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Encyclopedia > Whig Party (United States)
Whig Party
Years active 1833-1856
Political Ideology Modernization, Economic protectionism, government dominated by Congress
Political Position N/A
International Affiliation N/A
Preceded by National Republican Party
Succeeded by Free Soil Party
Know-Nothing Party
Republican Party
Colors N/A
See also Politics of the U.S.

Political parties
Elections Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Modernization (also Modernisation) is a concept in the sphere of social sciences that refers to process in which society goes through industrialization, urbanization and other social changes that completely transforms the lives of individuals. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over... -1... The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States active in the 1848 and 1852 presidential elections, and in some state elections. ... The Know-Nothing movement was a nativist American political movement of the 1850s. ... GOP redirects here. ... Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of the United States is head of state, head of government, and of a two-party legislative and electoral system. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      This list of political parties in the United States contains past and present... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national), state and...

The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. Considered integral to the Second Party System and operating from 1833 to 1856,[1] the party was formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and the Democratic Party. In particular, the Whigs supported the supremacy of Congress over the Executive Branch and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism. Their name was chosen to echo the American Whigs of 1776, who fought for independence, and because "Whig" was then a widely recognized label of choice for people who saw themselves as opposing autocratic rule.[2] The Whig Party counted among its members such national political luminaries as Daniel Webster, William Henry Harrison, and their preeminent leader, Henry Clay of Kentucky. In addition to Harrison, the Whig Party also counted four war heroes among its ranks, including Generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott. Abraham Lincoln was a Whig leader in frontier Illinois. A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Jacksonian Democracy refers to the political philosophy of United States President Andrew Jackson and his supporters. ... The Second Party System is the term historians give to the political system existing in the United States from about 1824 to 1854. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... This article concerns Patriots in the American Revolutionary War. ... Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852), was a leading American statesman during the nations antebellum era. ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... Henry Clay, Sr. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


In its over two decades of existence, the Whig Party saw two of its candidates, Harrison and Taylor, elected President of the United States. Both, however, died in office. John Tyler became president after Harrison's death, but was expelled from the party, and Millard Fillmore, who became president after Taylor's death, was the last Whig to hold the nation's highest office. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... John Tyler, Jr. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ...


The party was ultimately destroyed by the question of whether to allow the expansion of slavery to the territories. With deep fissures in the party on this question, the anti-slavery faction successfully prevented the nomination of its own incumbent President Fillmore in the U.S. presidential election of 1852; instead, the party nominated General Winfield Scott, who was soundly defeated. Its leaders quit politics (as Lincoln did temporarily) or changed parties. The voter base defected to the Republican Party, various coalition parties in some states, and to the Democratic Party. By U.S. presidential election of 1856, the party had lost its ability to maintain a national coalition of effective state parties and endorsed Millard Fillmore of the American Party at its last national convention.[1] Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... The Know-Nothing movement was a nativist American political movement of the 1850s. ...

Handbill for Clay, 1844
Handbill for Clay, 1844

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (934x724, 121 KB) Summary 1844 handbill for Clay Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (934x724, 121 KB) Summary 1844 handbill for Clay Licensing This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ...

Origins and policies

Whig Party banner from 1848 with candidates Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore.
Whig Party banner from 1848 with candidates Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore.

The Whig Party was formed in the winter of 1833-1834 by former National Republicans such as Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams, and by Southern States' Rights supporters such as W. P. Mangum. Opponents of the party ridiculed it as a reconstitution of the old Federalist party. Many southerners, who disliked Jackson's power grabs and stance during the nullification crisis, supported the new party, as did many Anti-Masons. In its early form, the Whig Party was united only by opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson, especially his removal of the deposits from the Bank of the United States without the consent of Congress. The Whigs pledged themselves to Congressional supremacy, as opposed to "King Andrew's" executive actions.[3] The Whigs saw President Andrew Jackson as a dangerous man on horseback with a reactionary opposition to the forces of social, economic, and moral modernization. As Jackson purged his opponents, vetoed internal improvements, and killed the Bank of the United States; alarmed local elites fought back. They argued that Congress, not the President, reflected the will of the people. Controlling the Senate for a while, Jackson's enemies passed a censure motion denouncing Jackson's arrogant assumption of executive power in the face of the true will of the people as represented by Congress. (The censure was later expunged.) The central issue of the early 1830s was the Second Bank of the United States. Backing various regional candidates in 1836 the opposition finally coalesced in 1840 behind a popular general, William Henry Harrison, who proved the national Whig Party could win. Image File history File links 1848whigbanner. ... Image File history File links 1848whigbanner. ... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... The National Republican Party was a United States political party that existed in the first half of the 19th century. ... Henry Clay, Sr. ... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ... Willie Person Mangum (May 10, 1792–September 7, 1861) was a U.S. Senator from the state of North Carolina between 1831 and 1836 and between 1840 and 1853. ... The Federalist Party (or Federal Party) was an American political party in the period 1792 to 1816, with remnants lasting into the 1830s. ... The Nullification Crisis was a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson that arose when the state of South Carolina attempted to nullify a federal law passed by the United States Congress. ... The Anti-Masonic Party (also known as the Anti-Masonic Movement) was a 19th century minor political party in the United States. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... The Second Bank of the United States was a bank chartered in 1816, five years after the expiration of the First Bank of the United States. ... The Second Bank of the United States was a bank chartered in 1816, five years after the expiration of the First Bank of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


The Whigs came to unite around economic policy, celebrating Clay's vision of the "American System" which favored government support for a more modern, industrial economy in which education and commerce would equal physical labor or land ownership as a means of productive wealth. Whigs sought to promote domestic manufacturing through protective tariffs (as had Alexander Hamilton 40 years prior), a growth-oriented monetary policy with a new Bank of the United States, and a vigorous program of "internal improvements"—-especially to roads, canal systems, and railroads-—funded by the proceeds of public land sales. The Whigs also promoted public schools, private colleges, charities, and cultural institutions. The Monkey System or Every One For Himself Henry Clay says Walk in and see the new improved original grand American System! The cages are labeled: Home, Consumption, Internal, Improv. This 1831 cartoon ridiculing Clays American System depicts monkeys, labeled as being different parts of a nations economy... Alexander Hamilton (November 20, 1755 or 1757 - July 12, 1804) was the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, lawyer, Founding Father, American politician, leading statesman, political economist,] financier, and political theorist. ... The notion of internal improvements or public works is a concept in economics and politics. ...


By contrast, the Democrats hearkened to the Jeffersonian political philosophy ideal of an egalitarian agricultural society, advising that traditional farm life bred republican simplicity, while modernization threatened to create a politically powerful caste of rich aristocrats who threatened to subvert democracy. The Democrats wanted America to expand horizontally, by adding more land through Manifest Destiny. Whigs had a very different vision: they wanted to deepen the socio-economic system by adding more and more layers of complexity, such as banks, factories, and railroads. In general, the Democrats were more successful at enacting their policies on the national level, while the Whigs were more successful in passing modernization projects, such as canals and railroads, at the state level, but not the federal (which had to wait until Abraham Lincoln's presidency to be fully realized). The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... Jeffersonians, so named after Thomas Jefferson, support a federal government with greatly constrained powers, as would follow the strict interpretation of the U.S. Constitution that Jefferson followed. ... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ... This article is about the history and influence of the concept. ...


Party structure

Rejecting the party loyalty that was the hallmark of tight Democratic Party organization, the Whigs suffered greatly from factionalism throughout their existence. On the other hand, the Whigs had a superb network of newspapers that provided an internal information system; their leading editor was Horace Greeley of the powerful New York Tribune. In their heyday, in the 1840s, the Whigs had strong support in the manufacturing Northeast and the border states. However, the Democratic Party grew more quickly over time, and the Whigs lost more and more marginal states and districts. After the closely contested 1844 elections, the Democratic advantage widened, and the Whigs were only able to win nationally by splitting the opposition. This was partly because of the increased political importance of the western states, which generally voted for Democrats, and Irish Catholic and German immigrants, who also tended to vote for Democrats. Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811 – November 29, 1872) was an American editor of a leading newspaper, a founder of the Liberal Republican Party, reformer and politician. ... The New York Tribune building - today the site of Pace Universitys building complex of One Pace Plaza in New York City The New York Tribune was established by Horace Greeley in 1841 and was long considered one of the leading newspapers in the United States. ...


The Whigs, also known as the "white heads", won votes in every socio-economic category, but appealed more to the professional and business classes: doctors, lawyers, merchants, ministers, bankers, storekeepers, factory owners, commercially-oriented farmers and large-scale planters. In general, commercial and manufacturing towns and cities voted Whig, save for strongly Democratic precincts in Irish Catholic and German immigrant communities; the Democrats often sharpened their appeal to the poor by ridiculing the Whigs' aristocratic pretensions. Protestant religious revivals also injected a moralistic element into the Whig ranks. Many called for public schools to teach moral values; others proposed prohibition to end the liquor problem. Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era. ...


The early years

In the 1836 elections, the party was not yet sufficiently organized to run one nationwide candidate; instead William Henry Harrison ran in the northern and border states, Hugh Lawson White ran in the South, and Daniel Webster ran in his home state of Massachusetts. It was hoped that the Whig candidates would amass enough U.S. Electoral College votes among them to deny a majority to Martin Van Buren, which under the United States Constitution would place the election under control of the House of Representatives, allowing the ascendant Whigs to select the most popular Whig candidate as President. The Whigs came only a few thousand votes short of victory in Pennsylvania, vindicating their strategy, but failed nonetheless. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... This is about the 19th century Tennessee politician; for the 20th century Mississippi politician, see Hugh L. White. ... Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852), was a leading American statesman during the nations antebellum era. ... The United States Electoral College is the electoral college that chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... George W. Bush delivered his annual State of the Union address to a joint session of Congress on January 28, 2003, in the House chamber. ...


In late 1839, the Whigs held their first national convention and nominated William Henry Harrison as their presidential candidate. In March 1840, Harrison pleged to serve only 1 term as President if elected, a pledge which reflected popular support for a Constitutional limit to Presidential terms among many in the Whig Party. Harrison went on to victory in 1840, defeating Van Buren's re-election bid largely as a result of the Panic of 1837 and subsequent depression. Harrison served only 31 days and became the first President to die in office. He was succeeded by John Tyler, a Virginian and states' rights absolutist. Tyler vetoed the Whig economic legislation and was expelled from the Whig party in 1841. The Whigs' internal disunity and the nation's increasing prosperity made the party's activist economic program seem less necessary, and led to a disastrous showing in the 1842 Congressional elections. The 1839 Whig National Convention was held in December of 1839. ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Whig campaign poster blames Van Buren for hard times (1840). ... John Tyler, Jr. ... States rights refers to the idea, in U.S. politics and constitutional law, that U.S. states possess certain rights and political powers in relation to the federal government. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


A brief golden age

By 1844, the Whigs began their recovery by nominating Henry Clay, who lost to Democrat James K. Polk in a closely contested race, with Polk's policy of western expansion (particularly the annexation of Texas) and free trade triumphing over Clay's protectionism and caution over the Texas question. The Whigs, both northern and southern, strongly opposed expansion into Texas, which they (including Whig Congressman Abraham Lincoln) saw as an unprincipled land grab. In 1848, the Whigs, seeing no hope of success by nominating Clay, nominated General Zachary Taylor, a Mexican-American War hero. They stopped criticizing the war and adopted no platform at all. Taylor defeated Democratic candidate Lewis Cass and the anti-slavery Free Soil Party, who had nominated former President Martin Van Buren. Van Buren's candidacy split the Democratic vote in New York, throwing that state to the Whigs; at the same time, however, the Free Soilers probably cost the Whigs several Midwestern states. Henry Clay, Sr. ... This article is about the U.S. President. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ... Lewis Cass (October 9, 1782 – June 17, 1866) was an American military officer and politician. ... The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States active in the 1848 and 1852 presidential elections, and in some state elections. ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... In the United States, Free Soil was a position taken by northern citizens and politicians in the 19th century advocating that all new U.S. territory be closed to slavery. ...

Horace Greeley's New York Tribune — the leading Whig paper — endorsed Clay for President and Fillmore for Governor, 1844
Horace Greeley's New York Tribune — the leading Whig paper — endorsed Clay for President and Fillmore for Governor, 1844

Image File history File links Clay44b. ... Image File history File links Clay44b. ... Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811 – November 29, 1872) was an American editor of a leading newspaper, a founder of the Liberal Republican Party, reformer and politician. ...

Compromise of 1850

Taylor was firmly opposed to the Compromise of 1850 and committed to the admission of California as a free state, and had proclaimed that he would take military action to prevent secession. But, in July 1850, Taylor died; Vice President Millard Fillmore, a long-time Whig, became President and helped push the Compromise through Congress, in the hopes of ending the controversies over slavery. The Compromise of 1850 was first proposed by Henry Clay. Henry Clay takes the floor of the Old Senate Chamber; Millard Fillmore presides as Calhoun and Webster look on. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... Henry Clay takes the floor of the Old Senate Chamber; Millard Fillmore presides as Calhoun and Webster look on. ...


Death throes, 1852–1856

Millard Fillmore, the last Whig president
Millard Fillmore, the last Whig president

1852 was the beginning of the end for the Whigs. The deaths of Henry Clay and Daniel Webster that year severely weakened the party. The Compromise of 1850 fractured the Whigs along pro- and anti-slavery lines, with the anti-slavery faction having enough power to deny Fillmore the party's nomination in 1852. 1852's Whig Party convention in New York City saw the historic meeting between Alvan E. Bovay and The New York Tribune's Horace Greeley, a meeting which led to correspondence between the men as the early Republican Party meetings in 1854 began to take place. Attempting to repeat their earlier successes, the Whigs nominated popular General Winfield Scott, who lost decisively to the Democrats' Franklin Pierce. The Democrats won the election by a large margin: Pierce won 27 of the 31 states including Scott's home state of Virginia. Whig Representative Lewis Davis Campbell of Ohio was particularly distraught by the defeat, exclaiming, "We are slayed. The party is dead--dead--dead!" Increasingly politicians realized that the party was a loser. Abraham Lincoln, its Illinois leader, for example, ceased his Whig activities and attended to his law business. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Henry Clay, Sr. ... Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852), was a leading American statesman during the nations antebellum era. ... Henry Clay takes the floor of the Old Senate Chamber; Millard Fillmore presides as Calhoun and Webster look on. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Lewis Davis Campbell (August 9, 1811 – November 26, 1882) was a U.S. Representative for Ohio. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ...


In 1854, the Kansas-Nebraska Act exploded on the scene. Southern Whigs generally supported the Act while Northern Whigs strongly opposed it. Most remaining Northern Whigs, like Lincoln, joined the new Republican Party and strongly attacked the Act, appealing to widespread northern outrage over the repeal of the Missouri Compromise. Other Whigs in 1854 joined the Know-Nothing Party, attracted by its nativist crusades against "corrupt" Irish and German immigrants. In the South, the Whig party vanished but as Thomas Alexander has shown, Whiggism as a modernizing policy orientation persisted for decades.[4] Historians estimate that, in the South in 1856, Fillmore retained 86 percent of the 1852 Whig voters. He won only 13% of the northern vote, though that was just enough to tip Pennsylvania out of the Republican column. The future in the North, most observers thought at the time, was Republican. No one saw any prospects for the shrunken old party, and after 1856 there was virtually no Whig organization left anywhere.[5] Some Whigs and others adopted the mantle of the "Opposition Party" for several years and had some success. This 1856 map shows slave states (grey), free states (red), and US territories (green) with Kansas in center (white). ... The Republican Party was born in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... The Know-Nothing movement was a nativist American political movement of the 1850s. ... The Opposition Party represented a brief but significant transitional period in American politics from approximately 1854 to 1858. ...


In 1860, many former Whigs who had not joined the Republicans regrouped as the Constitutional Union Party, which nominated only a national ticket; it had considerable strength in the border states, which feared the onset of civil war. John Bell finished third. During the latter part of the war and Reconstruction, some former Whigs tried to regroup in the South, calling themselves "Conservatives", and hoping to reconnect with ex-Whigs in the North. They were soon swallowed up by the Democratic Party in the South, but continued to promote modernization policies such as railroad building and public schools.[6] The Constitutional Union Party was a political party in the United States created in 1860. ... John Bell (also known as The Great Apostate) (February 15, 1797–September 10, 1869) was a U.S. politician, attorney, and plantation owner. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ...


In today's discourse in American politics, the Whig Party is usually mentioned in the context of a political party losing its followers and reason for being, often exemplified by the phrase "going the way of the Whigs."


Presidents from the Whig Party

Presidents of the United States, dates in office Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ...

  1. William Henry Harrison (1841)
  2. John Tyler (1841-1845) (see note below)
  3. Zachary Taylor (1849-1850)
  4. Millard Fillmore (1850-1853)

Note: Although Tyler was elected vice president as a Whig, his policies soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda, and he was officially expelled from the party in 1841, a few months after taking office. William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... John Tyler, Jr. ... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ...


Additionally, John Quincy Adams, elected President as a Democratic-Republican, later became a National Republican and then a Whig after he was elected to the House of Representatives in 1831. John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... The Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison as the Republican party (not related to the present-day Republican Party) in 1792, was the dominant political party in the United States from 1800 until the 1820s, when it split into competing factions, one of which became the... it can also be known as NRP.The National Republican Party was a United States political party that existed for a relatively brief period in the 1820s at the start of the Second Party System. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party...


Candidates

Election year Result Nominees
President Vice President
1836 lost Daniel Webster Francis Granger
lost William Henry Harrison
lost John Tyler
lost Willie Person Mangum[1]
lost Hugh Lawson White
1840 won William Henry Harrison[2]
1844 lost Henry Clay Theodore Frelinghuysen
1848 won Zachary Taylor [2] Millard Fillmore
1852 lost Winfield Scott William Alexander Graham
1856 lost Millard Fillmore[3] Andrew Jackson Donelson[3]
1860 lost John Bell[4] Edward Everett[4]

[1] Although Mangum himself was a Whig, his electoral votes came from Nullificationists in South Carolina.
[2] Died in office.
[3] Fillmore and Donelson were also candidates on the American Party ticket.
[4] Bell and Everett were also candidates on the Constitutional Union ticket.
Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852), was a leading American statesman during the nations antebellum era. ... Francis Granger (December 1, 1792 - August 31, 1868) was a Representative from New York. ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... John Tyler, Jr. ... Willie Person Mangum (May 10, 1792–September 7, 1861) was a U.S. Senator from the state of North Carolina between 1831 and 1836 and between 1840 and 1853. ... This is about the 19th century Tennessee politician; for the 20th century Mississippi politician, see Hugh L. White. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Henry Clay, Sr. ... Theodore Frelinghuysen (1787–1862) Theodore Frelinghuysen (March 28, 1787–April 12, 1862) was a American politician, serving as New Jerseys Attorney General, United States Senator, and Mayor of Newark, New Jersey before running as a candidate for Vice President with Henry Clay on the Whig ticket in the election... Summary President James Polk, having achieved virtually all of his objectives in one term and suffering from declining health that would take his life less than four months after leaving office, chose not to seek re-election. ... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... William Alexander Graham (September 5, 1804–August 11, 1875) was a United States Senator from North Carolina from 1840 to 1843 and Governor of North Carolina from 1845 to 1849. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... Andrew Jackson Donelson (1799–1871) was a diplomat and candidate for the Vice Presidency. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... John Bell (also known as The Great Apostate) (February 15, 1797–September 10, 1869) was a U.S. politician, attorney, and plantation owner. ... Edward Everett (April 11, 1794 – January 15, 1865) was a Whig Party politician from Massachusetts. ... The Know-Nothing movement was a nativist American political movement of the 1850s. ... The Constitutional Union Party was a political party in the United States created in 1860. ...


See also

This page lists the presidential nominating conventions of the United States Whig Party between 1839 and 1860. ... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... The Republican Party was born in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... In the 19th century, the United States invented or developed a number of new methods for conducting American Election Campaigns. ...

Bibliography

  • Alexander, Thomas B. "Persistent Whiggery in the Confederate South, 1860-1877," Journal of Southern History, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Aug., 1961), pp. 305-329 online at JSTOR
  • Atkins, Jonathan M.; "The Whig Party versus the "spoilsmen" of Tennessee," The Historian, Vol. 57, 1994 online version
  • Beveridge, Albert J. (1928). Abraham Lincoln, 1809–1858, vol. 1, ch. 4–8}. 
  • Brown, Thomas (1985). Politics and Statesmanship: Essays on the American Whig Party. 
  • Cole, Arthur Charles (1913). The Whig Party in the South.  online version
  • Foner, Eric (1970). Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. 
  • Formisano, Ronald P. (Winter 1969). "Political Character, Antipartyism, and the Second Party System". American Quarterly 21: 683–709.  Online through JSTOR
  • Formisano, Ronald P. (June 1974). "Deferential-Participant Politics: The Early Republic's Political Culture, 1789–1840". American Political Science Review 68: 473–87.  Online through JSTOR
  • Formisano, Ronald P. (1983). The Transformation of Political Culture: Massachusetts Parties, 1790s–1840s. 
  • Hammond, Bray. Banks and Politics in America from the Revolution to the Civil War (1960), Pulitzer prize; the standard history. Pro-Bank
  • Holt, Michael F. (1992). Political Parties and American Political Development: From the Age of Jackson to the Age of Lincoln. 
  • Holt, Michael F. (1999). The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party: Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505544-6. 
  • Howe, Daniel Walker (1973). The American Whigs: An Anthology. 
  • Howe, Daniel Walker (March 1991). "The Evangelical Movement and Political Culture during the Second Party System". Journal of American History 77: 1216–39.  Online through JSTOR
  • Kruman, Marc W. (Winter 1992). "The Second Party System and the Transformation of Revolutionary Republicanism". Journal of the Early Republic 12: 509–37.  Online through JSTOR
  • Marshall, Lynn. (January 1967). "The Strange Stillbirth of the Whig Party". American Historical Review 72: 445–68.  Online through JSTOR
  • McCormick, Richard P. (1966). The Second American Party System: Party Formation in the Jacksonian Era. 
  • Mueller, Henry R.; The Whig Party in Pennsylvania, (1922) online version
  • Nevins, Allan. The Ordeal of the Union (1947) vol 1: Fruits of Manifest Destiny, 1847-1852; vol 2. A House Dividing, 1852-1857. highly detailed narrative of national politics
  • Poage, George Rawlings. Henry Clay and the Whig Party (1936)
  • Remini, Robert V. (1991). Henry Clay: Statesman for the Union. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-31088-4. 
  • Remini, Robert V. (1997). Daniel Webster. 
  • Riddle, Donald W. (1948). Lincoln Runs for Congress. 
  • Schlesinger, Arthur Meier, Jr. ed. History of American Presidential Elections, 1789–2000 (various multivolume editions, latest is 2001). For each election includes good scholarly history and selection of primary documents. Essays on the most important elections are reprinted in Schlesinger, The Coming to Power: Critical presidential elections in American history (1972)
  • Schurz, Carl (1899). Life of Henry Clay: American Statesmen, vol. 2. 
  • Shade, William G. (1983). "The Second Party System", in Paul Kleppner, et al. (contributors): Evolution of American Electoral Systems. 
  • Sharp, James Roger. The Jacksonians Versus the Banks: Politics in the States after the Panic of 1837 (1970)
  • Silbey, Joel H. (1991). The American Political Nation, 1838–1893. 
  • Smith, Craig R. "Daniel Webster's Epideictic Speaking: A Study in Emerging Whig Virtues" online
  • Van Deusen, Glyndon G. (1953). Horace Greeley, Nineteenth-Century Crusader. 
  • Van Deusen, Glyndon (1973). "The Whig Party", in Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (ed.): History of U.S. Political Parties. Chelsea House Publications, 1:331–63. ISBN 0-7910-5731-3. 
  • Van Deusen, Glyndon G. Thurlow Weed, Wizard of the Lobby (1947)
  • Wilentz, Sean (2005). The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to Lincoln. 
  • Wilson, Major L. Space, Time, and Freedom: The Quest for Nationality and the Irrepressible Conflict, 1815-1861 (1974) intellectual history of Whigs and Democrats

Robert V. Remini (b. ... This article is about Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Holt (1999), p. 231.
  2. ^ Holt (1999), p. 27-30.
  3. ^ It is not true they took their name from the British Whig Party. Instead the name echoed the American Whigs of 1776 who declared independence from King George III. Holt (1992) p. 27.
  4. ^ Alexander (1961)
  5. ^ Holt p 979-80
  6. ^ Alexander (1961)

The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... George III (George William Frederick) (4 June 1738–29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain, and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ...

External links

  • Great Americans of the Whig Party, 1832-1856 Biographies of American Whigs.
  • The American Presidency Project, contains the text of the national platforms that were adopted by the national conventions (1844-1856)
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