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Encyclopedia > White House Correspondent
The southern side of the White House

The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States of America. Image:White House (south side). ... Image:White House (south side). ... The President of the United States (unofficially abbreviated “POTUS”) is the head of state of the United States. ...


The White House is a white-painted, neoclassical sandstone mansion located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C. (38°53′51″N, 77°02′12″W). As the office of the U.S. President, the term "White House" is often used as a metonym for the president's administration. The property is owned by the National Park Service and is part of President's Park. White is a color (more accurately it contains all the colors of the visible spectrum and is sometimes described as an achromatic color—black is the absence of color) that has high brightness but zero hue. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... Sandstone near Stadtroda, Germany Sandstone is an sedimentary rock composed mainly of feldspar and quartz and varies in colour (in a similar way to sand), through grey, yellow, red, and white. ... Pennsylvania Avenue street sign, 2004. ... Washington, D.C. is the capital city of the United States of America. ... In rhetoric and cognitive linguistics, metonymy (in Greek μετά (meta) = after/later and όνομα (onoma) = name) (IPA: mÉ™-tŏnÉ™-mÄ“) is the use of a single characteristic to identify a more complex entity. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Presidents Park is a unit of the National Park Service, located in Washington, D.C., USA at 38° 53′ 42″ N 77° 02′ 11″ W. It includes the White House, a visitor center, Lafeyette Square, and the Ellipse. ...


An image of the White House is on the back of the $20 bill. The U.S. twenty dollar bill ($20) is a denomination of United States currency. ...

Contents


History

North side of the White HouseThis is the official entrance of the White House. It is used when foreign heads of state visit.
North side of the White House
This is the official entrance of the White House. It is used when foreign heads of state visit.

The White House was built after Congress established the District of Columbia as the permanent capital of the United States on July 16, 1790. President George Washington helped select the site, along with city planner Pierre L'Enfant. The architect was chosen in a competition, which received nine proposals. James Hoban, an Irishman, was awarded the honor and construction began with the laying of the cornerstone on October 13, 1792. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1024, 274 KB)Photographed and uploaded by user:Geographer. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1024, 274 KB)Photographed and uploaded by user:Geographer. ... The President of the United States visits the President of the Philippines. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... Washington, D.C. is the capital city of the United States of America. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... 1790 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799) was the successful Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and later became the first President of the United States, an office to which he was elected twice. ... Pierre Charles LEnfant (2 August 1754 – 14 June 1825) designed the street plan of the Federal City in the United States, now known as Washington, DC. Born in France, he came to the American colonies as a military engineer with General Lafayette and became closely identified with the United... James Hoban James Hoban (1762-1831) was born in Desart, near Callan County Kilkenny, Ireland. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The building Hoban designed was modelled on the first and second floors of Leinster House, a ducal palace in Dublin, Ireland, that is now the seat of the Irish Parliament. Contrary to widely published myth, the North portico was not modelled on a similar portico on another Dublin building, the Viceregal Lodge (now Áras an Uachtaráin, residence of the President of Ireland). Its portico in fact postdates the White House portico's design. The decision to place the capital on land ceded by two slave states—Virginia and Maryland—ultimately influenced the acquisition of laborers to construct its public buildings. The D.C. commissioners, charged by Congress with building the new city under the direction of the president, initially planned to import workers from Europe to meet their labor needs. However, response to recruitment was dismal and soon they turned to African Americans—slave and free—to provide the bulk of labor that built the White House. Leinster House The former palace of the Duke of Leinster. ... Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland, located near the midpoint of Irelands east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin Region. ... The Dáil Chamber Dáil Éireann is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ... Áras an Uachtaráin is the official residence of the President of Ireland, located in the Phoenix Park on the Northside of Dublin1. ... The President of Ireland (Irish: Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland. ...

19th Century view of the White House as seen from the southwest, with the old West Wing visible.
19th Century view of the White House as seen from the southwest, with the old West Wing visible.

Construction of the White House was completed on November 1, 1800. Over an extremely slow 8 years of construction, $232,371.83 was spent. With inflation, this would be approximately equivalent to $2.4 million today. mid 19th century engraving showing American White House at Washington, DC as seen from the South-West This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... mid 19th century engraving showing American White House at Washington, DC as seen from the South-West This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1800 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


The front and rear porticoes were not part of the structure until about 1825.


The building was originally referred to as the Presidential Palace or Presidential Mansion. Dolley Madison called it the "President's Castle." However, by 1811 the first evidence of the public calling it the "White House" emerged, because of its white-painted stone exterior. The name Executive Mansion was often used in official context until President Theodore Roosevelt established the formal name by having "The White House" engraved on his stationery in 1901. Madison in 1818 Dolley Payne Todd Madison (May 20, 1768 - July 12, 1849), wife of President James Madison, who served from 1809 until 1817. ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was the 26th (1901–09) President of the United States. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


John Adams became the first president to take residence in the building on November 1, 1800. In 1814 during the War of 1812, much of Washington, D.C., was set alight by British troops (invading from what would later become Canada), and the White House was gutted. Only the exterior walls remained, but it was rebuilt. The walls were repainted white, but the White House was always painted white as early as 1798, and the repainting from the fire damage did not originate the term "White House" as a popular urban legend claims it did. Very few of the spoils of the British troops stolen from the Whitehouse have been recovered. Only two artifacts have been recovered — a painting of George Washington, rescued by then-first lady Dolley Madison, and a jewelry box returned to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1939 by a Canadian who said his grandfather had taken it from Washington. The bounty was lost when a fleet of British ships en route to Halifax sank off Prospect during a storm. HMS Fantome was leading a convoy of ships back to Halifax when the vessels sank in a storm on the night of Nov. 24, 1814. [1] John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) was the first (1789–1797) Vice President of the United States, and the second (1797–1801) President of the United States. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1800 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This page refers to the war between the United States of America and Great Britain. ... Please read first: This article is about the Nova Scotia community. ... The South Shore is a region of Nova Scotia Canada. ...

Leinster House in DublinThe 18th-century ducal palace in Dublin served as a model for the White House.
Leinster House in Dublin
The 18th-century ducal palace in Dublin served as a model for the White House.

The White House was attacked again on August 16, 1841, when U.S. President John Tyler vetoed a bill which called for the establishment of the Second Bank of the United States. Enraged Whig Party members rioted outside the White House in what was (and still is, as of 2005) the most violent demonstration on White House grounds in U.S. history. image of Leinster House. ... image of Leinster House. ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... take you to calendar). ... Alternate meaning: John Tyler, Sr. ... The Second Bank of the United States was founded in 1816, five years after the expiration of the First Bank of the United States out of desperation to stabilize the currency. ... The United States Whig Party was a political party of the United States. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Like the English and Irish country houses it resembled, the White House was remarkably open to the public until the early part of the twentieth century. President Thomas Jefferson held an open house for his second inaugural in 1805, when many of the people at his swearing-in ceremony at the Capitol followed him home, where he greeted them in the Blue Room. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... United States Capitol For other uses of Capitol Hill, see Capitol Hill (disambiguation). ...

North Portico of the White House.
North Portico of the White House.

Those open houses sometimes became rowdy: in 1829, President Andrew Jackson had to leave for a hotel when roughly 20,000 citizens celebrated his inauguration inside the White House. His aides ultimately had to lure the mob outside with washtubs filled with a potent cocktail of orange juice and whiskey. Even so, the practice continued until 1885, when newly elected Grover Cleveland arranged for a presidential review of the troops from a grandstand in front of the White House instead of the traditional open house. Caption: Gold leaves adorn the elm tree in front of the North Portico of the White House. ... Caption: Gold leaves adorn the elm tree in front of the North Portico of the White House. ... 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845), eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy and a founder of the Democratic Party, was the seventh President of the United States, serving from 1829 to 1837. ... 1885 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908) was the 22nd (1885–1889) and 24th (1893–1897) President of the United States, and the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms. ...


Jefferson also permitted public tours of his home, which have continued ever since, except during wartime, and began the tradition of annual receptions on New Year's Day and on the Fourth of July. Those receptions ended in the early 1930s.


The White House remained open in other ways as well; President Abraham Lincoln complained that he was constantly beleaguered by job seekers waiting to ask him for political appointments or other favors as he began the business day. Lincoln put up with the annoyance rather than risk alienating some associate or friend of a powerful politician or opinion maker. Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ...


The White House was designated a National Historic Landmark on December 19, 1960. USS Constitution. ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Structure

19th century photo of the Red Room.
19th century photo of the Red Room.
The Cross hall, connecting the State Dining Room and the East Room. To the left is the official entrance of the house from the North Portico, to the right above the door is the Official Presidential Seal.
The Cross hall, connecting the State Dining Room and the East Room. To the left is the official entrance of the house from the North Portico, to the right above the door is the Official Presidential Seal.

Very few people realize the size of the White House, since much of it is below ground or otherwise minimized by landscaping. In fact, the White House has: White House Red Room, from 19th century stereopticon card photo This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... White House Red Room, from 19th century stereopticon card photo This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Image File history File links A photograph of the White House cross hall File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links A photograph of the White House cross hall File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Landscaping can refer to more than one subject: Real estate on large scale, see Landscape architecture Gardening on a large or small scale, see Landscape gardening Artwork, see Landscape painting Maintenance, see Landscape maintenance This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share...

  • 6 stories and 55,000 ft² (5,100 m²) of floor space
  • 132 rooms and 35 bathrooms [2]
  • 412 doors
  • 147 windows
  • 28 fireplaces
  • 8 staircases
  • 3 elevators
  • 5 full-time chefs
  • 5,000 visitors a day
  • a tennis court
  • a bowling lane
  • a movie theater
  • a jogging track
  • a swimming pool
Ellipse and White House, early 20th century
Ellipse and White House, early 20th century

It is also one of the few government buildings in Washington that is wheelchair-accessible, with modifications having been made during the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, who needed to use a wheelchair as a result of polio. In 1948, President Harry S. Truman added a much-discussed balcony to the South Portico at the second-floor level. Not long after the balcony was constructed, the building was found to be structurally unsound, and in imminent danger of collapse. President Truman and family moved to Blair House across the street while the White House was renovated. The old interior was dismantled, leaving the house as a shell. It was then rebuilt using concrete and steel beams in place of its original wooden joists. Some modifications were made, with the largest being the repositioning of the grand staircase to open into the Entrance Hall, rather than the Cross Hall, as was the case previously. President Truman and family moved back into the White House on March 27, 1952. Ellipse and White House, early 20th century This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Ellipse and White House, early 20th century This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States (1933-1945), is best known for his leading the U.S. through the Great Depression via his New Deal, his building a powerful political coalition, the New Deal Coalition, that dominated American politics for decades... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-fourth Vice President (1945) and the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–53), succeeding to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Blair House is a guest house for state visitors to Washington, D.C. (in the United States of America). ...


Though the structural integrity of the building had been corrected in the late 1940s and early 1950s, the interior, as a result of decades of poor maintenance and then the process of removal and reinstatement, had been allowed to deteriorate. Jacqueline Kennedy, wife of President John F. Kennedy (1961–63), remodeled the interior of many rooms with decors inspired by its early nineteenth-century appearance, often using high-quality furniture that had been put in storage in the basements and forgotten about. Many of the antiques, fine paintings, and other improvements of the Kennedy period were given to the White House by rich donors, including Jane Engelhard, Jayne Wrightsman, the Oppenheimer family of South Africa, and other moneyed individuals. The Kennedy decor, much admired then as now, had an imperial Francophile air that was the result of the decorator Stephane Boudin of Jansen, the eminent Paris design company that had planned and/or executed decors for the royal families of Belgium and Iran, the Duchess of Windsor, and Nazi Germany's Reichsbank. The rooms that had a more early American appearance were decorated by Boudin but heavily influenced by the millionaire museum founder Henry Francis du Pont. First official White House portrait. ... For other uses, see JFK (disambiguation) or John Kennedy (disambiguation). ... Jane Engelhard (Qingdao, China, 1917 - Nantucket, Massachusetts, February 29, 2004) was an American philanthropist of Brazilian, German, and Irish ancestry known for her marriage to billionaire industrialist Charles W. Engelhard, Jr. ... Oppenheimer may be the surname of: Alan Oppenheimer, a film actor David Oppenheimer, a mayor of Vancouver, British Columbia Sir Ernest Oppenheimer, founder of a producers cooperative & single channel marketing, the forerunner of De Beers Frank Oppenheimer, a physicist Franz Oppenheimer, a German sociologist and political economist Harry Oppenheimer, a... Jansen is a village located in Jefferson County, Nebraska. ... Wallis, Duchess of Windsor and the Duke of Windsor on their wedding day Bessie Wallis Warfield, more widely known as Wallis Simpson and later The Duchess of Windsor (June 19, 1896–April 24, 1986) was the wife of Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor, the former King Edward VIII of the... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Nazism. ... A 100 Mark banknote issued by the German Reichsbank in 1908 (http://www. ...


Since then, every presidential family has made changes to the decor of the White House, some subtle, others more profound and controversial. In the 1990s, for example, President and Mrs. Clinton had some of the rooms recast by Arkansas decorator Kaki Hockersmith; the result, though presumably inspired by the Kennedy years, was unveiled to general derision. State nickname: The Natural State Other U.S. States Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Governor Mike Huckabee (R) Senators Blanche Lincoln (D) Mark Pryor (D) Official language(s) English Area 137,732 km² (29th)  - Land 134,856 km²  - Water 2,876 km² (2. ...

The West Wing of the White House, in the foreground.
The West Wing of the White House, in the foreground.

White House photo (public domain) by Tina Hager Todays expanded West Wing is very similar to the 1902 temporary executive office building. ... White House photo (public domain) by Tina Hager Todays expanded West Wing is very similar to the 1902 temporary executive office building. ...

The West Wing

Main article: The West Wing of the White House

In the early 20th century, new buildings were added to the wings at either side of the main White House to accommodate the President's growing staff. The West Wing houses the President's office (the Oval Office) and offices of his senior staff, with room for about 50 employees. It also includes the Cabinet Room, where the United States Cabinet meets, and the White House Situation Room. The West Wing (in foreground). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The Oval Office is the official office of the President of the United States, in the West Wing of the White House, built in 1909. ... Cabinet meeting on May 16, 2001. ... White House Situation Room in March 2003. ...


Some members of the President's staff are located in the adjacent Eisenhower Executive Office Building. According to the National Register of Historic Places, the Eisenhower Executive Office Building (Formaly the Old Executive Office Building, a National Historic Landmark, was built in Washington, DC between 1871 and 1888. ...


The East Wing

The East Wing, which contains additional office space, was added to the White House in 1942. Among its uses, the East Wing has intermittently housed the offices and staff of the First Lady. Rosalynn Carter, in 1977, was the first to place her personal office in the East Wing and to formally call it the "Office of the First Lady." The East Wing was built during World War II in order to hide the construction of an underground bunker to be used in emergency situations. The bunker has come to be known as the Presidential Emergency Operations Center. Laura Bush, current First Lady (2001-present) First Lady of the United States is the unofficial title of the hostess of the White House. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the globe and is accepted as the largest and deadliest... The Presidential Emergency Operations Center (the PEOC, as it is also known) is a tube-like structure that lies beneath the East Wing of the White House. ...


The White House grounds

Although the White House grounds have had many gardeners through their history, the current layout was designed in 1935 by Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. of the Olmsted Brothers firm, under commission from President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Federick Law Olmsted, Jr. ... The Olmsted Brothers company was an extremely influential landscape design firm in the United States, formed in 1898 by step-brothers John Charles Olmsted (1852-1920) and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. ...


The Web site

The official White House website is http://www.whitehouse.gov/. It was established on October 17, 1994. October 17 is the 290th (in leap years the 291st) day of the year according to the Gregorian calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ...


This website used a very lengthy robots exclusion file to shield much of its contents from search engines (http://www.whitehouse.gov/robots.txt). As of early June 2005, the list contains over 2,200 directories. A visitor may still use the official search tool to retrieve information. However, the searchable contents are controlled by the U.S. government. Some web pages have a robots exclusion file, which enables website operators to tell internet search engines to stay away from certain files. ... The success of the Google search engine was mainly due to its powerful PageRank algorithm and its simple, easy-to-use interface. ... 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in June June 27: Shelby Foote June 27: John T. Walton June 26: Richard Whiteley June 25: John Fiedler June 25: Chet Helms June 24: Paul Winchell June 21: Jaime Cardinal Sin June 20: Jack Kilby...


There are still many directories not covered by the robots exclusion file. For example, www.whitehouse.gov/infocus/iraq/ is a Google searchable directory, while www.whitehouse.gov/president/100days/iraq/ is not.


As of December 2005, the site is approximately the 1,541th most popular destination on the Internet in terms of traffic, according to Alexa.com. [3] Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary December is the twelfth and last month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alexa Internet is a California-based subsidiary company of Amazon. ...


See also

The White House Communications Agency, WHCA is responsible for providing communications services to the President and Vice President of the United States. ... White House Situation Room in March 2003. ... The White House Fellows program was established by American President Lyndon B. Johnson in October 1964. ... The West Wing is a popular and widely acclaimed American television serial drama created by Aaron Sorkin and produced and co-written by John Wells. ... // Algeria El Mouradia (President) Antigua and Barbuda Government House (Governor General) Argentina Casa Rosada (presidential) Australia Government House (Yarralumla), Canberra (governor-general) Admiralty House, Sydney (governor-general) The Lodge, Canberra (prime minister) Kirribilli House, Sydney (prime minister) Austria Hofburg Palace (presidential) The Bahamas Government House (Governor-General) Bahrain Rifaa... This is an incomplete list of U.S. presidential residences, which are not the official residences (the White House or Camp David). ...

External links

// Whitehouse. ... Whitehouse. ...

References

  • Scott McClellan Hosts Ask the White House. The White House. URL accessed on 18 April 2005.

April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Robots.txt


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