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Encyclopedia > White Australia policy
Part of a series of articles on
Racial segregation


White Australia policy
South African Apartheid
The Rex Theatre for Colored People, Leland, Mississippi, June 1937 Racial segregation is characterized by separation of people of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the... For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ...


Segregation in the US
Black Codes
Jim Crow laws
Redlining
Racial steering
Gentrification
White flight
Sundown towns
Proposition 14
Indian Appropriations
Immigration Act of 1924
Separate but equal
Ghettos
Racial segregation in the United States is the history of racial segregation of facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines. ... The Black Codes were laws passed on the state and local level in the United States to restrict the civil rights and civil liberties of Black People, particularly former slaves. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... For the automotive term, see redline. ... Racial Steering refers to the practice in which real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race. ... In San Francisco, during the mid-1960s, the bohemian center of the city shifted from the old Beat enclave of North Beach to Haight-Ashbury (pictured) as a response to gentrification. ... White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racial-minority inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs. ... A sundown town is a community in the United States where non-Caucasians— especially African Americans— are systematically excluded from living in or passing through after the sun went down. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section. ... Separate but equal was a policy enacted into law throughout the U.S. Southern states during the period of segregation, in which African Americans and Americans of European descent would receive the same services (schools, hospitals, water fountains, bathrooms, etc. ... For the rapper, see Ghetto (rapper). ...

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This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression "White Australia" at that time
This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression "White Australia" at that time

While there was never any specific official policy called the White Australia policy, this is the term used for a collection of historical legislation and policies which either intentionally or unintentionally restricted non-white immigration to Australia from 1901 to 1973. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... Look up policy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...


The inauguration of White Australia as government policy is generally taken to be the passage of the Immigration Restriction Act in 1901, very soon after Australian federation. The policy was dismantled in stages by successive governments after the conclusion of World War II, with the encouragement of firstly non-British and later non-white immigration. From 1973 onwards, the white Australia policy was for all practical purposes defunct, and in 1975 the Australian government passed the Racial Discrimination Act which made racially-based selection criteria illegal. The Immigration Restriction Act 1901 was an Act of the Parliament of Australia which limited immigration to Australia and formed the basis of the White Australia policy. ... The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia federated on 1 January 1901, to form the Commonwealth of Australia, of which they became component states. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Racial Discrimination Act 1934 is a statute passed by the Parliament of Australia under the Government of former Labor Prime Minister Gough Whitlam. ...


Restrictions on immigration had preceded federation, with began with anti-Chinese legislation enacted by individual Australian colonies during the Australian goldrushes of the 1850s. The Australian gold rushes started in 1851 when prospector Edward Hargraves discovered gold near Bathurst, New South Wales, at a site Hargraves called Ophir. ...

Contents

Immigration policy prior to Federation

Pre Gold Rush immigration

Prior to 1830, the Australian colonies of New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land had no specific policies on immigration; they were predominantly concerned with the transportation of British convicts and the support of these new settlements. Of the nearly 150,000 convicts transported to Australia, only 4,000 were not from the British dominions and of these only 900 were non-white.[1] These figures do not reflect a deliberate bias in immigration policy, rather they likely reflect the ethnic distribution of persons processed by the British legal system at the time. From 1830, the two Australian colonies made deliberate efforts to increase the number of Britons in Australia, as part of a program to increase their population. Incentives, including relocation expenses, were offered to British citizens to emigrate to Australia. This was driven by a "new Britannia" policy which aimed to see Australia recreated in Britain's image. Between 1830 and 1940, 1,068,312 Britons accepted this subsidised relocation to Australia.[2] NSW redirects here. ... 1663 map of Van Diemens Land, showing the parts discovered by Tasman, including Storm Bay, Maria Island and Schouten Island. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Look up distribution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Gold Rush era

The discovery of gold in Australia in 1851 led to an influx of immigrants from around the world. Over the next 20 years, 40,000 Chinese (mostly Cantonese) migrated to the gold-fields.[3] Competition on the gold-fields led to significant conflict between groups. The Chinese were frequently denounced by white prospectors and blamed for bad luck and "unfair" competition.[3] For other meanings, see Gold rush (disambiguation) A California Gold Rush handbill A gold rush is a period of feverish migration of workers into the area of a dramatic discovery of commercial quantities of gold. ... Cantonese people (Traditional Chinese: 廣東人; Simplified Chinese: 广东人; Pinyin: Guǎngdōng rén; Jyutping: gwong2 dung1 yan4), broadly speaking, are persons originating from the present-day Guangdong province in southern China. ...


This tension eventually led to a series of protests and riots, including the Lambing Flat Riots between 1860 and 1861. Governor Hotham, on 16 November 1854, appointed a Royal Commission on Victorian gold-fields problems and grievances. This led to restrictions being placed on Chinese immigration and residency taxes levied from Chinese residents in Victoria from 1855 with New South Wales following suit in 1861. These restrictions remained in force until the early 1870s, but the tension never ceased. The Lambing Flat riots or Lambing Flat massacre were a series of violent anti-Chinese demonstrations that took place in the Burrangong region, in New South Wales, Australia. ... Charles Hotham Sir Charles Hotham KCB RN (January 14, 1806 - December 31, 1855) was Lieutenant-governor and, later, Governor of Victoria, Australia from June 1854 - 31 December 1855. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... In states that are Commonwealth Realms a Royal Commission is a major government public inquiry into an issue. ... VIC redirects here. ...


Support from the labour movement

The growth of the sugar industry in Queensland in the 1870s led to searching for labourers prepared to work in a tropical environment. During this time, thousands of "Kanakas" (Pacific Islanders) were brought into Australia as indentured workers.[4] This and related practices of bringing in non-white labour to be cheaply exploited was commonly termed "blackbirding".[5] In the 1870s and 1880s, the trade union movement began a series of protests against foreign labour. Their arguments were that Asians and Chinese took jobs away from white men, worked for substandard wages, lowered working conditions and refused unionisation.[3] Eight-hour day banner, Melbourne, 1856 University of Melbourne site where Stonemasons won the 8 hour day in 1856 The history of the Australian labour movement reaches back to the 19th century and the movement has a long tradition of organised unions of workers and links to political activity. ... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... The Kanakas were workers brought from the Pacific Islands as indentured servants to cover serious labor shortages in various European colonies, such as Fiji, Australia and British Columbia, Canada. ... Eight-hour day banner, Melbourne, 1856 University of Melbourne site where Stonemasons won the 8 hour day in 1856 The history of the Australian labour movement reaches back to the 19th century and the movement has a long tradition of organised unions of workers and links to political activity. ...


Objections to immigration restrictions for non-whites came largely from wealthy land owners in rural areas. It was argued that without "Asiatics" to work in the tropical areas of the Northern Territory and Queensland, the area would have to be abandoned.[4] Despite these objections to restricting immigration, between 1875-1888 all Australian colonies enacted legislation which excluded all further Chinese immigration.[4] Asian immigrants already residing in the Australian colonies were not expelled and retained precisely the same rights as their Anglo and Celtic compatriots insofar as citizenship. For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd...


Agreements were made to further increase these restrictions in 1895 following an Inter-colonial Premier's Conference where all colonies agreed to extend entry restrictions to all non-white races. However, in attempting to enact this legislation, the Governors of New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania reserved the bills, due to a treaty with Japan, and they did not become law. Instead, the Natal Act of 1897 was introduced, restricting "undesirable persons" rather than any specific race.[3]


From Federation to World War II

Federation Convention and Australia's first government

Immigration was a prominent topic in the lead up to Australian Federation. At the Federation Convention, Western Australian premier and future federal cabinet member, John Forrest, summarised the prevailing feeling:[5] The federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia formed a federation. ...

[It is] of no use to shut our eyes to the fact that there is a great feeling all over Australia against the introduction of coloured persons. It goes without saying that we do not like to talk about it, but it is so.

The government following Federation in 1901 was formed by the Protectionist Party with the support of the Australian Labor Party. The support of the Labor Party was contingent upon restricting non-white immigration, reflecting the attitudes of the Australian Worker's Union and other labour organisations at the time, upon whose support the Labor Party was founded. The Protectionist Party was a political party in Australia from the 1880s until 1909. ... ALP redirects here. ... The Australian Workers Union (AWU) is one of Australias largest and oldest trade unions. ...


Immigration Restriction Act 1901

The new Federal Parliament, as one of its first pieces of legislation, passed the Immigration Restriction Act 1901 to "place certain restrictions on immigration and... for the removal... of prohibited immigrants". The act drew on similar legislation in South Africa. Edmund Barton, the prime minister, argued in support of the Bill with the following statement: "The doctrine of the equality of man was never intended to apply to the equality of the Englishman and the Chinaman." The Immigration Restriction Act 1901 was an Act of the Parliament of Australia which limited immigration to Australia and formed the basis of the White Australia policy. ... The Immigration Restriction Act 1901 was an Act of the Parliament of Australia which limited immigration to Australia and formed the basis of the White Australia policy. ... Sir Edmund Barton, GCMG, QC (18 January 1849 – 7 January 1920), Australian politician and judge, was the first Prime Minister of Australia and a founding justice of the High Court of Australia. ...


Early drafts of the Act explicitly banned non-Europeans from migrating to Australia but objections from the British government, which feared that such a measure would offend British subjects in India and Britain's allies in Japan, caused the Barton government to remove this wording. Instead, a "dictation test" was introduced as a device for excluding unwanted immigrants. Immigration officials were given the power to exclude any person who failed to pass a 50-word dictation test. At first this was to be in any European language, but was later changed to include any language. Sir Edmund Barton, GCMG, QC (18 January 1849 – 7 January 1920), Australian politician and judge, was the first Prime Minister of Australia and a founding justice of the High Court of Australia. ...


Australia was not the only British Dominion to have such immigration policies. South Africa, Canada, and New Zealand also had racially restrictive immigration policies in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Similar restrictions also existed in the United States of America. In 1905 legislation was introduced to the United Kingdom, principally affecting Jews. (see also Komagata Maru, and the Red Summer of 1919). Australian soldiers were involved in the assaults on the Black British community in Cardiff, Wales in 1919.[citation needed] This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Komagata Maru was a Japanese steam liner that sailed from Hong Kong to Shanghai, China, Yokohama, Japan, and then to British Columbia, Canada, in 1914, carrying 376 passengers from Punjab, India, most of whom were not allowed to land in Canada and were returned to India. ... Red Summer is a term coined by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) describing the summer and autumn of 1919. ... See also: British African-Caribbean community, Caribbean British, British Asian,Britsh Mixed Black British is term which has had different meanings and uses as a racial and political label. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... This article is about the country. ...


In the same year, the government also passed the Pacific Island Labourers Act. The result of this legislation was that 7,500 Pacific Islanders working in Australia were deported. The Pacific Island Labourers Act 1901 was an Act of the Parliament of Australia which was designed to facilitate the mass deportation of nearly all the Pacific Islanders working in Australia. ...


The Paris Peace Conference

At the 1919 Paris Peace Conference following World War I, Japan attended the conference with the explicit intention of having a racial equality clause included in the League of Nations Charter. Japanese policy reflected their desire to remove or to ease the immigration restrictions against Chinese and Japanese (especially in America and Canada) which Japan regarded as a humiliation and affront to its prestige. Emperor Showa (Hirohito) was later to suggest that this was one of the reasons for the Greater East Asian War (Pacific Theatre of World War II). Map of the World with the Participants in World War I. The Allies are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... The Greater East Asia War was a term used, at least publicly in December of 1941, by Japans Imperial General Headquarters (Imperial GHQ) to refer to the conflict that followed (and ultimately reversed) Japans invasions in the 1930s and early 1940s of other nations in eastern Asia and... The Pacific Theater of Operations (PTO) is the term used in the United States for all military activity in the Pacific Ocean and the countries bordering it, in World War II. Pacific War is a more common name, around the world, for the broader conflict between the Allies and Japan... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Australia was one of few countries which had race as a dominant political ideology at the time. Australian Prime Minister Billy Hughes vehemently opposed the proposition. Hughes recognised that such a clause would be a threat to White Australia and made it clear to Lloyd George that he would leave the conference if the clause was adopted. When the proposal failed Hughes reported in the Australian parliament: For other persons named Billy Hughes, see Billy Hughes (disambiguation). ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM (January 17, 1863–March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last Liberal to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ...

"The White Australia is yours. You may do with it what you please, but at any rate, the soldiers have achieved the victory and my colleagues and I have brought that great principle back to you from the conference, as safe as it was on the day when it was first adopted."[6]

Abolition of the Policy

World War II

Between the Great Depression, starting in 1929 and the commencement of World War II in 1939, global economic pressures kept immigration to very low levels.[7] At the start of the war, Prime Minister John Curtin (ALP) reinforced the message of the White Australia Policy by saying: "This country shall remain forever the home of the descendants of those people who came here in peace in order to establish in the South Seas an outpost of the British race."[8] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the Australian Prime Minister. ... ALP redirects here. ...


However, by the end of World War II, Australia's vulnerability during the war in the Pacific and small population led to policies summarised by the slogan "Populate or Perish". During the war, many non-white refugees, including Malays, Indonesians and Filipinos, had settled in Australia. Immigration Minister Arthur Calwell, controversially sought to have them all deported. In 1949 Harold Holt allowed the remaining 800 non-white refugees to apply for residency, and also allowed Japanese "war brides" to settle in Australia.[8] Rt Hon Arthur Calwell (with young migrant, 1949) Arthur Augustus Calwell (August 28, 1896 - July 8, 1973) Australian politician, was Leader of the Australian Labor Party from 1960 to 1967. ... Harold Edward Holt CH (5 August 1908 – presumed dead 17 December 1967) was an Australian politician who became the 17th Prime Minister of Australia in 1966. ... War-bride was a term used in reference to World War II era marriages. ...


Relaxation of restrictions

Australian policy began to shift towards significantly increasing immigration. Legislative changes over the next few decades continuously opened up immigration in Australia.[7]

  • 1947 The Australian Government relaxed the Immigration Restriction Act allowing Non-Europeans the right to settle permanently in Australia for business reasons.
  • 1950 Colombo Plan, students from Asian countries were admitted to study at Australian universities.
  • 1957 Non-Europeans with 15 years' residence in Australia were allowed to become citizens.
  • 1958 The Revised Migration Act of 1958 abolished the dictation test and introduced a simpler system for entry.
  • 1959 Australians were permitted to sponsor Asian spouses for citizenship.
  • 1964 Conditions of entry for people of Non-European stock were relaxed.

After a review of the European policy in March 1966, Immigration Minister Hubert Opperman announced applications for migration would be accepted from well-qualified people on the basis of their suitability as settlers, their ability to integrate readily and their possession of qualifications positively useful to Australia. At the same time, the Holt Liberal government decided a number of "temporary resident" non-Europeans, who were not required to leave Australia, could become permanent residents and citizens after five years (the same as for Europeans). The Colombo Plan began in 1951, and is a regional organisation focused on social development. ... Hubert Opperman in action as a cyclist Sir Hubert Ferdinand Opperman (29 May 1904 - 24 April 1996), affectionately referred to as Oppy by Australian and French crowds, was an Australian cyclist and politician, whose endurance cycling feats in the 1920s and 1930s earned him international acclaim. ... Harold Edward Holt CH (5 August 1908 – presumed dead 17 December 1967) was an Australian politician who became the 17th Prime Minister of Australia in 1966. ...


As a result, annual non-European settler arrivals rose from 746 in 1966 to 2,696 in 1971, while annual part-European settler arrivals rose from 1,498 to 6054.[8]


End of the White Australia Policy

The legal end of the White Australia policy is usually dated to 1973, when the Whitlam Labor government implemented a series of amendments preventing the enforcement of racial aspects of the immigration law. These amendments legislated that:[8] Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916), known as Gough Whitlam (, pronounced Goff), is an Australian former politician and 21st Prime Minister of Australia. ...

  • All migrants, of whatever origin, be eligible to obtain citizenship after three years of permanent residence.
  • Ratified all international agreements relating to immigration and race.
  • Issued policy to totally disregard race as a factor in selecting migrants.

The 1975 Racial Discrimination Act made the use of racial criteria for any official purpose illegal. The Racial Discrimination Act 1934 is a statute passed by the Parliament of Australia under the Government of former Labor Prime Minister Gough Whitlam. ...


It was not until the Fraser Liberal government's review of immigration law in 1978 that all selection of prospective migrants based on country of origin was entirely removed from official policy. Currently, a large number of Australia's immigrants are from countries such as China and India, though the United Kingdom and New Zealand respectively remain the two largest single sources of immigrants. This article is about the former prime minister of Australia; for the Western Australian public servant, see Malcolm Fraser (surveyor). ...


The last selective immigration policy, offering relocation assistance to British nationals, was finally removed in 1982.[2]


Legacy

Contemporary demographics

The 2001 Australian census results indicate that a majority of Australians claim some European heritage: English 37%, Irish 11%, Italian 5%, German 4.3%, Scottish 3%, Greek 2%, Dutch 1.5%, Polish 0.9%. Non-European origin forms a significant but still relatively small part of the population: Chinese 3.2%, Lebanese 0.9%, Indian 0.9%, Vietnamese 0.9%. 2.2% identified themselves as Indigenous Australians. 39% of the population gave their ancestry as "Australian". In Australian society, although the identification of 'white' is always opinion based, it primarily pertains to people of Anglo-Celtic and Northern European origin or appearance, sometimes excluding Mediterranean Europeans. (Note that subjects were permitted to select more than one answer for this census question.)[9]


15 percent of the population now speaks a language other than English at home.[10] The most commonly spoken languages are Italian, Greek, Cantonese and Arabic.


Political and social legacy

Discrimination on the basis of race or ethnicity has been illegal in Australia since 1975. Australia's official policy on racial diversity is: "to build on our success as a culturally diverse, accepting and open society, united through a shared future".[11] However, the undercurrent of racism still exists in various areas of Australia, including governmental levels. The White Australia Policy continues to be mentioned in modern contexts, although few politicians ever mention the policy, except when denouncing their opposition. John Howard argued for restricting immigration in 1988, later admitting that his comments cost him his job at the time: John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ...

I'm not in favour of going back to a White Australia policy. I do believe that if it is -- in the eyes of some in the community -- that it's too great, it would be in our immediate-term interest and supporting of social cohesion if it [immigration] were slowed down a little, so the capacity of the community to absorb it was greater.[12]

At their peak, Pauline Hanson's One Nation party received 9% of the national election vote.[13] Pauline Hanson was widely accused of taking Australia back to the days of the White Australia Policy, particularly through reference to Arthur Calwell, one of the policy's strongest supporters: Not to be confused with the One Nation program of infrastructure works carried out from 1991 to 1996 by the Keating Labor Government. ... Pauline Hanson at a book signing, 2007 Pauline Lee Hanson (née Seccombe; born May 27, 1954) is an Australian politician and former leader of the One Nation Party, a party with a populist, anti-immigration platform. ... Rt Hon Arthur Calwell (with young migrant, 1949) Arthur Augustus Calwell (August 28, 1896 - July 8, 1973) Australian politician, was Leader of the Australian Labor Party from 1960 to 1967. ...

I and most Australians want our immigration policy radically reviewed and that of multiculturalism abolished. I believe we are in danger of being swamped by Asians. Between 1984 and 1995, 40 per cent of all migrants coming into this country were of Asian origin. They have their own culture and religion, form ghettos and do not assimilate.[14]

Pauline Hanson in her maiden speech to parliament Pauline Hanson at a book signing, 2007 Pauline Lee Hanson (née Seccombe; born May 27, 1954) is an Australian politician and former leader of the One Nation Party, a party with a populist, anti-immigration platform. ...

On 24 May 2007, Pauline Hanson, with her new Pauline's United Australia Party, continues her call for a freeze on immigration and provided comments about African migrants carrying disease into Australia[15]. Topics related to racism and immigration in Australia are still regularly connected by the media to the White Australia Policy. Some examples of issues and events where this connection has been made include: reconciliation with Aborigines; mandatory detention and the "Pacific Solution"; the 2005 Cronulla riots. Former opposition Labor party leader Mark Latham, in his book The Latham Diaries, described the ANZUS alliance as a legacy of the White Australia policy. Pauline Hanson at a book signing, 2007 Pauline Lee Hanson (née Seccombe; born May 27, 1954) is an Australian politician and former leader of the One Nation Party, a party with a populist, anti-immigration platform. ... Paulines United Australia Party is an Australian political party launced by former One Nation founder Pauline Hanson on May 24, 2007 and registered by the Australian Electoral Commission on September 20 , 2007. ... Language(s) Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religion(s) Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group... Mandatory detention in Australia concerns the Australian federal government policy and system of mandatory detention, pursuant to which all persons entering or remaining in the country without a valid visa are compulsorily detained and may be subject to deportation. ... Police observing crowds prior to confrontations The 2005 Cronulla riots were a series of ethnically motivated mob confrontations which originated in and around Cronulla, a beachfront suburb of Sydney, New South Wales. ... Mark William Latham (born 28 February 1961), a former Australian politician, was leader of the Federal Parliamentary Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition from December 2003 to January 2005. ... The Latham Diaries is the autobiography of the former Australian Labour Party leader, Mark Latham. ... The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the military alliance which binds Australia and New Zealand and, separately, Australia and the United States to cooperate on defence matters in the Pacific Ocean area, though today the treaty is understood to relate to attacks in...


In 2007, the Howard Government introduced a citizenship test to include a tougher English language test, and a test on "Australian" values. The actual questions of such citizenship test have not been publicly released, and its future is in question given the ALP victory in the 2007 election. The 2007 election for the federal Parliament of Australia, in which 13. ...


Though the White Australia policy, which had segregated Aborigines, no longer exists, their poor socio-economic conditions typically leave them segregated from the rest of Australian society. The situation in 1997 led one activist to suggest that the country could be led "back to apartheid".[16] In fact, Australian government policy from earlier years is viewed by some as the original impetus for the Apartheid system in South Africa.[17][18] In addition, Australia is the only developed country in the world whose government has been condemned as racist by the United Nations [19]. Language(s) Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religion(s) Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


See also

The birth of the first white child was a celebrated occasion across many parts of the Americas and Australia. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Poll tax. ... This map of the world in 1898 shows the large colonial empires that European nations established in the Americas, Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific Settler colonialism is defined as the perpetuation of colonial-esque relationships of economic domination by European settlers. ... For general context see White Australia Policy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Yellow Terror In All His Glory, 1899 editorial cartoon Yellow Peril (sometimes Yellow Terror) was a color metaphor for race that originated in the late nineteenth century with immigration of Chinese laborers to various Western countries, notably the United States, and later to the Japanese during the mid 20th... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Chinese head tax was a fixed fee charged for each Chinese person entering Canada. ... The Chinese Immigration Act, 1923, known in the Chinese-Canadian community as the Chinese Exclusion Act, was an act passed by the federal government of Canada, banning most forms of Chinese immigration to Canada. ... Anti-Chinese legislation in the United States was introduced in America to deal with Chinese migrants following the gold rush in California and those coming to build the railway. ...

References

  1. ^ Jordans, Anne-Mari (2004-07-01). Belonging and exclusion: national identity and citizenship, immigration and multiculturalism (HTML). Manning Clark House Inc.. Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
  2. ^ a b Jupp, Dr James. Immigration and Citizenship (PDF). University of Melbourne. Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
  3. ^ a b c d Markey, Raymond (1996-01-01). Race and organized labor in Australia, 1850-1901 (HTML). Highbeam Research. Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
  4. ^ a b c Griffiths, Phil (2002-07-04). Towards White Australia: The shadow of Mill and the spectre of slavery in the 1880s debates on Chinese immigration (RTF). 11th Biennial National Conference of the Australian Historical Association. Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
  5. ^ a b Willoughby, Emma. Our Federation Journey 1901 - 2001 (PDF). Museum Victoria. Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
  6. ^ 100 Years: The Australia Story. Episode 2: Rise And Fall Of White Australia (HTML). Australian Broadcasting Commission (Wednesday March 21, 2001). Retrieved on 2007-01-29.
  7. ^ a b Immigration to Australia During the 20th Century (PDF). Australian Department of Immigration. Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
  8. ^ a b c d Abolition of the 'White Australia' Policy (HTML). Australian Department of Immigration. Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
  9. ^ Population characteristics: Ancestry of Australia's population (HTML). Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
  10. ^ Inglis, Christine (2002-12-01). Australia's Increasing Ethnic and Religious Diversity (HTML). Migration Policy Institute. Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
  11. ^ MULTICULTURAL AUSTRALIA: UNITED IN DIVERSITY (SOCIAL ENGINEERING AND THE ENFORCEMENT OF DIVERSITY) (PDF). The Australian Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs. Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
  12. ^ Megalogenis, George (2006-02-20). Howard hits out at 'jihad' Muslims (HTML). The Australian. Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
  13. ^ Carr, Adam. Federal Election of 3 October 1998 (HTML). Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
  14. ^ Hanson, Pauline (1996-09-01). Maiden Speech (HTML). Retrieved on 2006-06-14.
  15. ^ http://www.theage.com.au/news/National/Hanson-launches-campaign-song/2007/10/05/1191091356094.html
  16. ^ http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/24/054.html
  17. ^ http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/24/177.html
  18. ^ http://www.jcu.edu.au/aff/history/articles/limb.htm
  19. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/690213.stm

Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • John Bailey (2001). The White Divers of Broome. Sydney, MacMillan. ISBN 0-7329-1078-1. 
  • Wulf D. Hund (2006): White Australia oder der Krieg der Historiker. In: Blätter für deutsche und internationale Politik, 3.
  • Laksiri Jayasuriya, David Walker, Jan Gothard (Eds.) (2003): Legacies of White Australia. Crawley, University of Western Australia Press.
  • James Jupp and Maria Kabala (1993). The Politics of Australian Immigration. Australian Government Publishing Service. 
  • Myra Willard (1923). History of the White Australia Policy to 1920. Melbourne University Press.  (old but still very useful)
  • Ian Duffield (1993). Skilled Workers or Marginalised Poor? The African Population of the United Kingdom, 1812-1852. Immigrants And Minorities Vol. 12, No. 3; Frank Cass. 
  • Keith Windschuttle (2004). The White Australia Policy. Macleay Press. 

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > White Australia Policy (765 words)
The White Australia policy was a system of both official and unofficial discrimination in Australian history, during which immigration policy and citizenship requirements were heavily biased to favour white European migrants, and more specifically Anglo-Saxon migrants over other races.
The policy was openly endorsed by both the government and general society during the first half of the 20th century.
The effective end of the White Australia policy is usually dated to 1973, when a series of amendments prevented the enforcement of racial aspects of the immigration law.
White Australia policy - Definition, explanation (1365 words)
The White Australia Policy, the policy of excluding all non white people from the Australian continent, was the official policy of all governments and all mainstream political parties in Australia from the 1890s to the 1950s, and elements of the policy survived until the 1970s.
Another source of the policy was opposition to labourers from Melanesia (known pejoratively as "kanakas") in the sugar-cane fields of Queensland.
The effective end of the White Australia policy is usually dated to 1973, when the Whitlam Labor government implemented a series of amendments preventing the enforcement of racial aspects of the immigration law.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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