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Encyclopedia > Whisky
A glass of whisky
A glass of whisky

Whisky (Scottish Gaelic: uisge-beatha), or whiskey (Irish: uisce beatha or fuisce), refers to a broad category of alcoholic beverages that are distilled from fermented grain mash and aged in wooden casks (generally oak). Whisky or whiskey may refer to: Whisky, an alcoholic beverage Whisky (film), a 2004 Uruguayan film Whiskey class submarine Whisky a Go Go, a nightclub Whiskey, a 1977 album by The Charlie Daniels Band Whiskey, a small drinking glass designed for serving a shot of liquor Whisky or whiskey may... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage (also known as booze in slang term) is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Mashing is a stage in the brewing process where grains are steeped in water at specific temperatures, to facilitate enzyme activity and starch conversion. ... A barrel is a hollow cylindrical container, usually made of wood staves and bound with iron bands. ...


Different grains are used for different varieties, including: barley, malted barley, rye, malted rye, wheat, and maize (corn). Whisky derives from the Gaelic word for "water" (uisce or uisge), and is called in full uisge-beatha (in Scotland) or uisce beatha (Ireland), meaning "Water of Life". It is related to the Latin aqua vitae, also meaning "water of life".[1] It is always Scotch whisky, and Irish whiskey. For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Malted barley Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate and then are quickly dried before the plant develops. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called, particularly in colloquial situations, the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ...


The first written record of whisky comes from 1405 in Ireland,[2] where it was distilled by monks.[1] It is also mentioned in Scotland in 1496.[3] However it is thought that whisky had already been around for at least several hundred years prior. When or where whisky was first distilled is unknown and the local, undocumented beverage production during the period makes identification of the drink's origin difficult. Additionally, it is possible that different groups discovered processes of distillation completely independently of one another.

A Scotch whisky distillery
A Scotch whisky distillery

Some scholars believe distilled spirits were first produced between the 8th century AD and 9th century AD in the Middle East[4] with the art of distillation being brought to Ireland and Britain by Christian monks. A popular legend is that St. Patrick introduced distillation to Ireland and Britain, however it is likely he lived around the 5th century AD. It is also possible that the distillation process was discovered in Ireland and possibly Britain (either independently or in precursor to Arabian distillation) by farmers as a way of making use of excess grain after harvest. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 1. ... Distillation is a means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points. ... The 8th century is the period from 701 - 800 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... (8th century - 9th century - 10th century _ other centuries) Events Beowulf might have been written down in this century, though it could also have been in the 8th century Viking attacks on Europe begin Oseberg ship burial The Magyars arrive in what is now Hungary, forcing the Serbs and Bulgars... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Statue of Saint Patrick Saint Patrick (died March 17, 462, 492, or 493), is the patron saint of Ireland. ... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century _ other centuries) Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ...

Contents

Types of whisky

Whisky or whisky-like products are produced in most grain-growing areas. They differ in base product, alcoholic content, and quality.

  • Scotch whiskies are generally distilled twice, though some are distilled a third time. International laws require[5] anything bearing the label "Scotch" to be distilled in Scotland and matured for a minimum of three years in oak casks or bear a quality equal to that expected of produce from that region. Whiskies do not mature in the bottle, only in the cask, so the "age" of a scotch is the time between distillation and bottling. This reflects how much the cask has interacted with the whisky, changing its chemical makeup and taste. Whiskies which have been in bottle for many years may have a rarity value, but are not "older" and will not necessarily be "better" than a more recently made whisky matured in wood for a similar time. If Scotch whisky is from more than one cask, and if it includes an age statement on the bottle, it must reflect the age of the youngest whisky in the blend. Many cask-strength single malts omit the age as they use younger elements in minute amounts for flavoring and mellowing.
The two basic types of Scotch are Malt and Grain.
Malt is an essential ingredient of many types of whisky
Malt is an essential ingredient of many types of whisky
  • Malt is whisky made entirely from malted barley and distilled in an onion-shaped pot still.
  • Grain is made from malted and unmalted barley along with other grains, usually in a continuous "patent" or "Coffey" still. Until recently it was only used in blends—but there are now some "Single Grain" scotches being marketed.
Malts and Grains are combined in various ways
  • Vatted malt is blended from malt whiskies from different distilleries. If a whisky is labelled "pure malt" or just "malt" it is almost certain to be a vatted whisky. This is also sometimes labelled as "Blended Malt" whisky.
  • Single malt whisky is malt whisky from a single distillery. However, unless the whisky is described as "single-cask" it will contain whisky from many casks, so the blender can achieve a taste recognisable as typical of the distillery . In most cases, the name of a single malt will be that of the distillery (The Glenlivet, Glenmorangie, Bowmore), with an age statement and perhaps some indication of some special treatments such as maturation in a port wine cask.
  • Blended whiskies are normally cheaper whiskies made from a mixture of Malt and Grain whiskies. A whisky simply described as Scotch Whisky is most likely to be a blend in this sense. A blend is usually from many distilleries so that the blender can produce a flavour consistent with the brand, and the brand name (e.g. Bell's, Chivas Regal) will usually not therefore contain the name of a distillery. However, "Blend" can (less frequently) have other meanings. A mixture of malts (with no grain) from different distilleries (more usually called a vatted malt) may sometimes be referred to as a "Blended Malt", and a mixtures of grain whiskies with no malts will sometimes carry the designation "Blended Grain".
  • Japanese whiskies generally fit within the Scotch tradition and can be categorised using the above typology.
  • Irish whiskeys are generally distilled three times and must be aged in wooden casks for a period of not less than three years.[6] Unpeated malt is almost always used.
  • Canadian whiskies have the regulatory requirement[7] of being aged for at least three years in a barrel. Most Canadian whiskies are blended multi-grain whiskies.
Whiskies of various styles
Whiskies of various styles
  • American whiskeys include both straights and blends. To be called "straight" the whiskey must be one of the "named types" listed in the federal regulations and aged in oak casks for at least two years. The most common of the "named types" are;
    • Bourbon, which must be at least 51% corn (maize).
    • Rye, which must be at least 51% rye.
    • Corn, which is made from a mash made up of at least 80% corn (maize). The whiskey is distilled to not more than 80 percent alcohol by volume. It does not have to be aged but, if it is aged, it must be in new uncharred oak barrels or used barrels. Aging usually is brief, i.e., six months. During ageing the whiskey picks up colour and flavour and its harshness is reduced.
All straight American whiskeys except straight corn whiskey must be aged in new casks that have been charred on their inside surface. American blended whiskeys combine straight whiskey with un-aged whiskey, grain neutral spirits, flavourings and colourings. These definitions are part of U.S. law. Not defined by the law but important in the marketplace is Tennessee whiskey, of which Jack Daniel's is the leading example. It is identical to bourbon in almost every important respect. The most recognizable difference is that Tennessee whiskey is filtered through sugar maple charcoal, giving it a unique flavour and aroma.
  • Pure pot still whiskey refers to Irish whiskey made from a combination of malted and unmalted barley and distilled in a pot still.
  • Welsh whisky
  • Indian whisky is an alcoholic beverage that is labelled as "whisky" in India. Much Indian whisky is distilled from fermented molasses, and as such would be considered a sort of rum outside of the Indian subcontinent.[8] 90% of the "whisky" consumed in India is molasses based, although India has begun to distil whisky from malt and other grains.[9]

Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Scotch whisky Whisky (or whiskey) is an alcoholic beverage distilled from grain, often including malt, which has then been aged in wooden barrels. ... Malted barley Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate and then are quickly dried before the plant develops. ... Pot stills in Scotland A pot still is a type of still used in distilling spirits such as whisky or brandy. ... Grain whisky is whisky produced in a patent still by a continuous process. ... A column still also called a continuous still, patent still, or coffey still is a variety of still that consists of two columns. ... Vatted Malt is a whisky which is blended from a number of different single malts from different distilleries. ... Single malt whiskey, sometimes spelled whisky, is an alcoholic beverage which comes from a single distillery, in which all the grain used for the mash has been malted. ... Modern bottle of The Glenlivet - 12 year 15 year old French Oak Reserve The Glenlivet is a Speyside Single malt Scotch Whisky produced by The Glenlivet Distillery in Ballindalloch, Scotland. ... Glenmorangie – the Glen of Tranquility – is a distiller of single malt Scotch whisky, located on the south coast of the Dornoch Firth, 1 mile North West of the town of Tain, Ross, Scotland. ... Image:Bowmore Scotch Whisky 18 Year old. ... A glass of tawny port. ... A blended whisky (or whiskey) comes from one of many distilleries, but is drawn from whiskies of differing vintages and/or manufacturers. ... Chivas Regal is a Premium Scotch whisky produced in Strathisla, Speyside, Scotland. ... Whisky production in Japan began around 1870, but the first commercial production was in 1923, when the countrys first distillery—Yamazaki—opened. ... Irish Whiskeys For the novel of the same name, see Irish Whiskey (novel). ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ... Canadian whisky is whisky made in Canada; by law it must be aged there at least three years in a barrel. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Whisky, or whiskey, refers to a broad category of alcoholic beverages that are distilled from fermented grain mash and aged in wooden casks (generally oak). ... Bourbon bottle, 19th century Oak casks in ricks used store and age bourbon. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Rye whiskey describes two types of whiskies, theoretically distilled from rye. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Corn whiskey is an American whiskey made from a mash made up of at least 80 percent maize, or corn. ... Tennessee whiskey is a type of American whiskey. ... For the running coach, see Jack Daniels (coach). ... Binomial name Acer saccharum Marshall The Sugar Maple Acer saccharum is a prominent tree in the hardwood forests of eastern North America. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... Pure pot still whiskey is an Irish whiskey made from barley and distilled in a pot still. ... Irish Whiskeys For the novel of the same name, see Irish Whiskey (novel). ... The Welsh Whisky Company, which began producing whisky in Wales in 2000. ... Indian whisky is a distilled alcoholic beverage that is labelled as whisky in India. ... Molasses or treacle is a thick syrup by-product from the processing of the sugarcane or sugar beet into sugar. ... This article is about the beverage. ...

Names and spellings

Whisky is an Anglicisation of the 17th century Irish uisce beatha (IPA: [ɪʃkʲə bʲahə]) meaning "water of life". The name itself may have originally derived from a Goidelic translation of the Latin phrase aqua vitae. The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called, particularly in colloquial situations, the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ... Aqua vitae (L. water of life), is an archaic name for a concentrated aqueous solution of ethanol. ...


The spelling whisky (plural whiskies) is generally used for whiskies distilled in Scotland, Wales, Canada, and Japan, while whiskey is used for the spirits distilled in Ireland. A 1968 directive of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms specifies "whisky" as the official U.S. spelling, but allows labelling as "whiskey" in deference to tradition; most U.S. producers still use the latter spelling, Early Times, Maker's Mark, and George Dickel being among the few exceptions. This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... ATF Seal The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (abbreviated ATF, sometimes BATF or BATFE) is a United States federal agency; more specifically a specialized law enforcement and regulatory organization within the United States Department of Justice. ... Early Times is a brand of bourbon whiskey which was first distilled in 1860. ... The Quart House on the distillery grounds. ... George Dickel is the name of a brand of Tennessee whiskey manufactured in Cascade Hollow, Tennessee, near Tullahoma. ...


In the late Victorian era, Irish whiskey was the world's whiskey of choice. Of the Irish whiskeys, Dublin whiskeys were regarded as the grands crus of whiskeys. In order to differentiate Dublin whiskey from other whiskeys, the Dublin distilleries adopted the spelling "whiskey". The other Irish distilleries eventually followed suit. The last Irish "whisky" was Paddy, which adopted the "e" in 1966. Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Grand Cru is the highest level of classification of AOC wines from Burgundy or Alsace, those that come from a single vineyard. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


A mnemonic used to remember which spelling is used is that "Ireland" and "United States" have at least one "e" in their names, while "Scotland", "Canada" and "Japan" do not. Welsh whisky is an exception to this rule. For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ...


In many countries, the abbreviated term "Scotch" is often used for "Scotch whisky". Scotch is an obsolescent adjective meaning of Scotland. Common contemporary usage is Scottish or Scots in Britain but Scotch is still in contemporary use outside of England and Scotland. ... Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ...


Chemistry

Whiskies and other distilled beverages such as cognac and rum are complex beverages containing a vast range of flavouring compounds, of which some 200 to 300 can be easily detected by chemical analysis. The flavouring chemicals include "carbonyl compounds, alcohols, carboxylic acids and their esters, nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds, phenolic compounds, terpenes, and oxygen-containing heterocyclic compounds" and esters of fatty acids.[10] The nitrogen compounds include pyridines, picolines and pyrazines.[11] A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Carbonyl group In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom : C=O. The term carbonyl can also refer to carbon monoxide as a ligand in an inorganic or organometallic complex (a metal carbonyl, e. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... For the Biblical Ester, see Esther. ... In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... Pyridine a simple heterocyclic compound Heterocyclic compounds are organic compounds which contain a ring structure containing atoms in addition to carbon, such as sulfur, oxygen or nitrogen, as part of the ring. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... Pyridine is a chemical compound with the formula C5H5N. It is a liquid with a distinctively putrid odour. ... Picoline refers to three different methylpyridine isomers, all with the chemical formula C6H7N and a molar mass of 93. ... Pyrazine is a symmetrical molecule. ...


Flavours from distillation

The flavouring of whisky is partially determined by the presence of congeners and fusel oils. Fusel oils are higher alcohols than ethanol, are mildly toxic, and have a strong, disagreeable smell and taste. An excess of fusel oils in whisky is considered a defect. A variety of methods are employed in the distillation process to remove unwanted fusel oils. Traditionally, American distillers focussed on secondary filtration using charcoal, gravel, sand, or linen to subtract undesired distillates. Canadian distillers have traditionally employed column stills which can be controlled to produce an almost pure (and less flavourful) ethanol known as neutral grain spirit or grain neutral spirit (GNS).[12] Flavour is restored by blending the neutral grain spirits with flavouring whiskies.[13] A congener (from Latin roots meaning born together or within the same race or kind) has several different meanings depending on the field in which it is used. ... Fusel alcohols, also sometimes called fusel oils, are higher order (more than two carbons) alcohols formed by fermentation and present in cider, mead, beer, wine, and spirits to varying degrees. ... A column still also called a continuous still, patent still, or coffey still is a variety of still that consists of two columns. ... Neutral grain spirits (a. ...


Acetals are rapidly formed in distillates and a great many are found in distilled beverages, the most prominent being acetaldehyde diethyl acetal (1,1-diethoxyethane). Among whiskies the highest levels are associated with malt whisky.[14] This acetal is a principle flavour compound in sherry, and contributes fruitiness to the aroma.[15]


The diketone diacetyl (2,3-Butanedione) has a buttery aroma and is present in almost all distilled beverages. Whiskies and cognacs typically contain more than vodkas, but significantly less than rums or brandies.[16] Diacetyl (IUPAC systematic name: butanedione or 2,3-butanedione) is a natural byproduct of fermentation. ...


Flavours from oak

Whisky lactone (3-methyl-4-octanolide) is found in all types of oak. This lactone has a strong coconut aroma.[17] Whisky lactone is also known as quercus lactone.[18]


Commercially charred oaks are rich in phenolic compounds. One study discriminated 40 different phenolic compounds. The coumarin scopoletin is present in whisky, with the highest level reported in Bourbon.[19] Coumarin is a chemical compound; a toxin found in many plants, notably in high concentration in the tonka bean, woodruff, and bison grass. ...


Health effects

The health benefits of drinking alcohol in moderation (better health and greater longevity) commonly associated with wine appear to apply also to whisky. Most researchers now believe that the beneficial substance is the alcohol itself—although it has not been ruled out that other components in the beverages are also responsible for the beneficial effects.[20] However, excessive consumption of any form of alcohol can negatively impact almost all of the body's essential systems, particularly the liver. [1] Furthermore the frequent consumption of strong spirits, such as whisky, significantly increases a person's chance of developing head and neck cancers.[21] Head and neck cancers are malignant growths originating in the lip and oral cavity (mouth), nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, thyroid, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands and cervical lymph nodes of the neck. ...


It was once believed that whisky made from barley/malt contained gluten and should be avoided on a gluten-free diet, along with beers, lagers, ales, and stouts. It is now known that the distillation process removes all traces of gluten and is safe to consume on a gluten-free diet.[22] Wheat - a prime source of gluten Gluten is an amorphous mixture of ergastic (i. ... A gluten-free diet, recommended in the treatment of celiac disease, is a diet completely free of ingredients derived from gluten-containing cereals: wheat (including Kamut and spelt), barley, rye, oats and triticale. ...


See also

The Royal National Mod, (Scottish Gaelic: ), is the annual national mod, a festival of Scottish Gaelic song, arts and culture. ... Washington leads his troops to western Pennsylvania (Metropolitan Museum of Art) The Whiskey Rebellion, less commonly known as the Whiskey Insurrection, was a popular uprising that had its beginnings in 1791 and culminated in an insurrection in 1794 in the locality of Washington, Pennsylvania, in the Monongahela Valley. ... The American Whiskey Trail[1] is a cultural heritage and tourism initiative of the Distilled Spirits Council in cooperation with historic Mount Vernon. ... Revenue men at the site of moonshine stills, Kentucky, 1911 or earlier For other uses, see Moonshine (disambiguation). ... Wikibooks Bartending has a page on the topic of Cocktails A cocktail is a style of mixed drink made predominantly with a distilled beverage, such as vodka, gin, whiskey, rum, or tequila, mixed with another drink other than water. ... // Charbay McCarthys Notch Old Potrero Peregrine Rock St. ... Bottled in bond refers to a method of aging and strength of American whiskeys. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Lloyd, J & Mitchinson, J: "The Book of General Ignorance". Faber & Faber, 2006.
  2. ^ Who invented whisky - the Scots or the Irish?. Retrieved on 2007-02-18.
  3. ^ History of Scotch Whisky. Retrieved on 2007-02-16.
  4. ^ David J. Hanson, Ph.D.. History of Alcohol and Drinking around the World. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  5. ^ ASIL Insight: WTO Protections for Food Geographic Indications. Retrieved on 2007-08-25.
  6. ^ Government of Ireland. Irish Whiskey Act, 1980.
  7. ^ Food and Drugs Act, Food and Drug Regulations (C.R.C., c. 870). Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  8. ^ "Battle for the world's largest whisky market -- India" - South Africa Mail & Guardian, Mar. 3, 2006, accessed June 25, 2007
  9. ^ Official web site of Amrut Distilleries, accessed June 25, 2007
  10. ^ Volatile Compounds in Foods and Beverages, ISBN 0824783905, http://books.google.com/books?id=_OvXjhLUz-oC, p.548
  11. ^ Food Chemistry, ISBN 3540408185, http://books.google.com/books?id=_QWbLTSL6HoC, p.936
  12. ^ http://www.pharmco-prod.com/pages/ep1.pdf
  13. ^ http://thespiritworld.net/2007/08/25/canadian-whisky/
  14. ^ Volatile Compounds in Foods and Beverages, ISBN 0824783905, http://books.google.com/books?id=_OvXjhLUz-oC, p.553
  15. ^ http://www.beerbrewer.co.uk/2007/06/
  16. ^ Volatile Compounds in Foods and Beverages, ISBN 0824783905, http://books.google.com/books?id=_OvXjhLUz-oC, p.554
  17. ^ http://www.wine-pages.com/guests/tom/taste5.htm
  18. ^ Food Chemistry, ISBN 3540408185, http://books.google.com/books?id=_QWbLTSL6HoC, page 383
  19. ^ Volatile Compounds in Foods and Beverages, ISBN 0824783905, http://books.google.com/books?id=_OvXjhLUz-oC, p.574
  20. ^ David J. Hanson, Ph. D.. Alcohol in the Diet: Facts and Information.
  21. ^ Throat cancer - Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tonsil. virtualcancercentre.com. Retrieved on 2007-02-16.
  22. ^ http://www.foundation.smtr.nhs.uk/patient/patinfo/nutrir/alcohol.pdf

John Lloyd (born 1951 in Dover, England; birth name: John Hardress Wilfred Lloyd), British comedy writer and producer. ... John Mitchinson is the head of research for the British television panel game QI, and co-author of The Book of General Ignorance with QIs creator John Lloyd. ... QI: The Book of General Ignorance (UK cover) The Book of General Ignorance is a series of books based on the final round in the intellectual British panel game QI, written by John Lloyd and John Mitchinson. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mail & Guardian is a South African newspaper that was started by a group of journalists in 1985 after the closures of the two leading liberal newspapers, the Rand Daily Mail and Sunday Express. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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In the West, Kumis has been touted for its health benefits, as in this 1877 book also naming it Milk Champagne. Kumis (also spelled kumiss, koumiss, kymys; called airag in Mongolian cuisine) is a fermented milk drink traditionally made from the milk of horses. ... Mead Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. ... Pulque, or octli, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of the maguey, and is a traditional native beverage of Mesoamerica. ... Finlandia Sahti, Finnish sahti label Sahti is a traditional beer from Finland made from a variety of grains, malted and unmalted, including barley, rye, wheat, and oats; sometimes bread made from these grains is fermented instead of malt itself. ... Main article: Chinese wine Gouqi jiu(zh:枸杞酒) is one kind of fruit alcoholic beverage made from Gouqi. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Various brands of tequila Tequila is a spirit made primarily in the area surrounding Tequila, a town in the western Mexican state of Jalisco, 65 km northwest of Guadalajara and in the highlands of Jalisco, 65 km east of Guadalajara. ... A cheap commercial bottle of Mexican Mezcal bought in Cancun. ... The Amaretto Disaronno square bottle The term amaretto refers to a sweet liqueur made from a basic infusion of the stones of drupe fruits, such as peaches, as well as a related almond biscotto. ... A reservoir glass filled with a naturally-colored verte, next to an absinthe spoon. ... Arak Rayan, from Syria. ... A small souvenir bottle of ouzo Ouzo (ούζο) is a Greek anise-flavored liqueur that is widely consumed in Greece. ... Rakı becomes cloudy white, when mixed with water. ... A glass of diluted pastis French pastis Pastis is an anise-flavored liqueur and apéritif from France, typically containing 40-45% alcohol by volume, although there exist alcohol-free varieties. ... Sambuca is an Italian aniseed-flavored, usually colorless liqueur. ... Applejack is a strong alcoholic beverage produced from apples, originating from the American colonial period. ... A bottle of calvados Pays DAuge Calvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Lower Normandy. ... Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... Irish Whiskeys For the novel of the same name, see Irish Whiskey (novel). ... Whisky production in Japan began around 1870, but the first commercial production was in 1923, when the countrys first distillery—Yamazaki—opened. ... An Indian liquor made from either coconut or the juice of the cashew apple. ... Arrack refers to strong spirits distilled mainly in South and South East Asia from fermented fruits, grains, sugarcane, or the sap of coconuts or other palm trees. ... Malibu Rum is a rum made in Barbados with natural coconut extract. ... For other uses, see Brandy (disambiguation). ... Gin and tonic. ... Kirschwasser, German for cherry water, (pronounced ), often known simply as Kirsch (German for cherry), is a clear brandy made from double distillation of the fermented juice of a small black cherry. ... Limoncello [limontlːo] is a lemon liqueur produced in the south of Italy, mainly in the region around the Gulf of Naples and the coast of Amalfi and Islands of Ischia and Capri, but also in Sicily, Sardinia and the Maltese island of Gozo. ... For other uses, see Pisco (disambiguation). ... A bottle of apricot Hungarian Pálinka. ... A traditional bottle of slivovitz, plum rakia Croatian Sljivovica and Slovenian Slivovka, two different names for the same drink, a plum rakia Rakia or Rakija (Bulgarian: , Croatian and Bosnian (rakija), Albanian: , Macedonian and Serbian: , Slovenian: , Romanian: ) is hard liquor similar to brandy, made by distillation of fermented fruits, popular throughout... Schnapps is a type of distilled beverage. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... 1956 Armagnac Armagnac (IPA [aʁmaɲak]), the region of France, has given its name to its distinctive kind of brandy or eau de vie, made of the same grapes as Cognac and undergoing the same aging in oak barrels, but with column still distillation (Cognac is distilled in pot... Sherry solera For other uses, see Sherry (disambiguation). ... Bärenjäger is a honey-flavoured liqueur based on vodka, made by Teucke & König in Germany. ... Polish Krupnik Krupnik, or Krupnikas as it is known in Lithuanian, is a traditional sweet vodka, similar to a liqueur, based on grain spirit and honey, popular in Poland and Lithuania. ... Bourbon bottle, 19th century Oak casks in ricks used store and age bourbon. ... Corn whiskey is an American whiskey made from a mash made up of at least 80 percent maize, or corn. ... Tennessee whiskey is a type of American whiskey. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Ţuică (in Romanian , sometimes spelled tuica, tzuika, tsuika, tsuica, or tzuica), is a traditional Romanian alcoholic beverage, usually made from plums. ... A glass of grappa Grappa is a fragrant grape-based pomace brandy of between 30% and 80% alcohol by volume (60 to 160 proof), of Italian origin. ... Orujo is a liquor obtained from the distillation of the pomace of the grape. ... Zivania (also Zivana) (Greek: Ζιβανία) is a traditional Greek-Cypriot distillate produced in the island of Cyprus from pomace (or marcs), the residue of grapes that were pressed during the winemaking process (including the stems and seeds) mixed with high-quality dry wines produced from the local grape varieties of Cyprus. ... Tsikoudia or raki is a grape-based spirit from the island of Crete (Greece), made from the distillation of pomace, i. ... Tsipouro (Greek: Τσίπουρο) is a distilled alcoholic beverage, more precisely a pomace brandy, from Greece and in particular Thessaly, Epirus, Macedonia, and the island of Crete, where the same spirit with a stronger aroma is known as tsikoudia. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... A bottle and glass of Linie brand akvavit. ... Brennivín is an Icelandic schnapps, considered the countrys signature alcoholic beverage. ... Snaps is a small shot of a strong alcoholic beverage taken during the course of a meal, very much like the German schnapps. ... Baijiu (Chinese: 白酒; pinyin: ) or Shaojiu is potent Chinese alcohol. ... Kaoliang jiu (literally sorghum liquor; often called simply kaoliang) is a strong distilled liquor, made from fermented sorghum (which is called gaoliang in Chinese). ... Rice baijiu (Chinese: 米白酒; pinyin: mǐbáijiǔ), also known as rice fragrance baijiu (米香型白酒), is a variety of distilled beverage popular in China. ... Soju is an alcoholic beverage native to Korea. ... Awamori (泡盛) is an alcoholic beverage indigenous to and unique to Okinawa, Japan. ... Rye whiskey describes two types of whiskies, theoretically distilled from rye. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Cachaça Java, from Salinas-MG, Brazil Cachaça (IPA: ) is the most popular distilled alcoholic beverage in Brazil. ... Aguardiente is the Spanish generic name for alcoholic drinks between 29 and 45 percent alcohol, meaning fiery water, or, literally burning water [1] (as it burns the throat of the drinker). ... Falernum is a sweet syrup used in Tropical and Caribbean drinks. ... This page is about the drink, for the locality, go to Guaro Guaro is the name of a kind of liquor in many places in Central America. ... Seco Herrerano is considered the national alcoholic beverage of Panama. ... Shōchū ) is a distilled alcoholic beverage popular in Japan. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... Canadian whisky is whisky made in Canada; by law it must be aged there at least three years in a barrel. ... In scuba diving, the word cocktail also means a hazard with diving with some rebreathers: it means a caustic solution resulting from water reaching and dissolving the absorbent. ... Two Bacardi Breezers Alcopop is a term often used to describe flavored alcoholic beverages including (i) a malt beverage to which various fruit juices or other flavorings have been added, (ii) a beverage containing wine to which ingredients such as fruit juice or other flavorings have been added, or(iii... The shot glass containing Midori was dropped into a shandy, making a fairly potent beer cocktail. ... Wikibooks Bartending has a page on the topic of Cocktails A cocktail is a style of mixed drink made predominantly with a distilled beverage, such as vodka, gin, whiskey, rum, or tequila, mixed with another drink other than water. ... Serving multiple flaming cocktails can be an impressive skill to learn. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... A wine cocktail is a mixed drink similar to a true cocktail. ... It has been suggested that glogg be merged into this article or section. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Whisky Live : Welcome (205 words)
Whisky Live is the whisky tasting event of the year, taking place from London to Tokyo, Paris to Glasgow.
Appealing to both the enthusiast and the novice alike, and with expert advice on hand and the opportunity to learn about the whisky basics, Whisky Live is intended to provide the ultimate whisky experience.
Whisky Live is organised by Paragraph Publishing Ltd
Whisky - LoveToKnow 1911 (1266 words)
Whether the term whisky to denote a plain type of spirit was used concurrently with usquebaugh, or whether the latter name covered both varieties, is not clear.
Scotch whiskies may be broadly divided into two main groups, namely (a) pot-still or malt whiskies, and (b) patent-still or grain whiskies; the former are made practically without exception from malted barley only, the latter from a mixture of malted barley and other unmalted cereals, chiefly rye, oats and maize (see Spirits).
The general run of Irish pot-still whiskies are made with 30 to 50% of malted barley, the balance being rye, oats, unmalted barley and wheat.
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