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Encyclopedia > Wheat
Wheat

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Pooideae
Tribe: Triticeae
Genus: Triticum
L.
Species

T. aestivum
T. aethiopicum
T. araraticum
T. boeoticum
T. carthlicum
T. compactum
T. dicoccoides
T. dicoccon
T. durum
T. ispahanicum
T. karamyschevii
T. macha
T. militinae
T. monococcum
T. polonicum
T. spelta
T. sphaerococcum
T. timopheevii
T. turanicum
T. turgidum
T. urartu
T. vavilovii
T. zhukovskyi
References:
  ITIS 42236 2002-09-22
Image File history File links Koeh-274. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Liliopsida is the botanical name for a class. ... families see text Poales is a botanical name at the rank of order. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... Subdivisions See text The Pooideae is a subfamily of the true grass family Poaceae. ... Genera See text. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Binomial name Triticum aestivum L. Common wheat (also known as bread wheat) is by far the most important wheat species in cultivation today. ... Binomial name Triticum boeoticum Boss. ... Binomial name Triticum dicoccon Schrank Emmer wheat is a low yielding, awned wheat. ... Binomial name Triticum dicoccon Schrank Emmer wheat is a low yielding, awned wheat. ... Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) is the only tetraploid species of wheat widely cultivated today. ... Binomial name triticum boeoticum Einkorn wheat is a wild species of wheat, Triticum boeoticum. ... Look up Spelt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Triticum aestivum L. Common wheat (also known as bread wheat) is by far the most important wheat species in cultivation today. ... Binomial name Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. ...

Wheat
Wheat
Wheat
Wheat

Wheat (Triticum spp.)[1] is a grass that is cultivated worldwide. Globally, it is an important human food grain ranking second in total production as a cereal crop behind maize; the third being rice.[2] Wheat grain is a staple food used to make flour for leavened, flat and steamed breads; cookies, cakes, pasta, noodles and couscous;[3] and for fermentation to make beer,[4] alcohol, vodka[5] or biofuel.[6] Wheat is planted to a limited extent as a forage crop for livestock, and the straw can be used as fodder for livestock or as a construction material for roofing thatch.[7][8] Download high resolution version (2000x1525, 812 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1525, 812 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... Wheat is an indie rock group formed by singer/songwriter Scott Levesque, drummer Brendan Harney, guitarist Ricky Brennan, and bass player Kenny Madaras in Taunton, Massachusetts in 1996. ... Subfamilies There are 7 subfamilies: Subfamily Arundinoideae Subfamily Bambusoideae Subfamily Centothecoideae Subfamily Chloridoideae Subfamily Panicoideae Subfamily Pooideae Subfamily Stipoideae The true grasses are monocotyledonous plants (Class Liliopsida) in the Family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae. ... This article is about cereals in general. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... In botany, a caryopsis is a type of simple dry fruit — one that is moncarpelate (formed from a single carpel) and indehiscent (not opening at maturity) and resembles an achene, except that in a caryopsis the pericarp is fused with the thin seed coat. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... This article is about the food. ... For other uses, see Cake (disambiguation). ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... A cook making hand-pulled noodles. ... Couscous with vegetables and chickpeas Couscous or kuskus (IPA - Berber Seksu - Arabic: , called maftoul in Jordan, Lebanon and the Palestinian territories) is a food from Maghreb of Berber origin. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... For articles on specific fuels used in vehicles, see Biogas, Bioethanol, Biobutanol, Biodiesel, and Straight vegetable oil. ... Forage is the herbaceous plant material (mainly grasses and legumes) eaten by grazing animals. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... Bales of straw bundles of rice straw Pile of straw bales, sheltered under a tarpaulin Straw is an agricultural byproduct, the dry stalk of a cereal plant, after the nutrient grain or seed has been removed. ... Fodder growing from barley In agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, including cattle, goats, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs. ... Thatching is the art or craft of covering a roof with vegetative materials such as straw, reed or sedge. ...

Contents

History

Wheat originated in Southwest Asia in the area known as the Fertile Crescent. The genetic relationships between einkorn and emmer indicate that the most likely site of domestication is near Diyarbakır in Turkey [9]. These wild wheats were domesticated as part of the origins of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent. Cultivation and repeated harvesting and sowing of the grains of wild grasses led to the domestication of wheat through selection of mutant forms with tough ears which remained intact during harvesting, larger grains, and a tendency for the spikelets to stay on the stalk until harvested [10]. Because of the loss of seed dispersal mechanisms, domesticated wheats have limited capacity to propagate in the wild.[11] This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... Binomial name triticum boeoticum Einkorn wheat is a wild species of wheat, Triticum boeoticum. ... Binomial name Triticum dicoccon Schrank Emmer wheat is a low yielding, awned wheat. ... Diyarbakır (Ottoman Turkish: دیاربکر land of the Bekr as derived from Persian; Kurdish Amed; Syriac ; Greek Amida; Armenian Ô±Õ´Õ«Õ¤ Amid) is a major city in the Southeastern Anatolia region of Turkey. ... The term origins of agriculture is used principally by archaeologists to describe the processes involved in the transition from subsistence strategies based on the collection of wild plant and animal resources to strategies based on the cultivation of domestic plants and the keeping of domestic animals. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ...


The cultivation of wheat began to spread beyond the Fertile Crescent during the Neolithic period. By 5,000 years ago, wheat had reached Ethiopia, India, Ireland and Spain. A millennium later it reached China.[11] Three thousand years ago agricultural cultivation with horse drawn plows increased cereal grain production, as did the use of seed drills to replace broadcast sowing in the 18th century. Yields of wheat continued to increase, as new land came under cultivation and with improved agricultural husbandry involving the use of fertilizers, threshing machines and reaping machines (the 'combine harvester'), tractor-drawn cultivators and planters, and better varieties (see green revolution and Norin 10 wheat). With population growth rates falling, while yields continue to rise, the area devoted to wheat may now begin to decline for the first time in modern human history.[12] But now in 2007 wheat stocks have reached their lowest since 1981, and 2006 was the first year in which the world consumed more wheat than the world produced - a gap that is continuously widening as the requirement for wheat increases beyond production. The use of wheat as a bio-fuel will exacerbate the situation. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Seeder redirects here. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... A LEXION Combine. ... The Green Revolution is a term used to describe the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... Wheat Norin 10 is a semi-dwarf variety of wheat, with very large ears, which grew in the experimental station of Norin, Japan. ... History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ...


Genetics

Wheat genetics is more complicated than that of most other domesticated species. Some wheat species are diploid, with two sets of chromosomes, but many are stable polyploids, with four sets of chromosomes (tetraploid) or six (hexaploid).[13] Diploid (meaning double in Greek) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one from the father. ... Polyploidy refers to cells or organisms that contain more than two copies of each of their chromosomes. ... Polyploid (in Greek: πολλαπλόν - multiple) cells or organisms contain more than one copy (ploidy) of their chromosomes. ... Polyploid (in Greek: πολλαπλόν - multiple) cells or organisms contain more than one copy (ploidy) of their chromosomes. ...

  • Most tetraploid wheats (e.g. emmer and durum wheat) are derived from wild emmer, T. dicoccoides. Wild emmer is the result of a hybridization between two diploid wild grasses, T. urartu and a wild goatgrass such as Aegilops searsii or Ae. speltoides. The hybridization that formed wild emmer occurred in the wild, long before domestication.[13]
  • Hexaploid wheats evolved in farmers' fields. Either domesticated emmer or durum wheat hybridized with yet another wild diploid grass (Aegilops tauschii) to make the hexaploid wheats, spelt wheat and bread wheat.[13]

Binomial name triticum boeoticum Einkorn wheat is a wild species of wheat, Triticum boeoticum. ... Binomial name Triticum dicoccon Schrank Emmer wheat is a low yielding, awned wheat. ... Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) is the only tetraploid species of wheat widely cultivated today. ... Binomial name Aegilops speltoides Tausch Aegilops speltoides (syn. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Polyploid (in Greek: πολλαπλόν - multiple) cells or organisms contain more than one copy (ploidy) of their chromosomes. ... Look up Spelt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Triticum aestivum L. Common wheat (also known as bread wheat) is by far the most important wheat species in cultivation today. ...

Plant Breeding

In traditional agricultural systems wheat is often grown as landraces, informal farmer-maintained populations that often maintain high levels of morophological diversity. Although landraces of wheat are no longer grown in Europe and North America, they continue to be important elsewhere. The origins of formal wheat breeding lie in the nineteenth century, when single line varieties were created through selection of seed from a single plant noted to have desired properties. Modern wheat breeding developed in the first years of the twentieth century and was closely linked to the development of Mendelian genetics. The standard method of breeding inbred wheat cultivars is by crossing two lines using hand emasculation, then selfing or inbreeding the progeny. Selections are identified (shown to have the genes responsible for the varietal differences) ten or more generations before release as a variety or cultivar.[14] Landrace refers to domesticated animals or plants adapted to the natural and cultural environment in which they live (or originated) and, in some cases, work; they often develop naturally with minimal assistance or guidance from humans (or from humans using traditional rather than modern breeding methods), hence differ somewhat from... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets that underlie much of genetics developed by Gregor Mendel in the latter part of the 19th century. ...


F1 hybrid wheat cultivars should not be confused with wheat cultivars deriving from standard plant breeding. Heterosis or hybrid vigor (as in the familiar F1 hybrids of maize) occurs in common (hexaploid) wheat, but it is difficult to produce seed of hybrid cultivars on a commercial scale as is done with maize because wheat flowers are complete and normally self-pollinate.[14] Commercial hybrid wheat seed has been produced using chemical hybridizing agents, plant growth regulators that selectively interfere with pollen development, or naturally occurring cytoplasmic male sterility systems. Hybrid wheat has been a limited commercially success, in Europe (particularly France), the USA and South Africa.[15] Heterosis is increased strength of different characteristics in hybrids; the possibility to obtain a better individual by combining the virtues of its parents. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Self-pollination is the activity that arises when a flower has both stamen and pistils. ...


Hulled versus free-threshing wheat

Spikelets of a hulled wheat, einkorn

The four wild species of wheat, along with the domesticated varieties einkorn,[16] emmer[17] and spelt,[18] have hulls (in German, Spelzweizen). This more primitive morphology consists of toughened glumes that tightly enclose the grains, and (in domesticated wheats) a semi-brittle rachis that breaks easily on threshing. The result is that when threshed, the wheat ear breaks up into spikelets. To obtain the grain, further processing, such as milling or pounding, is needed to remove the hulls or husks. In contrast, in free-threshing (or naked) forms such as durum wheat and common wheat, the glumes are fragile and the rachis tough. On threshing, the chaff breaks up, releasing the grains. Hulled wheats are often stored as spikelets because the toughened glumes give good protection against pests of stored grain.[16] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x1500, 314 KB) Summary Spikelets PI 10474 Triticum monococcum subsp. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1500x1500, 314 KB) Summary Spikelets PI 10474 Triticum monococcum subsp. ... Binomial name triticum boeoticum Einkorn wheat is a wild species of wheat, Triticum boeoticum. ... Binomial name Triticum dicoccon Schrank Emmer wheat is a low yielding, awned wheat. ... Look up Spelt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Naming

For more details on this topic, see Wheat taxonomy.

There are many botanical classification systems used for wheat species, discussed in a separate article on Wheat taxonomy. The name of a wheat species from one information source may not be the name of a wheat species in another. Within a species, wheat cultivars are further classified by wheat breeders and farmers in terms of growing season, such as winter wheat vs. spring wheat,[8] by gluten content, such as hard wheat (high protein content) vs. soft wheat (high starch content), or by grain color (red, white or amber). Miracle wheat (Triticum turgidum var. ... Miracle wheat (Triticum turgidum var. ... Winter wheat is a cereal. ... Wheat - a prime source of gluten Gluten is an amorphous mixture of ergastic (i. ...


Major cultivated species of wheat

  • Common wheat or Bread wheat — (T. aestivum) A hexaploid species that is the most widely cultivated in the world.
  • Durum — (T. durum) The only tetraploid form of wheat widely used today, and the second most widely cultivated wheat.
  • Einkorn — (T. monococcum) A diploid species with wild and cultivated variants. Domesticated at the same time as emmer wheat, but never reached the same importance.
  • Emmer — (T. dicoccon) A tetraploid species, cultivated in ancient times but no longer in widespread use.
  • Spelt — (T. spelta) Another hexaploid species cultivated in limited quantities.

Binomial name Triticum aestivum L. Common wheat (also known as bread wheat) is by far the most important wheat species in cultivation today. ... Ploidy is the number of homologous sets of chromosomes in a biological cell. ... Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) is the only tetraploid species of wheat widely cultivated today. ... Binomial name triticum boeoticum Einkorn wheat is a wild species of wheat, Triticum boeoticum. ... Diploid (meaning double in Greek) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one from the father. ... Binomial name Triticum dicoccon Schrank Emmer wheat is a low yielding, awned wheat. ... Ploidy is the number of homologous sets of chromosomes in a biological cell. ... Look up Spelt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Economics

Sack of wheat
Sack of wheat
Cracked wheat
Wheat output in 2005
Wheat output in 2005

Harvested wheat grain that enters trade is classified according to grain properties (see below) for the purposes of the commodities market. Wheat buyers use the classifications to help determine which wheat to purchase as each class has special uses. Wheat producers determine which classes of wheat are the most profitable to cultivate with this system. Wheat in a sack File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Wheat in a sack File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1365, 934 KB) Cracked Wheat Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1365, 934 KB) Cracked Wheat Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of wheat output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 97,445,250 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of wheat output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 97,445,250 tonnes). ... Chicago Board of Trade Futures market Commodity markets are markets where raw or primary products are exchanged. ...


Wheat is widely cultivated as a cash crop because it produces a good yield per unit area, grows well in a temperate climate even with a moderately short growing season, and yields a versatile, high-quality flour that is widely used in baking. Most breads are made with wheat flour, including many breads named for the other grains they contain like most rye and oat breads. Many other popular foods are made from wheat flour as well, resulting in a large demand for the grain even in economies with a significant food surplus. In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for money. ... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... In agriculture, the growing season is the period of each year when crops can be grown. ... For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Baking Baking is the technique of prolonged cooking of food by dry heat acting by conduction, and not by radiation, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ... The term surplus is used in economics for several related quantities. ...


In 2007 there was a dramatic rise in the price of wheat due to freezes and flooding in the northern hemisphere and a drought in Australia. Wheat futures in September, 2007 for December and March delivery had risen above $9.00 a bushel, prices never seen before.[19] There were complaints in Italy about the high price of pasta.[20]


Production and consumption statistics

A mature wheat field, in northern Israel
A mature wheat field, in northern Israel
Top Ten Wheat Producers — 2005
(million metric ton)
Flag of the People's Republic of China China 96
Flag of India India 72
Flag of the United States United States 57
Flag of Russia Russia 46
Flag of France France 37
Flag of Canada Canada 26
Flag of Australia Australia 24
Flag of Germany Germany 24
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan 22
Flag of Turkey Turkey 21
World Total 626
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
[21]

In 1997, global per capita wheat consumption was 101 kg, with the highest per capita consumption (623 kg) found in Denmark. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 770 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wheat Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 770 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Wheat Metadata This... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... FAO emblem With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and...


See also International wheat production statistics. The following statistics for the production of wheat come from International Grains Council figures from the report Grain Market Report. ...


Unlike rice, wheat production is more widespread globally though China's share is almost one-sixth of the world.


Agronomy

Wheat spikelet with the three anthers sticking out.

While winter wheat lies dormant during a winter freeze, wheat normally requires between 110 and 130 days between planting and harvest, depending upon climate, seed type, and soil conditions. Crop management decisions require the knowledge of stage of development of the crop. In particular, spring fertilizers applications, herbicides, fungicides, growth regulators are typically applied at specific stages of plant development. Download high resolution version (525x623, 230 KB)Wheat spiklet at anthesis stage - large Author : User:Anthere Status : released under gfdl File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (525x623, 230 KB)Wheat spiklet at anthesis stage - large Author : User:Anthere Status : released under gfdl File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ... The term given to a group of chemicals, principally synthetic plant hormones, which modify the natural growth of (mainly) cereals, particularly winter wheat and winter barley, as an aid to optimising agricultural profitability. ...


For example, current recommendations often indicate the second application of nitrogen be done when the ear (not visible at this stage) is about 1 cm in size (Z31 on Zadoks scale). Knowledge of stages is also interesting to identify periods of higher risk, in terms of climate. For example, the meiosis stage is extremely susceptible to low temperatures (under 4 °C) or high temperatures (over 25 °C). Farmers also benefit from knowing when the flag leaf (last leaf) appears as this leaf represents about 75% of photosynthesis reactions during the grain filling period and as such should be preserved from disease or insect attacks to ensure a good yield. The Zadoks scale is a cereal development scale proposed by the Dutch phytopathologist Jan C. Zadoks that is widely used in cereal research and agriculture. ...


Several systems exist to identify crop stages, with the Feekes and Zadoks scales being the most widely used. Each scale is a standard system which describes successive stages reached by the crop during the agricultural season. The Feekes scale is used to identify wheat growth stage. ... The Zadoks scale is a cereal development scale proposed by the Dutch phytopathologist Jan C. Zadoks that is widely used in cereal research and agriculture. ...

  • Wheat at the anthesis stage (face and side view)
Diseases

Estimates of the amount of wheat production lost owing to plant diseases vary between 10-25% in Missouri.[22] A wide range of organisms infect wheat, of which the most important are viruses and fungi. Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 592 KB)Winter wheat ear - face view Development stage : anthesis (male flowering) (France 24/05/2003) - User:anthere Author : http://en. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 592 KB)Winter wheat ear - face view Development stage : anthesis (male flowering) (France 24/05/2003) - User:anthere Author : http://en. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 795 KB)Winter wheat ear - side view Development stage : anthesis (male flowering) (France 24/05/2003) - User:anthere Author : http://en. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 795 KB)Winter wheat ear - side view Development stage : anthesis (male flowering) (France 24/05/2003) - User:anthere Author : http://en. ... // Cereals are at risk from numerous diseases due to the level of intensification necessary for profitable production since the 1970s. ... This article is a list of diseases of wheat (Triticum spp. ...

Pests

Wheat is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including The Flame, Rustic Shoulder-knot, Setaceous Hebrew Character and Turnip Moth. A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... Binomial name Axylia putris Linnaeus, 1761 The Flame (Axylia putris) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ... Binomial name Apamea sordens Hufnagel, 1766 The Rustic Shoulder-knot (Apamea sordens) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ... Binomial name Xestia c-nigrum Linnaeus, 1758 The Setaceous Hebrew Character (Xestia c-nigrum) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ... Binomial name Agrotis segetum Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 The Turnip Moth (Agrotis segetum) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. ...


In the United States

Wheat harvest on the Palouse.
Wheat harvest on the Palouse.
Combining wheat in Hemingway, South Carolina.
Combining wheat in Washington.
Combining wheat in Washington.

Classes used in the United States are Image Number K1441-5 Wheat harvest on the Palouse. ... Image Number K1441-5 Wheat harvest on the Palouse. ... Combining wheat. ... Combining wheat. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Harvestingwheatwashigton. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Harvestingwheatwashigton. ...

  • Durum — Very hard, translucent, light colored grain used to make semolina flour for pasta.
  • Hard Red Spring — Hard, brownish, high protein wheat used for bread and hard baked goods. Bread Flour and high gluten flours are commonly made from hard red spring wheat. It is primarily traded at the Minneapolis Grain Exchange.
  • Hard Red Winter — Hard, brownish, mellow high protein wheat used for bread, hard baked goods and as an adjunct in other flours to increase protein in pastry flour for pie crusts. Some brands of unbleached all-purpose flours are commonly made from hard red winter wheat alone. It is primarily traded by the Kansas City Board of Trade.
  • Soft Red Winter — Soft, low protein wheat used for cakes, pie crusts, biscuits, and muffins. Cake flour, pastry flour, and some self-rising flours with baking powder and salt added for example, are made from soft red winter wheat. It is primarily traded by the Chicago Board of Trade.
  • Hard White — Hard, light colored, opaque, chalky, medium protein wheat planted in dry, temperate areas. Used for bread and brewing.
  • Soft White — Soft, light colored, very low protein wheat grown in temperate moist areas. Used for pie crusts and pastry. Pastry flour, for example, is sometimes made from soft white winter wheat.

Hard wheats are harder to process and red wheats may need bleaching. Therefore, soft and white wheats usually command higher prices than hard and red wheats on the commodities market. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) is the only tetraploid species of wheat widely cultivated today. ... Picture of semolina Semolina grains Semolina is coarsely ground grain, usually wheat, with particles mostly between 0. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... The Minneapolis Grain Exchange (MGEX) was formed in 1881 as a cash market for grains, the exchange launched its first futures contract, hard red spring wheat two years later. ... Founded in 1856 and formally chartered in 1876, the Kansas City Board of Trade (KCBT), located at 4800 Main Street in Kansas City, Missouri, is a commodity futures and options exchange regulated by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC). ... The Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT) NYSE: BOT, established in 1848, is the worlds oldest futures and options exchange. ...


As a food

Raw wheat berries can be powdered into flour, germinated and dried creating malt, crushed and de-branned into cracked wheat, parboiled (or steamed), dried, crushed and de-branned into bulgur, or processed into semolina, pasta, or roux. They are a major ingredient in such foods as bread, breakfast cereals (e.g. Wheatena, Cream of Wheat), porridge, crackers, biscuits, pancakes, cakes, and gravy. For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... Malted barley Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate and then are quickly dried before the plant develops. ... Boiling wheat grains to make bulgur in Turkey, 1990. ... Picture of semolina Semolina grains Semolina is coarsely ground grain, usually wheat, with particles mostly between 0. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Roux (IPA: ) (pronounced like the English word rue) is a mixture of wheat flour and fat. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wheatena is an American high-fiber, toasted-wheat cereal that originated on Mulberry Street in New York City, New York, circa 1879, when a small bakery owner began roasting whole wheat, grinding it, and packaging it for sale under this brand name. ... Original icon design from 1895 Box design of Cream of Wheat until it was sold to B&G Foods Cream of Wheat is a hot breakfast cereal invented in 1893 by wheat millers in Grand Forks, North Dakota[1]. The cereal is currently manufactured and sold by B&G Foods. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... A Cheez-It cracker. ... For other uses, see Biscuit (disambiguation). ... Two pancakes with maple syrup. ... For other uses, see Cake (disambiguation). ... for the guitarist, see Dave Felton Gravy is a type of sauce, usually made from the juices that naturally run from meat or vegetables during cooking. ...


Nutrition

100 grams of hard red winter wheat contains about 12.6 grams of protein, 1.5 grams of total fat, 71 grams of carbohydrate (by difference), 12.2 grams of dietary fiber, and 3.2 mg of iron or 17% of the amount required daily. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ...


100 grams of hard red spring wheat contains about 15.4 grams of protein, 1.9 grams of total fat, 68 grams of carbohydrate (by difference), 12.2 grams of dietary fiber, and 3.6 mg of iron or 20% of the amount required daily.[23] A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ...


Gluten protein found in wheat (and other Triticeae) is hard to digest, and intolerable for people with celiac disease (an autoimmune disorder in ~1% of Indo-European populations). Wheat - a prime source of gluten Gluten is an amorphous mixture of ergastic (i. ... Genera See text. ... Coeliac disease (also termed non-tropical sprue, celiac disease and gluten intolerance) is an autoimmune disease characterised by chronic inflammation of the proximal portion of the small intestine caused by exposure to certain dietary gluten proteins. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wheat

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... // wheat bran Bran is the hard outer layer of and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp. ... Chaff is the seed casings and other inedible plant matter harvested with cereal grains such as wheat. ... The term husk is mostly used to refer to the leafy outer covering of an ear of maize (corn) as it grows on the plant. ... Wheat germ oil is extracted from the germ of the wheat kernel, which makes up only 2½% by weight of the kernel. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Belderok, Bob & Hans Mesdag & Dingena A. Donner. (2000) Bread-Making Quality of Wheat. Springer. p.3. ISBN 0-7923-6383-3.
  2. ^ U. S. Department of Agriculture ([[]]), Annual World Production Summary, Grains, <http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/!ut/p/_s.7_0_A/7_0_1OB?parentnav=AGRICULTURE&navid=CROP_PRODUCTION&navtype=RT>. Retrieved on 2007-09-04
  3. ^ Cauvain, Stanley P. & Cauvain P. Cauvain. (2003) Bread Making. CRC Press. p. 540. ISBN 1-85573-553-9.
  4. ^ Palmer, John J. (2001) How to Brew. Defenestrative Pub Co. p. 233. ISBN 0-9710579-0-7.
  5. ^ Neill, Richard. (2002) Booze: The Drinks Bible for the 21st Century. Octopus Publishing Group - Cassell Illustrated. p. 112. ISBN 1-84188-196-1.
  6. ^ Department of Agriculture Appropriations for 1957: Hearings ... 84th Congress. 2d Session. United States. Congress. House. Appropriations. 1956. p. 242.
  7. ^ Smith, Albert E. (1995) Handbook of Weed Management Systems. Marcel Dekker. p. 411. ISBN 0-8247-9547-4.
  8. ^ a b Bridgwater, W. & Beatrice Aldrich. (1966) The Columbia-Viking Desk Encyclopedia. Columbia University. p. 1959.
  9. ^ Jorge Dubcovsky and Jan Dvorak, "Genome Plasticity a Key Factor in the Success of Polyploid Wheat Under Domestication", Science 316 [Issue 5853], p. 1862, 29 June 2007
  10. ^ "Seeking Agriculture's Ancient Roots", Science 316 [Issue 5853], p. 1830, 29 June 2007
  11. ^ a b Smith, C. Wayne. (1995) Crop Production. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 60-62. ISBN 0-471-07972-3.
  12. ^ The Economist, 2005
  13. ^ a b c Hancock, James F. (2004) Plant Evolution and the Origin of Crop Species. CABI Publishing. ISBN 0-85199-685-X.
  14. ^ a b Bajaj, Y. P. S. (1990) Wheat. Springer. pp. 161-63. ISBN 3-540-51809-6.
  15. ^ Basra, Amarjit S. (1999) Heterosis and Hybrid Seed Production in Agronomic Crops. Haworth Press. pp. 81-82. ISBN 1-56022-876-8.
  16. ^ a b Potts, D. T. (1996) Mesopotamia Civilization: The Material Foundations Cornell University Press. p. 62. ISBN 0-8014-3339-8.
  17. ^ Nevo, Eviatar & A. B. Korol & A. Beiles & T. Fahima. (2002) Evolution of Wild Emmer and Wheat Improvement: Population Genetics, Genetic Resources, and Genome.... Springer. p. 8. ISBN 3-540-41750-8.
  18. ^ Vaughan, J. G. & P. A. Judd. (2003) The Oxford Book of Health Foods. Oxford University Press. p. 35. ISBN 0-19-850459-4.
  19. ^ "Wheat futures again hit new highs" article by Victoria Sizemore Long in the Kansas City Star September 28, 2007
  20. ^ "Wheat Prices Send Italian Pasta Costs Up" Associated Press story by Colleen Barry, September 13, 2007 By COLLEEN BARRY – Sep 13, 2007
  21. ^ [[1]]
  22. ^ [2]
  23. ^ USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 19 (2006)

The Kansas City Star is a newspaper in Kansas City, Missouri. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...

References

  • Bonjean, A.P., and W.J. Angus (editors). The World Wheat Book: a history of wheat breeding. Lavoisier Publ., Paris. 1131 pp. (2001). ISBN 2-7430-0402-9.
  • Ears of plenty: The story of wheat, The Economist, December 24th 2005, pp. 28-30
  • Garnsey Peter, Grain for Rome, in Garnsey P., Hopkins K., Whittaker C. R. (editors), Trade in the Ancient Economy, Chatto & Windus, London 1983
  • Jasny Naum, The daily bread of ancient Greeks and Romans, Ex Officina Templi, Brugis 1950
  • Jasny Naum, The Wheats of Classical Antiquity, J. Hopkins Press, Baltimore 1944
  • Heiser Charles B., Seed to civilisation. The story of food, Harvard University Press, Harvard Mass. 1990
  • Harlan Jack R., Crops and man, American Society of Agronomy, Madison 1975
  • Saltini Antonio, I semi della civiltà. Grano, riso e mais nella storia delle società umane, Prefazione di Luigi Bernabò Brea, Avenue Media, Bologna 1996
  • Sauer Jonathan D., Geography of Crop Plants. A Select Roster, CRC Press, Boca Raton

The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ...

External links

Wheat resources (edit)
History: Domestication, Neolithic Revolution, Tell Abu Hureyra, Aaron Aaronsohn Evolution: Triticeae
Types of wheat: Wheat taxonomy, Common (Bread) wheat, Durum, Einkorn, Emmer, Kamut (QK-77), Norin 10 wheat, Spelt, Winter wheat
Agronomy: Wheat diseases, Wheat mildew, Plant breeding Trade: Australian Wheat Board, Canadian Wheat Board, International Wheat Council, International wheat production statistics
Food: Wheat beer, Wheat Thins, Whole grain, Whole wheat flour, Farina (food), Bran, Flour, Gluten, Bread, Matzo, Wheat gluten (food), Complete Wheat Bran Flakes, Shredded wheat, Pasta, Macaroni, Couscous, Bulgur, Other Uses: Wheat pasting Associated Diseases: Coeliac disease, Exercise-induced anaphylaxis


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