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Encyclopedia > White American
White American
Madeleine Albright Marilyn Monroe Abraham Lincoln
Romualdo Pacheco
Total population

White American
215,333,394[1]
74.7% of the total U.S. population
ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1413x1944, 471 KB) Summary Madeleine Albright, official secretary of State portrait Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Madeleine Albright ... Image File history File links Gentlemen_Prefer_Blondes_Movie_Trailer_Screenshot_(16). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links John_F_Kennedy1963. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x878, 61 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Regions with significant populations
All areas of the United States
Language(s)
Predominantly American English · Spanish · German · Italian · Arabic · French
Religion(s)
Predominantly Christian; minorities practicing Islam · Judaism and other faiths

The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with "Caucasian American"[2] and within the United States simply "white"[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States.[4] In the most recent United States Census conducted in 2000, 47.9% of the then 35,305,818 U.S. Hispanics also fell into the white American category,[5] making White Hispanics the plurality among Hispanics of all races in the United States. This list of regions of the United States includes official (governmental) and non-official areas within the borders of the United States, not including U.S. states, the federal district of Washington, D.C. or standard subentities such as cities or counties. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Arabic redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An umbrella term is a word that provides a superset or grouping of related concepts, also called a hypernym. ... European American is a term for an American of European descent, who are usually referred as White or Caucasian. ... The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Hispanic flag, not widely used. ... This article is about U.S. white Hispanic residents. ...


In contemporary social scientific terms Whites are regarded as the dominant racial group, whose norms and bahavioral patterns are seen as the benchmark for normality. According to sociologist Steven Seidman, "Whitness is assumed... it is the default condition." Many early European immigrants, especially Jews and Southern as well as Eastern Europeans were not seen as White upon arrival, as Whiteness describes membership in the societal mainstream.[6] As the cultural boundaries separating white Americans from other racial categories are contested and fluid, this broad official definition includes people who might not be considered white by others and who might not consider themselves white. Steven Seidman is an American sociologist, currently professor at New York State University at Albany. ...

Contents

Historical and present definitions

Today, the term "white American" can encompass many different ethnic groups. Although the United States Census purports to reflect a social definition of race, the social dimensions of race are more complex than Census criteria. The origins from which white Americans may come. ... The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution. ...


Current U.S. Census definition

Image File history File links White_American_ancestries_by_ethnicity_graph. ...

White American
Scots-Irish
15.2%
10.8%
8.7%
5.6%
3.2%
3.0%
1.7%
1.6%
1.6%
1,5%
1.4%

The 2000 U.S. census states that racial categories "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country. They do not conform to any biological, anthropological or genetic criteria."[7] It defines "white people" as "people having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.[8] In U.S. census documents, the designation white overlaps, as do all other official racial categories, with the term Hispanic, which was introduced in the 1980 census as a category of ethnicity, separate and independent of race.[9] By county. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry. ... Irish population density in the United States, 1872. ... English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo-Americans) are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England. ... An Italian-American is an American of Italian descent either born in America or someone who has immigrated. ... Polish-American refers to American citizens of Polish descent. ... A French American or Franco-American is a citizen of the United States of America of French descent and heritage. ... Scottish Americans or Scots Americans are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates in the northwest European nation of Scotland. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Norwegian-Americans are an ethnic group in the United States. ... Scots-Irish (formerly Scotch-Irish) is a term used to describe inhabitants of the USA and Canada of Scots-Irish (particularly Ulster-Scots) descent, who formed distinctive communities and had distinctive social characteristics. ... Swedish Americans are U.S. Americans with Swedish heritage, most often related to the large groups of immigrants from Sweden in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. ... It has been suggested that Ethnicity (United States Census) be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Hispanic flag, not widely used. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... It has been suggested that Ethnicity (United States Census) be merged into this article or section. ...


Hispanicity, which is independent of race, is the only ethnic category, as opposed to racial category, which is officially collated by the U.S. Census Bureau. The distinction made by government agencies for those within the population of any official race category, including "white American", is between those with Hispanic ethnic backgrounds and all others of non-Hispanic ethnic backgrounds. In the case of White Americans, these two groups are respectively termed "White Hispanics" and "non-Hispanic Whites"; the former having at least one ancestor from the people of Spain or Spanish-speaking Latin America, and the latter consisting of an ethnically diverse collection of all others who are classified as white American who are of non-Hispanic ethnic backgrounds. Hispanic flag, not widely used. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Hispanic flag, not widely used. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... Hispanic America (Hispanoamérica in Spanish) refers to those parts of the Americas inhabited by Spanish-speaking peoples. ...


Many Americans who are treated as part of minority groups are included in the census category "white." This is true for many Hispanic Americans, 47.9% of whom identified racially as white. The 2000 Census separated the question on Hispanics from the question on race, the latter being divided into the 5 categories of white, black or African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, Asian American, plus "other", with the respondent having the ability to mark more than one category. It is also true for many Arab and other Middle Eastern Americans and North African Americans, as well as Jewish Americans, since the 2000 Census conflates race and geographic/national origin: white is defined to include people with original origins in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... // Demographics in 2000 US Census Pacific Islander Americans represent the smallest group counted on the 2000 US Census. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... Arab Americans constitute an ethnicity made up of several waves of immigrants from 22 Morocco in the west to Oman in the east. ... A Jewish American (also commonly American Jew) is an American (a citizen of the United States) of Jewish descent who maintains a connection to the Jewish community, either through actively practicing Judaism or through cultural and historical affiliation. ...


In cases where individuals do not self-identify, the U.S. census parameters for race give each national origin a racial value. Additionally, people who reported Muslim (or a sect of Islam such as Shi'ite or Sunni), Jewish, Zoroastrian, Mexican, or Caucasian as their "race" in the "Some other race" section, without noting a country of origin, are automatically tallied as white.[10] This may result in the counting of persons such as Indian Muslims, Indian Jews, and Indian Zoroastrians as white, if they solely report their religious heritage without their national origin. It has been suggested that Ethnicity (United States Census) be merged into this article or section. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... For the peoples actually from the Caucasus, see Peoples of the Caucasus. ... The gate of the Jami mosque built in 1571 in Fatehpur Sikri, a city built by the Mughal emperor Akbar. ... // Indian Jews are a religious minority, living among Indias predominantly Hindu populace. ... This article is about the Parsi community. ...


Social definition

According to race scholars such as Karen Brodkin, in the United States, essentially anyone of European descent is considered white[citation needed] and Jews (presumably those of European origin, that is, Ashkenazi Jews) are also today considered white.[11] However, while the census asserts that "race" and "ethnicity" are separate, some Hispanics of primarily European descent may not consider themselves white and may not be considered white by others, possibly because of the long-held stereotype of Hispanics being given a non-white racial value.[12][13][14] Likewise, while people of Middle Eastern and North African descent are included in the white category in the census, studies have found that Arab American teenagers may sometimes construct identities that distinguish themselves from "white society."[15] Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... This article is about U.S. white Hispanic residents. ...


The cultural boundaries separating white Americans from other racial or ethnic categories have changed significantly over the course of American history. Even among Europeans, those not considered white at some time in American history are the Irish, Germans, Ashkenazi Jews, Italians, Spaniards, Slavs, Greeks and other European Mediterranean peoples.[16] David R. Roediger argues that the construction of the white race in the United States was an effort to mentally distance slave owners from slaves.[17] The process of officially being defined as white by law often came about in court disputes over pursuit of citizenship.[18] Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... “Citizen” redirects here. ...


Privilege

As whites are the dominant group; according to sociologists Steven Seidman, "Whiteness has been about privilege." White culture constitutes the general cultural mainstream, causing non-White culture to be seen as deviant, in either a positive or negative manner. Moreover, Whites tend to be disproportionately represented in powerful position, controlling almost all political, economic and cultural institutions. Yet, Whites are most commonly unaware of their privilege and the manner in which their culture has become dominant, as they do not identify as members of a specific racial group but rather perceive their views and culture as "raceless." According to Richard Dyer:[6] Steven Seidman is an American sociologist, currently professor at New York State University at Albany. ... Richard W. Dyer is an English academic specialising in cinema. ...

White people have the power and believe that they think, feel and act like and for all people; White people, unable to see their particularity, cannot take account of other peoples; White people create the dominant image of the world and don't quite see that they thus construct the world in their own image; White people set standards of humanity by which they are bound to succeed and others bound to fail. Most of this is not done deliberately and maliciously;... White power none the less reproduces itself regardless of intention... because it is not seen as Whiteness, but as normal. (Dyer in Seidman, 2004 p. 242)

Certain white populations, such as homosexuals, women and the disabled, however, lose parts of this privilege due to disenfranchisement that occurs based on non-racial characteristics.[6]


Demographic information

White American is the largest racial group counted in the 2000 Census, comprising 77.1 percent of the population. This includes about 2% of the population who self-identified as "white" in combination with one or more other races; about 8% also identified ethnically as Hispanic. The largest ethnic groups among white Americans were Germans followed by the Irish and the English. 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... US Hispanic or Latino population The Office of Management and Budget is required to use a minimum of two ethnicities: Hispanic or Latino or not Hispanic or Latino The O.M.B. defines Hispanic or Latino as a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American or other...


Geographic distribution

White Americans as percent of population, Census 2000. (Around 8% of white Americans also identify as Hispanic.)

According to the Census definition, white Americans are the majority racial group in almost all of the United States. They are not the majority in Hawaii, many American Indian reservations, parts of the South known as the Black Belt, and in many urban areas throughout the country. In California, Whites slipped from 80% of the state's population in 1970 to 43% in 2006.[19] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1012x691, 72 KB) Summary Map of contiguous US, showing percentage of population self-reporting as White, by census tract, 2000. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1012x691, 72 KB) Summary Map of contiguous US, showing percentage of population self-reporting as White, by census tract, 2000. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... This article is about Native Americans. ... Historic Southern United States. ... For other uses, see Black Belt. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Overall the highest concentration of those referred to as white alone by the Census Bureau was found in the northern Midwest, New England, the Rocky Mountain states, Kentucky, and West Virginia. The lowest concentration of whites was found in southern and mid-Atlantic states.[20][21][22] This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Rocky Mountain National Park (photo courtesy of NPS) View of Colorado Rockies. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ...


Although all large geographical areas are dominated by white Americans, much larger differences can be seen between specific parts of large cities.


Income and educational attainment

Further information: Personal income in the United States and Household income in the United States

The percentage of households and individuals over the age of 25 with incomes exceeding $100,000 in the US.[1][2] Affluence in the United States refers to an individuals or households state of being in an economically favorable position in contrast to a given reference group. ... For information on household income please see Household income in the United States Personal income for the populatio age 25 or older. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... Image File history File links Race_Income. ...

in 2005

Some argue that because white Americans have faced the least discrimination of any racial or ethnic group, they have had time to build up wealth, and that this is a major contributor to economic inequities among races today.[23][24] White Americans have the second highest median household income and personal income levels in the nation. The median income per household member was also the highest, since white Americans had the smallest households of any racial demographic in the nation. In 2006, the median individual income of a white American age 25 or older was $33,030, with those who were full-time employed between ages 25 and 64 earning $34,432. Since 42% of all households had two income earners, the median household income was considerably higher than the median personal income, which was $48,554 in 2005. Among whites, Jewish Americans rank first in household income, personal income and educational attainment among white Americans. In 2005, white households had a median household income of $48,977, 10.3% above the national median of $44,389. American-born Cuban Americans (half of the Cuban American populace) almost all classify as white, and have a higher median income and educational attainment level than most other whites.[25] For information on household income please see Household income in the United States Personal income for the populatio age 25 or older. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Racism in the United States has been a major issue in America since the colonial era. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... For information on household income please see Household income in the United States Personal income for the populatio age 25 or older. ... The percentage of households and individuals in each income bracket. ... A Jewish American (also commonly American Jew) is an American (a citizen of the United States) of Jewish descent who maintains a connection to the Jewish community, either through actively practicing Judaism or through cultural and historical affiliation. ... A Cuban-American is an immigrant to the United States from Cuba. ...


Poverty rates for white Americans are the lowest of any racial group, with 8.6% of white individuals living below the poverty line (3% below the national average).[26] However, due to whites' majority status, 48% of Americans living in poverty are white.[27]


Whites' educational attainment are the second-highest in the country, after Asian Americans'. Overall, nearly one-third of white Americans had a Bachelor degree, with the educational attainment for whites being higher for those born outside the United States. Nearly forty percent, 37.6%, of foreign born and 29.7% of native born whites had a college degree. Both figures are above the national average of 27.2%.[28] This graph shows the educational attainment since 1947. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course that generally lasts three or four years. ...


Gender income inequality was the greatest among whites with white men outearning white women by 48%. Census Bureau data for 2005 reveals that the median income of white females was lower than that of males of all races. In 2005, the median income for white females was only slightly higher than that of African American females, indicating that income inequities seem to run along gender lines more so than along racial lines.[29] 2005 Census Statistics show great income inequity between the sexes among all races. ...


Admixture

see also Admixture in the United States

According to a recent study about one third of all white Americans, 74 million, have between 2 and 20 percent Native American and/or African admixture[30]. In the last few centuries science has had an important influence on everyday notions of race. ...


See also

References

  1. ^ General Demographic Characteristics: 2005
  2. ^ Lee, Sandra S. Mountain, Joanna. Barbara, Koening A. The Meanings of Race in the New Genomics: Implications for Health Disparities Research. Yale University. 2001. Accessed October 26, 2006.
  3. ^ The U.S. Census Bureau, for example, uses "white" rather than "white American." Racial and Ethnic Classifications Used in Census 2000 and Beyond. Retrieved on 2006-10-05.
  4. ^ http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/fedreg/1997standards.html
  5. ^ http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/cenbr01-1.pdf Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2000
  6. ^ a b c Seidman, S. (2004). Critical Race Theory. In Contested Knowledge: Social Theory Today (pp. 231 - 243). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  7. ^ Questions and Answers for Census 2000 Data on Race from U.S. Census Bureau, 14 March 2001. Retrieved 15 October 2006.
  8. ^ http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-4.pdf The White Population: 2000, Census 2000 Brief C2KBR/01-4, U.S. Census Bureau, August 2001.
  9. ^ Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin 2000 U.S. Census Bureau
  10. ^ Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results. Race and Nationality Descriptions from the 2000 US Census and Bureau of Vital Statistics. 2007. May 21, 2007. [1]
  11. ^ Karen Brodkin, How Jews Became White Folks and What That Says About Race in America (New Brunswick NJ, 1998).
  12. ^ http://www.utexas.edu/utpress/excerpts/exminbla.html
  13. ^ http://www.davidberreby.com/work14.htm
  14. ^ http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/white_house/jan-june00/census_3-23.html
  15. ^ http://caliber.ucpress.net/doi/abs/10.1525/sop.2004.47.4.371
  16. ^ John Tehranian, "Performing Whiteness: Naturalization Litigation and the Construction of Racial Identity in America," The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 109, No. 4. (Jan., 2000), pp. 825-827.
  17. ^ Roediger, Wages of Whiteness, 186; Tony Horwitz, Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches from the Unfinished Civil War (New York, 1998).
  18. ^ Sweet, Frank W. Legal History of the Color Line: The Notion of Invisible Blackness. Backintyme Publishers (2005), ISBN 0939479230.
  19. ^ The Best Story of Our Lives
  20. ^ Brewer, Cynthia; Trudy Suchan (2001). Census 2000, The Geography of US Diversity. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press. 
  21. ^ Distribution of those identifying as White alone, by state, US Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2006-10-05.
  22. ^ US Census Bureau, Whites in the 2000 Census. Retrieved on 2006-10-05.
  23. ^ a b Adams, J.Q.; Pearlie Strother-Adams (2001). Dealing with Diversity. Chicago, IL: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. 0-7872-8145-X. 
  24. ^ Hine, Darlene; William C. Hine, Stanley Harrold (2006). The African American Odyssey. Boston, MA: Pearson. 0-12-182217-3. 
  25. ^ Cubans in the United States http://pewhispanic.org/files/factsheets/23.pdf.
  26. ^ US Census Bureau, Household income in 2005 by race. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.
  27. ^ http://www.ag.iastate.edu/centers/rdev/newsletter/june97/rural-poverty.html
  28. ^ US Census Bureau report on educational attainment in the United States, 2003. Retrieved on 2006-12-23.
  29. ^ US Census Bureau, Personal income forum, Age 25+, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-01-20.
  30. ^ Afro-European Genetic Admixture in the United States, Frank Sweet

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
White (people) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6833 words)
White (also White people, White race or Whites) is one of various color metaphors for race used as a form of classification of people.
White nationalists in the United States often have a definition of "Whiteness" that is much more limited than the official government definition of "Whiteness", in this case, requires not only an ancestry that is solely or overwhelmingly European, but also a psychological identification with the European ethnicity and a commitment to advance its interests.
Today, depending on the source, whites are said to constitute 37% to 65% of the population, with the remaining population being composed largely of mulattos.
Center for the Study of White American Culture - Home (268 words)
Not an organization for white supremacists as some people might infer, we are instead a multiracial organization that looks at whiteness and white American culture.
The Center for the Study of White American Culture (the Center) supports cultural exploration and self-discovery among white Americans.
It encourages a dialogue among all racial and cultural groups concerning the role of white American culture in the larger American society.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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