Dearborn, and Warren, are predominantly white.[16]. Similarly, after the 1992 Los Angeles riots, large numbers of white Californians left Southern California or left the state entirely. The phenomenon has affected not only the central city basin, but also the suburban regions of the San Fernando Valley and the San Gabriel Valley in Southern California, where many working-class Hispanics and lower to upper-middle class Asians have moved during much of the 1980s and 1990s. Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The term Watts Riots refers to a large-scale riot which lasted six days in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, in August 1965. ... The riot featured on the cover of the August 4, 1967 edition of Time magazine. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Martin Luther King Jr. ... Livonia is a city located in the northwest part of Wayne County in the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Location in Michigan Coordinates: , Country United States State Michigan County Wayne County Government  - Mayor John B. O’Reilly, Jr. ... Country United States State Michigan County Macomb County Incorporated 1957 Government  - Type Council-Strong Mayor  - Mayor Mark A. Steenbergh Area  - City  34. ... For other uses, see Los Angeles riots (disambiguation). ... San Fernando Valley from its southwestern edge. ... San Gabriel Valley within Southern California The San Gabriel Valley is one of the principal valleys of southern California. ... For the urban complex straddling the United States-Mexico border, see Bajalta California. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... The term Asian can refer to something or someone from Asia. ...


In addition, during the 1990s and 2000s, many blacks (black flight) have continued to move out of the historically African American communities such as Inglewood and Compton to inland communities such as Fontana, Rialto, Palmdale, Orange County, and Ventura County.[17] Black flight is the term for the sociological trend of lower class, middle class, and upper midle-class African-Americans moving away from predominately black or mixed culture inner city areas to suburban areas and outlying edge cities of new home construction. ... Nickname: Location of Inglewood in Los Angeles County, California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles Established 1888 Incorporated February 14, 1908 Government  - Mayor Roosevelt F. Dorn Area  - City  9. ... Nickname: Location of Compton in Los Angeles County, California County Los Angeles County Government  - Mayor Eric Perrodin Area  - City 26. ... Location of Fontana in California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California County San Bernardino Incorporated (city) 1952-06-25 [2] Government  - Mayor Mark Nuaimi [1] Area  - City  36. ... City of Rialto Logo Rialto is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States. ... Motto: Aerospace Capital of America Location of Palmdale in Los Angeles County, California Coordinates: , Country United States of America State California County Los Angeles Government  - Mayor James C. Ledford Jr. ... Cities in Orange County Orange County is a county in Southern California, United States. ... Ventura County is part of the Greater Los Angeles Area, located on Californias Pacific coast. ...


Some of the people leaving Los Angeles have moved to inland California and other states. Many of these ex-Californians ended up settling in the Rocky Mountain States of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho and Nevada. The Mountain states. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Carson City Largest city Las Vegas Area  Ranked 7th  - Total 110,567 sq mi (286,367 km²)  - Width 322 miles (519 km)  - Length 490 miles (788 km)  - % water 0. ...


Another form of white flight is also taking place in many parts of Northern California, such as the western suburbs of San Jose, California. White flight, though taking place at a slower pace, is also affecting high-income upper-class neighborhoods that are becoming increasingly Asian American.[18] In this case, however, the white flight does not result in socio-economic problems for the affected communities. The influx of non-whites whose socio-economic status is at least as high, if not higher, than that of previous white residents compensates for the loss in white population. Furthermore this trend tends to affect upscale enclaves such as Cupertino, Saratoga or, in Southern California San Marino. Northern California, sometimes referred to as NorCal, is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... Location of Cupertino within Santa Clara County, California. ... Saratoga (IPA: ) is a city in Santa Clara County, California, USA. It is located on the west side of the Santa Clara Valley, in the San Francisco Bay Area. ...


White flight outside the United States

The phenomenon is also found in South African cities, most notably Johannesburg, Pretoria and Durban, which saw a mass influx of Black African people into the inner cities during the final years of apartheid, and from which white people fled in great numbers to the suburbs (or out of the country altogether).[citation needed] This article is about the city in South Africa. ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country South Africa Province Gauteng Established 1855 Area  - City 1,644 km²  (634. ... Map of South Africa showing Durbans location. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


In some areas of New Zealand, there has been a gradual process of white flight, in response to mass urbanisation of Māori and arrivals of Pacific Islander guest workers between the 1950s and 1970s, though in Auckland the process has largely been in reverse since the 1980s, with white (Pakeha) New Zealanders moving to previously Māori and Pacific Islander neighbourhoods such as Ponsonby, Grey Lynn and Kingsland. Similar gentrification trends have occurred in Wellington inner city suburbs like Thorndon, Newtown, and Aro Valley. White flight has also significantly affected many areas of Rotorua, with the phenomenon being blamed for the cities' slide into proverbial "Third World" conditions.[19] This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... Pacific Islands (or Pacific Person, pl: Pacific People, also called Oceanic[s]), is a geographic term used in several places, such as New Zealand and the United States, to describe the inhabitants of any of the three major sub-regions of Oceania. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... Rotorua is a city located on the southern shore of Lake Rotorua in the Bay of Plenty region of the North Island of New Zealand. ...


In Canada, particularly the Greater Toronto Area, suburbs such as Brampton, Markham, Mississauga, and Richmond Hill, have seen dramatic cases of what might be considered White Flight, although this is probably due as much to the city's growing urban sprawl and growth than to any real ethnic tensions.[citation needed] From the early 1980s until the late 1990s neighbourhoods went from being predominantly White European to predominantly Pakistani, East Indian, and Chinese.[citation needed] Brampton is now considered to hold a major Asian community. A map of Torontos Census Metropolitan Area, which contains a large portion of the Greater Toronto Area. ... Nickname: Location in the Region of Peel, in the Province of Ontario Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario Region Peel Incorporation 1853 (village)   1873 (town)   1974 (city) Government  - Mayor Susan Fennell  - Governing Body Brampton City Council (click for members)  - MPs Navdeep Bains, Colleen Beaumier, Ruby Dhalla, Gurbax Malhi  - MPPs Vic Dhillon... Map showing Markhams location in York Region Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario Regional Municipality York Region Communities Buttonville, Thornhill, German Mills, Milliken, Unionville Settled 1794 Incorporated 1972 (town) Government  - Mayor Frank Scarpitti  - Deputy Mayor Jim Jones  - Regional Councillors Jack Heath, Tony Wong, Gordon Landon  - MPs Susan Kadis (LPC) - Thornhill... For the First Nation, see Mississaugas. ... Motto: En la rose, je fleuris (French for Like the rose, I flourish) Map showing Richmond Hills location in York Region Country Canada Province Ontario Region York Region Incorporated 1873 Government  - Mayor Dave Barrow  - Governing Body Richmond Hill Town Council  - MPs Lui Temelkovski, Bryon Wilfert Population (2006)[1]  - City... “Whites” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


As a result many towns and cities in the vicinity of the Greater Toronto Area such as Hamilton, Burlington, Oakville, and Oshawa have seen an influx of residents from Toronto[2]. Motto: Together Aspire - Together Achieve Location in the province of Ontario, Canada Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario Incorporated June 9, 1846[1] Government  - Mayor Fred Eisenberger  - City Council Hamilton City Council  - Representatives 5 MPs and 5 MPPs Area [2]  - City 1,138. ... Motto: Stand By Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario Region Halton Regional Municipality Established 1874 Government  - Mayor Cam Jackson  - Governing Body Burlington City Council  - MPs Mike Wallace (CPC), Garth Turner (Liberal)  - MPPs Joyce Savoline (PC), Ted Chudleigh (PC) Area  - City 187 km²  (72 sq mi) Population (2006)  - City 164,415 (Ranked... Oakville (2006 population 165,613[1]) is a town on Lake Ontario in southern Ontario, Canada, midway between Toronto (about 31 km or 19 mi away) on its eastern border and Hamilton (about 20 km or 12 mi away) from its western border. ... Oshawa (estimated 2004 population 150 000; metropolitan population 296 298) is a city on Lake Ontario located approximately 60 km east of downtown Toronto in Ontario, Canada. ...


In the United Kingdom, particularly England, there is evidence of simultaneous ethnic minority dispersal and segregation: in the 1980s and 1990s, minority groups grew rapidly (in percentage terms) in many suburban neighbourhoods and smaller towns that were formerly almost devoid of non-whites, but minorities also grew strongly (in numerical terms) in the inner urban districts of first immigrant settlement.[20] Simultaneously, white populations in many of these urban centers declined, either because of counter urbanisation or, in some parts of the country, general regional decline.[21] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Counter urbanisation is a demographic and social process whereby people move from urban areas to rural areas. ...


While many skilled working class/ lower middle class whites have moved out of the less desirable areas of east, southeast and west London to suburban communities in (respectively) Essex, Kent and Surrey, this has been tempered in central London by rapid gentrification. However, in outlying industrial areas such as Newham, Woolwich and Hounslow, which are not seen as attractive to young professionals, demographics have been skewed to the extent that white people are in some cases a minority. This is a new phenomenon in urban Britain. The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Essex is a county in the East of England. ... The Kent coat of arms For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... This article is about the English county. ... Newham Town Hall in East Ham (E6) Logo on the roadside at sunset The London Borough of Newham is a London borough in East London, within Greater London. ... , Woolwich town hall dates from when this was a borough in its own right. ... , Hounslow is the principal town of the London Borough of Hounslow in West London. ...


Industrial towns and cities with large south Asian populations such as Oldham, Rochdale, Nelson, Blackburn and Burnley in Lancashire, Bradford, Dewsbury and Keighley in West Yorkshire, Slough in the South East, and Leicester in the Midlands also show evidence of white flight. Ethnic minorities in these areas have experienced strong demographic growth (a result of young age structure, the high fertility of some minority groups, and continued immigration),[22] gradually expanding to new districts adjacent to their areas of first settlement. Meanwhile, white communities have been moving away from these older, less attractive urban centres to suburbs and small towns. However, whether segregation is increasing has been open to debate, with some arguing that as well as white families moving out of predominantly Asian areas, Asians themselves have started to move away as they become more established and affluent themselves.[23] For the larger local government district, see Metropolitan Borough of Oldham. ... For other uses, see Rochdale (disambiguation). ... Location within the British Isles Nelson is a town in Lancashire in north-west England with a population of around 30,000. ... This article is about Blackburn in Lancashire, England. ... , Burnley is a large market town in the north-east of Lancashire in north-west England with a population of 73,021[1] (2001 census). ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... For other uses, see Bradford (disambiguation). ... Dewsbury is a town in the county of West Yorkshire, England, to the west of Wakefield, in the borough of Kirklees. ... Keighley (pronounced Keith-ly or ) is a town and civil parish in the county of West Yorkshire, England, northwest of Bradford, on the meeting point of the River Aire and the River Worth. ... Coat of Arms of South Yorkshire West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county within the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, that has a population of 2. ... Slough (pronounced ) is a town and unitary authority (Borough of Slough) in England. ... South East England is one of the nine official regions of England. ... Leicester city centre, looking towards the Clock Tower Leicester (pronounced ) is the largest city and unitary authority in the English East Midlands. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Gentrification

Main article: Gentrification

The opposing social trend of wealthy social groups moving into an inner city area and displacing the existing residents is called gentrification. In Cleveland, as reported on Newshour with Jim Lehrer on PBS in 2003, wealthy homosexual couples have purchased and restored homes in formerly predominantly black neighborhoods. This study echoed an earlier Ohio documentary titled Flag Wars,[24] detailing similar black vs. gay (homophobia vs. racism) themes in the old silk stocking district of Columbus. In Milwaukee, restoration in houses of a neglected neighborhood, pioneered by middle-income couples but followed by wealthier cohorts as property values and prices soar, has made the Brewers Hill district a byword for gentrification.[25][26] In other cases, some inner city areas may witness a renaissance as a home for artists, which happens to be the case with the Silver Lake neighborhood of Los Angeles and (to a lesser extent) the Riverwest neighborhood of Milwaukee and the bohemian sections of the 9th Ward of New Orleans. The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Nickname: Motto: Progress & Prosperity Location in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State County Cuyahoga Founded 1796 Incorporated 1814 (village)   1836 (city) Government  - Mayor Frank G. Jackson (D) Area [1]  - City  82. ... The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer is an evening television news program broadcast weeknights on PBS in the United States. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State Counties Franklin, Delaware, and Fairfield Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City  212. ... For other places with the same name, see Milwaukee (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Silver Lake, Los Angeles, California. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Ninth Ward or 9th Ward is a distinctive region of New Orleans, Louisiana that is located in the easternmost downriver portion of the city. ...


Notes

  1. ^ The Best Story of Our Lives
  2. ^ ABC News: Increasing Diversity
  3. ^ White Flight: Atlanta and the Making of Modern Conservatism
  4. ^ How East New York Became a Ghetto by Walter Thabit. ISBN 0814782671. Page 42.
  5. ^ Growing diversity of American cities
  6. ^ "Racial" Provisions of FHA Underwriting Manual, 1938

    Recommended restrictions should include provision for: prohibition of the occupancy of properties except by the race for which they are intended …Schools should be appropriate to the needs of the new community and they should not be attended in large numbers by inharmonious racial groups. Federal Housing Administration, Underwriting Manual: Underwriting and Valuation Procedure Under Title II of the National Housing Act With Revisions to February, 1938 (Washington, D.C.), Part II, Section 9, Rating of Location. The FHAs logo The Federal Housing Administration (FHA) is a United States government agency created as part of the National Housing Act of 1934. ... The Federal Housing Administration was begun as part of the New Deal in 1934. ...

  7. ^ http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/147.html
  8. ^ http://www.jsonline.com/story/index.aspx?id=459264
  9. ^ Jacobson, Cardell K., Desegregation Rulings and Public Attitude Changes: White Resistance or Resignation?, American Journal of Sociology, v. 84 n. 3, pp. 698-705.
  10. ^ C.W. Nevius: Racism alive and well in S.F. schools - here's proof
  11. ^ Diversity is our strenght
  12. ^ Rainbow Coalition
  13. ^ http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2002-10-28-gop-west-1acover_x.htm
  14. ^ Hispanics turning back to Democrats for 2008
  15. ^ Exit Poll of 4,600 Asian American Voters Reveals Robust Support for Democratic Candidates in Key Congressional and State Races
  16. ^ http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2001/08/13/national/main306205.shtml
  17. ^ Pollard-Terry, Gayle. "Where It's Booming: Watts." Los Angeles Times, October 16, 2005. Page E1.
  18. ^ http://online.wsj.com/article_email/SB113236377590902105-lMyQjAxMDE1MzEyOTMxNjkzWj.html
  19. ^ http://www.nzherald.co.nz/specialreport/story.cfm?c_id=1501094&objectid=10392647
  20. ^ Whites leaving cities
  21. ^ http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/case/CBCB/census2_part1.pdf
  22. ^ Thousands in UK citizenship queue
  23. ^ Dominic Casciani, So who's right over segregation?, BBC News Magazine, 4 September 2006, accessed 21 September 2006
  24. ^ http://www.pbs.org/pov/pov2003/flagwars/special_gentrification.html
  25. ^ http://www2.jsonline.com/news/metro/may01/hill27052601a.asp
  26. ^ http://www.aux.uwm.edu/nho/in_the_news/news_articles/04.04.24Making_brewershill_afford.pdf

American Journal of Sociology (AJS) is one of the most important scientific journals in the field of sociology and the first U.S. scholarly journal in its field. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ...

References

  • Gamm, Gerald (1999). Urban Exodus: Why the Jews Left Boston and the Catholics Stayed Harvard University Press.
  • Kruse, Kevin M. (2005), " White Flight: The Strategies, Ideology, and Legacy of Segregationists in Atlanta" Southern Spaces.
  • Kruse, Kevin M. (2005), White Flight: Atlanta and the Making of Modern Conservatism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Lupton, R. and Power, A. (2004) 'Minority Ethnic Groups in Britain'. CASE-Brookings Census Brief No.2, London: LSE.
  • Seligman, Amanda I. (2005), Block by Block: Neighborhoods and Public Policy on Chicago's West Side Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Wiese, Andrew. (2006) "African American Suburban Development in Atlanta" Southern Spaces.

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
White flight Summary (3969 words)
White flight was principally a twentieth-century urban phenomenon.
White flight is a colloquial term for the demographic trend of white people, generally but not always upper and middle class, moving from increasingly and predominantly non-white areas, often from urban cores to nearby suburbs or even to new locales entirely (e.g., from the Rust Belt to the Sun Belt).
White flight continues today, but it has taken on a new aspect as some of the older suburbs have been experiencing urban decay similar to their parent cities—for example, in some of the "inner-ring" southern and western suburbs of Chicago, such as Harvey and Maywood.
Metroactive News & Issues | 'White Flight' (1514 words)
Arriola's answer is "white flight," a term used when middle-class Anglo-Americans flee urban school districts for the suburbs or send their kids to private schools.
White flight, Arriola says, is a newer, subtler form of segregation that defeats those historic integration efforts.
Countywide, 68 percent of white high school students attend schools where their racial group is the majority, compared with 55 percent of Latino and Asian students who do the same.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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