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Encyclopedia > White cliffs of Dover
The white cliffs of Dover
The white cliffs of Dover
The cliffs seen across the channel from Cap Gris Nez, France
The cliffs seen across the channel from Cap Gris Nez, France

The white cliffs of Dover are cliffs which form part of the British coastline facing the Strait of Dover and France. The cliffs are part of the North Downs formation. The cliff face, which reaches up to 350 feet high, owes its striking façade to its composition of chalk (pure white calcium carbonate) accentuated by streaks of black flint. The cliffs spread east and west from the town of Dover in the county of Kent, an ancient and still important English port. File links The following pages link to this file: Albion White cliffs of Dover Categories: Cliffs ... File links The following pages link to this file: Albion White cliffs of Dover Categories: Cliffs ... Image File history File links France_manche_vue_dover. ... Image File history File links France_manche_vue_dover. ... Cap Gris Nez is a cape on the Côte dOpale, in the Pas-de-Calais département, in northern France. ... “Precipice” redirects here. ... Satellite image of the Strait of Dover The Strait of Dover (French: Pas de Calais, i. ... Geology of the South East, Chalk is light green (6) A cross-section , showing the Wealden Dome, and relating it to the towns of Kent The North Downs are a ridge of chalk hills located in south east England that stretch for 120 miles (190 km) from Hampshire through Surrey... For other uses, see Chalk (disambiguation). ... Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound, with the chemical formula CaCO3. ... This article is about the sedimentary rock. ... , Dover is a major channel port in the English county of Kent. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The cliffs have great symbolic value for Britain because they face towards Continental Europe across the narrowest part of the English Channel, where invasions have historically threatened and against which the cliffs form a symbolic guard. Because crossing at Dover was the primary route to the continent before air travel, the white line of cliffs also formed the first (or last) sight of the UK for travellers. Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ...

Contents

Location

The location and extent of the white cliffs of Dover.
The location and extent of the white cliffs of Dover.

The cliffs are located along the coastline between approximately: Latitude 51°06'N, Longitude 1°14'E and Latitude 51°12'N, Longitude 1°24'E. Shakespeare Cliff marks the point where England most closely approaches continental Europe. On a clear day, the cliffs are easily visible from the French coast. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1103, 389 KB) This map shows the location and roughly the extent of the White Cliffs of Dover. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1103, 389 KB) This map shows the location and roughly the extent of the White Cliffs of Dover. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Geology

Evidence of erosion along the cliff top
Evidence of erosion along the cliff top

The cliffs are composed mainly of coccoliths and trace their origins to the Cretaceous Period, approximately 136 million years ago, when the area between Britain in the west and Sweden/Poland in the east was submerged under deep tropical waters. The emptied skeletons of coral, sponges and other small sea creatures fell as sediment and began to accumulate on the ocean floor. By approximately 70 million years ago, this process had formed a mass of silica-specked chalk covering huge areas between Britain and the Baltic Sea — white cliffs like those of Dover (but smaller) are also found on the Danish islands of Mon and Langeland or the coasts of the island of Rügen in Germany. The chalk layer used to lay high above sea level during the ice ages and in many places additionally was covered with glaciers. After the ice ages, they were exposed to the rising sea. Owing to the exceptional softness of chalk, tidal forces have since then significantly eroded this land mass away in Dover to form the English Channel. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (768x1024, 752 KB) Summary I took this picture myself on 14/05/05. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (768x1024, 752 KB) Summary I took this picture myself on 14/05/05. ... Coccoliths are the individual plates formed by coccolithophores such as Emiliana huxleyi1, and arranged around them in a coccosphere. ... The Cretaceous period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic period (about 135 mya) to the beginning of the Paleocene epoch of the Tertiary period (65 mya). ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... Classes Calcarea Hexactinellida Demospongiae The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus pore and ferre to bear) are animals of the phylum Porifera. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ...


The cliff face continues to erode at an average rate of one centimetre per year, although occasionally— most recently in 2001— large chunks of the edge, up to several metres at once, will fall into the channel with little warning. Visitors are, therefore, urged to remain at least five metres back from the edge. For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ...


Ecology

Close up of the cliffs from the walk along the ridge
Close up of the cliffs from the walk along the ridge

Several species of cliff nesting birds nest on the cliff face, including, fulmar and colonies of Black-legged Kittiwake. However, contrary to the words of the famous song ("There'll be bluebirds over the white cliffs of Dover"), bluebirds are an American species not found in the UK. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (768x1024, 612 KB) Summary I took this picture myself on 14/05/05. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (768x1024, 612 KB) Summary I took this picture myself on 14/05/05. ... Species (Linnaeus, 1761) (A. Smith, 1840) For other uses, see Fulmar (disambiguation). ... Species Rissa tridactyla Rissa brevirostris The Kittiwakes (genus Rissa) are two closely related seabird species in the gull family Laridae. ... Species Sialia sialis Sialia mexicana Sialia currucoides Mountain Bluebird Western Bluebird The bluebirds are medium-sized, mostly insectivorous or omnivorous birds in the genus Sialia of the thrush family Turdidae. ...


Defence

Behind the cliff face are miles of hidden tunnels that were created during the Middle Ages and later played a role in the defence of Britain during the Napoleonic Wars. The tunnels were later enlarged to become the Secret Wartime Tunnels beneath Dover castle. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Dover Castle is situated at Dover, Kent and has been described as the Key to England due to its defensive significance throughout history. ...


References in culture

In Matthew Arnold's 1867 poem "Dover Beach", the cliffs are a sign of reassuring strength. Rudyard Kipling's 1902 poem "The Broken Men" ends with the lines "How stands the old Lord Warden? Are Dover's cliffs still white?" to represent the English exiles' homesickness. The most iconic reference is perhaps the World War II song, sung by Vera Lynn, "(There'll Be Bluebirds Over) The White Cliffs of Dover". Matthew Arnold Caricature from Punch, 1881: Admit that Homer sometimes nods, That poets do write trash, Our Bard has written Balder Dead, And also Balder-dash Family tree Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic, who worked as an inspector of schools. ... For other uses, see Dover Beach (disambiguation). ... This article is about the British author. ... Flag of the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports The Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports is a ceremonial official in the United Kingdom. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Dame Vera Lynn DBE (born 20 March 1917) is a retired British singer whose career flourished during World War II, when she was nicknamed The Forces Sweetheart. She is best known for the popular songs Well Meet Again and The White Cliffs of Dover. Lynn is one of the... (Therell Be Bluebirds Over) The White Cliffs of Dover was a popular wartime song made famous by Vera Lynn in her 1942 recording of the song, written by Walter Kent and Nat Burton in 1941. ...


Other people to cover the song or sing about the white cliffs include Glenn Miller, Kaye Kyser, Kate Smith, Blur, in the song "Clover Over Dover"; The Decemberists, Louis Prima, Robson and Jerome, Clutch, Andrew Bird, Coil, Current 93 and Fatboy Slim. Other poetry includes Alice Duer Miller's "The White Cliffs", on which the 1944 film The White Cliffs of Dover was based. The cliffs are also mentioned in Jimmy Cliff's hit Many Rivers to Cross. This article is about the jazz musician. ... Kathryn Elizabeth Kate Smith (May 1, 1907 – June 17, 1986) was an American singer, best known for her rendition of Irving Berlins God Bless America. Smith had a long career in show business, with a radio, TV and recording career that spanned five decades, reaching its most-remembered zenith... Blur were an English rock band that formed in Colchester in 1989. ... The Decemberists are a five-piece indie pop band from Portland, Oregon, fronted by singer/songwriter Colin Meloy . ... Louis Prima (December 7, 1910 – August 24, 1978) was an American entertainer, singer, actor, songwriter, and trumpeter. ... Robson & Jerome was an English pop group, featuring TV actors Robson Green and Jerome Flynn, who were best known for their British TV series Soldier Soldier. Their debut single Unchained Melody stayed at No. ... For other uses, see Clutch (disambiguation). ... Andrew Bird (born July 11, 1973) is an American musician, songwriter, and multi-instrumentalist. ... Coil was an English cross-genre, experimental music group formed in 1982 by John Balance—later credited as Jhonn Balance—and his lover Peter Christopherson, aka Sleazy.[1] The duo worked together on a series of releases before Balance chose the name Coil, which he claimed to be inspired by... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... FatBoy Slim (born Quentin Leo Cook on July 31, 1963,[1] also known as Norman Cook) is a British big beat musician. ... Alice Duer Miller (28 July 1874 - 22 August 1942) was an American writer and poet. ... The White Cliffs of Dover is a 1944 film based on the Alice Duer Miller poem entitled The White Cliffs. It tells the story of an American girl who travels abroad to England and falls in love with an aristocrat. ... Jimmy Cliff, real name James Chambers OM (Jamaica) (born April 1, 1948, in St Catherine, Jamaica) is a Jamaican reggae musician, best known among mainstream audiences for songs like Sittin in Limbo, You Can Get It If You Really Want and Many Rivers to Cross from The Harder They Come... Many Rivers to Cross is the name of a song written by Jimmy Cliff. ...


In Ian Fleming's third James Bond novel, Moonraker, a chapter is set at the cliffs. The villain attempts to assassinate Bond and Gala Brand by bombing the cliff so they are showered in debris. This article is about the author. ... This article is about the spy series. ... Moonraker is the third James Bond novel in Ian Flemings James Bond series. ... Gala Brand is a fictional character of Ian Flemings James Bond novel Moonraker. ...


Guitarist Eric Johnson wrote a well-known composition called "Cliffs of Dover", which won a Grammy. For other persons named Eric Johnson, see Eric Johnson (disambiguation). ... Cliffs of Dover is a song by Eric Johnson. ... Grammy Award statuette The Grammy Awards, presented by the Recording Academy (an association of Americans professionally involved in the recorded music industry) for outstanding achievements in the recording industry, is one of four major music awards shows held annually in the United States (the Billboard Music Awards, the American Music...


In the animated film The Chipmunk Adventure one of the songs, "Off to See the World" refers to seeing the "Cliffs of Dover" The Chipmunk Adventure is a 1987 animated film featuring the characters from NBCs Saturday morning cartoon Alvin and the Chipmunks. ...


in 2000, Shakespere's Cliff was used as a level setting in Tomb Raider III:The Lost Artifact. In this level, the protagonist Lara Croft is on the journey searching for an artefact named the Hand of Rathmore in Paris. She adventures through the channel tunnel between Dover and Calais. Tomb Raider III: Adventures of Lara Croft is the third game in the Tomb Raider series, and the sequel to Tomb Raider II. It was developed by Core Design and published by Eidos Interactive. ...


In a 2005 poll of Radio Times readers, the cliffs were named as the 3rd greatest natural wonder in Britain. An Opinion poll is a survey of public opinion from a particular sample or pool. ... Current Radio Times logo Radio Times is the BBCs weekly television and radio programme listings magazine. ...


Twenty-eight days before it was released, a quarantine sign was projected on the cliffs to promote the 2007 film 28 Weeks Later.[1] 28 Weeks Later is a 2007 British post-apocalyptic science fiction horror film, and sequel to the 2002 film 28 Days Later. ...


See also

South Foreland lighthouse above the cliffs at Dover
South Foreland lighthouse above the cliffs at Dover

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1944x1422, 660 KB) Description =South Foreland Lighthouse sur la falaise à Douvres Source =Photo taken by Remi Jouan Date =Novembre 2006 Author =Remi Jouan File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1944x1422, 660 KB) Description =South Foreland Lighthouse sur la falaise à Douvres Source =Photo taken by Remi Jouan Date =Novembre 2006 Author =Remi Jouan File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are... {{otheruses3|your mum has aids. ... How the Beachy Head Lighthouse was built. ...

References

  1. ^ News, BBC. "'Biohazard' image on Dover cliffs", 2007-04-13. Retrieved on 2007-05-04. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Dover Museum information on the cliffs

  Results from FactBites:
 
White Cliffs at Dover v. Elaine Bulman (1691 words)
The district court, however, dismissed White Cliffs’ writ because it failed to rebut the statutory presumption under RSA 540:13-b (1997) that the refusal to renew Bulman’s lease was retaliatory for her complaints about the smell and the snow and ice removal.
On March 12, 2003, White Cliffs sent Bulman a letter informing her that, by placing her garbage in the hallway, she was violating section 25, part (e) of her lease which required tenants to bring their garbage from their apartment to the dumpster.
White Cliffs put up railings on both sides of the stairs to the entrance of her building, tried to establish a schedule for garbage removal from her apartment and tried to employ services of outside agencies to assist her with garbage disposal.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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