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Encyclopedia > White House Landing, Virginia

White House is an unincorporated community located located in New Kent County, Virginia on the south shore of the Pamunkey River. White House Plantation, for whom it is named, was the home of Martha Dandridge Custis in the 18th century, who as a widow, courted her future husband, a British Army colonel named George Washington there. They were married in 1759. New Kent County is a county located in the state of Virginia. ... The Pamunkey River is a tributary of the York River, about 90 mi (145 km) long, in eastern Virginia in the United States. ... Give Me Liberty Martha Dandridge Custis Washington (June 2, 1731 – May 22, 1802) was the wife of George Washington, the first president of the United States, and therefore is seen as the first First Lady of the United States (although that title was not coined until after her death; she... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first president of the United States under the U.S. Constitution. ...


Nearby, White House Landing on the river was the site of a major Union Army Supply Base in 1862 during the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. At White House, the Richmond and York River Railroad, which was completed in 1861 between Richmond and West Point, crossed the Pamunkey River. The railroad is now part of the Norfolk Southern rail system. The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Richmond and York River Railroad was completed between Richmond, Virginia and West Point, Virginia in 1861. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... West Point is a town located in King William County, Virginia. ... Norfolk Southern Corporation (AAR reporting mark NS) NYSE: NSC is a US publicly-traded stock corporation based in Norfolk, Virginia. ...

Contents

Antebellum history

White House Plantation was the home of Martha Dandridge Custis (1731-1802) and Daniel Parke Custis (1711-1757) after they were married in 1750. They had four children, two of whom survived childhood. However, their father, 20 years older than their mother, died in 1757. Give Me Liberty Martha Dandridge Custis Washington (June 2, 1731 – May 22, 1802) was the wife of George Washington, the first president of the United States, and therefore is seen as the first First Lady of the United States (although that title was not coined until after her death; she... Daniel Parke Custis (15 October 1711-8 July 1757) was a wealthy Virginia planter. ...


A wealthy widow, Martha Custis was courted by Colonel George Washington, who she married in 1759. Shorty thereafter, he resigned his British military commission and they moved to his farm at Mount Vernon in Fairfax County overlooking the Potomac River. George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first president of the United States under the U.S. Constitution. ... Back of the main house. ... Fairfax County is a county in Northern Virginia, in the United States. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ...


George and Martha Washington had no children of their own, but raised her two surviving children. When her son, John Parke "Jacky" Custis (1754-1781) died during the American Revolutionary War, Martha and George Washington raised his two youngest children, Eleanor Parke Custis (later Lewis) and George Washington Parke Custis (1781-1857). John Parke Custis (27 November 1754-5 November 1781) was a Virginia planter and stepson of George Washington. ... Combatants American Revolutionaries French Monarchy Spanish Empire Dutch Republic Oneida and Tuscarora tribes Polish volunteers Prussian volunteers Kingdom of Great Britain Hessian mercenaries Iroquois Confederacy Loyalists Commanders George Washington Nathanael Greene Gilbert de La Fayette Comte de Rochambeau Bernardo de Gálvez Tadeusz Kościuszko Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben Sir... Eleanor Parke Custis Lewis (1779-1852), known as Nelly, is the adopted daughter and step-granddaughter of United States President George Washington. ... Photograph of George Washington Parke Custis George Washington Parke Custis (April 30, 1781 – October 19, 1857), was the adopted son (and also step-grandson) of United States President George Washington. ...


George Washington was to become the first President of the United States and his wife, Martha, became the nation's initial First Lady, although she was known at the time as simply "Lady Washington." The title of First Lady was traditionally given the President's wife in years thereafter. The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... This article is about the use of the term first lady internationally. ...


In 1802, George Washington Parke Custis began construction on Arlington House, then in the District of Columbia, intending it to become a memorial to his step-grandfather (and adoptive father), George Washington, who had died in 1799. Arlington House would years later become the home of his daughter, Mary Anna Custis Lee, born in 1807, who in 1831, married Robert E. Lee, a graduate of the United States Military Academy (USMA) at West Point, New York in the Class of 1829, there. In 1846, most of the area of the District of Columbia south of the Potomac River was retroceded to Virginia, including the land occupied by Arlington House and the surrounding plantation. Arlington House from a sketch made before 1861, though not published until 1875. ... ... Mary Anna Randolph Custis Lee (October 1, 1808 – November 5, 1873) was the wife of Confederate General Robert E. Lee. ... // For the author of Inherit the Wind and other works, see Robert Edwin Lee. ... USMA redirects here. ... West Point painting West Point is a federal military base (and a census-designated place) located in the Town of Highlands in Orange County, New York. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ...


Robert E. and Mary Anna Custis Lee had seven children, of whom three boys and three girls survived to adulthood. Of these, the second son was William H.F. "Rooney" Lee (1837-1891), who was born at Arlington House. Rooney Lee was educated at Harvard University, and then followed his father's footsteps into service with the U.S. Army. However, in 1859, he resigned his commission. William Henry Fitzhugh Rooney Lee William Henry Fitzhugh Lee (May 31, 1837 – October 15, 1891), known as Rooney Lee or W.H.F. Lee, was the second son of Robert E. Lee and Mary Anna Randolph Custis. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Founded in 1636,[2] Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning still operating in the United States. ...


Rooney Lee moved to White House Plantation, which he had inherited from his father, who died in 1857. He married Charlotte Wickham, a descendant of attorney John Wickham. They had two children, a boy and a girl, both of whom died in infancy. His wife, Charlotte, died in 1863. John Wickham (June 6, 1763–January 22, 1839) was an American Loyalist and attorney best remembered for his role in the treason trial of former Vice President Aaron Burr. ...


White House was the site of the crossing of the Pamunkey River of the Richmond and York River Railroad, which was completed in 1861 between Richmond and West Point, where the Pamunkey and the the Mattaponi Rivers converge to form the York River. Richmond and York River Railroad was completed between Richmond, Virginia and West Point, Virginia in 1861. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... West Point is a town located in King William County, Virginia. ... The Mattaponi River is a tributary of the York River estuary in eastern Virginia in the United States. ... The York River is a navigable estuary, approximately 40 mi (64 km) long, in eastern Virginia in the United States. ...


American Civil War

When the Civil War broke out in 1861, and Virginia joined the newly formed Confederate States of America, Robert E. Lee, who had most recently been Superintendent of the USMA at West Point was offered the command of all Union forces by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, but resigned his commission in favor of serving his home state of Virginia. All three of his sons joined him in military service for the Confederacy. Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United States (March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865). ...


Robert E. Lee's wife suffered from rheumatoid arthritis, and this became increasingly debilitating with advancing age. By 1861, she was using a wheelchair. Early in the War, Mrs. Lee and her daughters left Arlington House and she was staying at her son Rooney's plantation in New Kent County at White House when Union troops under General George B. McClellan took White House Landing as a supply base during the Peninsula Campaign in 1862, a failed attempt to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond. General McClellan made arrangements for Mrs. Lee's safe passage through the Union lines, and she relocated to Richmond, where she resided at 707 E. Franklin Street (in a still-extant house) for the duration of the War. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ...


During the Peninsula Campaign, Frederick Law Olmsted, designer of New York City's Central Park among his many accomplishments, served as Executive Secretary of the U.S. Sanitary Commission, a precursor to the Red Cross in Washington D.C. which tended to the Union wounded during the Civil War. Olmsted headed the medical effort for the sick and wounded at White House Landing until McClellan abandoned it as he retreated with his troops during the Seven Days Battles and shifted his base to the James River. The manor house of White House Plantation was burned. Frederick Law Olmsted, oil painting by John Singer Sargent, 1895, Biltmore Estate, Asheville, North Carolina Daniel France (September, 1988 was a United States landscape architect, famous for designing many well-known urban parks, including Central Park and Prospect Park in New York City, the countrys oldest coordinated system of... New York, NY redirects here. ... A Central Park landscape Central Park is a large public, urban park (843 acres or 3. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac; 105,445 Army of Northern Virginia; 90,500 Casualties 1,734 killed 8,062 wounded 6,053 missing/captured 3,286 killed 15,009 wounded 946 missing/captured Peninsula... The James River at Cartersville The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 547. ...


Post-bellum

Rooney Lee lost his wife and children during the War, and was captured and held as a prisoner-of-war in New York after the Battle of Brandy Station. Following the War, Rooney Lee returned to White House Plantation. In 1867, he married again. With his second wife, Mary Tab Bolling Lee, he had several children. Nearby, his younger brother Rob lived at Romancock Plantation across the river in King William County. The Battle of Brandy Station was the largest cavalry engagement on the North American continent. ... King William County is a county located on the Middle Peninsula in the state of Virginia. ...


After his mother died in 1873, Rooney inherited the Ravensworth Estate, the old Fitzhugh family property (near present-day Springfield) in Fairfax County with 563 acres of land. In 1874, he moved there from White House Plantation. Springfield is an unincorporated community in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. ... Fairfax County is a county in Northern Virginia, in the United States. ...


Rooney Lee was elected to the Virginia Senate in 1875 , serving until 1878. He was then elected as a Democrat to the US House of Representatives in 1887. He served in the House until his death at Ravensworth in 1891. He is interred in the Lee Chapel at Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Virginia with his parents and siblings. The Virginia Senate is the upper house of the Virginia General Assembly. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Republican Party. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Lee Chapel is an historic building found in Lexington, Virginia, on the campus of Washington & Lee University. ... Washington and Lee University is a private liberal arts college in Lexington, Virginia, located adjacent to (but not affiliated with) Virginia Military Institute. ... Lexington is an independent city within the confines of Rockbridge County in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ...


Heritage, trivia

  • The manor house at White House Plantation which was burned in 1862 had been the second of three which occupied the site of over the years, all destroyed by fires.
  • Although it wasn't built until some years after presidency of George Washington, it is speculated that the name of the famous White House in Washington, D.C. which became the traditional home of the President of the United States, may have derived from First Lady Martha Custis Washington's "White House Plantation" in New Kent County, where they both had shared many pleasant memories. [1].
  • The Pamunkey Indian Reservation is located directly across the Pamunkey River from White House.

For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D... The Pamunkey Tribe has been in existence for around ten to twelve thousand years, since the Ice Age. ...

See also

Arlington House from a sketch made before 1861, though not published until 1875. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ...

Sources

  • Sears, Stephen W., To the Gates of Richmond: the Peninsula Campaign (1992) Ticknor and Fields, New York, NY ISBN 0-89919-790-6

 
 

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