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Encyclopedia > Whale

Whales are cetaceans which are neither dolphins (i.e. members of the families Delphinidae or Platanistoidae) nor porpoises. Orcas (Killer Whales) and Pilot whales have "whale" in their name, but they are dolphins for the purpose of classification. Whale has several uses including: Whale a marine mammal Whale (band) High rollers in a casino are frequently called a Whale. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 453 pixelsFull resolution (1765 × 1000 pixel, file size: 944 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 453 pixelsFull resolution (1765 × 1000 pixel, file size: 944 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Binomial name Borowski, 1781 Humpback Whale range The Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is a baleen whale. ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti Archaeoceti (extinct) (see text for families) The order Cetacea (IPA: , L. cetus, whale) includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... For other uses, see Dolphin (disambiguation). ... Genera See text. ... Families See text River dolphins are four species of dolphin which reside in freshwater rivers and estuaries. ... Genera Neophocaena Phocoena - Harbor porpoise Phocoenoides - Dalls porpoise The porpoises are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae; they are related to whales and dolphins. ... Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The Orca or Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) is the largest species of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ... Binomial name Globicephala macrorhynchus Gray, 1846 Short-finned Pilot Whale range Globicephala melas Traill, 1809 Long-finned Pilot Whale range Calderón redirects here. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ...


The term whale is also sometimes used to refer to all cetaceans or just larger cetaceans. Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti Archaeoceti (extinct) (see text for families) The order Cetacea (IPA: , L. cetus, whale) includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ...

Contents

Origins and taxonomy

See also: Evolution of cetaceans and List of whale species

All cetaceans, including whales, dolphins and porpoises, are descendants of land-living mammals of the Artiodactyl order (even-toed ungulate animals). Both cetaceans and artiodactyl are now classified under the super-order Cetartiodactyla which includes both whales and hippos. In fact, whales are the closest living relatives of hippos; they evolved from a common ancestor at around 54 million years ago.[1][2] Whales entered the water roughly 50 million years ago.[3] Image File history File links Fin_whale_from_air. ... Image File history File links Fin_whale_from_air. ... Finback redirects here. ... The cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) are descendants of land-living mammals, and remnants of their terrestrial origins can be found in the fact that they must breathe air from the surface; in the bones of their fins, which look like huge, jointed hands; and in the vertical movement of... Whales are from the order Cetacea, which also includes the dolphins and porpoises. ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti Archaeoceti (extinct) (see text for families) The order Cetacea (IPA: , L. cetus, whale) includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Orders Order: Cetacea Suborders: Suina Tylopoda Ruminantia Family: Hippopotamidae Humpback Whale breaching. ... Hippo redirects here. ... The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in the group are directly descended. ...


Cetaceans are divided into two suborders:

  • The baleen whales are characterized by baleen, a sieve-like structure in the upper jaw made of keratin, which they use to filter plankton from the water. They are the largest species of whale.
  • The toothed whales have teeth and prey on fish, squid, or both. An outstanding ability of this group is to sense their surrounding environment through echolocation.

A complete up-to-date taxonomical listing of all cetacean species, including all whales, is maintained at the Cetacea article. Diversity Around 15 species; see list of cetaceans or below. ... Baleen hair is attached to the baleen plate Baleen (also called whalebone) is a substance made of keratin and is therefore stiff but somewhat elastic. ... Not to be confused with kerogen or carotene. ... This article is about the real-life under-sea organisms. ... Families See text. ... Echolocation, also called Biosonar, is the biological sonar used by several mammals such as bats (although not all species), dolphins and whales (though not baleen whales). ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti Archaeoceti (extinct) (see text for families) The order Cetacea (IPA: , L. cetus, whale) includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti Archaeoceti (extinct) (see text for families) The order Cetacea (IPA: , L. cetus, whale) includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ...


Anatomy

Like all mammals, whales breathe air into lungs, are warm-blooded, feed their young milk from mammary glands, and have some (although very little) hair. For the village in Tibet, see Lung, Tibet. ... A warm-blooded (homeothermic) animal is one that can keep its core body temperature at a nearly constant level regardless of the temperature of the surrounding environment (that is, to maintain thermal homeostasis) . This can involve not only the ability to generate heat, but also the ability to cool down... A glass of cows milk. ... Mammary glands are the organs that, in the female mammal, produce milk for the sustenance of the young. ... This article is about the body feature. ...


The body is fusiform, resembling the streamlined form of a fish. The forelimbs, also called flippers, are paddle-shaped. The end of the tail holds the fluke, or tail fins, which provide propulsion by vertical movement. Although whales generally do not possess hind limbs, some whales (such as sperm whales and baleen whales) sometimes have rudimentary hind limbs; some even with feet and digits. Most species of whale bear a fin on their backs known as a dorsal fin. Fusiform is a spindle-like shape that tapers at both ends. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Sperm whale range (in blue) The sperm whale (Physeter catodon) is the largest of all toothed whales, making them the Earths largest living carnivore and largest living toothed animal. ... Diversity Around 15 species; see list of cetaceans or below. ... Dorsal fin of an orca A dorsal fin is a fin located on the backs of fishes, whales, dolphins, and porpoises, as well as the (extinct) ichthyosaurs. ...


Beneath the skin lies a layer of fat, the blubber. It serves as an energy reservoir and also as insulation. Whales have a four-chambered heart. The neck vertebrae are fused in most whales, which provides stability during swimming at the expense of flexibility. They have a pelvis bone, which is a vestigial structure. This article is about the organ. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Remains of seventeenth century blubber cauldrons at the abandoned Dutch settlement of Smeerenburg in Svalbard, Norway This article is about the body tissue. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Thermal insulation Thermal insulation on the Huygens probe Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan against the grain Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan with the grain The term thermal insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer, or the methods and... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... For other uses, see Neck (disambiguation). ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... Swimmer redirects here. ... The human vermiform appendix is a vestigial structure; it no longer retains its original function. ...


Whales breathe through their blowholes, located on the top of the head so the animal can remain submerged. Baleen whales have two; toothed whales have one. The shapes of whales' spouts when exhaling after a dive, when seen from the right angle, differ between species. Whales have a unique respiratory system that lets them stay underwater for long periods of time without taking in oxygen. Some whales, such as the Sperm Whale, can stay underwater for up to two hours holding a single breath. The Blue Whale is the largest known mammal that has ever lived, and the largest living animal, at up to 35 m (105ft) long and 150 tons. In biology, a blowhole is the hole at the top of a whales head through which the animal breathes air. ... Diversity Around 15 species; see list of cetaceans or below. ... Families See text. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Sperm whale range (in blue) The sperm whale (Physeter catodon) is the largest of all toothed whales, making them the Earths largest living carnivore and largest living toothed animal. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Blue Whale range Subspecies B. m. ...


Whales generally live for 30-90 years,[citation needed] depending on their species, and on rare occasions can be found to live over a century. Recently a fragment of a lance used by commercial whalers in the 19th century has been found in a bowhead whale caught off Alaska, which showed the whale to be between 115 and 130 years old.[4] Furthermore, a technique for dating age from aspartic acid racemization in the whale eye, combined with a harpoon fragment, indicates an age of 211 years for one male, making bowhead whales the longest lived extant mammal species.[5][6] Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Bowhead whale range The Bowhead Whale (Balaena mysticetus), also known as Greenland Right Whale or Arctic Whale, is a baleen whale of the right whale family Balaenidae. ... Aspartic acid (abbreviated as Asp or D; Asx or B represent either aspartic acid or asparagine[1] ) is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CO2H. The L-isomer is a protonated varient of one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids, i. ... In chemistry racemization refers to partial conversion of one enantiomer into another. ... For other uses, see Harpoon (disambiguation) harpoon gun redirects here. ... Extant means still existing. It is the opposite of extinct, and can be applied to species, cultures and works of culture (e. ...


Whale flukes often can be used as identifying markings, as is the case for humpback whales. This is the method by which the publicized errant Humphrey the whale was identified in three separate sightings. Binomial name Borowski, 1781 Humpback Whale range The Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is a baleen whale. ... Humpback whales live in the open ocean. ...


Anatomy of the ear

See also: Evolution of cetaceans

While there are direct similarities between the ears of whales and humans, whales’ ears have specific adaptations to their underwater environment. In humans, the middle ear works as an impedance matcher between the outside air’s low-impedance and the cochlear fluid’s high-impedance. In aquatic mammals such as whales, however, there is no great difference between the outer and inner environments. Instead of sound passing through outer ear to middle ear, whales receive sound through their lower jaw, where it passes through a low-impedance, fat-filled cavity.[7][8] The cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) are descendants of land-living mammals, and remnants of their terrestrial origins can be found in the fact that they must breathe air from the surface; in the bones of their fins, which look like huge, jointed hands; and in the vertical movement of... For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... This article is about modern humans. ... Human jaw front view Human jaw left view Human jaw top view The jaw is either of the two opposable structures forming, or near the entrance to, the mouth. ...


Behavior

A Humpback Whale breaching.
A Humpback Whale breaching.

Whales are widely classed as predators, but their food ranges from microscopic plankton to very large fish. Males are called bulls; females, cows. The young are called calves. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1646x1095, 236 KB) http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1646x1095, 236 KB) http://www. ... Binomial name Borowski, 1781 Humpback Whale range The Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is a baleen whale. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... This article is about the real-life under-sea organisms. ...


As mammals, whales breathe air and must surface to get oxygen. This is done through a blowhole. Many whales also exhibit other surfacing behaviours such as breaching and tail slapping. This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...


Because of their environment (and unlike many animals), whales are conscious breathers: they decide when to breathe. All mammals sleep, including whales, but they cannot afford to fall into an unconscious state for too long, since they need to be conscious in order to breathe. It is thought that only one hemisphere of their brains sleeps at a time, so that whales are never completely asleep, but still get the rest they need. This is thought because whales often sleep with only one eye closed. For other uses, see Sleep (disambiguation). ...


Whales also communicate with each other using lyrical sounds, called whale song. Being so large and powerful, these sounds are also extremely loud (depending on the species); sperm whales have only been heard making clicks, as all toothed whales (Odontoceti) use echolocation and can be heard for many miles. They have been known to generate about 20,000 acoustic watts of sound at 163 decibels.[9] For the Pearl Jam song, see Whale Song (song). ... Families See text The toothed whales (systematic name Odontoceti) form a suborder of the cetaceans. ... Echolocation, also called Biosonar, is the biological sonar used by several mammals such as bats (although not all species), dolphins and whales (though not baleen whales). ...


Females give birth to a single calf. Nursing time is long (more than one year in many species), which is associated with a strong bond between mother and young. In most whales reproductive maturity occurs late, typically at seven to ten years. This mode of reproduction spawns few offspring, but provides each with a high probability of survival in the wild. In ecology, K-selection (note : upper case K) relates to the selection of traits (in organisms) that allow success in stable or predictable environments. ...


The male genitals are retracted into cavities of the body during swimming, so as to be streamlined and reduce drag. Most whales do not maintain fixed partnerships during mating; in many species the females have several mates each season. At birth newborn are delivered tail-first, minimising the risk of drowning. Whale cows nurse by actively squirting milk the consistency of toothpaste into the mouths of their young preventing loss to the surrounding aquatic environment.[10] Modern toothpaste gel Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth. ...


Human effects

Whaling

Main article: Whaling
A fossil whale bone found at California Beach
A fossil whale bone found at California Beach
World map of International Whaling Commission (IWC) members/non-members(member countries in blue).
World map of International Whaling Commission (IWC) members/non-members(member countries in blue).
World population graph of Blue Whales (Balaenoptera musculus).
World population graph of Blue Whales (Balaenoptera musculus).
Eighteenth century engraving of Dutch whalers hunting Bowhead Whales in the Arctic. Beerenberg on Jan Mayen Land can be seen in the background.
Eighteenth century engraving of Dutch whalers hunting Bowhead Whales in the Arctic. Beerenberg on Jan Mayen Land can be seen in the background.

Some species of large whales are endangered as a result of commercial whaling from the eleventh century to the twentieth. For centuries large whales have been hunted for oil, meat, baleen and ambergris (a perfume ingredient from the intestine of sperm whales). By the middle of the 20th century, whaling left many populations severely depleted. The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S state. ... For other uses, see Beach (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Blue Whale range Subspecies B. m. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (987x672, 462 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Whaling Whale Beerenberg Bowhead Whale History of whaling ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (987x672, 462 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Whaling Whale Beerenberg Bowhead Whale History of whaling ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Bowhead whale range The Bowhead Whale (Balaena mysticetus), also known as Greenland Right Whale or Arctic Whale, is a baleen whale of the right whale family Balaenidae. ... For the ships, see USS Arctic, SS Arctic, MV Arctic The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic... Beerenberg is the worlds northernmost active volcano located at Jan Mayen. ... Jan Mayen Orthographic projection centred on Jan Mayen Island. ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ... Whale oil is the oil obtained from the blubber of various species of whales of the genus Balaena, as , Greenland or right whale (northern whale-oil), (southern whale-oil), Balaenoptera longimana, Balaenoptera borealis (Finback oil, Finner whale-oil, Humpback oil). ... Baleen hair is attached to the baleen plate Baleen (also called whalebone) is a substance made of keratin and is therefore stiff but somewhat elastic. ... Ambergris Ambergris (Ambra grisea, Ambre gris, ambergrease, or grey amber) is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish color, with the shades being variegated like marble. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Sperm whale range (in blue) The sperm whale (Physeter catodon) is the largest of all toothed whales, making them the Earths largest living carnivore and largest living toothed animal. ...


The International Whaling Commission introduced a six year moratorium on all commercial whaling in 1986, which has been extended to the present day. For various reasons some exceptions to this moratorium exist; current whaling nations are Norway, Iceland and Japan and the aboriginal communities of Siberia, Alaska and northern Canada. For details, see whaling. International Whaling Commission Logo The International Whaling Commission (IWC) was set up by the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW)[1] on December 2, 1946 to promote and maintain whale fishery stocks. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ...


Several species of small whales are caught as bycatch in fisheries for other species. In the tuna fishery in the Eastern Tropical Pacific thousands of dolphins were drowned in purse-seine nets, until measures to prevent this were introduced. Fishing gear and deployment modifications, and eco-labelling (dolphin-safe or dolphin-friendly brands of canned tuna), have contributed to a reduction in the mortality of dolphins by tuna fishing vessels in recent years. In many countries, small whales are still hunted for food, oil, meat or bait. In fisheries science, by-catch refers to species caught in a fishery intended to target another species, as well as reproductively_immature juveniles of the target species. ... For other uses, see Tuna (disambiguation). ... Ecolabel is a labelling system for consumer products (including foods) that are made in fashion to avoid detrimental effects on the environment. ...


Sonar interference

Environmentalists have long speculated that some cetaceans, including whales, are endangered by sonar used by advanced navies. In 2003 British and Spanish scientists suggested in Nature that sonar is connected to whale beachings and to signs that the beached whales have experienced decompression sickness.[11] Responses in Nature the following year discounted the explanation.[12] Mass whale beachings occur in many species, mostly beaked whales that use echolocation systems for deep diving. The frequency and size of beachings around the world, recorded over the last 1,000 years in religious tracts and more recently in scientific surveys, has been used to estimate the changing population size of various whale species by assuming that the proportion of the total whale population beaching in any one year is constant. This article is about underwater sound propagation. ... This article is about underwater sound propagation. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A mass stranding of Pilot Whales A beached whale is a whale which has become stranded on land, usually on a beach. ...


Despite the concerns raised about sonar which may invalidate this assumption, this population estimate technique is still popular today. Talpalar and Grossman argue that it is the combination of the high pressure environment of deep-diving with the disturbing effect of the sonar which causes decompression sickness and stranding of whales. [13] Thus, an exaggerated startle response occurring during deep diving may alter orientation cues and produce rapid ascent. Decompression sickness (DCS), the diver’s disease, the bends, or caisson disease is the name given to a variety of symptoms suffered by a person exposed to a decrease (nearly always after a big increase) in the pressure around his body. ...


Following public concern, the U.S. Defense department was ordered by the US circuit court in California to strictly limit use of its Low Frequency Active Sonar during peacetime. Attempts by the UK-based Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society to obtain a public inquiry into the possible dangers of the Royal Navy's equivalent (the "2087" sonar launched in December 2004) have so far failed. The European Parliament on the other hand has requested that EU members refrain from using the powerful sonar system until an environmental impact study has been carried out. The F70 type frigates (here, La Motte-Picquet) are fitted with VDS (Variable Depth Sonar) type DUBV43 or DUBV43C towed sonars SONAR (SOund Navigation And Ranging) â€” or sonar â€” is a technique that uses sound propagation under water (primarily) to navigate, communicate or to detect other vessels. ... The Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society (WDCS) is the most prominent environmental organization that dedicates itself to conservation and welfare of all whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... In the politics and government of Commonwealth countries such as Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom, a public inquiry is an official review of events or actions ordered by the government. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Sonar 2087 is a new towed sonar system for Royal Navy Type 23 frigates maufactured by Thales Underwater Systems. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild...


Other environmental disturbances

Conservationists are concerned that seismic testing used for oil and gas exploration may damage the hearing and echolocation capabilities of whales. They also suggest that disturbances in magnetic fields caused by the testing may also be responsible for beaching. [14]


Some scientists and environmentalists suggest that some whale species are also endangered due to a number of other human activities such as the unregulated use of fishing gear, that often catch anything that swims into them, collisions with ships. Toxins and the combination of toxins, particularly POPs (which concentrate up the food chain), are known to cause hearing loss by inhibiting the function of outer hair cells.[15] Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. ... Hair cells are the sensory cells of the auditory system that are found within the cochleas organ of Corti. ...


Whales are also threatened by climate change and global warming. As the Antarctic Ocean warms, krill populations, that are the main food source of some species of whales, reduce dramatically, being replaced by jelly like salps.[citation needed] Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... The Southern Ocean is the body of water encircling the continent of Antarctica. ... Families Euphausiidae Euphausia Dana, 1852 Meganyctiphanes Holt and W. M. Tattersall, 1905 Nematobrachion Calman, 1905 Nematoscelis G. O. Sars, 1883 Nyctiphanes G. O. Sars, 1883 Pseudeuphausia Hansen, 1910 Stylocheiron G. O. Sars, 1883 Tessarabrachion Hansen, 1911 Thysanoessa Brandt, 1851 Thysanopoda Latreille, 1831 Bentheuphausiidae Bentheuphausia amblyops Krill are shrimp-like marine... A salp is a barrel-shaped, free-floating tunicate that moves by pumping water through its gelatinous bodies by means of contraction, and strains the water, feeding on phytoplankton. ...


Whales in culture

Whale weather-vane atop the Nantucket Historical Association Whaling Museum.
Whale weather-vane atop the Nantucket Historical Association Whaling Museum.
  • A kenning in Beowulf refers to the sea as the "whale-road".
  • Procopius mentions a whale, nicknamed Porphyrio by the Byzantines, who depleted fisheries in the Sea of Marmara.
  • The King James Version of the Bible mentions whales four times: "And God created great whales" (Genesis 1:21); "Am I a sea, or a whale, that thou settest a watch over me? (Job 7:12); "Thou art like a young lion of the nations, and thou art as a whale in the seas (Ezekiel 32:2); and "For as Jonas [sic] was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth" (Matthew 12:40).
    • The New International Version uses "creatures of the sea"; "monster of the deep"; "monster"; and "huge fish" respectively instead of the word 'whale'.
    • The story of Jonah being swallowed by a whale also is mentioned in the Qur'an.
    • John Tavener's composition The Whale is based on the story of Jonah.
  • Alan Hovhaness wrote a piece for orchestra entitled And God Created Great Whales.
  • The poet Heathcote Williams wrote a long poem entitled Whale Nation.
  • In the children's novel The Adventures of Pinocchio and subsequent adaptations, Pinocchio and his father are swallowed by a whale.
  • A whaling voyage is the plot of Herman Melville's novel Moby-Dick. In the book, Melville classed whales as "a spouting fish with a horizontal tail", this despite science suggesting otherwise the previous century. (His narrator acknowledged "the grounds upon which Linnaeus would fain have banished the whales from the waters" but writes that when he presented them to "my friends Simeon Macey and Charley Coffin, of Nantucket ... they united in the opinion that the reasons set forth were altogether insufficient. Charley profanely hinted they were humbug" (Chapter 32).) Melville's book is a classic of American literature: part adventure novel, part metaphysical allegory, and part natural history; it is essentially a summary of 19th century knowledge about the biology, ecology and cultural significance of the whale.
  • Some cultures associate some level of divinity with the whale, such as in some places in Ghana and the Vietnamese, who occasionally hold funerals for beached whales, a throwback to Vietnam's ancient sea-based Austro-asiatic culture.
  • Festivals celebrating whales have sprung in both Sitka and Kodiak Alaska. They feature speakers on marine biology and celebrate the creatures with art, music, whale watching cruises, and symposia.
  • In the British series Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy a whale, alongside a bowl of petunias, is created by the use of the Infinite Improbability Drive.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 2. ... In literature, a kenning is a poetic phrase, a figure of speech, substituted for the usual name of a person or thing. ... This article is about the epic poem. ... This article is about the body of water. ... Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... The King James or Authorized Version of the Bible is an English translation of the Christian Bible first published in 1611. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... The Book of Job (איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. ... Ezekiel, , IPA: , God will strengthen, from , chazaq, [ xazaq ], literally to fasten upon, figuratively strong, and , el, [ el ], literally strength, figuratively Almighty. He is a prophet and priest in the Bible who prophesied for 22 years sometime in the 500s BCE while in the form of visions exiled in... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... The New International Version (NIV) is an English translation of the Christian Bible which is the most popular of the modern translations of the Bible made in the twentieth century. ... For other uses, see Jonah (disambiguation). ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... John Tavener should not be confused with the sixteenth-century composer John Taverner. ... Alan Hovhaness with an Indonesian rebab Alan Hovhaness (March 8, 1911 – June 21, 2000) was an American composer of Armenian and Scottish descent. ... Heathcote Williams (b. ... The 1996 film The Adventures of Pinocchio directed by Steve Barron and stars Jonathan Taylor Thomas, Martin Landau, Genevieve Bujold, Udo Kier, Bebe Neuwirth, Rob Schneider and Corey Carrier. ... For other uses, see Pinocchio (disambiguation). ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ... Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... Moby-Dick book cover Moby-Dick - the official title of the first edition - is a novel by Herman Melville. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... A scorpion tail The tail is the section at the rear end of an animals body; in general, the term refers to a distinct, flexible appendage to the torso. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Ishmael is the narrator (and arguably the protagonist) of the 1851 novel Moby-Dick by U.S. author Herman Melville. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Nantucket is an island south of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, formed of glacial moraine. ... Look up humbug in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... The adventure novel is a literary genre of novels that has adventure, an exciting undertaking involving risk and physical danger, as its main theme. ... Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... For other uses, see Biology (disambiguation). ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ... Sitka City and Borough is a borough located on the west side of Baranof Island in the Alexander Archipelago of the Pacific Ocean, in the state of Alaska. ... View of Kodiak from Pillar Mountain Street of Kodiak in 1965 Kodiak is a city on Kodiak Island in Kodiak Island Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... Whale watching off the coast of Bar Harbor, Maine. ... The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy originated as a 1978 radio comedy series written by Douglas Adams. ...

See also

Cetaceans Portal

This image shows the fluke of Sperm Whale as it begins a dive into the Gulf of Mexico. ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti Archaeoceti (extinct) (see text for families) The order Cetacea (IPA: , L. cetus, whale) includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... Whales are from the order Cetacea, which also includes the dolphins and porpoises. ...

References

  1. ^ Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy (2007, December 21). Whales Descended From Tiny Deer-like Ancestors. ScienceDaily. Retrieved on 2007-12-21.
  2. ^ Dawkins, Richard (2004). The Ancestor's Tale, A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-00583-8. 
  3. ^ How whales learned to swim. BBC News (2002-05-08). Retrieved on 2006-08-20.
  4. ^ Hunting lance from 1800s found in whale. Retrieved on 2007-06-14.
  5. ^ Bowhead Whales May Be the World's Oldest Mammals (2008-02-15). Retrieved on 2008-03-25.
  6. ^ George, J.C. et al. (1999). "Age and growth estimates of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) via aspartic acid racemization". Can. J. Zool. 77 (4): 571–580. doi:10.1139/cjz-77-4-571. 
  7. ^ Anatomy of a Whale's Ears. Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
  8. ^ How is that whale listening?. Retrieved on 2008-02-04.
  9. ^ Table of sound decibel levels. Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
  10. ^ "Milk". Modern Marvels. The History Channel. 2008-01-07.
  11. ^ Sonar may cause Whale deaths. BBC News (2003-10-08). Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
  12. ^ Piantadosi CA, Thalmann ED (2004-04-15). "Pathology: whales, sonar and decompression sickness". Nature 428 (6894): 716–718. PMID 15085881. 
  13. ^ "Sonar versus whales: noise may disrupt neural activity in deep-diving cetaceans" (2005 March-April). Undersea Hyperb Med 32 (2): 135–139. PMID 15926306. 
  14. ^ Seismic testing and the impacts of high intensity sound on whales. Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
  15. ^ Yale Researchers Find Environmental Toxins Disruptive to Hearing in Mammals (2006-04-13).
General references
  • Carwardine, M. (2000). Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0-7513-2781-6. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... The Ancestors Tale cover The Ancestors Tale (subtitled A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life) is a 2004 popular science book by Richard Dawkins, with contributions from Dawkins research assistant Yan Wong. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Modern Marvels introductory title. ... For the Canadian equivalent of this channel, see History Television. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
San Diego Zoo's Animal Bytes: Whale (819 words)
Whales use their tails in an up-and-down motion to swim, whereas fish use a back-and-forth motion with their tails.
Whales come in different sizes, but they all have smooth skin, flippers, and flat tails (called flukes) that propel them through the water.
Whale hunting, pollution, and human development along oceans and rivers have seriously impacted some whale populations.
Whale - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2688 words)
The baleen whales are characterized by baleen, a sieve-like structure in the upper jaw made of keratin, which they use to filter plankton from the water.
Whales are broadly classed as predators, but their food ranges from microscopic plankton to very large fish.
Whale mothers nurse the young by actively squirting the fatty milk into their mouths, a milk that according to German naturalist Dieffenbach, bears great similarities to cow's milk.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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