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Encyclopedia > White (people)
The neutrality of this article is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.
This article is about racial classification of people. For other uses, see White (disambiguation).

White (also White people, White race or Whites) is one of various color metaphors for race used as a form of classification of people. Though literally implying light-skinned, "White" has been used in different ways at different times and places. Like other color metaphors commonly employed to categorise human ethnic or racial groups, its precise definition is unclear with no common standard. Many scientists have pointed out the problem of an arbitrary number of categories being chosen and the gradations between categories. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Look up white in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In some societies, color metaphors are used in place of racial classifications. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Although different definitions of "White" vary, the most common feature among them is that it encompasses people with origins in the original peoples of Europe. By this definition, the areas of the world that are considered to have a predominantly "White" population include all of the countries of Europe, as well as Argentina, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United States of America, and Uruguay. World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ...


Across the globe, and especially throughout the Western Hemisphere, a person's consideration as "White" has been affected by past or present colloquial, scientific and legal understandings [citation needed], including definitions based for such purposes as censuses, anti-miscegenation laws, affirmative action, and racial quotas [citation needed]. These factors and the groups they involve are explored throughout the article. The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... A colloquialism is an informal expression, that is, an expression not used in formal speech or writing. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... This article is about law in society. ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... Anti-miscegenation laws Anti-miscegenation laws were passed to prohibit interracial couples from marrying. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Racial quotas in employment and education are numerical requirements for hiring, promoting, admitting and/or graduating members of a particular racial group. ...

Contents


Terminology

Pre-modern usage of White may not correspond to current concepts. Europeans who traveled to Northeast Asia in the 17th century applied White to the people they encountered (see suggested readings below) — the term having no other connotations at that time — and indeed, even today the name of the Bai people of Yunnan, China translates as "white". East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Bamileke languages (ISO 639 alpha-3, bai) Bye - k thx bai Baccalaureus in Arte Ingeniaria Band Aid (band) BAI - Soviet early armoured car, predecessor of BA-6 Bai, a Chinese ethnic group Banco Africano de Investimentos, present in List of Angolan companies BAI the official name of ferry company Brittany... (Simplified Chinese: 云南; Traditional Chinese: 雲南; pinyin: Yúnnán south of the clouds) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ...


As European colonization of the Americas and eventually other parts of the world brought Europeans into close contact with other peoples, the term White and other contrasting racial colour terms, such as black, brown, yellow, and red, etc, came into wide use as a quick shorthand to refer to race. This article is about race as an intraspecies classification. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The color brown is produced by mixing complementary colors, such as red and green, orange and blue, or yellow and purple. ... Yellow is any color of light that stimulates both the red and green cone cells of the retina, but not the blue cone cells. ... Red is any of a number of similar colors at the lowest frequencies of light discernible by the human eye. ...


By the 18th century, "White" had begun shifting in meaning and started showing signs of becoming an exclusive label. European people, including European colonists in the New World, defined the other people with reference to "White." "Black" or "brown" people came to be defined by having darker skin than a "White" person, and the same "color" came to be applied to all non-white people. [citation needed]


In the United States

Race in the US Federal Census
The 7th federal census, in 1850, asked for Color:[1]
The 10th federal census, in 1880, asked for Color:[2]
  • white
  • black
  • mulatto
  • Chinese
  • Indian
The 22nd federal census, in 2000, had a "short form"[3] that asked two race/ancestry questions:

1.Is the person Spanish/Hispanic/Latino? The U.S. Census is mandated by the United States Constitution. ... 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Representation of Mulattos during the Latin American colonial period. ... 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The United States Census of year 2000, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ...


2.What is the person's race?

  • White
  • Black, African American
  • American Indian or Alaska Native
  • 10 choices for Asian and Pacific Islander
  • Other

This census acknowledged that "the race categories include both racial and national-origin groups." See also Race (U.S. Census) The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ...

Race in the UK Census
Census 2001 asked for a person's ethnic group:[4]
  • White
    • British
    • Any other White background
  • Mixed
    • White and Black Caribbean
    • White and Black African
    • White and Asian
    • Any other Mixed background
  • Asian or Asian British
    • Indian
    • Pakistani
    • Bangladeshi
    • Any other Asian background
  • Black or Black British
    • Caribbean
    • African
    • Any other Black background
  • Chinese or other ethnic group
    • Chinese
    • Any other
Main article: White American

The United Kingdom has taken a census of its population every ten years since 1801, with the exception of 1941. ... Census 2001 is the name by which the national census conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001 is known. ... // The term British Asian is used to denote a person of South Asian ancestry or origin, who was born in or is an immigrant to the United Kingdom. ... Who is a white American? The definition of a white American has differed from time to time throughout U.S. history. ...

In Europe

Further information: White British

A common 19th century European view categorized most White people as either Semitic or Aryan. The latter term was used as a synonym for Indo-Europeans, who were conceived of as racially separate from Semitic peoples on the grounds that the two groups had distinct linguistic histories. This was thought to imply separate ancestry, which was supposed to be visible in different cultural and physical traits. The term Aryan derived from Indo-European speaking peoples who occupied ancient Iran and the Indus valley, a fact that problematised its equation with the term "White". However, from c. 1880 some writers theorised that the earliest Aryans came from northern Europe. This led to the Nazi claim that Aryans were identical with Nordic peoples. Later 20th century scholars were much more reluctant to assume coincidence between linguistic and genetic descent, since language can be easily passed to genetically unrelated populations. White British is the largest ethnic group counted in the United Kingdom Census 2001 with 92. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical name Shem) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Aryan () is an English language word derived from the Sanskrit and Iranian terms ari-, arya-, ārya-, and/or the extended form aryāna-. The Sanskrit and Old Persian languages both pronounced the word as arya- () and aryan. ... Indo-Europeans are speakers of Indo-European languages. ... The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nordic theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of racial supremacy prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, which claimed that North European peoples constitute a “master race” because of their supposed innate racial capacity for leadership. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of human language, and someone who engages in this study is called a linguist. ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ...


In Europe, the usage of the term "White" as a "racial indicator" had fallen out of use, considered obsolete if any. The terms of ethnicity and linguistics are widely employed for autochthonous peoples and immigrant communities alike. Unlike other European nations, the United Kingdom still uses the term White as a racial indicator. The United Kingdom Census 2001 counts White British among the population. World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... Census 2001 is the name by which the national census conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001 is known. ... White British is the largest ethnic group counted in the United Kingdom Census 2001 with 92. ...


In Latin America

While outside of the United States people of undiscernable African admixture are considered 'White' and those of slight African appearance are often called "coloured" or mixed race — a blanket term for people of multiple racial heritage — in some Latin American countries even those of clearly visible partial African or Amerindian ancestry may be considered white. The individual, however, has to decide what, if any, race he/she is to be acknowledged by. Yet, while in all these countries there is a certain proportion of people that would at least appear to be of "unmixed" European ancestry, in places like the US they may be considered non-White. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Unlike in the United States, race in parts of Latin America "refers mostly to skin color or physical appearance rather than to ancestry."[1] "American orthodoxy is that a single drop of African blood inevitably darkens its host,"[2] in Latin America "the problem is approached from the other end of the scale: A single drop of European blood is seen to inevitably whiten... A person with discernible African heritage is not necessarily immutably black."[3] Upward mobility, physical appearance and lighter skin colour allow for choice of an array of intermediate "categories". According to census takers' instructions in Brazil, "color" is explicitly defined as recording the subject's observed skin tone and has nothing to do with "race." Nevertheless, it has been shown that the same individual's perceived skin tone lightens and darkens on the Brazilian census depending on the rise and fall of his or her socioeconomic success. [4]


Social vs. physical perceptions of White

See also: Social interpretations of race // Social interpretation of physical variation Race as a social construct and populationism Historians, anthropologists and social scientists often describe human races as a social construct, preferring instead the term population, which can be given a clear operational definition. ...


Ultimately, whether any individual considers any other individual as White (or not) often comes down to whether the person "looks White," however, whether someone "looks White" can become a very subjective judgement. Physical appearance is often cited as the reason for categorizing entire nations as non-White.


It is difficult to disentangle "social" from "physical" perceptions because the former depends upon the latter. How American attitudes changed over the centuries exemplifies this fact. As mentioned above, today Americans see German-Americans and Irish-Americans as physically White; otherwise they would be listed as "races" on the federal census. Italians, Greeks and Jews as an ethno-religious group are an in-between category, though leaning more towards a generalised "White" classification[citation needed]. A complicating factor is that most Ashkenazi Jews (European Jews) more closely physically resemble other Europeans than they do peoples of the Middle East, while the reverse tends to be true regarding Mizrahi Jews (Middle Eastern and North African Jews), however, over 90% of the US Jewish population is Ashkenazi. Even this binary analysis of Jews is overly simplistic, and it ignores various other Jewish ethnic divisions (including Ethiopian Jews, Indian Jews, among many others). Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi, AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... This article is about the continent. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinct Jewish communities within the worlds ethnically Jewish population. ... The Beta Israel (or House of Israel), known by outsiders by the pejorative term Falasha or Falash Mura (exiles or strangers) are Jews of Ethiopian origin. ... // Indian Jews are a religious minority, living among Indias predominantly Hindu populace. ...


The differences between social and physical definitions of White can be explained as identification of White with the dominant community or in-group, as opposed to the Other. In medieval Europe, Christendom was the community, and pagans, heretics, Jews, and Muslims were the outsiders, regardless of skin color. When the primacy of religion was eroded by the Protestant Reformation, the Renaissance, and secularism, separation of peoples based on religion shifted to concepts like White and civilized, although much of the earlier attitude remained, such as exclusion of peoples of different faiths. In the United States, White consciousness was first encouraged to help maintain a caste system and control of labor[citation needed]; then in the early 20th century as a result of mass politics, the definition of White was widened to include Southern and Eastern Europeans. In sociology, an ingroup is a social group towards which an individual feels loyalty and respect, usually due to membership in the group. ... The Other or constitutive other is a key concept in continental philosophy, opposed to the Same. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This medieval map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... Pagans may mean: Paganism, a belief in natural religion. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement in the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... Secularity is the state of being free from religious or spiritual qualities. ... For other uses, see Civilization (disambiguation). ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social stratification, such as clans, gentes, or the Indian caste system. ... Mass politics is a political order characterized by mass political parties and universal male and (later) female suffrage. ...


The current social climate in the West (primarily in the United States) seeks to be nearly all-inclusive, which is an about-face from the social considerations of the 19th and early 20th centuries. This has prompted other groups to draw comparisons to the "one drop rule". The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... The one-drop theory (or one-drop rule) is the colloquial term for the standard, found throughout the USA, that holds that a person with even one drop of non-white ancestry should be classified as colored, especially for the purposes of laws forbidding inter-racial marriage. ...


Social vs. official perceptions of White

The social versus official perceptions of "White" is exemplified in the disparities between any given popular definition of white and the official definition and parameters used by the government of the same locales. As discussed for the United States, non-Europeans which had been largely classified as caucasoids, such as Middle Easterners and North Africans, are not typically perceived to be White by society, despite the fact that for the purposes of statistics Middle Easterners and North Africans are always categorised as "White" by US government agencies and the U.S. census[5] . The American government's official parameters for classification of whiteness were formed by a team of anthropologists, though the categories themselves were not based on any "biological, anthropological, or genetic criteria."[6] Nevertheless, there are legal rulings in which South Asians have at various times been deeemed white. [5] In the United Kingdom Census 2001 Whites include only Europeans and not Middle Easterns or North Africans.[7] The U.S. Census is mandated by the United States Constitution. ... Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος, human or person) consists of the study of humanity (see genus Homo). ... Census 2001 is the name by which the national census conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday 29 April 2001 is known. ...


Either way, governmental categorisation does not always lead to a sense of inclusion, as many may still be excluded from the general structural concepts of White-American society, and may even experience hostile rejection, particularly Arabs in recent years, especially if Muslim.[citation needed] The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان) is an adherent of Islam. ...


In Australia, Middle Easterners and North Africans — are not categorised as White, rather they are regarded as racial minorities (See: Wog). This latter understanding of the term in Australia has little to do with White supremacist exclusionism, but rather a traditional, narrower definition of White which has never encompassed Middle Easterners or North Africans; and which, unlike the definition of "White" in the United States, has not undergone continuous alterations to include an increasing number of people. Look up Wog in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds that the white race is superior to other races. ...


Criticisms of the term

The broad usage of social identities such as "White" has been charged by Victor Montejo in his dissertation on racial identity to de-ethnicize individual groups. In South African colonialism the White colonists played down British and Dutch identities in favor of a White identity in relation to the "constructed 'Other' to differentiate its victims from 'Us', that is, through the process of differentiation and thus identification".[8] Social identity is a theory formed by Henri Tajfel and John Turner to understand the psychological basis of intergroup discrimination. ...


During the era of Jim Crow Laws in the Southern United States, facilities were commonly divided into separate sections for White and "Colored" people. These terms were defined by White people, with White people classifying themselves as White and non-White people being classified as "colored". Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and in force between 1876 and 1964 that required racial segregation, especially of African-Americans, in all public facilities. ... Southern United States The states shown in dark red are usually included in the South, while all or portions of the striped states may or may not be considered part of the Southern United States. ... Colored and Colored People (or Colored Folk in the plural sense) are North American terms that were commonly used to describe people of African ancestry. ...


"White" as opposed to "Light-Skinned"

There is sometimes controversy as to the difference between "light-skinned" as opposed to "White". The term "White" is a misnomer, as almost all people (regardless of race and origin) have pigmentation that makes their skin a color other than white, such as shades of brown or pink. It has been noted that multi-racial individuals (like Keanu Reeves and Dean Cain) have been accepted as White by most Americans. In non-western countries, the terms white and light-skinned are sometimes used interchangeably. Reeves in The Lake House, 2006 Keanu Charles Reeves (born September 2, 1964 in Beirut, Lebanon) is a Canadian actor. ... Dean Cain in Iraq Dean George Cain (born July 31, 1966) is an American actor best known for playing Superman in the television series Lois and Clark: The New Adventures of Superman co-starring with Desperate Housewives star Teri Hatcher. ...


The uniquely pale complexion and melanin-deficient hair common to Nordic adults is often considered the hallmark of those seen as White. This phenomenon's cline is densest within a few hundred miles of the Baltic Sea and, unlike other European skin-tone distributions, is independent of latitude (the natives of lands at higher latitudes than the Baltic are invariably darker than Nordics, for instance Eskimos). See Human skin color for an overall explanation of skin-tone distribution. See The Paleo-Etiology of Human Skin Tone for an explanation of the paleness of Nordics and the lack of variation in Native Americans. Genetic research shows that important areas around the Baltic and Scandinavia indicate a high genetic flow stemming from Asia. See Haplogroup N (Y-DNA). In population genetics, a cline is a gradual change of a character or feature (phenotype) in a species over a geographical area, often as a result of environmental heterogeneity. ... Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, singular Inuk or Inuq / ᐃᓄᒃ) is a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples of the Arctic who descended from the Thule. ... Historical data for native populations collected by R. Biasutti prior to 1940. ... Baltic can refer to: The Baltic Sea Council of the Baltic Sea States - an intergovernmental organization Baltic sea countries - countries with access to the Baltic Sea The Baltic region (Balticum) Baltic States - the independent countries of Estonia Latvia Lithuania Baltic Republics - term refers to the three Baltic states under the... Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe named after the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup N (LLY22G) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ...


World distribution

Since the era of European expansion, and especially since the 19th century, most Europeans have come to see most other Europeans as White. Hence, one could say that the indigenous habitat of White people is Europe. Nowadays, countries with a majority of ethnic Europeans include all the nations of Europe, as well as some of the countries colonized by them through the 15th century to 19th century, such as the United States, Canada, the Russian Far East, Siberia, Australia, and New Zealand. As for Latin America, the only two countries whose population is composed by an undisputed majority of unmixed — or apparently unmixed — European descendants are Argentina and Uruguay. Both countries' populations are deemed to posess a white majority. In fact, according to the CIA World Fact Book, whites make up 93% and 88% of the population respectively, a percentage that is much higher than is the US. In those nations, the indigenous populations were overwhelmed by White colonists from European nations. World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Siberia (Russian: , Sibir’; Tatar: Seber) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The term has no universal, standard or fixed definition. ... A nation is an imagined community of people created by a national ideology, to which certain norms and behavior are usually attributed. ...


The southern region of Brazil also has a large White majority (85%), however, in the entire country Whites are estimated to make up 53.7% of the population. Although the latter figure would also constitute a White majority (ie. >50%) in Brazil, the figure may be considered inflated due to the above discussed socially fluid concept of race and racial identity in Latin America. Prior to 1959, Cuba had a majority white population of over 70%. Today, depending on the source, whites are said to constitute 37% to 65% of the population, with the remaining population being composed largely of mulattos. The majority of Cuban exiles are or consider themselves to be white. Additionally, while Chile and Costa Rica posses mestizo (mixed European and Amerindian) majorities, both countries are also quite European in that it is not uncommon for the admixture in many of their mestizos to lean more towards the European element (see also castizo). Many of these would simply identify as White, and up to 30% of Chile is deemed to be White. Various other Latin American countries also possess sizable White minorities, ranging between 10 and 20% of their populations, typically amidst mestizo or mulatto majorities. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Cuban exile usually refers to the large exodus of Cubans fleeing Fidel Castros communist state since the 1959 Cuban Revolution and in particular the wave of Cuban American refugees to the U.S. during the years 1960 and 1979, who sought greater political and economic freedom. ... Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço; French, Métis: from Late Latin mixticius, from Latin mixtus, past participle of miscere, to mix) is a term of Spanish origin used to designate the people of mixed European and indigenous non-European ancestry. ... Castizo is a Spanish word with a general meaning of genuine. It has other more concrete meanings. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


There is a significant European-descended minority in South Africa, and smaller ones in Namibia, Zimbabwe, and other former European colonies in Africa.


White people are also common across Northern Africa and the Middle East, according to the broad United States Census definition. In fact, the Middle East has provided one of the basic genetic contributions since Neolithic times to the European genetic pool. For more details see North African and Near Eastern influences in Europe below. The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ...


Genetic History of Europe

This section describes demographic and genetic flow into Europe. For a broader, more detailed view of Human migrations, see that article. // Genetic History of Europe This section describes demographic and genetic flow into Europe. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another. ...


Paleolithic

The human species (homo sapiens) began to colonize Europe from Africa about 35 millennia ago, arriving along two major channels on either side of the Black Sea [citation needed]. Very quickly—by about 25 millenia ago—the prior inhabitants (our cousin species H. neanderthalensis) became extinct [9]. About 22 millennia ago, glaciers began to cover Europe, rendering much of the region uninhabitable [citation needed]. The inhabitants fled to areas along the northern Mediterranean coastline. When the glaciers receded about 16 millennia ago, the populations that had taken refuge were joined by many other waves of peoples from Asia and Africa to re-colonize the newly inhabitable region [10], [11]. Their descendants became the hunter-gatherers who occupied Europe until the advent of agriculture [citation needed]. Then, about eight millennia ago, farming spread from Asia throughout Europe, bringing the Indo-European family of languages along with themthe new technology [12]. Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... The Cro-Magnons (IPA: or anglicised IPA: ) form the earliest known European examples of Homo sapiens, from ca. ... Aurignacian is the name of a culture of the Upper Palaeolithic present in Europe and south west Asia. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... Binomial name Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864 The Neanderthal or Neandertal was a species of genus Homo (Homo neanderthalensis) that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago (in the Middle Palaeolithic, early Stone Age). ... Temperature proxies for the last 40,000 years The Last Glacial Maximum refers to the time of maximum extent of the ice sheets during the last glaciation, approximately 21 thousand years ago. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Holocene glacial retreat had a profound effect on landscapes in many areas that were covered by ice at the Last Glacial Maximum. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... An archaeological term that refers to population diffusion into and across an area previously uninhabited by that group, possibly displacing, replacing, or intermixing with a pre-existing population (e. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BC Europe in ca. ...


Indo-European and Neolithic Expansion

Theories about the origins of the Indo-European language center around a hypothetical Proto-Indo-European people, who are traced, in the Kurgan hypothesis, to somewhere north of the Black Sea, or possibly Anatolia around 6000–4000 BCE. They domesticated the horse, and spread their culture and genes across Europe. The Basques of the Pyrenees and the Saami of Finland both have distinctive pre-Indo-European genetic markers and speak non-Indo-European languages [citation needed], though it is possible their languages may derive from post-Paleolithic but pre-Indo-European migration. (Dene-Caucasian and Uralic hypotheses) Some neighboring non-Basque areas of Northern Spain, as well as the Welsh, have also been found to share high levels of these genetic markers with the Basques [citation needed]. In fact, these Basque genetic markers, called Hg R1b, are predominant in all of Western Europe, with the approximate following values: Basques, Irish and Welsh about 90%. Scots about 75%. Non-Basque Spaniards and Portuguese about 70%. The English and Belgians about 60%. The French and Danes about 55%. Hg R1b is the most common Y-chromosome haplogroup in other European countries like Germany or Italy, although with figures of less than 50%. 1 2 3 4 Neolithic expansion of agriculturalists from Anatolia into Europe which started around 9000 years ago drastically altered the genetic landscape of Europe, to the extent that this population movement is the sencond biggest genetic influence in Europeans after the proto-Basque or Paleolithic. The Neolithic component of modern day Europeans is naturally much more important in Eastern and South Eastern Europe than in the West, where the Paleolithic element is still dominant. See: 1 2 3 Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about three billion people, including most of the major language families of Europe and western Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... In 1956 Marija Gimbutas introduced her Kurgan hypothesis combining Kurgan archaeology with linguistics to locate the origins of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) speaking peoples. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansion from the 7th to 5th millennia. ... There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ... This article is about the Basque people. ... Saami or SAAMI can stand for: Sami peoples Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Dene-Caucasian (or Sino-Caucasian) language family is a conjectural macrofamily containing the Sino-Tibetan, North Caucasian, Yeniseian, Basque and Na-Dene languages. ... Geographical distribution of Finnic, Ugric, Samoyed and Yukaghir languages The Uralic languages form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ... Look up Welsh in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup R1b (M343) (previously called Hg1 and Eu18) is the most frequent Y-chromosome haplogroup in Europe. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup R1b (M343) (previously called Hg1 and Eu18) is the most frequent Y-chromosome haplogroup in Europe. ...


Asiatic Admixture

Over the next six millennia, Europe was repeatedly swept by successive waves of settlers and invaders from central and eastern Asia. Asian autosomal DNA makes an important contribution to the gene pools of Eastern Europe and Scandinavia, present at frequencies ranging from almost 50% in Lapland to between 7 and 13% in Finland, Russia and Hungary. No country or population is "free" of these markers, which steadily decline from the Urals towards the western Europe. West of the Urals these markers increase in frequency sharply. [13] Contrary to some older racial theories, Finnish speakers are not especially Asiatic people, but are genetically closer to their Scandinavian and Baltic neighbours, who, like all the European populations also have some proportion of the same DNA markers. The closest relatives of Finns (and probably other Finnic peoples) are Germanic speakers. (L. Cavalli-Sforza, Menozzi, Piazza The history of geography of human genes (1994)) Huns, Mongols and Tatars are possible sources of this admixture, as the non-negligible frequency of Haplogroup N in the population implies. Haplogroup N is a Haplogroup of Siberian origins, but which is also common from Eastern Europe to Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The Huns were a confederation of Eurasian tribes of diverse origin who appeared in Europe in the 4th century. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A haplogroup is a large group of haplotypes, which are series of alleles at specific locations on the chromosome. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup N (LLY22G) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ...


An interesting case is the genetic marker known as Haplogroup R1a. Although it is believed to be of European Paleolithic origins and is very frequent in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe, it is also one of the most important genetic markers to be found in numerous Asian populations and in India and Pakistan. In human genetics, Haplogroup R1a1 (M17) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup, that is spread across Eurasia. ...


North and Northeast African influences

There are a number of genetic markers which are characteristic of Horn African and North African populations which are to be found in European populations signifying ancient and modern population movements across the Mediterranean. These markers are to be found particularly in Mediterranean Europe but some are also prevalent, at low levels, throughout the continent. Nations of the Horn of Africa. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


The general parent Y-chromosome Haplogroup E3b, originating in modern day Somalia or elsewhere in the Horn of Africa approximately 26 000 years ago, is the most frequent haplogroup in North and Northeast Africa, and the distribution of its various sublades in Europe is useful in estimating North and Northeast African admixture in modern-day Europeans. E3b is very common in the Mediterranean and Balkan region, particularly in Albania, Greece and Southern Italy but also with an important presence in other countries such as Hungary, Spain, Portugal and Turkey.[14]The presence of haplogroup E3b in most of these cases is not the result of historical exchanges across the Mediterranean, but is principally the result of spread of Neolithic Anatolian farmers throughout the European continent around 9000 years ago, whereas those found in Iberia and Sicily are generally of more recent origin due to North African admixture.1 This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup E3b (M35) (previously called Hg21) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup with a circum-Mediterranean distribution. ... Nations of the Horn of Africa. ... An array of Neolithic artefacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Scotland, Europes most complete Neolithic village. ...


However, E-M81, one of Haplotype E3b's subclades, is by far the most common among North African populations and absent in Europe except for Iberia (Spain and Portugal) and Sicily. The absence of microsatellite variation suggests a very recent arrival from North Africa consistent with historical exchanges across the Mediterranean during the period of Islamic expansion in southern Europe.[14] The relatively high frequency of mtDNA haplogroup U6 (of North African origin) and haplogroup L (of sub-Saharan origin) in Iberian populations also show that North African sequences (haplogroup U6) and sub-Saharan sequences (Haplogroup L), may also indicate recent African admixture in these populations. Low levels of haplotype U6 have also been detected in Sicily. This haplotype also happens to be a characteristic genetic marker of the Saami populations of Northern Scandinavia.[6] It is difficult to ascertain that U6's presence is the consequence of Islam's expansion in Europe during the Middle Ages, particularly because it is more frequent in the north of the peninsula rather than in the south. It may also be the result of neolithic expansion from North Africa. On the other hand, the distribution of mtDNA Haplogroup L, on the other hand, is consistent with modern historical data, being more frequent in Iberia than in the rest of Europe and more frequent in the south of the peninsula than in the north. Islamic domination, as well as the slave trade, is likely to have been a factor leading to its presence in modern-day Southern Iberian populations. Haplotype 5 (p49/TaqI), common in Morocco, is also found in the Iberian peninsula, and a decreasing North-South cline of frequency clearly establishes a gene flow from North Africa towards Iberia which is also consistent with Moorish presence in the peninsula.[7] Iberia can mean: The Iberian peninsula of South west Europe; That part of it once inhabited by the Iberians, who spoke the Iberian language. ... Sicilian redirects here. ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... Moor may refer to: A high altitude form of heathland habitat widespread in northern Britain; see heath (habitat). ...


Sub-Saharan African slaves

Finally, aside from E3b, sub-Saharan African DNA is scattered throughout the European continent. Not every population has been studied yet, but enough have so that a picture is starting to emerge. The amount of black admixture in Europe today ranges from a few percent in Iberia to almost nil around the Baltic.[15] It seems to show a decreasing cline from the southwest to the northeast, which corresponds with the areas most affected by the African slave trade.


According to a summary study by Pereira et al. 2005, sub-Saharan mtDNA L haplogroups were found at rates of 0.62% in a German-Danish sample, 1% in the British, 3.83% in Iberians (Portuguese and Spanish), 2.38% in Albanians, 2.86% in Sardinians and 0.94% in Sicilians. In human genetics, Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... A haplogroup is a large group of haplotypes, which are series of alleles at specific locations on the chromosome. ... A sample is that part of a population which is actually observed. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... Sardinia (Sardegna in Italian, Sardigna or Sardinna in the Sardinian language, is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (Sicily is the largest), between Italy, Spain and Tunisia, south of Corsica. ... Sicilian redirects here. ...


Sub-Saharan African Y-chromosomes are much less common in Europe, for the reasons discussed above. However, Haplogroups E(xE3b) and Haplogroup A spread to Europe due to migrations from Northeast Africa, rather than the slave trade. The haplotypes have been detected in Portugal (3%), Spain (0.42%), Germany (2%), Austria (0.78%), France (2.5% in a very small sample), Italy (0.45%), Sardinia (1.6%) and Greece (0.27%). By contrast, North Africans have about 5% paternal black admixture.[16] For more details, see Sub-Saharan DNA admixture in Europe. In human genetics, Haplogroup E (M96) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup E3b (M35) (previously called Hg21) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup with a circum-Mediterranean distribution. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup A (M91) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... Nations of the Horn of Africa. ... Father with child Daddy and Fatherhood redirect here. ... Sub-Saharan DNA is scattered throughout the European population. ...


For a global perspective on this topic, see Atlas of the Human Journey, World Haplogroups Maps, Origins of Europeans and Genetic Structure of Human Populations.


Footnotes

  1. ^ Edward E. Telles, Race in Another America: The Significance of Skin Color in Brazil (2002), 1. ISBN 0-691-11866-3
  2. ^ Eugene Robinson, Coal to Cream: A Black Man's Journey Beyond Color to an Affirmation of Race (1999), 26–27 ISBN 0-684-85722-7.
  3. ^ For detailed sources and citations, see "Chapter 6. Features of Today's Endogamous Color Line" in Legal History of the Color Line: The Rise and Triumph of the One-Drop Rule by Frank W. Sweet, ISBN 0-939479-23-0. A summary of this chapter, with endnotes, is available online at Features of Today's Endogamous Color Line.
  4. ^ "Racial Inequality in Brazil and the United States: A Statistical Comparison". Journal of Social History 26 (2): 229-63.
  5. ^ Questions and Answers for 2000 Census Data on Race. 2001. August 14, 2006. <http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2001/raceqandas.html>.
  6. ^ Questions and Answers for 2000 Census Data on Race. 2001. August 14, 2006. <http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2001/raceqandas.html>.
  7. ^ Simpson, S. National Statistics. A guide to comparing 1991 and 2001 Census ethnic group data. 2002. August 14, 2006. <http://www.statistics.gov.uk/articles/nojournal/GuideV9.pdf>.
  8. ^ Montejo, Victor. Who Am I? The Construction of Identity in Twentieth-Century South African Autobiographical Writings in English. 2003. August 14, 2006. <http://dissertations.ub.rug.nl/FILES/faculties/arts/2003/s.i.raditlhalo/thesis.pdf>.
  9. ^ Richard G. Klein (March 2003). "PALEOANTHROPOLOGY: Whither the Neanderthals?". Science 299 (5612): 1525-1527. DOI:10.1126/science.1082025.
  10. ^ Antonio Torroni et al., "A Signal, from human mtDNA , of Postgalcian Recolonization in Europe, Am. J. Human Gen.69:844-852 (2001)
  11. ^ Ornella Semin et al., The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo Sapiens Sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective Science 290:1155-1159, 2000.
  12. ^ Nicholas Wade, "Before the Dawn" ISBN 15943200793, ch. 10.
  13. ^ Guglielmino et al. 1990, Rosenberg et al. 2002 and Cavalli-Sforza 1997
  14. ^ a b Semino et al. (2004) Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area
  15. ^ Pereira et al. 2005 (view the specific data here)
  16. ^ Cruciani et al. 2004, Flores et al. 2004, Brion et al. 2005, Brion et al. 2004, Rosser et al. 2000, Semino et al. 2004, and DiGiacomo et al. 2003

See also

Typical Caucasoid skull Caucasoid is a racial classification usually used as part of a phenotypal system, also including other classifications such as Australoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, and sometimes others such as Capoid. ... Typical Caucasian skull The term Caucasian race, Caucasian or Caucasoid is used to refer to people whose ancestry can be traced back to Europe, North Africa, West Asia, Indian subcontinent and parts of Central Asia. ... Caucasian-American (also known as White-American) is a term that is used to describe Americans that are of the Caucasian race, who have origins in the original people of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. ... European American is a term for an American of European descent, who are usually referred as White or Caucasian. ... Historical data for native populations collected by R. Biasutti prior to 1940. ... Whiteness studies is a controversial field of study, popular mostly in the United States, and the UK, which began appearing as early as 1983 (see the works of Marilyn Frye). ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Edward E. Telles, Race in Another America: The Significance of Skin Color in Brazil (2002), 1. ISBN 0-691-11866-3
  2. ^ Eugene Robinson, Coal to Cream: A Black Man's Journey Beyond Color to an Affirmation of Race (1999), 26–27 ISBN 0-684-85722-7.
  3. ^ For detailed sources and citations, see "Chapter 6. Features of Today's Endogamous Color Line" in Legal History of the Color Line: The Rise and Triumph of the One-Drop Rule by Frank W. Sweet, ISBN 0-939479-23-0. A summary of this chapter, with endnotes, is available online at Features of Today's Endogamous Color Line.
  4. ^ "Racial Inequality in Brazil and the United States: A Statistical Comparison". Journal of Social History 26 (2): 229-63.
  5. ^ Questions and Answers for 2000 Census Data on Race. 2001. August 14, 2006. <http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2001/raceqandas.html>.
  6. ^ Questions and Answers for 2000 Census Data on Race. 2001. August 14, 2006. <http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2001/raceqandas.html>.
  7. ^ Simpson, S. National Statistics. A guide to comparing 1991 and 2001 Census ethnic group data. 2002. August 14, 2006. <http://www.statistics.gov.uk/articles/nojournal/GuideV9.pdf>.
  8. ^ Montejo, Victor. Who Am I? The Construction of Identity in Twentieth-Century South African Autobiographical Writings in English. 2003. August 14, 2006. <http://dissertations.ub.rug.nl/FILES/faculties/arts/2003/s.i.raditlhalo/thesis.pdf>.
  9. ^ Richard G. Klein (March 2003). "PALEOANTHROPOLOGY: Whither the Neanderthals?". Science 299 (5612): 1525-1527. DOI:10.1126/science.1082025.
  10. ^ Antonio Torroni et al., "A Signal, from human mtDNA , of Postgalcian Recolonization in Europe, Am. J. Human Gen.69:844-852 (2001)
  11. ^ Ornella Semin et al., The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo Sapiens Sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective Science 290:1155-1159, 2000.
  12. ^ Nicholas Wade, "Before the Dawn" ISBN 15943200793, ch. 10.
  13. ^ Guglielmino et al. 1990, Rosenberg et al. 2002 and Cavalli-Sforza 1997
  14. ^ a b Semino et al. (2004) Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area
  15. ^ Pereira et al. 2005 (view the specific data here)
  16. ^ Cruciani et al. 2004, Flores et al. 2004, Brion et al. 2005, Brion et al. 2004, Rosser et al. 2000, Semino et al. 2004, and DiGiacomo et al. 2003

Further reading

  • Thomas A. Guglielmo, White on Arrival: Italians, Race, Color, and Power in Chicago, 1890-1945, 2003, ISBN 0-19-515543-2
  • Matthew Frye Jacobson, Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race, Harvard, 1999, ISBN 0-674-95191-3.
  • Frank W. Sweet, Legal History of the Color Line: The Rise and Triumph of the One-Drop Rule, Backintyme, 2005, ISBN 0-939479-23-0.
  • Noel Ignatiev, How the Irish Became White, Routledge, 1996, ISBN 0-415-91825-1.
  • Karen Brodkin, How Jews Became White Folks and What That Says About Race in America, Rutgers, 1999, ISBN 0-8135-2590-X.
  • Neil Foley, The White Scourge: Mexicans, Blacks, and Poor Whites in Texas Cotton Culture (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997)
  • Theodore Allen, The Invention of the White Race, 2 vols. (London: Verso, 1994)
  • Thomas F. Gossett, Race: The History of an Idea in America, New ed. (New York: Oxford University, 1997)
  • Ivan Hannaford, Race: The History of an Idea in the West (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1996)
  • Audrey Smedley, Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a Worldview, 2nd ed. (Boulder: Westview, 1999).
  • "The United Independent Compensatory Code/System/Concept" A textbook/workbook for thought, speech and/or action for victims of racism (White supremacy) Neely Fuller Jr. 1984
  • Alfredo Tryferis, "Separated by a Common Language: The Strange Case of the White Hispanic," The Raw Story, http://www.rawstory.com/exclusives/tryferis/hispanic.htm

External links


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White (people) - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article (2223 words)
White (noun, white or whites; adjective, white people) is a color-defined term used as a form of ethno-racial classification.
Also generally associated to white people is European culture, Christianity (whether as a religion or part of their cultural heritage) and Western Civilization.
In America, most of the whites are extremely European and most of the fls are quite African." Among those white people found in Shriver's study to have fl ancestry, they average an admixture of 2.3% fl (of 128 grandparents, 3 are fl and 125 are white).
Who Invented White People? (2943 words)
It was white people who invented the idea of race in the first place, and it is white people who have become obsessed and consumed by it until, like Captain Ahab, they have become entangled so deeply in pursuing its nature that they self-destruct in the process.
White people are fond of pointing out that as individuals they have never practiced discrimination, or that their ancestors never owned slaves.
White people tend to cast the question of race in terms of guilt in part because of the American ideology of individualism, by which I mean our tendency to want to believe that individuals determine their own destinies and responsibilities.
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