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Encyclopedia > White House
North façade of the White House, seen from Pennsylvania Avenue. A visiting head of state enters the house for a state dinner through the North Portico. Tourists finish their tour by exiting through the North Portico. The house was originally built without porticos. Before construction of the north portico in 1824, the north façade looked much more similar to Leinster House shown in the picture immediately below. Both James Hoban–original architect of the White House, and Benjamin Henry Latrobe who developed plans for its rebuilding after the 1814 fire, proposed north and south porticos. Both porticos, as built, are the work of Hoban.
North façade of the White House, seen from Pennsylvania Avenue. A visiting head of state enters the house for a state dinner through the North Portico. Tourists finish their tour by exiting through the North Portico. The house was originally built without porticos. Before construction of the north portico in 1824, the north façade looked much more similar to Leinster House shown in the picture immediately below. Both James Hoban–original architect of the White House, and Benjamin Henry Latrobe who developed plans for its rebuilding after the 1814 fire, proposed north and south porticos. Both porticos, as built, are the work of Hoban.

The White House is the official home and principal workplace of the President of the United States of America. The house is built of white-painted Aquia sandstone in the late Georgian style. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. As the office of the U.S. President, the term "White House" is used as a metonym for a U.S. president's administration. The property is owned by the National Park Service and is part of "President's Park." White House refers to: Buildings: The White House, the official residence of the President of the United States; The White House of the Confederacy; see Museum of the Confederacy The White House, Moscow; The White House, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); The retirement house of George Biddell Airy; The Winnipeg Arena; The White... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... A Georgian house in Salisbury Georgian architecture at Royal Crescent, Bath. ... Pennsylvania Avenue street sign, 2004. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D... In rhetoric and cognitive linguistics, metonymy (in Greek meta = after/later and onoma = name) is the use of a single characteristic to identify a more complex entity. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Presidents Park, located in Washington, D.C., includes the White House, a visitor center, Lafayette Square, and the Ellipse. ...

Contents

History

Leinster House in Dublin The eighteenth century ducal palace in Dublin served as a model for the White House.
Leinster House in Dublin The eighteenth century ducal palace in Dublin served as a model for the White House.

image of Leinster House. ... image of Leinster House. ... Leinster House The former palace of the Duke of Leinster. ...

Architectural competition

The young republic's new capital city was sited on land ceded by two states—Virginia and Maryland—which both transferred ownership of the land to the federal government in response to a compromise with President Washington. The D.C. commissioners were charged by Congress with building the new city under the direction of the President. The architect of the White House was chosen in a competition, which received nine proposals. President Washington traveled to the site of the new federal city on July 16, 1792 to make his judgment. His review is recorded as being brief and he quickly selected the submission of James Hoban, an Irishman living in Charleston, South Carolina. The briefness of Washington's review of the plans may have been due to the majority of the submissions being awkward and naïve. Washington was not entirely pleased with the original Hoban submission. He found it too small, lacking ornament, and not fitting the nation's president. On Washington's recommendation the house was enlarged by thirty percent, a large reception hall, the present East Room, was added. This was likely inspired by the large reception room at Mount Vernon. James Hoban James Hoban (1762-1831) was born in Desart, near Callan County Kilkenny, Ireland. ... Back of the main house. ...


Design influences

The building Hoban designed was modeled from two buildings:


For the north side, it was based on the first and second floors of Leinster House, a ducal palace in Dublin, Ireland, which is now the seat of the Irish Parliament. Leinster House The former palace of the Duke of Leinster. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... The Dáil Chamber Dáil Éireann (pronounced ) is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland. ...


Construction

White House Ground Floor showing location of principal rooms.
White House Ground Floor showing location of principal rooms.
White House State Floor showing location of principal rooms.
White House State Floor showing location of principal rooms.
White House Second Floor showing location of principal rooms.
White House Second Floor showing location of principal rooms.
Image:Chateau de rastignac.jpg
Chateau Rastignac, a neoclassical country house located in La Bachellerie in the Dordogne region of France and designed by Mathurin Salat, was built 1812–1817. Similarities with the White House's South Portico (immediately below) suggest it may have been a source of inspiration for James Hoban and Benjamin Henry Latrobe, both who completed elevations for the South Portico. There is no record of either of them visiting the region.

Construction began with the laying of the cornerstone on October 13, 1792. A diary kept by the District of Columbia building commissioner records that the footings for the main residence were dug by slaves. The foundations were also built by slave labor. Much of the other work on the house was performed by immigrants, many not yet with citizenship. The sandstone walls were erected by Scottish immigrants, as were the high relief rose and garland decorations above the north entrance and the "fish scale" pattern beneath the pediments of the window hoods. Much of the brick and plaster work was produced by Irish and Italian immigrants. The initial construction took place over a period of eight years, at a reported cost of $232,371.83 ($2.4 million in 2005 dollars). Although not yet completed, the White House was ready for occupancy on or about November 1, 1800.[1] When construction was finished the porous sandstone walls were coated with a mixture of lime, rice glue, casein, and lead, giving the house its familiar color and name. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... James Hoban James Hoban (1762-1831) was born in Desart, near Callan County Kilkenny, Ireland. ... Benjamin Henry Latrobe (May 1, 1764 - September 3, 1820) was an architect best known for his design of the United States Capitol. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF...


Naming conventions

The building was originally referred to variously as the "President's Palace," "Presidential Mansion," or "President's House." Dolley Madison called it the "President's Castle." There is a common misconception that the term "The White House" wasn't used until after the War of 1812, when the mansion was burned and re-painted. However, the earliest evidence of the public calling it the "White House" was recorded in 1811, three years before the House was set on fire. The name "Executive Mansion" was used in official contexts until President Theodore Roosevelt established the formal name by having the de facto name "White House–Washington" engraved on the stationery in 1901. President Franklin Roosevelt changed his letterhead to "The White House" with the word "Washington" centered beneath. That convention remains today. Madison in 1818 The only surviving photograph of Dolley Madison Dolley Payne Todd Madison (May 20, 1768 – July 12, 1849) was the wife of President James Madison, who served from 1809 until 1817. ... Combatants United States Britain Canadian militia Eastern Woodland Indians Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Andrew Jackson George Prevost Isaac Brock† Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other vessels... Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt, Jr. ...


Although it wasn't built until some years after presidency of George Washington, it is also speculated that the name of the traditional home of the President of the United States may have derived from Martha Custis Washington's home, White House Plantation in New Kent County, Virginia, where the nation's first President and First Lady had shared many pleasant memories during their courtship in the mid-18th century. [2]. Martha Washington Martha Dandridge Custis Washington (June 21, 1731 - May 22, 1802) was the wife of George Washington, the first president of the United States, and therefore is seen as the first First Lady of the United States (although that title was not coined until after her death, she was... ... New Kent County is a county located in the state of Virginia. ...

The White House from the South Lawn showing the columned South Portico. The South Portico was constructed in 1829 based on earlier drawings by James Hoban. The second floor balcony, known as the Truman Balcony, was added in 1947. Welcome ceremonies for visiting heads of state take place on the South Lawn. Marine One, the president's helicopter service, lands and departs from the South Lawn.

Image:White House (south side). ... Image:White House (south side). ... VH-60N Presidential Hawk Marine One in front of the White House Marine One Sikorsky VH-3D Landing on the lawn President George W. Bush surveys the damage to Enterprise, Alabama from Marine One after the February-March 2007 Tornado Outbreak. ...

Evolution of the White House

Early use, the 1814 fire, and rebuilding

John Adams became the first president to take residence in the building on November 1, 1800. During Adams' second day in the house he wrote a letter to his wife Abigail, containing a prayer for the house. Adams wrote: John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) served as the nations first Vice President (1789–1797) and as its second President (1797–1801). ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF...

I pray Heaven to bestow the best of blessings on this House, and all that shall hereafter inhabit it. May none but honest and wise men ever rule under this roof.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt had Adams' blessing carved into the mantel in the State Dining Room.

Jefferson's West Colonnade is seen on the left of the residence in this nineteenth century engraved view. The West Colonnade originally concealed a stable and laundry room. Later it became the site of Franklin Roosevelt's swimming pool. President Nixon converted the space to the current Press Briefing Room.
Jefferson's West Colonnade is seen on the left of the residence in this nineteenth century engraved view. The West Colonnade originally concealed a stable and laundry room. Later it became the site of Franklin Roosevelt's swimming pool. President Nixon converted the space to the current Press Briefing Room.

Adams lived in the house only briefly, and the home was soon occupied by Thomas Jefferson who gave consideration to how the White House might be added to. With Benjamin Henry Latrobe, he helped lay out the design for the East and West Colonnades, small wings that help conceal the domestic operations of laundry, a stable and storage. Today Jefferson's colonnades link the residence with the East and West Wings. mid 19th century engraving showing American White House at Washington, DC as seen from the South-West This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... mid 19th century engraving showing American White House at Washington, DC as seen from the South-West This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Benjamin Henry Latrobe (May 1, 1764 - September 3, 1820) was an architect best known for his design of the United States Capitol. ...


During the War of 1812 much of Washington was burned by British troops in retaliation for burning Upper Canada's Parliament Buildings in the Battle of York (present day Toronto) leaving the White House gutted. Only the exterior walls remained, and they had to be torn down and mostly reconstructed due to weakening from the fire and subsequent exposure to the elements, except for portions of the south wall. A legend emerged that during the rebuilding of the structure white paint was applied to mask the burn damage it had suffered, giving the building its namesake hue. This is unfounded as the building had been painted white since its construction in 1798. Of the numerous spoils taken from the White House when it was ransacked by British troops, only two have been recovered — a painting of George Washington, rescued by then-first lady Dolley Madison, and a jewelry box returned to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1939 by a Canadian man who said his grandfather had taken it from Washington. Most of the spoils were lost when a convoy of British ships led by HMS Fantome sank en route to Halifax off Prospect during a storm on the night of 24 November 1814. [3] Combatants United States Britain Canadian militia Eastern Woodland Indians Commanders James Madison Henry Dearborn Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Andrew Jackson George Prevost Isaac Brock† Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:6 •Other vessels... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Church of England Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council  - Lower house Legislative... An Ontario historical plaque marking the site of Upper Canadas first Parliament Buildings. ... The Battle of York was a battle of the War of 1812 on April 27, 1813, at York, Upper Canada, which was later to become Toronto, Ontario. ... Madison in 1818 The only surviving photograph of Dolley Madison Dolley Payne Todd Madison (May 20, 1768 – July 12, 1849) was the wife of President James Madison, who served from 1809 until 1817. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... The HMS Fantome was an navy brig which sunk of the coast of Nova Scotia in November 1812 carrying goods taken by the British and Canadians. ... This article is about the city of Halifax, specifically. ... Prospect Bay is a rural fishing community on the Chebucto Peninsula in the Halifax Regional Municipality Nova Scotia on the shore of the Atlantic Ocean on the Prospect Bay Road off of (Nova Scotia Route 333 ), 22. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Truman reconstruction, 1949-1952 First the interior rooms were dismantled and stored, then within the original walls a steel and concrete structure was erected. The interior rooms, with most of the original trim and floor boards were rebuilt within the new framework.
Truman reconstruction, 1949-1952 First the interior rooms were dismantled and stored, then within the original walls a steel and concrete structure was erected. The interior rooms, with most of the original trim and floor boards were rebuilt within the new framework.

After the fire, both Latrobe and Hoban contributed to the design and oversight of the reconstruction. The north portico was built in 1824, and though architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe proposed similar porticos during the rebuilding after the fire in 1814, both porticos were designed by Hoban. Contrary to a frequently published myth, the North Portico was not modeled on a similar portico on another Dublin building, the Viceregal Lodge (now Áras an Uachtaráin, residence of the President of Ireland). Its portico in fact postdates the White House porticos' design. The South portico was built in 1829. The similarity between the South Portico, and an elliptical portico, with nearly identical curved stairs at Château de Rastignac in Périgord, France is frequently speculated as the source. The decorative stonework on both porticos were carved by Italian artisans brought to Washington to help in constructing the U.S. Capitol. For the North Portico, a variation on the Ionic Order was devised incorporating a swag of roses between the volutes. This was done to link the new portico with the earlier carved roses above the entrance. Image File history File links White-house-1950-interior-shell. ... Image File history File links White-house-1950-interior-shell. ... Categories: Architectural elements | Stub ... Benjamin Henry Latrobe (May 1, 1764 - September 3, 1820) was an architect best known for his design of the United States Capitol. ... Áras an Uachtaráin is the official residence of the President of Ireland, located in the Phoenix Park on the Northside of Dublin1. ... Official Seal of the President of Ireland Mary McAleese, the current President of Ireland. ... Périgord (   pronunciation?) is a former province of France, corresponding to the current Dordogne département, now forming the northern part of the Aquitaine région. ...


Overcrowding and the West Wing

By the time of the American Civil War, the White House was overcrowded. Some also complained about the location of the White House, just north of a canal and swampy lands, which provided conditions ripe for malaria and other unhealthy conditions.[1] Brigadier General Nathaniel Michler was tasked to propose solutions to address these concerns.[1] He proposed to abandon the White House as a residence, and use it only for business; He proposed a new estate for the first family at Meridian Hill in Washington, D.C.[1] This plan was rejected by Congress. This article is becoming very long. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. ... A thirteen-basin cascade fountain is one of the most dramatic features of Meridian Hill Park. ...


In 1891, First Lady Caroline Harrison proposed extensions to the White House, including a National Wing on the east for a historical art gallery, and a wing on the west for official functions.[1] A plan was devised by Colonel Theodore A. Bingham, which reflected the Harrison Plan.[1] In 1901, Theodore Roosevelt and his large family moved in to the White House and found the overcrowding unbearable.[1] McKim, Mead, and White was hired to carry out renovations and expansion, including the West Wing. The first family spent four months of 1902 in a temporary home at 22 Jackson Place.[1] By 1909, more space was needed by President William Taft. Architect Nathan C. Wyeth was hired to add space to the West Wing, which included the addition of the Oval Office.[1] White House portrait Caroline Lavinia Scott Harrison (October 1, 1832 _ October 25, 1892), wife of Benjamin Harrison, was First Lady of the United States from 1889 until her death. ... Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt, Jr. ... From left to right: Will Mead, Charles McKim and Stan White McKim, Mead, and White was the premier architectural firm in the eastern United States at the turn of the twentieth century. ... The West Wing may refer to several topics: The location of the U.S. Presidents office and offices of his political staff. ... William Howard Taft I (September 15, 1857–March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909-1913), and the 10th Chief Justice of the United States (1921 - 1930). ... The Oval Office from above The Oval Office is the official office of the President of the United States. ...


The Truman reconstruction

Decades of poor maintenance and the construction of a fourth story attic during the Coolidge administration took a great toll on the brick and sandstone structure built around a timber frame. By 1948 the house had became so unsound that President Truman abandoned it, moving across the street to Blair House, from 1949-1951. The reconstruction, done by the firm of Philadelphia contractor John McShain, required the complete dismantling of the interior spaces, construction of a new load bearing internal steel frame and the reconstruction of the original rooms within the new structure. Some modifications to the floor plan were made, the largest being the repositioning of the grand staircase to open into the Entrance Hall, rather than the Cross Hall. Central air conditioning was added, and two additional sub-basements providing space for workrooms, storage and a Cold War era bomb shelter. The Trumans moved back into the White House on March 27, 1952. While the house was saved by the Truman reconstruction, much of the new interior finishes were generic, and of little historic value. Much of the original plasterwork, some dating to the 1814-1816 rebuilding was too damaged to reinstall, as was the original robust Beaux Arts paneling in the East Room. President Truman had the original timber frame sawed into paneling. The walls of the Vermeil Room, Library, China Room, and Map Room on the ground floor of the main residence were paneled in wood from the timbers. Blair House is a guest house for state visitors to Washington, D.C. (in the United States of America). ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Cradle of Liberty, the City That Loves You Back, the Quaker City, The Birthplace of America Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government... John McShain (December 21, 1898 - September 9, 1989) was a highy successful United States building contractor known as The Man Who Built Washington. ...


The Kennedy restoration

The Red Room as designed by Stéphane Boudin during the administration of John F. Kennedy.
The Red Room as designed by Stéphane Boudin during the administration of John F. Kennedy.

Jacqueline Kennedy, wife of President John F. Kennedy (1961–63), directed the most extensive and historic redecoration of the house in its history. Henry Francis du Pont of the Winterthur Museum chaired a White House Fine Arts Committee. Research was conducted on the use and decoration of the house's primary rooms. Different periods of the early republic were selected as a theme for each room: the Federal style for the Green Room; French Empire for the Blue Room; American Empire for the Red Room; Louis XVI for the Yellow Oval Room; and Victorian for the president's study, renamed the Treaty Room. Antique furniture was acquired, and decorative fabric and trim based on period documents was produced and installed. Many of the antiques, fine paintings, and other improvements of the Kennedy period were donated to the White House by wealthy donors, including the Crowninshield family, Jane Engelhard, Jayne Wrightsman, and the Oppenheimer family. The Kennedy restoration resulted in a White House that was almost regal in feeling, and which recalled the French taste of Madison and Monroe. Much of the French taste originated with the interior decorator Stéphane Boudin of the House of Jansen, a Paris interior-design firm that had designed interiors for Elsie de Wolfe, Lady Olive Baillie, the royal families of Belgium and Iran, the German Reichsbank during the period of National Socialism, and Leeds Castle in Kent. The first White House guide book was produced under the direction of curator Lorraine Waxman Pearce with direct supervision from Jacqueline Kennedy. Sale of the guide book helped finance the restoration. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (760x602, 438 KB) Summary White house Red Room, as designed by Stéphane Boudin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (760x602, 438 KB) Summary White house Red Room, as designed by Stéphane Boudin. ... First official White House portrait. ... JFK redirects here. ... Henry Francis du Pont (1880-1969), was an American horticulturist and a member of the prominent Du Pont family. ... Winterthur, an American country estate in Winterthur, Delaware, (north of Wilmington, USA) is the former home of Henry Francis du Pont (1880-1969), an avid antiques collector and horticulturist. ... The Green Room, looking southeast. ... The Blue Room, looking toward the southeast. ... The Red Room, looking northwest. ... The Yellow Oval Room shown early in the second Bush administration. ... Jane Engelhard (Qingdao, China, 1917 - Nantucket, Massachusetts, February 29, 2004) was an American philanthropist of Brazilian, and Irish ancestry known for her marriage to billionaire industrialist Charles W. Engelhard, Jr. ... Oppenheimer may be the surname of: Alan Oppenheimer, a film actor David Oppenheimer, a mayor of Vancouver, British Columbia Sir Ernest Oppenheimer, founder of a producers cooperative & single channel marketing, the forerunner of De Beers Frank Oppenheimer, a physicist Franz Oppenheimer, a German sociologist and political economist Harry Oppenheimer, a... Stéphane Boudin, 1888–1967, French interior designer and president of Maison Jansen (House of Jansen) the Paris based international interior decorating office. ... The White House Red Room as designed by Stéphane Boudin during the administration of John F. Kennedy. ... A 100 Mark banknote issued by the German Reichsbank in 1908 (http://www. ... The term National socialism has been used in self-description by a number of unrelated political movements. ... The front of Leeds Castle Leeds Castle Leeds Castle in Winter Leeds Castle, four miles east south east of Maidstone, Kent, England, dates back to 1119, though a manor house stood on the same site from the 9th century. ...


Establishment of the Committee for the Preservation of the White House

The Kennedys' Fine Arts Committee eventually became the congressionally authorized Committee for the Preservation of the White House, whose mission is to maintain the historical integrity of the White House. The committee works with the First Family, usually represented by the First Lady, the White House Curator, the Chief Usher of the White House, and the White House Curator of Fine Arts. Since the committee's establishment, every presidential family has made some changes to the family quarters of the White House, but changes to the State Rooms must all be approved by the Committee for the Preservation of the White House. During the Nixon administration, First Lady Pat Nixon refurbished the Green Room, Blue Room and Red Room, working with Clement Conger, the curator they appointed. In the 1990s President and Mrs. Clinton had some of the rooms refurbished by Arkansas decorator Kaki Hockersmith. During the Clinton administration the East Room, Blue Room, State Dining Room and Lincoln Sitting Room were refurbished. A recent refurbishment of the Lincoln Bedroom begun during the Clinton administration was completed in President George W. Bush's administration, and the refurbishment of the Green Room and East Room has begun. The White House is one of the first government buildings in Washington that was made wheelchair-accessible, with modifications having been made during the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, who needed to use a wheelchair as a result of his polio. In the 1990s Hillary Rodham Clinton, at the suggestion of Visitors Office Director Melinda N. Bates, approved the addition of a ramp in the East Wing corridor. It allowed easy wheelchair access for the public tours and special events that enter through the secure entrance building on the east side. FDR redirects here. ... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... Hillary Rodham Clinton (born Hillary Diane Rodham on October 26, 1947) is the Biggest loser/retard these united states have seen from New York. ...


Layout and facts

Cross Hall, connecting the State Dining Room and the East Room. To the left is the Entry Hall opening to the North Portico; to the right the Presidential Seal hangs above the entrance to the Blue Room.
Cross Hall, connecting the State Dining Room and the East Room. To the left is the Entry Hall opening to the North Portico; to the right the Presidential Seal hangs above the entrance to the Blue Room.

Today the small group of buildings housing the presidency is known as the White House Complex. It includes the central Executive Residence flanked by the East Wing and West Wing. Day to day household operations are coördinated by the Chief Usher. Few people realize the size of the White House, since much of it is below ground or otherwise concealed by landscaping. The White House includes: Six stories and 55,000 ft² (5,100 m²) of floor space, 132 rooms and 35 bathrooms [4], 412 doors, 147 windows, eight fireplaces, eight staircases, three elevators, five full-time chefs, a tennis court, a (single-lane) bowling alley, a movie theater, a jogging track, a swimming pool, and a putting green. It receives about 5,000 visitors a day. Image File history File links A photograph of the White House cross hall File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links A photograph of the White House cross hall File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The White House Complex showing location of the West Wing, Rose Garden, West Colonnade, Executive Residence, East Colonnade, Jacqueline Kennedy Garden, and East Wing. ... White House Ground Floor showing location of principal rooms. ... The East Wing is the part of the White House Complex. ... The West Wing may refer to several topics: The location of the U.S. Presidents office and offices of his political staff. ... White House Chief Usher is the title of the head of household staff and operations at the White House, the official residence and principle workplace of the President of the United States. ...


Executive Residence

Main article: Executive Residence

The original residence is in the center, two colonnades – one on the east and the west designed by Jefferson now serve to connect to the later East and West Wings. The Executive Residence houses the president's home, and rooms for ceremonies and official entertaining. The State Floor of the residence building includes the East Room, Green Room, Blue Room, Red Room and State Dining Room, and Family Dining Room. The third floor family residence includes the Yellow Oval Room, East and West Sitting Halls, the President's Dining Room, the Treaty Room, Lincoln Bedroom and Queens Bedroom. White House Ground Floor showing location of principal rooms. ... Enormous colonnade of the Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg. ... White House Ground Floor showing location of principal rooms. ... The East Room is one of the largest rooms in the White House, the home of the President of the United States. ... The Green Room, looking southeast. ... The Blue Room, looking toward the southeast. ... The Red Room, looking northwest. ... The State Dining Room as refurbished during the administration of William Jefferson Clinton. ... The Family Dining Room as decorated by Kaki Hockersmith during the administration of William Jefferson Clinton. ... The Yellow Oval Room shown early in the second Bush administration. ... The Presidents Dining Room as decorated by Kaki Hockersmith during the administration of William Jefferson Clinton. ... The Treaty Room as decorated by Ken Blasingame during the administration of George W. Bush. ... Redecoration of the Lincoln Bedroom in a more historical nineteenth century style was completed in 2005. ...


The West Wing

The West Wing of the White House, in the foreground.
The West Wing of the White House, in the foreground.
Main article: West Wing

The West Wing houses the President's office (the Oval Office) and offices of his senior staff, with room for about 50 employees. It also includes the Cabinet Room, where the United States Cabinet meets, and the White House Situation Room. Some members of the President's staff are located in the adjacent Old Executive Office Building in the former State War and Navy building, sometimes known as the Eisenhower Executive Office Building. White House photo (public domain) by Tina Hager Todays expanded West Wing is very similar to the 1902 temporary executive office building. ... White House photo (public domain) by Tina Hager Todays expanded West Wing is very similar to the 1902 temporary executive office building. ... The West Wing may refer to several topics: The location of the U.S. Presidents office and offices of his political staff. ... The Oval Office from above The Oval Office is the official office of the President of the United States. ... Cabinet meeting on May 16, 2001. ... White House Situation Room in March 2003. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


This portion of the building was used as the setting for the popular television show The West Wing. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The East Wing

Main article: East Wing

The East Wing, which contains additional office space, was added to the White House in 1942. Among its uses, the East Wing has intermittently housed the offices and staff of the First Lady, and the White House Social Office. Rosalynn Carter, in 1977, was the first to place her personal office in the East Wing and to formally call it the "Office of the First Lady." The East Wing was built during World War II in order to hide the construction of an underground bunker to be used in emergency situations. The bunker has come to be known as the Presidential Emergency Operations Center. The East Wing is the part of the White House Complex. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


The White House grounds

The White House and surrounding area as seen from the Washington Monument
The White House and surrounding area as seen from the Washington Monument

Before the construction of the North Portico most public events were entered from the South Lawn, which was graded and planted by Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson also drafted a planting plan for the North lawn that included large trees that would have mostly obscured the house from Pennsylvania Avenue. During the mid to late nineteenth century a series of ever larger green houses were built on the west side of the house, where the current West Wing is located. During this period the North lawn was planted with ornate "carpet style" flower beds. Although the White House grounds have had many gardeners through their history, the general design, still largely used as master plan today, was designed in 1935 by Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. of the Olmsted Brothers firm, under commission from President Franklin D. Roosevelt. During the Kennedy administration the White House Rose Garden was redesigned by Rachel Lambert Mellon. On the weekend of June 23, 2006, a century-old elm tree on the north side of the building, came down during one of the many storms of the Mid-Atlantic Flood of June 2006. This elm is depicted on the right side on the back of the $20 bill. This tree was believed to have been planted between 1902 and 1906 during Theodore Roosevelt's administration. Among the oldest trees on the grounds are several magnolias (Magnolia grandiflora) planted by Andrew Jackson. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 869 KB) Summary The White House as viewed from the Washington Monument July 15, 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 869 KB) Summary The White House as viewed from the Washington Monument July 15, 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Washington Monument at dusk For other Washington Monuments, see Washington Monuments (world). ... Federick Law Olmsted, Jr. ... The Olmsted Brothers company was an extremely influential landscape design firm in the United States, formed in 1898 by step-brothers John Charles Olmsted (1852-1920) and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. ... The tulips are in full bloom in the Rose Garden at the White House, April 20, 2005. ... Species See text. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... The United States twenty-dollar bill ($20) is a denomination of United States currency. ... Binomial name Magnolia grandiflora L. The Southern Magnolia, also known as Bull bay, is a magnolia native to the southeastern United States, from coastal North Carolina south to central Florida, and west to southeast Texas. ...


Public access and security

Like the English and Irish country houses it was modeled on, the White House was, from the start, remarkably open to the public until the early part of the twentieth century. President Thomas Jefferson held an open house for his second inaugural in 1805, when many of the people at his swearing-in ceremony at the Capitol followed him home, where he greeted them in the Blue Room. Those open houses sometimes became rowdy: in 1829, President Andrew Jackson had to leave for a hotel when roughly 20,000 citizens celebrated his inauguration inside the White House. His aides ultimately had to lure the mob outside with washtubs filled with a potent cocktail of orange juice and whiskey. Even so, the practice continued until 1885, when newly elected Grover Cleveland arranged for a presidential review of the troops from a grandstand in front of the White House instead of the traditional open house. Jefferson also permitted public tours of his home, which have continued ever since, except during wartime, and began the tradition of annual receptions on New Year's Day and on the Fourth of July. Those receptions ended in the early 1930s, although President Bill Clinton would briefly revive the New Year's Day open house in his first term. The White House remained accessible in other ways as well; President Abraham Lincoln complained that he was constantly beleaguered by job seekers waiting to ask him for political appointments or other favors, or eccentric dispensers of advice like “General” Daniel Pratt, as he began the business day. Lincoln put up with the annoyance rather than risk alienating some associate or friend of a powerful politician or opinion maker. In recent years, however, the White House has been closed to visitors because of terrorism concerns. This article is becoming very long. ... The entire front of the Capitol Building. ... The Blue Room, looking toward the southeast. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, and the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United States (March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865). ... This biographical article needs to be wikified. ...


On May 20, 1995, primarily as a response to the Oklahoma City bombing of April 19, 1995, but also in reaction to several other incidents, (see Security Review) the United States Secret Service closed off Pennsylvania Avenue to vehicular traffic in front of the White House from the eastern edge of Lafayette Park to 17th Street. Later, the closure was extended an additional block to the east to 15th Street, and East Executive Drive, a small street between the White House and the Treasury Building was closed to the public. The Oklahoma City bombing was a terrorist attack on April 19, 1995 aimed at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, a U.S. government office complex in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ...


Prior to its inclusion within the fenced compound that now includes the Old Executive Office Building to the West and the Treasury Building to the east, this sidewalk served as a queuing area for the daily public tours of the White House. These tours were suspended in the wake of the events of September 11, 2001. In September of 2003 they were resumed on a limited basis for groups making prior arrangements through their Congressional representatives and submitting to background checks, but the White House remains closed to the general public. This article needs to be wikified. ... The U.S. Treasury building today. ...

Pennsylvania Avenue is now closed to all traffic, except government officials.
Pennsylvania Avenue is now closed to all traffic, except government officials.

The Pennsylvania Avenue closing, in particular, has been opposed by organized civic groups in Washington, D.C. They argue that the closing impedes traffic flow unnecessarily and is inconsistent with the well-conceived historic plan for the city. As for security considerations, they note that the White House is set much further back from the street than numerous other sensitive federal buildings are. Image File history File linksMetadata PennAveWhiteHouse. ... Image File history File linksMetadata PennAveWhiteHouse. ...


The White House Complex is protected by the United States Secret Service and the United States Park Police. Secret Service redirects here. ... The United States Park Police is the oldest uniformed federal law enforcement agency in the United States. ...


The White House website

The official White House website is http://www.whitehouse.gov/. It was established on October 17, 1994 during President Clinton's administration. The two versions of the White House website used by the Clinton administration have been archived by the National Archives and Records Administration. Both are maintained in an active form, with active links. The first White House site can be found at http://clinton1.nara.gov/, and the second at http://clinton2.nara.gov/. They are among the earliest examples of historic preservation of digital media. October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ...


The website www.whitehouse.org should not be mistaken as the official White House website as it is a parody of U.S. President George W. Bush and his family, friends and administration. Whitehouse. ... Parody of Back to the Future In contemporary usage, a parody is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ...


Replicas of the White House

White House replica in Atlanta, Georgia.
White House replica in Atlanta, Georgia.

Under president Harry S. Truman who oversaw a major renovation of the house, several U.S. State Department embassies and consular facilities were modeled on the White House. A 1:25 scale model at Minimundus at Klagenfurt in Carinthia, Austria, is extremely accurate including the East and West Colonnades, and the East and West WIngs. In Atlanta, Georgia a near full scale model exists. The exterior is less accurate, owned by Atlanta home builder Fred Milani, an American citizen born in Iran. In 2001 a Chinese businessman built a model of cast concrete. The Chinese model is almost exact in exterior dimensions but departs from the original in details like the pitch of the portico modeled on the North Portico and lacks the carved details in the window hoods and above doorways. The interior of the Chinese copy has a fanciful floor plan placing the Oval Office in the central residence where the Blue Room would be on the State Floor of the White House. In front of the replica stands a miniature Washington Monument and a one-third-size Mount Rushmore with employees' quarters located in the back. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... President Truman announces that Germany had surrendered (May 8 1945) Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Model of Saint Peters Basilica The Minimundus is a miniature park on the Wörthersee at Klagenfurt in Carinthia, Austria. ...


A very exacting scale model of the White House built by John and Jan Zweifel has traveled across many of the United States on exhibition.


See also

President George W. Bush gives remarks on Hurricane Katrina and the Iraqi constitution from his Crawford, Texas ranch on Sunday August 28, 2005. ... Vice Presidents House Number One Observatory Circle is the official residence of the Vice President of the United States and his family. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Vice President of the United States is the first in the presidential line of... The White House Communications Agency, WHCA is responsible for providing communications services to the President and Vice President of the United States. ... White House Situation Room in March 2003. ... The White House Fellows program was established by American President Lyndon B. Johnson in October 1964. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... // Algeria El Mouradia (President) Antigua and Barbuda Government House (Governor General) Argentina Casa Rosada (presidential) Australia Government House (Yarralumla), Canberra (governor-general) Admiralty House, Sydney (governor-general) The Lodge, Canberra (prime minister) Kirribilli House, Sydney (prime minister) Austria Hofburg Palace (presidential) The Bahamas Government House (Governor-General) Bahrain Rifaa... This is an incomplete list of U.S. presidential residences, which are not the official residences (the White House or Camp David). ... Tanks bombard the Russian White House on October 4, 1993. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Epstein, Ellen Robinson (1971-1972). "The East and West Wings of the White House". Records of the Columbia Historical Society. 
  • Abbott, James A. A Frenchman in Camelot: The Decoration of the Kennedy White House by Stéphane Boudin. Boscobel Restoration Inc.: 1995. ISBN 0-9646659-0-5.
  • Abbott James A., and Elaine M. Rice. Designing Camelot: The Kennedy White House Restoration. Van Nostrand Reinhold: 1998. ISBN 0-442-02532-7.
  • Abbott, James A. Jansen. Acanthus Press: 2006. ISBN 0-926494-33-3.
  • Clinton, Hillary Rodham. An Invitation to the White House: At Home with History. Simon & Schuster: 2000. ISBN 0-684-85799-5.
  • Garrett, Wendell. Our Changing White House. Northeastern University Press: 1995. ISBN 1-55553-222-5.
  • Kenny, Peter M., Frances F. Bretter and Ulrich Leben. Honoré Lannuier Cabinetmaker from Paris: The Life and Work of French Ébiniste in Federal New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York and Harry Abrams: 1998. ISBN 0-87099-836-6.
  • Leish, Kenneth. The White House. Newsweek Book Division: 1972. ISBN 0-88225-020-5.
  • McKellar, Kenneth, Douglas W. Orr, Edward Martin, et al. Report of the Commission on the Renovation of the Executive Mansion. Commission on the Renovation of the Executive Mansion, Government Printing Office: 1952.
  • Monkman, Betty C. The White House: The Historic Furnishing & First Families. Abbeville Press: 2000. ISBN 0-7892-0624-2.
  • Seale, William. The President's House. White House Historical Association and the National Geographic Society: 1986. ISBN 0-912308-28-1.
  • Seale, William, The White House: The History of an American Idea. White House Historical Association: 1992, 2001. ISBN 0-912308-85-0.
  • West, J.B. with Mary Lynn Kotz. Upstairs at the White House: My Life with the First Ladies. Coward, McCann & Geoghegan: 1973. SBN 698-10546-X.
  • Wolff, Perry. A Tour of the White House with Mrs. John F. Kennedy. Doubleday & Company: 1962.
  • Exhibition Catalogue, Sale 6834: The Estate of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis April 23-26, 1996. Sothebys, Inc.: 1996.
  • The White House: An Historic Guide. White House Historical Association and the National Geographic Society: 2001. ISBN 0-912308-79-6.
  • The White House. The First Two Hundred Years, ed. by Frank Freidel/William Pencak, Boston 1994.

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NationMaster - Encyclopedia: White House (533 words)
The White House is a white-painted, neoclassical sandstone mansion located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C. As the office of the U.S. President, the term "White House" is often used as a metonym for the president's administration.
James hoban (1762-1831) was from callan county kilkenny, ireland and was the architect of the white house in washington, dc....
Image:leinsterhouse.jpgthumbrightleinster house is the former palace of the duke of leinster....
White House - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2206 words)
The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States of America.
The White House is a white-painted, neoclassical sandstone mansion located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C. As the office of the U.S. President, the term "White House" is often used as a synonym for the president's administration.
The West Wing of the White House, in the foreground.
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