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Encyclopedia > White Paper of 1939
London Conference, St. James's Palace, February 1939. Arab Palestinian delegates (foreground), Left to right: Fu'ad Saba, Yaqub Al-Ghussein, Musa Al-Alami, Amin Tamimi, Jamal Al-Husseini, Awni Abdul Hadi, George Antonious, and Alfred Roch. Facing the Arab Palestinians are the British, with Sir Neville Chamberlain presiding. To his right is Lord Halifax, and to his left, Malcolm MacDonald

The White Paper of 1939, also known as the MacDonald White Paper after Malcolm MacDonald, the British Colonial Secretary who presided over it, was a policy paper issued by the British government under Neville Chamberlain in which the idea of partitioning the Mandate for Palestine was abandoned in favour of creating an independent Palestine governed by Palestinian Arabs and Jews in proportion to their numbers in the population by 1949 (section I). A limit of 75,000 Jewish immigrants was set for the five-year period 1940-1944, consisting of a regular yearly quota of 10,000, and a supplementary quota of 25,000, spread out over the same period, to cover refugee emergencies. After this cut-off date, further immigration would depend on the permission of the Arab majority (section II). Restrictions were also placed on the rights of Jews to buy land from Arabs (section III). Image File history File links LondonConference1939. ... Image File history File links LondonConference1939. ... Yaqub al-Ghussein (second from the left) at the London Conference, St. ... London Conference, St. ... Jamal al-Husayni Jamal al-Husayni , (b. ... This article is about the British Prime Minister. ... Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, known as Lord Irwin from 1926 until 1934, (1881-1959) was a British Conservative politician. ... Malcolm Ian Macdonald (born January 7, 1950, Fulham, England) was an English footballer always known as Supermac. Born in Fulham, London, Macdonald started out as a full back before switching to centre forward. ... Malcolm Ian Macdonald (born January 7, 1950, Fulham, England) was an English footballer always known as Supermac. Born in Fulham, London, Macdonald started out as a full back before switching to centre forward. ... The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet official in charge of managing the various British colonies. ... A white paper is an authoritative report. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... This article is about the British Prime Minister. ... Flag Palestine and Transjordan were incorporated (under different legal and administrative arrangements) into the British Mandate of Palestine, issued by the League of Nations to Great Britain on 29 September, 1923 Capital Not specified Organizational structure League of Nations Mandate High Commissioner  - 1920 — 1925 Sir Herbert Louis Samuel  - 1945 — 1948... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Look up quota in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Background

See: British Mandate of Palestine for further details Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ...


In 1914, during World War I, the British had made two promises regarding territory in the Middle East. Britain had promised the Hashemite governors of Arabia, through Lawrence of Arabia, independence for a united Arab country covering Syria, in exchange for their supporting the British against the Ottoman Empire through the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence, and endorsed in the Sykes-Picot Agreement, giving Britain and France a foothold in the region. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Hashemite is the Anglicised version of the Arabic: هاشمي (transliteration: Hashemi) and traditionally refers to those belonging to the Banu Hashim, or clan of Hashem, a clan within the larger Quraish tribe. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Thomas Edward Lawrence (August 16, 1888 – May 19, 1935), also known as Lawrence of Arabia, and (apparently, among his Arab allies) Aurens or El Aurens, became famous for his role as a British liaison officer during the Arab Revolt of 1916–1918. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Hussein-McMahon Correspondence during World War I was a 1915-1916 exchange of letters between the Hejazi (the Hejaz later became part of Saudi Arabia) leader Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca, and Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, concerning the future political status of the Arab... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East (then...


At the same time, British leaders had an interest in Zionism arising from widespread influence of Evangelism and belief in Jewish economic influence. David Lloyd George, the British Prime Minister during World War I had worked closely with the Zionist movement and was an Evangelical preacher. [1] This, and a variety of strategic factors, such as securing Jewish support in Eastern Europe as the Russian front collapsed, culminated in the Balfour Declaration, 1917, with Britain promising to create and foster a Jewish national home in the Palestinian region. These broad delineations of territory and goals for both the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, and Arab self determination was approved in the San Remo conference. This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Look up evangelist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ... Eastern Front usually refers to either Eastern Front (WWI) Eastern Front (WWII) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Balfour Declaration was a letter dated November 2, 1917 from the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation, a private Zionist organization. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... The San Remo conference (19-26 April 1920, San Remo, Italy) of the post-World War I Allied Supreme Council determined the allocation of Class A League of Nations mandates for administration of the former Ottoman-ruled lands of the Middle East by the victorious powers. ...


In June 1922 the League of Nations approved the Palestine Mandate with effect from September 1923. The Palestine Mandate was an explicit document regarding Britain's responsibilities and powers of administration in Palestine including 'secur[ing] the establishment of the Jewish national home', and 'safeguarding the civil and religious rights of all the inhabitants of Palestine'. In September 1922, the British government presented a memorandum to the League of Nations stating that Transjordan would be excluded from all the provisions dealing with Jewish settlement, and this memorandum was approved on 23 September. Due to stiff Arab opposition and pressure against Jewish immigration, Britain redefined Jewish immigration by restricting its flow according to the country's economic capacity to absorb the immigrants. In effect annual quotas were put in place as to how many Jews could immigrate, while Jews possessing a large sum of money (500 Pounds) were allowed to enter the country freely. 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Following the rise of Adolf Hitler and other anti-Semitic regimes in Europe, more Jews were prepared to spend the money necessary to enter Palestine. Jewish migration was limited by Nazi restrictions on transfer of finances abroad, but the Jewish Agency was able to negotiate an agreement whereby the Germans would allow Jews to use their funds to buy German goods for export to Palestine thus circumventing the restrictions. Hitlers rise to power was marked at first by a period of the NSDAP as a fringe party before the events of the Beer hall putsch and the release of Mein Kampf introduced Hitler to a wider audience. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... The Jewish Agency for Israel also known as The Jewish Agency (or sochnut in Hebrew), was previously called the Jewish Agency for Palestine (during the British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli organisation that advocates for Israel and is composed mainly, but not entirely, of Jewish people. ...


As a result large numbers of Jews began entering Palestine, and this was one of the primary causes of the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine. Britain responded to the Arab revolt by appointing a Royal Commission, known as the Peel Commission which traveled out to Palestine and undertook a through study of the problems. The Peel Commission recommended in 1937 that Palestine be partitioned into two states, one Arab the other Jewish. The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... In states that are Commonwealth Realms a Royal Commission is a major government public inquiry into an issue. ... The Peel Commission of 1936, formally known as the Palestine Royal Commission, was a British Royal Commission of Inquiry set out to propose changes to the British Mandate of Palestine following the outbreak of the Great Uprising. ...


In January 1938, the Woodhead Commission went to Palestine to explore how partition would work on the ground. The report of the Woodhead Commission was published on November 9, 1938. The idea of partition was upheld, but the proposed Jewish state was to be substantially smaller, receiving only the coastal plain. This article is in need of attention. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In February 1939, the St. James Conference (also known as the Round Table Conference of 1939) convened in London; since the Arab delegation refused to meet with its Jewish counterpart, to recognize them, or even use the same entrances to the building, proposals were put by the government separately to the two parties, who however were not able to agree to any of them. The Conference ended on March 17 without making any progress. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


One key calculation affecting British thinking at this point was that, in the event of another world war, Jewish support for the West was guaranteed. It was important therefore to secure unambiguous support from the Arab world, whose sympathies were by no means clear. This geopolitical consideration was, in Raul Hilberg's words, 'decisive'.[2] Egypt, Iraq and Saudi-Arabia were independent and allied with Britain, which feared Fascist propaganda being broadcast to the Middle-East, primarily by Italian radio. Britain also directly governed large Moslem territories in the Middle East and India. Motto There is no God but Allah; Muhammad is His messenger (the Shahadah) Anthem Aash Al Maleek Long live the King Capital (and largest city) Riyadh Official languages Arabic Demonym Saudi, Saudi Arabian Government Absolute monarchy  -  King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz  -  Crown Prince Sultan bin Abdul Aziz Establishment  -  Kingdom declared... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Pro-Nazi regimes were on the rise across Europe (Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria) and anti-Semitic governments existed in Poland and Austria, dedicated to either expelling their Jewish populations or restricting their rights. Few countries were prepared to accept Jewish immigrants and Britain feared that millions of Jews would soon be seeking to enter Palestine[citation needed] which, it was thought, could not support them. // In Hungary, the Great Depression induced a drop in the standard of living and the political mood of the country shifted further toward the right. ...


The League of Nations, whose authority lay behind the Mandate, no longer possessed any international force as more and more regimes ignored its rulings.


The annexation in March 1938 by Nazi Germany of Czechoslovakia given to it by the British policy of appeasement, resulted in over 100,000 Czech Jews being rendered stateless and placed added pressure on the British Government to allow them entry into Palestine. Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ...


White Paper of 1939, content

The White Paper of 1939 was published on May 17, 1939, and its main points were: For the pop music band, see The The. ... Was symbol For other uses, see Was (disambiguation). ... Publishing is the activity of putting information in the public arena. ... This article describes the Aphex Twin single. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up and in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up its, its, ITS in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... WERE is an AM radio station in Cleveland, Ohio operating on 1300 kHz with studios in downtown Cleveland. ...

  • Section I. The Constitution: It stated that with over 450,000 Jews having now settled in the mandate, the Balfour Declaration about "a national home for the Jewish people" had been met and called for an independent Palestine established within 10 years, governed jointly by Arabs and Jews:

    "His Majesty's Government believe that the framers of the Mandate in which the Balfour Declaration was embodied could not have intended that Palestine should be converted into a Jewish State against the will of the Arab population of the country. [...] His Majesty's Government therefore now declare unequivocally that it is not part of their policy that Palestine should become a Jewish State. They would indeed regard it as contrary to their obligations to the Arabs under the Mandate, as well as to the assurances which have been given to the Arab people in the past, that the Arab population of Palestine should be made the subjects of a Jewish State against their will."

    'The objective of His Majesty's Government is the establishment within 10 years of an independent Palestine State in such treaty relations with the United Kingdom as will provide satisfactorily for the commercial and strategic requirements of both countries in the future. [..] The independent State should be one in which Arabs and Jews share government in such a way as to ensure that the essential interests of each community are safeguarded.'

  • Section II. Immigration: Jewish immigration to Palestine under the British Mandate was to be limited to 75,000 for the first five years, and would later be contingent on Arab consent:

    'His Majesty's Government do not [..] find anything in the Mandate or in subsequent Statements of Policy to support the view that the establishment of a Jewish National Home in Palestine cannot be effected unless immigration is allowed to continue indefinitely. If immigration has an adverse effect on the economic position in the country, it should clearly be restricted; and equally, if it has a seriously damaging effect on the political position in the country, that is a factor that should not be ignored. Although it is not difficult to contend that the large number of Jewish immigrants who have been admitted so far have been absorbed economically, the fear of the Arabs that this influx will continue indefinitely until the Jewish population is in a position to dominate them has produced consequences which are extremely grave for Jews and Arabs alike and for the peace and prosperity of Palestine. The lamentable disturbances of the past three years are only the latest and most sustained manifestation of this intense Arab apprehension [...] it cannot be denied that fear of indefinite Jewish immigration is widespread amongst the Arab population and that this fear has made possible disturbances which have given a serious setback to economic progress, depleted the Palestine exchequer, rendered life and property insecure, and produced a bitterness between the Arab and Jewish populations which is deplorable between citizens of the same country. If in these circumstances immigration is continued up to the economic absorptive capacity of the country, regardless of all other considerations, a fatal enmity between the two peoples will be perpetuated, and the situation in Palestine may become a permanent source of friction amongst all peoples in the Near and Middle East.'

    "Jewish immigration during the next five years will be at a rate which, if economic absorptive capacity permits, will bring the Jewish population up to approximately one third of the total population of the country. Taking into account the expected natural increase of the Arab and Jewish populations, and the number of illegal Jewish immigrants now in the country, this would allow of the admission, as from the beginning of April this year, of some 75,000 immigrants over the next four years. These immigrants would, subject to the criterion of economic absorptive capacity, be admitted as follows: For each of the next five years a quota of 10,000 Jewish immigrants will be allowed on the understanding that a shortage one year may be added to the quotas for subsequent years, within the five year period, if economic absorptive capacity permits. In addition, as a contribution towards the solution of the Jewish refugee problem, 25,000 refugees will be admitted as soon as the High Commissioner is satisfied that adequate provision for their maintenance is ensured, special consideration being given to refugee children and dependents. The existing machinery for ascertaining economic absorptive capacity will be retained, and the High Commissioner will have the ultimate responsibility for deciding the limits of economic capacity. Before each periodic decision is taken, Jewish and Arab representatives will be consulted. After the period of five years, no further Jewish immigration will be permitted unless the Arabs of Palestine are prepared to acquiesce in it." High Commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment. ...

It should be noted that some of the claims made in this section were not true. Jewish migration had resulted in a major economic boom in Palestine and non-Jews (Arabs) were beginning to migrate into the country as a result.[3] Jewish migration was exlusively funded from taxation paid by the Jewish population, whose (ample) taxes were also used to fund the British forces in Palestine and to help improve economic conditions for the Arab population. After 1945, Jewish aid made Palestine the largest single importer of dollars in the entire British Empire (outside of Britain).[4]

  • Section III. Land: Previously no restriction had been imposed on the transfer of land from Arabs to Jews, while now the White Paper stated:

    "The Reports of several expert Commissions have indicated that, owing to the natural growth of the Arab population and the steady sale in recent years of Arab land to Jews, there is now in certain areas no room for further transfers of Arab land, whilst in some other areas such transfers of land must be restricted if Arab cultivators are to maintain their existing standard of life and a considerable landless Arab population is not soon to be created. In these circumstances, the High Commissioner will be given general powers to prohibit and regulate transfers of land.'

The White Paper was passed in the House of Commons by 268 to 179 in favour. Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin...


In March 1940 the British High Commissioner for Palestine issued an edict banning Jews from purchasing land in 95% of Palestine.[5]


Reactions and effects

The policy of restricted Jewish immigration set limits on the ability of those Jews who intended to flee persecution in Europe by immigrating to Palestine. Measures taken to block illegal immigration violating the quotas culminated in several incidents. (See:Struma (ship), Patria disaster, and Exodus (ship).) After the Second World War it led the British Government to detain large numbers of Jews in British camps on Cyprus. Struma in Istanbul harbor, 1942 Struma was a ship chartered to carry Jewish refugees from officially Axis-allied Romania to British-controlled Palestine during World War II. On February 23, 1942, with its engine inoperable, the ship was towed from Istanbul through the Bosporus out to the Black Sea by... The Patria sinking in Haifa harbor The Patria was a ship that sank in Haifa harbor on November 25, 1940, with the loss of approximately 267 lives (over 200 Jews and 50 crew and British soldiers). ... Exodus 1947 after British takeover (note damage to makeshift barricades). ... Jews in British camps on Cyprus during the 1940s was a result of the British not allowing Jews to enter the British Mandate of Palestine. ...



During the Parliamentary debate, Lloyd George described the White Paper as an act of perfidy while Winston Churchill voted against the government in which he was a minister.[6] In a leader the Manchester Guardian described it as 'a death sentence on tens of thousands of Central European Jews' [7] The Liberal MP James Rothschild stated during the parliamentary debate that 'for the majority of the Jews who go to Palestine it is a question of migration or physical extinction.'[8] This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Churchill redirects here. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... Look up MP in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... James de Rothschild, born May 15, 1792 in Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany – died November 15, 1868 in Paris, France , was a banker and a member of the prominent Rothschild family. ...



The supervising authority of the League of Nations, the Permanent Mandates Commission abstained unanimously from endorsing the White Paper, though four members thought the new policy was inconsistent with that mandate.[9]


Some supporters of the National Government were opposed to the policy on the grounds that it appeared in their view to contradict the Balfour Declaration. Several government MPs either voted against the proposals or abstained, including Cabinet Ministers such as Leslie Hore-Belisha, as well as Winston Churchill. For other uses, see Belisha (disambiguation). ... Churchill redirects here. ...


The provisions of the White Paper were opposed both by the Jews and the Arabs in Palestine.


The Arab Higher Committee argued that the independence of a future Palestine Government would prove to be illusory, as the Jews could prevent its functioning by withholding participation, and in any case real authority would still be in the hands of British officials. The limitations on Jewish immigration were also held to be insufficient, as there was no guarantee immigration would not resume after five years. In place of the policy enunciated in the White Paper, the Arab Higher Committee called for 'a complete and final prohibition' of Jewish immigration and a repudiation of the Jewish national home policy altogether. According to historian Benny Morris writing in The New Republic, in his book Army of Shadows, Palestinian Collaboration with Zionism, 1917-1948, historian Hillel Cohen argues that Hajj Amin al-Husayni "astonished" the other members of the Arab Higher Committee by turning down the White Paper, an arrangement entirely to the advantage of the Arabs. Al-Husayni, according to Cohen, turned the advantagewous proposel down for the entirely selfish reason that "it did not place him at the helm of the future Palestinian state." [10] The Arab Higher Committee was the central political organ of the Arab community of Palestine, established in 1936. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see New Republic. ... Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ...



After the outbreak of war in September 1939, the head of the Jewish Agency for Palestine David Ben-Gurion declared: 'We will fight the White Paper as if there is no war, and fight the war as if there is no White Paper.' [11] Jewish Agency for Israel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Ben Gurion redirects here. ...


By the autumn of 1943, it was discovered that only 44,000 of these certificates had been issued, and the British authorities ruled that the remaining 31,000 passes could be used immediately. By the end of the following year, the whole quota had been exhausted.


At the end of World War II, the British Labour Party manifesto promised to rescind the White Paper and establish a Jewish state in Palestine. In fact, however, the Labour Foreign Minister, Ernest Bevin persisted with the policy and it remained in effect. The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Ernest Bevin (9 March 1881 - 14 April 1951) was a British labour leader, politician, and statesman best known for his time as Minister of Labour in the war-time coalition government, and as Foreign Secretary in the post-war Labour government. ...


After the war, the determination of many Holocaust survivors to reach Palestine led to large scale illegal Jewish migration to Palestine. British efforts to block these clandestine operations encountered violent resistance by Jewish terrorist groups operating outside the Zionist mainstream. Further information: The Holocaust (responsibility) The Holocaust became the dark symbol of the 20th centurys crimes against humanity. ... For the effort initiated by Polish Zionists from Lublin to bring European Jews to Palestine (1944-48), see Berihah. ...


From October 1946, the British Government, under the 'severest pressure' from the USA, relented and allowed 1,500 Jewish migrants a month into Palestine, equal to the total amount the United States still imposed on all immigrants from Eastern Europe. [12]. The gesture was in deference to the recommendations of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry.[13] Half of those admitted came from the prison camps for illegal immigrants in Cyprus due to fears that a large Jewish presence in Cyprus would lead to an uprising there. [14] This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Notes and references

  1. ^ See Jill Hamilton, God, Guns and Israel: Britain, the First World War and the Jews in the Holy City, Sutton 2004
  2. ^ Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, (1961) New Viewpoihnts, New York 1973 p.716
  3. ^ Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, A Survey of Palestine (London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1945-46), vol. 1, p. 211. "the "boom" conditions in Palestine in the years 1934-36 led to an inward movement in Palestine particularly from Syria. The depression due to the state of public disorder during 1936-39 led to the return of these people and also a substantial outward movement of Palestinian Arabs"
  4. ^ The Times 19/12/46 page 3 & 27/2/47 page 5. Britain’s total exports to the USA in 1947 were about three times the amount Palestine was receiving): see Statistical Abstract for the Commonwealth Volume 71, London 1951 page 8.
  5. ^ Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry - Appendix IV see http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/anglo/angap04.htm
  6. ^ Manchester Guardian 24/5/39 pages 12 & 14
  7. ^ Manchester Guardian 21/5/39 page 8.
  8. ^ House of Commons Debates, Volume 347 column 1984
  9. ^ Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, (1961) New Viewpoints, New York 1973 p.717 n.7
  10. ^ The Tangled Truth by Benny Morris, The New Republic, May 07, ‘08 [1]
  11. ^ The Brigade by Howard Blum, p.5. In 1946, a yiddish song written in the Yishuv by Jacob Jacobs ad Isadore Lilian included these lyrics: Tserisn muz vern dos vayse papir, In der fremd viln mir mer nit zayn. Habeyt mishomyim ureey, Groyser got kuk arop un ze, Vi men yogt undz, vi men plot undz, Got, her oys undzer geshrey. "They don't care about Jewish anguish, The White Paper must be torn, We don't want to be away from our home anymore." (As described in "Palestine in Song," YIVO News No. 204, Winter 2008, p.15
  12. ^ Raul Hilberg The Destruction of the European Jews, (1971) New Viewpoints ed.New York, 1973 p.729
  13. ^ Report of the Anglo-American Committee (1946) Cmd.6808 pp.65-66
  14. ^ New York Times 11/08/46 pg 35, UK Foreign Office document 371/52651

This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Guardian was also the name of a U.S. television series. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... For other uses, see New Republic. ... Jewish Brigade recruitment poster: For Vengeance and Salvation! A recruitment drive poster for the Jewish Brigade: Soldiers of 1915-1918: to the flag! (Figure in background represents the Jewish Legion of World War I) The Jewish Brigade was a fighting unit in the British Army composed of volunteers from the... Yishuv is a Hebrew word meaning settlement. ... A white paper is an authoritative report. ... Dr. Raul Hilberg Raul Hilberg (June 2, 1926 - August 4, 2007 in Williston, Vermont) was one of the best-known and most distinguished of Holocaust historians. ... Yale redirects here. ...

See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
British White Paper of Palestine 1936
Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Belligerents Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... The Palestine Mandate: The Council of the League of Nations: July 24, 1922. ... The Churchill White Paper of 3 June 1922 clarified how Britain viewed the Balfour Declaration, 1917. ... The 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... The Palestinian state is recognised by around 100 countries. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
MidEast Web - White Paper of 1939 (4427 words)
The British White Paper of 1939 was issued to satisfy mounting Arab pressure against further Jewish immigration to Palestine.
Simultaneously with the Hope-Simpson report and based on its recommendations the British responded with the Passfield White Paper of 1930, which was the first attempt to limit Jewish immigration to Palestine.
The Passfield White Paper evoked considerable opposition from the Zionist movement and was rescinded effectively in a letter issued to Haim Weizmann by PM Ramsay Macdonald.
White Paper of 1939 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1376 words)
Previous White Papers had stated that the 1917 Balfour Declaration was not a British endorsement of actual Jewish statehood in Palestine.
The White Paper was passed in the House of Commons by 268 to 179 in favour.
In terms of the status quo, the White Paper was a significant defeat for the Jewish side.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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